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Sample records for brazilian marine invertebrates

  1. Antibiotic, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory activity of crude extracts from Brazilian marine invertebrates

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    Mirna H. R. Seleghim

    Full Text Available Herein we present the results of a screening with 349 crude extracts of Brazilian marine sponges, ascidians, bryozoans and octocorals, against 16 strains of susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, one yeast (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, three cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast, B16 (murine melanoma and HCT8 (colon, and Leishmania tarentolae adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (L-APRT enzyme. Less than 15% of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity, both against susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Up to 40% of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity was observed for 18% of marine sponge crude extracts. Finally, less than 3% of sponge extracts inhibited L-APRT. Less than 10% of ascidian crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity. More than 25% of ascidian crude extracts were active against M. tuberculosis and the three cancer cell lines. Only two crude extracts from the ascidian Polysyncraton sp. collected in different seasons (1995 and 1997 displayed activity against L-APRT. Less than 2% of bryozoan and octocoral crude extracts presented antibacterial activity, but a high percentage of crude extracts from bryozoan and octororal displayed cytotoxic (11% and 30%, respectively and antimycobacterial (60% activities. The extract of only one species of bryozoan, Bugula sp., presented inhibitory activity against L-APRT. Overall, the crude extracts of marine invertebrates herein investigated presented a high level of cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activities, a lower level of antibacterial activity and only a small number of crude extracts inhibited L-APRT. Taxonomic analysis of some of the more potently active crude extracts showed the occurrence of biological activity in taxa that have been previously chemically investigated. These include marine sponges belonging to genera Aaptos, Aplysina, Callyspongia, Haliclona

  2. Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206...DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  3. Anti-Infective Potential of Marine Invertebrates and Seaweeds from the Brazilian Coast

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    Mario Steindel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain by the plaque number reduction assay (IC50. Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC50. The results were expressed as SI = CC50/IC50. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively. Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively, and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition. Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5

  4. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

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    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates.

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    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna

    2013-10-01

    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  6. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

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    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  7. Polyspermy prevention in marine invertebrates.

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    Gould, Meredith C; Stephano, Jose Luis

    2003-07-01

    In marine invertebrates, as in most other organisms, normal development requires that only one sperm nucleus joins with the egg nucleus at fertilization. The principal mechanisms employed are (1) prevention of sperm-egg plasma membrane fusion and (2) modifications of the egg extracellular coat to prevent sperm binding and/or penetration. In a third strategy, fertilization is polyspermic, but only one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus. Other factors such as gamete density during spawning, chemotaxis, and localized sites for sperm entry may also affect the numbers of sperm reaching the egg. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

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    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  9. Halogenated indole alkaloids from marine invertebrates.

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    Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; Braguine, Caio Guedes; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Silva, Márcio Luís Andrade E; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Januário, Ana Helena

    2010-04-28

    This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of halogenated indole alkaloids obtained from marine invertebrates. Meridianins and related compounds (variolins, psammopemmins, and aplicyanins), as well as aplysinopsins and leptoclinidamines, are focused on. A compilation of the (13)C-NMR spectral data of these selected natural indole alkaloids is also provided.

  10. Marine invertebrates as models for aging research.

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    Bodnar, A G

    2009-08-01

    The oceans are home to many of the earth's longest lived animals with several species of non-colonial marine invertebrates documented to live for more than 100 years. Many of these animals grow and reproduce throughout their lifespans and there is no apparent functional decline or increase in mortality rate with age. Studying these animals may reveal some exceptionally effective defenses against the destructive process of aging thus providing a valuable alternative model for aging research. The life histories of commercially important marine invertebrates are well studied, but little is known of the molecular or cellular changes that occur with increasing age or the factors that determine lifespan. The objectives of this review are to present data on cellular and molecular aspects of aging in marine invertebrates with a focus on bivalves and sea urchins. This review will serve to evaluate their potential as model systems for aging and provide direction for future research efforts so that we can begin to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the tremendous longevity and good health of key species.

  11. TEMPERATURE RELATIONS OF CENTRAL OREGON MARINE INTERTIDAL INVERTEBRATES.

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    MARINE BIOLOGY, OREGON), (* INVERTEBRATES , ECOLOGY), SEA WATER, TIDES, SURFACE TEMPERATURE, DIURNAL VARIATIONS, TEMPERATURE, ECHINODERMATA, GASTROPODA, PELECYPODA, BARNACLES, SALINITY, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY)

  12. Nutraceutical functionalities of polysaccharides from marine invertebrates.

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    Choi, Byeong-Dae; Choi, Yeung Joon

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers are seeking functional materials from marine resources. These marine resources can be used as traditional food additives, and specifically, these are based on polysaccharides. To date, there is a big opportunity to develop new high-value added products with indispensable functional characteristics, which can be used in nutraceuticals either as additives or supplements. Also, a crossover in the pharmaceutical market may be established. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mimetic-type molecules are already being utilized in the field of nutrition as well as in the cosmetics industry. This chemical is used as a dietary supplement to maintain the structure and function of cartilages, for the relief of pain caused by osteoarthritic joints, and can also be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Recently, in relation to the prevalence of mad cow disease and avian influenza, the production of GAGs from marine invertebrates offers new market opportunities as compared with that obtained from bovine or avian livestock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AASERT Supplement to Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206) 543

  14. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

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    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  15. Immune Reactions Among Marine and Other Invertebrates

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    Bang, Frederik B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)

  16. Marine Invertebrate assemblages in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of invertebrate site clusters calculated from benthic trawls completed by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP). Data...

  17. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

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    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

  18. Meroterpenes from Marine Invertebrates: Structures, Occurrence, and Ecological Implications

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    Menna, Marialuisa; Imperatore, Concetta; D’Aniello, Filomena; Aiello, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Meroterpenes are widely distributed among marine organisms; they are particularly abundant within brown algae, but other important sources include microorganisms and invertebrates. In the present review the structures and bioactivities of meroterpenes from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and tunicates, are summarized. More than 300 molecules, often complex and with unique skeletons originating from intra- and inter-molecular cyclizations, and/or rearrangements, are illustrated. The reported syntheses are mentioned. The issue of a potential microbial link to their biosynthesis is also shortly outlined. PMID:23685889

  19. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

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    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  20. Marine invertebrate diversity in Aristotle’s zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voultsiadou, E.; Vafidis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring to light Aristotle’s knowledge of marine invertebrate diversity as this has been recorded in his works 25 centuries ago, and set it against current knowledge. The analysis of information derived from a thorough study of his zoological writings revealed 866 records

  1. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

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    Montanaro, Jacqueline; Gruber, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing) are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer) and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2). All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates. PMID:27069800

  2. Improved ultrastructure of marine invertebrates using non-toxic buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Montanaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many marine biology studies depend on field work on ships or remote sampling locations where sophisticated sample preservation techniques (e.g., high-pressure freezing are often limited or unavailable. Our aim was to optimize the ultrastructural preservation of marine invertebrates, especially when working in the field. To achieve chemically-fixed material of the highest quality, we compared the resulting ultrastructure of gill tissue of the mussel Mytilus edulis when fixed with differently buffered EM fixatives for marine specimens (seawater, cacodylate and phosphate buffer and a new fixative formulation with the non-toxic PHEM buffer (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA and MgCl2. All buffers were adapted for immersion fixation to form an isotonic fixative in combination with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. We showed that PHEM buffer based fixatives resulted in equal or better ultrastructure preservation when directly compared to routine standard fixatives. These results were also reproducible when extending the PHEM buffered fixative to the fixation of additional different marine invertebrate species, which also displayed excellent ultrastructural detail. We highly recommend the usage of PHEM-buffered fixation for the fixation of marine invertebrates.

  3. Nitrous oxide production associated with coastal marine invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, Ines Maria; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Several freshwater and terrestrial invertebrate species emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The N2O production associated with these animals was ascribed to incomplete denitrification by ingested sediment or soil bacteria. The present study shows that many marine invertebrates also emit N2......O at substantial rates. A total of 19 invertebrate species collected in the German Wadden Sea and in Aarhus Bay, Denmark, and 1 aquacultured shrimp species were tested for N2O emission. Potential N2O emission rates ranged from 0 to 1.354 nmol ind.–1 h–1, with an average rate of 0.320 nmol ind.–1 h–1...... with an experimentally cleaned shell. Thus, the N2O production associated with marine invertebrates is apparently not due to gut denitrification in every species, but may also result from microbial activity on the external surfaces of animals. The high abundance and potential N2O emission rates of many marine...

  4. Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Adalto; Playle, Richard C; Wood, Chris M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2005-03-25

    In freshwater crustaceans and in both freshwater and marine fish, the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity involves ionoregulatory impairment. An inhibition of the Na+ ,K+-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane of the gill epithelium seems to be the key site for silver toxicity. However, studies to determine if the same mechanism of toxicity is occurring in marine invertebrates, which also are ionoregulators, had not been done. Thus, the present study was carried out to determine acute silver effects on hemolymph osmo- and ionoregulation in three marine invertebrates: the shrimp Penaeus duorarum, the sea hare Aplysia californica, and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Animals were exposed to silver (1 or 10 microg/L), as silver nitrate, in seawater for 48 h. Results show that acute silver exposure did not affect hemolymph osmolality or ion concentration (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the three species studied. However, silver induced significant changes in the water content in shrimp gill and sea hare gill and hepatopancreas. Silver also caused significant changes in Na+ ,K+-ATPase activity and in both total and intracellular ion (Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) concentrations in different tissues of the three species studied. Overall, these results show that the key mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates is not associated with an osmotic or ionoregulatory impairment at the hemolymph level, as observed in freshwater fish and crustaceans and in seawater fish. However, they indicate that acute waterborne silver induces significant changes in Na+ ,K(+)-ATPase activity and probably affects other mechanisms involved in water and ion transport at the cell membrane level, inducing impairments in water and ion regulation at the cellular level in different tissues of marine invertebrates. These results indicate the need to consider other "toxic sites" than gills in any future extension of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for seawater.

  5. Spawning, copulation and inbreeding coefficients in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J A; Hart, M W

    2005-12-22

    Patterns of population genetic variation have frequently been understood as consequences of life history covariates such as dispersal ability and breeding systems (e.g. selfing). For example, marine invertebrates show enormous variation in life history traits that are correlated with the extent of gene flow between populations and the magnitude of differentiation among populations at neutral genetic markers (FST). Here we document an unexpected correlation between marine invertebrate life histories and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (non-zero values of FIS, the inbreeding coefficient). FIS values were significantly higher in studies of species with free-spawned planktonic sperm than in studies of species that copulate or have some form of direct sperm transfer to females or benthic egg masses. This result was robust to several different analytical approaches. We note several mechanisms that might contribute to this pattern, and appeal for more studies and ideas that might help to explain our observations.

  6. Biology of Symbioses between Marine Invertebrates and Intracellular Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-21

    ADDRESS (City, State, and 7IP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City. State. and ZIP Code) Marine Biology Research Division Resident Representative Scripps Institution...St. ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO Arlington, VA 22217-5000 11 TITLE (In~lude Security Classification) Biology o, Symbioses Between Mlarine... Invertebrates and Intracellular Bacteria 2 PERSONAL AUTHIOR(S) Horst Felbeck 13a TYPE OF REPORT 131) TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15S PAGE

  7. Poecilogony as a reproductive strategy of marine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Fs; Gibson, G; Qian, Py

    1996-01-01

    Poecilogony is a polymorphism of sexual development in some marine invertebrates, in which both feeding and non-feeding or planktonic and benthic larvae are produced. Since the original report on poecilogony by Gaird in 1905, a good number of such species have been recognized. Upon close examination, however, Hoagland and Roberston (1988) have found that almost all the 64 species reported to be poecilogonous are in fact a result of miss-identification of species or due to laboratory disturban...

  8. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  9. The nature and role of pigments of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M

    2006-04-01

    Marine animals, especially those from tropical waters, are often brilliantly coloured, and bright colouration is widespread in both sessile and non-sessile invertebrates. These spectacular natural colours are common in species inhabiting shallow waters, and appear not only in animals exposed to bright light, but also in those living in dark areas where colours are visible only with artificial illumination. Marine organisms also show variation in colour with depth and geographical location, and display great variety in colour patterning. These colour characteristics are the result of several different processes, and serve various purposes - the distribution and function of pigments seems to vary between invertebrate groups. In addition to playing an important role in how marine organisms interact, pigments may be involved in physiological processes. Although nitrogenous pigments predominate, marine organisms contain pigments belonging to all the major structural classes of natural products, as well as some that are unique to the marine environment. This review discusses the nature and significance of such pigments, the chemical and biological processes involved, the factors responsible for and affecting bright colourations, as well as their evolution and speculation as to their function.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-05-26

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as 'marine invertebrates'. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. When growth models are not universal: evidence from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew G; Forster, Jack

    2013-10-07

    The accumulation of body mass, as growth, is fundamental to all organisms. Being able to understand which model(s) best describe this growth trajectory, both empirically and ultimately mechanistically, is an important challenge. A variety of equations have been proposed to describe growth during ontogeny. Recently, the West Brown Enquist (WBE) equation, formulated as part of the metabolic theory of ecology, has been proposed as a universal model of growth. This equation has the advantage of having a biological basis, but its ability to describe invertebrate growth patterns has not been well tested against other, more simple models. In this study, we collected data for 58 species of marine invertebrate from 15 different taxa. The data were fitted to three growth models (power, exponential and WBE), and their abilities were examined using an information theoretic approach. Using Akaike information criteria, we found changes in mass through time to fit an exponential equation form best (in approx. 73% of cases). The WBE model predominantly overestimates body size in early ontogeny and underestimates it in later ontogeny; it was the best fit in approximately 14% of cases. The exponential model described growth well in nine taxa, whereas the WBE described growth well in one of the 15 taxa, the Amphipoda. Although the WBE has the advantage of being developed with an underlying proximate mechanism, it provides a poor fit to the majority of marine invertebrates examined here, including species with determinate and indeterminate growth types. In the original formulation of the WBE model, it was tested almost exclusively against vertebrates, to which it fitted well; the model does not however appear to be universal given its poor ability to describe growth in benthic or pelagic marine invertebrates.

  12. Chemical Screening Method for the Rapid Identification of Microbial Sources of Marine Invertebrate-Associated Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell G. Kerr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates have proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites. The growing recognition that marine microorganisms associated with invertebrate hosts are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites offers new alternatives for the discovery and development of marine natural products. However, the discovery of microorganisms producing secondary metabolites previously attributed to an invertebrate host poses a significant challenge. This study describes an efficient chemical screening method utilizing a 96-well plate-based bacterial cultivation strategy to identify and isolate microbial producers of marine invertebrate-associated metabolites.

  13. Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S; Alroy, John; Aberhan, Martin; Fürsich, Franz T; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Kosnik, Matthew A; Wagner, Peter J

    2006-05-12

    Ecological interactions, such as predation and bioturbation, are thought to be fundamental determinants of macroevolutionary trends. A data set containing global occurrences of Phanerozoic fossils of benthic marine invertebrates shows escalatory trends in the relative frequency of ecological groups, such as carnivores and noncarnivorous infaunal or mobile organisms. Associations between these trends are either statistically insignificant or interpretable as preservational effects. Thus, there is no evidence that escalation drives macroecological trends at global and million-year time scales. We also find that taxonomic richness and occurrence data are cross-correlated, which justifies the traditional use of one as a proxy of the other.

  14. Biobanking of a Marine Invertebrate Model Organism: The Sea Urchin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin has long been used as an invertebrate model organism in developmental biology, membrane transport and sperm oocyte interactions, and for the assessment of marine pollution. This review explores the effects of cryopreservation and biobanking in the biology and development of sea urchins, all the way from germaplasm through to juveniles. This review will provide an integral view of the process and all that is known so far about the biology of cryopreserved sea urchins, as well as provide an insight on the applications of the biobanking of these model organisms.

  15. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as ‘marine invertebrates’. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remarkably, species of corals (Cnidaria) living in non-exploited ecosystems also suffer from devastating infectious diseases that display intriguing similarities with those affecting farmed animals. Infectious diseases affecting wild and farmed animals that are present in marine environments are predicted to increase in the future. This paper summarizes the role of the main pathogens and their interaction with host immunity, with a specific focus on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogen resistance against AMPs. We provide a detailed review of penaeid shrimp AMPs and their role at the interface between the host and its resident/pathogenic microbiota. We also briefly describe the relevance of marine invertebrate AMPs in an applied context. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides’. PMID:27160602

  16. NODC Standard Format Pathology Data Sets (1973-1980): Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) (NODC Accession 0014191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Invertebrate Pathology (F063) contains data from examinations of diseased marine invertebrates. Although these data maybe from field observations, they derive...

  17. Iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates in near shore environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-04-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radula (teeth or rasping tongue) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radula might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radula collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Furthermore, by comparing two species that have very different feeding habits but collected from the same location, we infer a possible link between diet and Fe isotopic signatures. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds primarily on green algae, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Although chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, these preliminary results suggest that Fe isotopes provide information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near shore environments, and might be used to probe sources of Fe in the diets of different organisms.

  18. [Stem cells of marine invertebrates: regulation of proliferation and differentiation processes in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, N A

    2009-01-01

    Own and literary data pointing to plasticity of stem cells of marine invertebrates are viewed. Stem and embryonic cell cultures of marine invertebrates are model cell systems with a high level of all physiological and synthetic processes. The production of biological active substances in vitro may become an alternative to the chemical synthesis or marine aquaculture. The factors involved in determination and maintenance of the pluripotency of marine invertebrate stem cells are analyzed. The in vitro technology of directional differentiation of marine invertebrate stem cells in certain functionally active cell species includes the use of different growth factors, various natural and artificial substrates and also the unique biological active substances from marine invertebrate tissues. To increase expression levels of the cell growth regulatory genes and thus achieve enhanced cell growth, one method of attack was reported using the genetically engineered constructions with foreign genes. Our knowledge gained in invertebrate systems can help to determine a general mechanism of eukaryote pluripotency, and cultivated marine invertebrate cells can be used in marine biotechnology.

  19. Nitric oxide in marine invertebrates: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anna

    2005-10-01

    Since the discovery of the biological effects of nitric oxide (NO) more than two decades ago, NO has been identified as an important physiological modulator and a messenger molecule in mammals. Parallel to these studies, evidence that has accumulated in recent years has revealed that the NO signalling pathway is spread throughout the entire phylogenetic scale, being increasingly found in lower organisms, ranging from Chordata to Mollusca. The present review attempts to provide a survey of current knowledge of the genesis and possible roles of NO and the related signalling pathway in marine invertebrates, with special emphasis on Sepia, a choice dictated by the increasing appreciation of cephalopods as most valuable model systems for studies of NO biology and the present expectation for new exciting insights into as yet little explored segments of NO biology.

  20. Biomedicinals from the phytosymbionts of marine invertebrates: a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Walter C; Battershill, Christopher N; Liptrot, Catherine H; Cobb, Rosemary E; Bourne, David G; Jaspars, Marcel; Long, Paul F; Newman, David J

    2007-08-01

    Marine invertebrate animals such as sponges, gorgonians, tunicates and bryozoans are sources of biomedicinally relevant natural products, a small but growing number of which are advancing through clinical trials. Most metazoan and anthozoan species harbour commensal microorganisms that include prokaryotic bacteria, cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), eukaryotic microalgae, and fungi within host tissues where they reside as extra- and intra-cellular symbionts. In some sponges these associated microbes may constitute as much as 40% of the holobiont volume. There is now abundant evidence to suggest that a significant portion of the bioactive metabolites thought originally to be products of the source animal are often synthesized by their symbiotic microbiota. Several anti-cancer metabolites from marine sponges that have progressed to pre-clinical or clinical-trial phases, such as discodermolide, halichondrin B and bryostatin 1, are thought to be products derived from their microbiotic consortia. Freshwater and marine cyanobacteria are well recognised for producing numerous and structurally diverse bioactive and cytotoxic secondary metabolites suited to drug discovery. Sea sponges often contain dominant taxa-specific populations of cyanobacteria, and it is these phytosymbionts (= photosymbionts) that are considered to be the true biogenic source of a number of pharmacologically active polyketides and nonribosomally synthesized peptides produced within the sponge. Accordingly, new collections can be pre-screened in the field for the presence of phytobionts and, together with metagenomic screening using degenerate PCR primers to identify key polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, afford a biodiscovery rationale based on the therapeutic prospects of phytochemical selection. Additionally, new cloning and biosynthetic expression strategies may provide a sustainable method for the supply of new pharmaceuticals derived from the uncultured

  1. Molecular architecture and biomedical leads of terpenes from red sea marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir F; Mohamed, Tarik A; Alhammady, Montaser A; Shaheen, Alaa M; Reda, Eman H; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; Aziz, Mina; Paré, Paul W

    2015-05-20

    Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  2. Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elamir F. Hegazy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species.

  3. DNA integrity determination in marine invertebrates by Fast Micromethod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksić, Zeljko; Batel, Renato

    2003-12-10

    This study was focused toward the adaptation of the previously developed Fast Micromethod for DNA damage determination to marine invertebrates for the establishment of biomonitoring assessment. The Fast Micromethod detects DNA damage (strand breaks, alkali-labile sites and incomplete excision repair) and determines DNA integrity in cell suspensions or tissue homogenates in single microplates. The procedure is based on the ability of the specific fluorochrome dye PicoGreen to preferentially interact with high integrity DNA molecules, dsDNA, in the presence of ssDNA and proteins in high alkaline medium, thereby allowing direct fluorometric measurements of dsDNA denaturation without sample handling and stepwise DNA separations. The results presented herein describe the influence of the DNA amount and the pH of the denaturation media on slopes of the kinetic denaturation curves and calculated strand scission factors (SSFs). The optimal amount of DNA in Mytilus galloprovincialis gills homogenate was found to be 100 ng ml(-1) and the greatest differences in DNA unwinding kinetics (slopes and SSF values) were reached at pH 11.5. The induction of DNA damage and loss of DNA integrity was measured in native DNA isolated from cotton-spinner Holothuria tubulosa, marine sponge Suberites domuncula cells and mussel M. galloprovincialis gills homogenate. DNA damage and loss of DNA integrity were detected after induction by different doses of (gamma-rays, generated by 137Cs 1800 Ci; 0-500 rad in marine sponge S. domuncula cells up to SSFx(-1) values 0.082 +/- 0.012 for the highest radiation dose). Analysis by chemical xenobiotics based on the in vitro action of bleomycin (bleomycin-Fe(II) complex 0-50 or 0-83 microg ml(-1) (microM)) with native DNA from cotton-spinner H. tubulosa and mussel M. galloprovincialis gills homogenate yielded values of 0.537 +/- 0.072 and 0.130 +/- 0.018, respectively. In vivo experiments with mussel M. galloprovincialis gills homogenate by 4

  4. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Thirty-one species of marine invertebrates collected from the Indian Coast, belonging to six phyla (Porifera, Coelenterata, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Eurochordata) were tested for antifouling activity against the green mussel Perna...

  5. Marine Benthic Invertebrates in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii 1994 (NODC Accession 9900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planktonic larval stages of many benthic marine invertebrates are especially susceptible to environmental stress, such as the presence of pollution. Recruitment of...

  6. Effect of artificial light on marine invertebrate and fish abundance in an area of salmon farming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. McConnell; R. Routledge; B. M. Connors

    2010-01-01

    .... Open net-pen salmon farms in British Columbia, Canada, routinely illuminate their net-pens during the winter and spring, with unknown consequences on the abundance and distribution of marine fish and invertebrates...

  7. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic structuring across marine biogeographic boundaries in rocky shore invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, Adriana; Costantini, Federica; Abbiati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography investigates spatial patterns of species distribution. Discontinuities in species distribution are identified as boundaries between biogeographic areas. Do these boundaries affect genetic connectivity? To address this question, a multifactorial hierarchical sampling design, across three of the major marine biogeographic boundaries in the central Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian-Tyrrhenian, Tyrrhenian-Ionian and Ionian-Adriatic) was carried out. Mitochondrial COI sequence polymorphism of seven species of Mediterranean benthic invertebrates was analysed. Two species showed significant genetic structure across the Tyrrhenian-Ionian boundary, as well as two other species across the Ionian Sea, a previously unknown phylogeographic barrier. The hypothesized barrier in the Ligurian-Tyrrhenian cannot be detected in the genetic structure of the investigated species. Connectivity patterns across species at distances up to 800 km apart confirmed that estimates of pelagic larval dispersal were poor predictors of the genetic structure. The detected genetic discontinuities seem more related to the effect of past historical events, though maintained by present day oceanographic processes. Multivariate statistical tools were used to test the consistency of the patterns across species, providing a conceptual framework for across-species barrier locations and strengths. Additional sequences retrieved from public databases supported our findings. Heterogeneity of phylogeographic patterns shown by the 7 investigated species is relevant to the understanding of the genetic diversity, and carry implications for conservation biology.

  9. Genetic diversity increases population productivity in a sessile marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J David; Marshall, Dustin J

    2012-05-01

    Reductions in genetic diversity can have widespread ecological consequences: populations with higher genetic diversity are more stable, productive and resistant to disturbance or disease than populations with lower genetic diversity. These ecological effects of genetic diversity differ from the more familiar evolutionary consequences of depleting genetic diversity, because ecological effects manifest within a single generation. If common, genetic diversity effects have the potential to change the way we view and manage populations, but our understanding of these effects is far from complete, and the role of genetic diversity in sexually reproducing animals remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of genetic diversity in a sexually reproducing marine invertebrate in the field. We manipulated the genetic diversity of experimental populations and then measured individual survival, growth, and fecundity, as well as the size of offspring produced by individuals in high and low genetic diversity populations. Overall, we found greater genetic diversity increased performance across all metrics, and that complementarity effects drove the increased productivity of our high-diversity populations. Our results show that differences in genetic diversity among populations can have pervasive effects on population productivity within remarkably short periods of time.

  10. Diseases in marine invertebrates associated with mariculture and commercial fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bateman, Kelly S.

    2015-10-01

    Diseases in marine invertebrates are increasing in both frequency and intensity around the globe. Diseases in individuals which offer some commercial value are often well documented and subsequently well studied in comparison to those wild groups offering little commercial gain. This is particularly the case with those associated with mariculture or the commercial fisheries. Specifically, these include many Holothuroidea, and numerous crustacea and mollusca species. Pathogens/parasites consisting of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from all groups have been associated with diseases from such organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Viral pathogens in particular, appear to be an increasingly important group and research into this group will likely highlight a larger number of diseases and pathogens being described in the near future. Interestingly, although there are countless examples of the spread of disease usually associated with transportation of specific infected hosts for development of aquaculture practices, this process appears to be continuing with no real sign of effective management and mitigation strategies being implicated. Notably, even in well developed countries such as the UK and the US, even though live animal trade may be well managed, the transport of frozen food appears to be less well so and as evidence suggests, even these to have the potential to transmit pathogens when used as a food source for example.

  11. Size-specific predation on marine invertebrate larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jonathan D

    2008-02-01

    Predation on planktonic larval stages is frequently a major source of mortality for the offspring of benthic marine invertebrates. Mortality rate likely varies with larval size and developmental stage, but few experiments have measured how these factors affect predation rates. I used experimental reductions in egg size to test how variation in larval size affects the likelihood of predation during planktonic development. Blastomeres of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus were separated at the two-cell stage to produce half-sized zygotes. Larvae resulting from this manipulation were tested for their susceptibility to predation relative to whole-sized siblings at four ages. Individuals from each size class were simultaneously presented as prey items to five predators (crab zoeae, crab megalopae, chaetognaths, solitary tunicates, and postlarval fish) in the laboratory. Four predators consumed significantly more half-sized larvae than whole-sized larvae, but one predator type (postlarval fish) consumed more whole-sized larvae. Predators that consumed more half-sized larvae also preferentially consumed younger larvae. In contrast, postlarval fish showed no significant prey preference based on larval age. These results suggest that assumptions of constant mortality rates during development should be modified to account for the effects of larval size and age.

  12. Bioprospecting of Marine Invertebrates for New Natural Products — A Chemical and Zoogeographical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1 the chemical groups of these NPs; (2 the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3 the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  13. Bioprospecting of marine invertebrates for new natural products - a chemical and zoogeographical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Madeira, Carolina; Brandão, Cláudio Alexandre; Puga, João; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-08-16

    Bioprospecting for new marine natural products (NPs) has increased significantly over the last decades, leading to an unprecedented discovery of new molecules. Marine invertebrates have been the most important source of these NPs, with researchers commonly targeting particular taxonomic groups, marine regions and/or molecules from specific chemical groups. The present review focuses on new NPs identified from marine invertebrates between 2000 and 2009, and performs a detailed analysis on: (1) the chemical groups of these NPs; (2) the association of particular chemical groups to specific marine invertebrate taxa; and (3) the yielding of molecules from the same chemical group from organisms occurring in a particular geographic region. Our survey revealed an increasing number of new terpenoids being discovered between 2000 and 2009, contrasting with the decreasing trend in the discovery of new alkaloids and aliphatic molecules. Overall, no particular association was identified between marine invertebrate taxa and chemical groups of new NPs. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that most NPs recorded from cnidarians and mollusks were terpenoids, while most NPs identified in echinoderms were aliphatic compounds or carbohydrates. The geographical trends observed in our study do not support the idea of particular chemical groups of new NPs being associated with marine invertebrates from any specific geographical region, as NPs from different chemical groups were commonly distributed worldwide.

  14. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  15. 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine invertebrates N. diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, persistent and toxic contaminants in the marine environment. Uptake of PAHs by marine deposit-feeding invertebrates can be determined by screening for PAH-derived metabolites. Methods for detection and quantification of PAH metabolites may...... invertebrates is on the other hand practically non-existing. The present study investigated formation of pyrene metabolites in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor, with special attention given to the detection of 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-hydroxypyrene was identified in tissues of Nereis diversicolor exposed...... this context the usefulness of SFS for identification and quantification was explored. Considering the complex composition of environmental PAH pollution, before the 1-hydoxypyrene in tissues of exposed marine invertebrates can be regarded as a suitable biomarker for assessing total PAH exposure...

  16. Marine Invertebrate Natural Products for Anti-Inflammatory and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalimuthu Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively available source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine invertebrates based compounds have biological activities and also interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates have been shown to pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, osteoporosis, and so forth. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that most chronic illnesses such as cancer, neurological diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases exhibit dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways that have been linked to inflammation. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine invertebrate derived compounds on anti-inflammatory and some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, HIV, and cancer.

  17. Evaluation of marine phytoplankton toxicity by application of marine invertebrate bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum are well known for their toxin production and negative effects in marine coastal environments. A. minutum produces toxins which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans and can affect copepods, shellfish and other marine organisms. Toxins of P. parvum are associated with massive fish mortalities resulting in negative impacts on the marine ecosystem and large economic losses in commercial aquaculture. The aim of this work is to improve our knowledge about the reliability of the use of marine invertebrate bioassays to detect microalgae toxicity, by performing: (i a 24- to 48-h test with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana; (ii a 48-hour embryo-larval toxicity test with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus; and (iii a 72-h test with the amphipod Corophium multisetosum. The results indicate that A. franciscana and P. lividus larvae are sensitive to the toxicity of A. minutum and P. parvum. LC50 comparison analysis between the tested organisms reveals that A. franciscana is the most sensitive organism for A. minutum. These findings suggest that the use of different organizational biological level bioassays appears to be a suitable tool for A. minutum and P. parvum toxicity assessment.

  18. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Peer-Reviewed Studies on the Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Invertebrates: From Scallop Larvae to Giant Squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soto, Natacha Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates at the base of oceanic trophic webs play important ecological and economical roles supporting worldwide fisheries worth millions. There is an increasing concern about the effects of anthropogenic noise on marine fauna but little is known about its effects on invertebrates. Here the current peer-reviewed literature on this subject is reviewed, dealing with different ontogenetic stages and taxa. These studies show that the noise effects on marine invertebrates range from apparently null to behavioral/physiological responses to mortalities. They emphasize the need to consider potential interactions of human activities using intense sound sources with the conservation and fisheries of local invertebrate stocks.

  20. Overview of the chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates along the western Antarctic peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D; Baker, Bill J

    2010-12-01

    Thirteen years ago in a review that appeared in the American Zoologist, we presented the first survey of the chemical and ecological bioactivity of Antarctic shallow-water marine invertebrates. In essence, we reported that despite theoretical predictions to the contrary the incidence of chemical defenses among sessile and sluggish Antarctic marine invertebrates was widespread. Since that time we and others have significantly expanded upon the base of knowledge of Antarctic marine invertebrates' chemical ecology, both from the perspective of examining marine invertebrates in new, distinct geographic provinces, as well as broadening the evaluation of the ecological significance of secondary metabolites. Importantly, many of these studies have been framed within established theoretical constructs, particularly the Optimal Defense Theory. In the present article, we review the current knowledge of chemical ecology of benthic marine invertebrates comprising communities along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), a region of Antarctica that is both physically and biologically distinct from the rest of the continent. Our overview indicates that, similar to other regions of Antarctica, anti-predator chemical defenses are widespread among species occurring along the WAP. In some groups, such as the sponges, the incidence of chemical defenses against predation is comparable to, or even slightly higher than, that found in tropical marine systems. While there is substantial knowledge of the chemical defenses of benthic marine invertebrates against predators, much less is known about chemical anti-foulants. The sole survey conducted to date suggests that secondary metabolites in benthic sponges are likely to be important in the prevention of fouling by benthic diatoms, yet generally lack activity against marine bacteria. Our understanding of the sensory ecology of Antarctic benthic marine invertebrates, despite its great potential, remains in its infancy. For example, along the

  1. Contribution to the Understanding of Particle Motion Perception in Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Kaifu, Kenzo; Solé, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Balastegui, Andreu; Sánchez, Antonio M; Castell, Joan V

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise. Exposure to anthropogenic sound sources could have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The availability of novel laser Doppler vibrometer techniques has recently opened the possibility of measuring whole body (distance, velocity, and acceleration) vibration as a direct stimulus eliciting statocyst response, offering the scientific community a new level of understanding of the marine invertebrate hearing mechanism.

  2. Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates as Important Leads for Anticancer Drugs Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Imperatore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes research on novel natural antitumor alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. The structure, origin, and confirmed cytotoxic activity of more than 130 novel alkaloids belonging to several structural families (indoles, pyrroles, pyrazines, quinolines, and pyridoacridines, together with some of their synthetic analogs, are illustrated. Recent discoveries concerning the current state of the potential and/or development of some of them as new drugs, as well as the current knowledge regarding their modes of action, are also summarized. A special emphasis is given to the role of marine invertebrate alkaloids as an important source of leads for anticancer drug discovery.

  3. Macrophages in Invertebrates: From Insects and Crustaceans to Marine Bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnave, Prasad; Muracciole, Xavier; Ghigo, Eric

    Macrophages are critical components of the antimicrobial response. The recent explosion of knowledge on the evolutionary, genetic, and biochemical aspects of the interaction between macrophages and microbes has renewed scientific interest in macrophages. The conservation of immune components or mechanisms between organisms during the evolutionary process allows us to elucidate antimicrobial mechanisms or discover new immune functions through the study of basal-branching organisms, such as invertebrates. As a result, immunity in non-vertebrates has attracted the attention of researchers in the last few decades. In this review, we summarize what is presently known about macrophage-like cells in various invertebrate species.

  4. Marine Invertebrate Metabolites with Anticancer Activities: Solutions to the “Supply Problem”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates provide a rich source of metabolites with anticancer activities and several marine-derived agents have been approved for the treatment of cancer. However, the limited supply of promising anticancer metabolites from their natural sources is a major hurdle to their preclinical and clinical development. Thus, the lack of a sustainable large-scale supply has been an important challenge facing chemists and biologists involved in marine-based drug discovery. In the current review we describe the main strategies aimed to overcome the supply problem. These include: marine invertebrate aquaculture, invertebrate and symbiont cell culture, culture-independent strategies, total chemical synthesis, semi-synthesis, and a number of hybrid strategies. We provide examples illustrating the application of these strategies for the supply of marine invertebrate-derived anticancer agents. Finally, we encourage the scientific community to develop scalable methods to obtain selected metabolites, which in the authors’ opinion should be pursued due to their most promising anticancer activities.

  5. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  6. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  7. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  8. HBMMD: an enhanced database of the microorganisms associated with deeper water marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Aravinda S; Sfanos, Karen S; Harmody, Dedra K; Pomponi, Shirley A; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V

    2005-01-01

    The Harbor Branch Marine Microbial Database (HBMMD) provides preliminary taxonomic identifications and features of microorganisms maintained in the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution Marine Microbial Culture Collection. The microbes are primarily derived from marine invertebrates such as sponges (phylum Porifera) and soft corals (phylum Cnidaria) found in deep water environments [>120 feet (>35 m) seawater]. The microbes isolated from within marine invertebrates represent some unique taxa and phylogenetic signatures. The database provides a user-friendly method to systemically search or sort a desired input. The site allows a powerful search for multiple parameters of any entry. Images of the microbes are contained within the database and can be accessed from the website. The HBMMD homepage is located at http://www.hboi.edu/dbmr/dbmr_hbmmd.html.

  9. Knowledge of Brazilian benthic marine fauna throughout time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leila de Lourdes; Amado Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystems of Brazil's continental shelf and oceanic islands comprise a variety of environments that display unique geomorphological and geophysical features and biotic components. The quest to attain knowledge of Brazilian marine fauna is hampered by coastline length, biodiversity, a high rate of endemism, and a shortage of specialized researchers. Based on a systematic bibliographic review, the article offers an overview of the history, current knowledge, and outlook for the field of marine biodiversity in Brazil. Our findings show that government initiatives have afforded greater knowledge of Brazilian marine fauna species and opened new perspectives, including reliance on complex tools to describe benthic marine habitats in terms of their geological, geophysical, and biotic composition.

  10. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on...

  11. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-11-10

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

  12. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata. PMID:22087434

  13. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  14. Marine & Other Invertebrates. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Invertebrate animals include a vast array of spineless creatures. In this video, students discover marine lifeforms such as jellyfish,…

  15. Responsible genetic approach to stock restoration, sea ranching and stock enhancement of marine fishes and invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, W. Stewart; Jasper, James; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of marine fishes and invertebrates have been implemented with various outcomes. A review of the literature indicates that considerable effort has been directed toward culture technologies to maximize production, but scant attention has been given to genetic risks to wild populations. Genetic risks from...

  16. Trophic and tectonic limits to the global increase of marine invertebrate diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermeño, Pedro; Benton, Michael J; Paz, Óscar; Vérard, Christian

    2017-11-21

    The marine invertebrate fossil record provides the most comprehensive history of how the diversity of animal life has evolved through time. One of the main features of this record is a modest rise in diversity over nearly a half-billion years. The long-standing view is that ecological interactions such as resource competition and predation set upper limits to global diversity, which, in the absence of external perturbations, is maintained indefinitely at equilibrium. However, the effect of mechanisms associated with the history of the seafloor, and their influence on the creation and destruction of marine benthic habitats, has not been explored. Here we use statistical methods for causal inference to investigate the drivers of marine invertebrate diversity dynamics through the Phanerozoic. We find that diversity dynamics responded to secular variations in marine food supply, substantiating the idea that global species richness is regulated by resource availability. Once diversity was corrected for changes in food resource availability, its dynamics were causally linked to the age of the subducting oceanic crust. We suggest that the time elapsed between the formation (at mid-ocean ridges) and destruction (at subduction zones) of ocean basins influences the diversity dynamics of marine invertebrates and may have contributed to constrain their diversification.

  17. A first prototype of an Invertebrate Chip: Development and Assessment of a DNA microarray as an analytical tool to identify selected marine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Chitipothu, Srujana

    2008-01-01

    A prototype microarray to identify marine invertebrates was developed. 15 invertebrates belonging to crustacea, mollusca and annelida were collected from the North Sea, Adriatic and the Mediterranean Sea. To extract DNA from different tissues 21 methods were checked and FTA Elute was found out to be the best. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from 16S and COI genes. Two genes are amplified from single DNA template by simplified multiplex PCR. Specificity and sensitivity of the captures was...

  18. Colonization of marine snow aggregates by invertebrate zooplankton : Abundance, scaling, and possible role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    I compiled literature observations of abundances of invertebrate zooplankters associated with marine snow aggregates in the euphotic zone. Abundances, normalized with ambient concentrations of colonizers, scale with equivalent aggregate radius raised to power 2.27. Different taxonomic groups showed...... different affinities for aggregates and copepods and crustacean nauplii were the dominant groups on aggregates. The encounter volumes (volume searched to find one aggregate) are substantial, e.g., >1 liter for a l-cm aggregate, suggesting that some zooplankters actively search for aggregates. The scaling...... of the enrichment of invertebrates in aggregates over ambient water with aggregate radius (r) was significantly different from that of bacteria, proportional to r(-0.73) and proportional to r(-2.25) respectively, and for aggregates larger than 0.1 cm radius, invertebrates were one to several orders of magnitude...

  19. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What can an ecophysiological approach tell us about the physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, John I

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia (low O2) is a common and natural feature of many marine environments. However, human-induced hypoxia has been on the rise over the past half century and is now recognised as a major problem in the world's seas and oceans. Whilst we have information on how marine invertebrates respond physiologically to hypoxia in the laboratory, we still lack understanding of how they respond to such stress in the wild (now and in the future). Consequently, here the question 'what can an ecophysiological approach tell us about physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia' is addressed. How marine invertebrates work in the wild when challenged with hypoxia is explored using four case studies centred on different hypoxic environments. The recent integration of the various -omics into ecophysiology is discussed, and a number of advantages of, and challenges to, successful integration are suggested. The case studies and -omic/physiology integration data are used to inform the concluding part of the review, where it is suggested that physiological responses to hypoxia in the wild are not always the same as those predicted from laboratory experiments. This is due to behaviour in the wild modifying responses, and therefore more than one type of 'experimental' approach is essential to reliably determine the actual response. It is also suggested that assuming it is known what a measured response is 'for' can be misleading and that taking parodies of ecophysiology seriously may impede research progress. This review finishes with the suggestion that an -omics approach is, and is becoming, a powerful method of understanding the response of marine invertebrates to environmental hypoxia and may be an ideal way of studying hypoxic responses in the wild. Despite centring on physiological responses to hypoxia, the review hopefully serves as a contribution to the discussion of what (animal) ecophysiology looks like (or should look like) in the 21st century.

  1. Aquarium Trade Supply-Chain Losses of Marine Invertebrates Originating from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Kinch, Jeff; Southgate, Paul C

    2018-02-14

    A major difficulty in managing live organism wildlife trade is often the reliance on trade data to monitor exploitation of wild populations. Harvested organisms that die or are discarded before a point of sale are regularly not reported. For the global marine aquarium trade, identifying supply-chain losses is necessary to more accurately assess exploitation from trade data. We examined quality control rejections and mortality of marine invertebrates (Asteroidea, Gastropoda, Malacostraca, Ophiuroidea) moving through the Papua New Guinea marine aquarium supply-chain, from fisher to importer. Utilizing catch invoices and exporter mortality records we determined that, over a 160 day period, 38.6% of the total invertebrate catch (n = 13,299 individuals) was lost before export. Supply-chain losses were divided among invertebrates rejected in the quality control process (11.5%) and mortality of the accepted catch in transit to, and during holding at, an export facility (30.6%). A further 0.3% died during international transit to importers. We quantified supply-chain losses for the ten most fished species which accounted for 96.4% of the catch. Quality control rejections (n = 1533) were primarily explained by rejections of oversized invertebrates (83.2% of rejections). We suggest that enforceable size limits on species prone to size-based rejections and elimination of village-based holding of invertebrates would reduce losses along the Papua New Guinea supply-chain. This case study underscores that low mortality during international transit may mask large losses along supply-chains prior to export and exemplifies the limitations of trade data to accurately monitor exploitation.

  2. Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Dominick

    2003-07-01

    Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described.

  3. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Porifera and Coelenterata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-11-10

    An ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Based on this extensive research, marine invertebrates now represent a rich source of novel substances with significant anti-neoplastic activities. As the current approach of synthesizing new and chemically modifying old drugs seems to have slowed down, and the identification of new anticancer drugs is not too promising, a new approach is clearly needed. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date data on these newer compounds. Based on the data summarized in this short review, it is clear that marine invertebrates represent an extremely important source of compounds with potential anti-cancer effects. Considering that we tested only a tiny number of Porifera and Coelenterata, the best is yet to come.

  4. The saltiness of the sea breaks DNA in marine invertebrates: possible implications for animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Natalia I; Ferraris, Joan D; Norenburg, Jon L; Burg, Maurice B

    2006-06-01

    More than 97 percent of the world's water is ocean and its average osmolality of 1000 mosmol/kg is much higher than the 300 mosmol/kg found in most of the intercellular fluids of vertebrates. Many marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, meaning that the osmolality of their extracellular fluid is the same as that of seawater. We report here that marine invertebrates from diverse phyla have numerous DNA breaks in their cells while they are exposed to normal seawater containing high NaCl, but that the DNA breaks decrease or disappear when the animals are acclimated to the same water diluted to 300 mosmol/kg. We speculate that, since DNA breaks cause mutations, salinity might have important background effects on the rate and course of evolution.

  5. Fractionated Marine Invertebrate Extract Libraries for Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Ireland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-throughput screening and drug discovery paradigm has necessitated a change in preparation of natural product samples for screening programs. In an attempt to improve the quality of marine natural products samples for screening, several fractionation strategies were investigated. The final method used HP20SS as a solid support to effectively desalt extracts and fractionate the organic components. Additionally, methods to integrate an automated LCMS fractionation approach to shorten discovery time lines have been implemented.

  6. Does microplastic induce oxidative stress in marine invertebrates?

    OpenAIRE

    Riesbeck, Sarah; Gutow, Lars; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades the production of plastic increased continuously. Simultaneously, environmental pollution by plastic became a rising issue. Marine litter can have adverse effects on animals. Some species may get trapped in lost fishing nets or they may starve to death upon ingestion of plastic which may clog their digestive tracts. Degradation of plastic items generates a continuously increasing number of smaller-sized particles. Microplastic, finally ranging in the µm-size classes can ha...

  7. Fractionated Marine Invertebrate Extract Libraries for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugni, Tim S.; Harper, Mary Kay; McCulloch, Malcolm W.B.; Reppart, Jason; Ireland, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    The high-throughput screening and drug discovery paradigm has necessitated a change in preparation of natural product samples for screening programs. In an attempt to improve the quality of marine natural products samples for screening, several fractionation strategies were investigated. The final method used HP20SS as a solid support to effectively desalt extracts and fractionate the organic components. Additionally, methods to integrate an automated LCMS fractionation approach to shorten discovery time lines have been implemented. PMID:18596663

  8. Epigenetic signatures of invasive status in populations of marine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Ardura; Anastasija Zaiko; Paloma Morán; Serge Planes; Eva Garcia-Vazquez

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis...

  9. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Porifera and Coelenterata

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    An ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Based on this extensive research, marine invertebrates now represent a rich source of novel substances with significant anti-neoplastic activities. As the current approach of synthesizing new and chemically modifying old drugs seems to have slowed down, and the identification of new anticancer drugs is not too promising, a new approach is clearly needed....

  10. Proteomics insights: proteins related to larval attachment and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The transition in an animal from a pelagic larval stage to a sessile benthic juvenile typically requires major morphological and behavioral changes. Larval competency, attachment and initiation of metamorphosis are thought to be regulated by intrinsic chemical signals and specific sets of proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate larval attachment and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates have yet to be fully elucidated. Despite the many challenges associated with analysis of ...

  11. Hemocytes/coelomocytes DNA content in five marine invertebrates: cell cycles and genome sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Fafanđel, Maja; Bihari, Nevenka; Smodlaka Tanković, Mirta; Ravlić, Sanda

    2008-01-01

    The hemocytes/coelomocytes DNA content in five selected marine invertebrates (sea mouse Aphrodita aculeata, spiny crab Maja crispata, sea star Echinaster sepositus, sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, tunicate Phallusia mammillata) was investigated by flow cytometry. The cell cycle analyses identified sea mouse coelomocytes as proliferating cells and revealed that spiny crab hemocytes and sea urchin coelomocytes complete their division in the hemolymph and coelom respectively. The genome sizes ...

  12. Assessment of Arctic community wastewater impacts on marine benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Kira A; Krkosek, Wendy H; Greenwood, Mark; Ragush, Colin; Schmidt, Jordan; Grant, Jon; Barrell, Jeff; Lu, Lin; Lam, Buuan; Gagnon, Graham A; Jamieson, Rob C

    2015-01-20

    This study sought to understand the performance of arctic treatment systems and the impact of wastewater effluent on benthic invertebrate communities in arctic receiving water habitats. Effluent quality and benthic impacts were monitored in the receiving water of five communities across Nunavut that differed in the type and level of treatment achieved by wastewater infrastructure, the volume of effluent and receiving water mixing environment. We detected minimal impacts to benthic communities (diversity, evenness, and density, and some differences in benthic species composition. This was in contrast to benthic sediments in Iqaluit (population 6699), which were devoid of benthic fauna up to 580 m from the effluent source in response to sediment anoxia. Variation in benthic community response between sampling locations was attributed primarily to differences in effluent volume, with effluent quality and receiving water hydrodynamics playing secondary roles. The results of this study will help to inform the development of northern specific treatment performance standards which will aid in prioritizing community wastewater system upgrades in arctic communities.

  13. Marine invertebrates, model organisms, and the modern synthesis: epistemic values, evo-devo, and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2009-03-01

    A central reason that undergirds the significance of evo-devo is the claim that development was left out of the Modern synthesis. This claim turns out to be quite complicated, both in terms of whether development was genuinely excluded and how to understand the different kinds of embryological research that might have contributed. The present paper reevaluates this central claim by focusing on the practice of model organism choice. Through a survey of examples utilized in the literature of the Modern synthesis, I identify a previously overlooked feature: exclusion of research on marine invertebrates. Understanding the import of this pattern requires interpreting it in terms of two epistemic values operating in biological research: theoretical generality and explanatory completeness. In tandem, these values clarify and enhance the significance of this exclusion. The absence of marine invertebrates implied both a lack of generality in the resulting theory and a lack of completeness with respect to particular evolutionary problems, such as evolvability and the origin of novelty. These problems were salient to embryological researchers aware of the variation and diversity of larval forms in marine invertebrates. In closing, I apply this analysis to model organism choice in evo-devo and discuss its relevance for an extended evolutionary synthesis.

  14. Glycosaminoglycans analogs from marine invertebrates: structure, biological effects, and potential as new therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Mauro S. G.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics. PMID:25309878

  15. A critical review of the potential impacts of marine seismic surveys on fish & invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A G; Przeslawski, R; Duncan, A; Gunning, M; Bruce, B

    2017-01-15

    Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations. We focus on marine seismic surveys due to their associated unique sound properties (i.e. acute, low-frequency, mobile source locations), as well as fish and invertebrates due to the commercial value of many species in these groups. The main challenges of seismic impact research are the translation of laboratory results to field populations over a range of sound exposure scenarios and the lack of sound exposure standardisation which hinders the identification of response thresholds. An integrated multidisciplinary approach to manipulative and in situ studies is the most effective way to establish impact thresholds in the context of realistic exposure levels, but if that is not practical the limitations of each approach must be carefully considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conventional and Unconventional Antimicrobials from Fish, Marine Invertebrates and Micro-algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie J.; Desbois, Andrew P.; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic organisms, single-celled or multi-cellular, produce a diverse array of natural anti-infective agents that, in addition to conventional antimicrobial peptides, also include proteins and other molecules often not regarded as part of the innate defences. Examples range from histones, fatty acids, and other structural components of cells to pigments and regulatory proteins. These probably represent very ancient defence factors that have been re-used in new ways during evolution. This review discusses the nature, biological role in host protection and potential biotechnological uses of some of these compounds, focusing on those from fish, marine invertebrates and marine micro-algae. PMID:20479976

  17. Symbiotic Microbes from Marine Invertebrates: Driving a New Era of Natural Product Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Blockley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates account for more than 89% of all extant organisms in the marine environment, represented by over 174,600 species (recorded to date. Such diversity is mirrored in (or more likely increased by the microbial symbionts associated with this group and in the marine natural products (or MNPs that they produce. Since the early 1950s over 20,000 MNPs have been discovered, including compounds produced by symbiotic bacteria, and the chemical diversity of compounds produced from marine sources has led to them being referred to as "blue gold" in the search for new drugs. For example, 80% of novel antibiotics stemming from the marine environment have come from Actinomycetes, many of which can be found associated with marine sponges, and compounds with anti-tumorigenic and anti-diabetic potential have also been isolated from marine symbionts. In fact, it has been estimated that marine sources formed the basis of over 50% of FDA-approved drugs between 1981 and 2002. In this review, we explore the diversity of marine microbial symbionts by examining their use as the producers of novel pharmaceutical actives, together with a discussion of the opportunities and constraints offered by “blue gold” drug discovery.

  18. Marine microorganism-invertebrate assemblages: perspectives to solve the "supply problem" in the initial steps of drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Sheridan, Christopher; Osinga, Ronald; Dionísio, Gisela; Rocha, Rui Jorge Miranda; Silva, Bruna; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-06-30

    The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP) is unanimously acknowledged as the "blue gold" in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from marine invertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether target metabolites originate from the marine invertebrates themselves or from their microbial symbionts. This issue underlines critical challenges associated with the lack of biomass required to supply the early stages of the drug discovery pipeline. The present review discusses potential solutions for such challenges, with particular emphasis on innovative approaches to culture invertebrate holobionts (microorganism-invertebrate assemblages) through in toto aquaculture, together with methods for the discovery and initial production of bioactive compounds from these microbial symbionts.

  19. Marine Microorganism-Invertebrate Assemblages: Perspectives to Solve the “Supply Problem” in the Initial Steps of Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Sheridan, Christopher; Osinga, Ronald; Dionísio, Gisela; Rocha, Rui Jorge Miranda; Silva, Bruna; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP) is unanimously acknowledged as the “blue gold” in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from marine invertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether target metabolites originate from the marine invertebrates themselves or from their microbial symbionts. This issue underlines critical challenges associated with the lack of biomass required to supply the early stages of the drug discovery pipeline. The present review discusses potential solutions for such challenges, with particular emphasis on innovative approaches to culture invertebrate holobionts (microorganism-invertebrate assemblages) through in toto aquaculture, together with methods for the discovery and initial production of bioactive compounds from these microbial symbionts. PMID:24983638

  20. Marine Microorganism-Invertebrate Assemblages: Perspectives to Solve the “Supply Problem” in the Initial Steps of Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Costa Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP is unanimously acknowledged as the “blue gold” in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from marine invertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether target metabolites originate from the marine invertebrates themselves or from their microbial symbionts. This issue underlines critical challenges associated with the lack of biomass required to supply the early stages of the drug discovery pipeline. The present review discusses potential solutions for such challenges, with particular emphasis on innovative approaches to culture invertebrate holobionts (microorganism-invertebrate assemblages through in toto aquaculture, together with methods for the discovery and initial production of bioactive compounds from these microbial symbionts.

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Sakagami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.

  2. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ion channels in key marine invertebrates; their diversity and potential for applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Euan R; Piscopo, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Of the intra-membrane proteins, the class that comprises voltage and ligand-gated ion channels represents the major substrate whereby signals pass between and within cells in all organisms. It has been presumed that vertebrate and particularly mammalian ion channels represent the apex of evolutionary complexity and diversity and much effort has been focused on understanding their function. However, the recent availability of cheap high throughput genome sequencing has massively broadened and deepened the quality of information across phylogeny and is radically changing this view. Here we review current knowledge on such channels in key marine invertebrates where physiological evidence is backed up by molecular sequences and expression/functional studies. As marine invertebrates represent a much greater range of phyla than terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates together, we argue that these animals represent a highly divergent, though relatively underused source of channel novelty. As ion channels are exquisitely selective sensors for voltage and ligands, their potential and actual applications in biotechnology are manifold. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  5. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Navarro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs.

  6. Toxicity of phenanthrene and lindane mixtures to marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A D; Nipper, M

    2007-10-01

    Surface waters near industrialized and agricultural areas are contaminated with hundreds of different pollutants from a variety of sources. Methods for measurement of sediment, surface water, and porewater toxicity in marine environments include the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests and copepod (Schizopera knabeni) survival and hatching success assessment. The concentration addition model was applied to determine whether toxicity of two compounds, phenanthrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and lindane (organochlorine pesticide), when combined can be accurately assessed because of similar modes of action. Mixture analysis determined the sea urchin fertilization test to exhibit additivity (TU(mix) = 1.13), while the copepod test exhibited a synergistic effect (TU(mix) = 0.22). Mixture toxicity data for the sea urchin embryological test were not conclusive because of the lack of toxicity of the individual chemicals. The synergistic effect to copepods is a concern as it indicates that greater toxic effects may occur when the compounds are present in mixtures. Results from this research suggest that increased toxicity to some categories of organisms should be expected near agricultural and industrial areas where pesticides and other types of compounds may occur simultaneously. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Epigenetic signatures of invasive status in populations of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Zaiko, Anastasija; Morán, Paloma; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-02-01

    Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) recent invasion in Europe (two-year old), while in older introductions such epigenetic signature of invasion was progressively reduced. Decreased methylation was interpreted as a rapid way of increasing phenotypic plasticity that would help invasive populations to thrive. This epigenetic signature of early invasion was stronger than the expected environmental signature of environmental stress in younger populations sampled from ports, otherwise detected in a much older population (>90 year old) of the also invasive tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus established in similar locations. Higher epigenetic than genetic diversity found in X. securis was confirmed from F. enigmaticus samples. As reported for introduced plants and vertebrates, epigenetic variation could compensate for relatively lower genetic variation caused by founder effects. These phenomena were compared with epigenetic mechanisms involved in metastasis, as parallel processes of community (biological invasion) and organism (cancer) invasions.

  8. Field experimental evaluation of secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates as antifoulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R C; Carvalho, A G V; Gama, B A P; Coutinho, R

    2002-05-01

    The crude organic extracts of the endemic gorgonian Phyllogorgia dilatata and two sponge species Aplysina fulva and Mycale microsigmatosa were evaluated for anti-fouling properties through field experiments. To investigate this property in ecologically meaningful conditions, crude extracts from these invertebrates were incorporated at concentrations naturally found in these marine organisms into a stable gel used as a substratum for fouling settlement. Crude extract from A. fulva showed no significant anti-fouling property at the natural concentrations used in the field experiments. In fact, fouling organisms settled significantly more on gels treated with A. fulva extract than on the control gel. On the other hand, both M. microsigmatosa and P. dilatata yielded crude extracts that exhibited a selective action inhibiting only the settlement of barnacles. The evidences obtained here by means of field experiments can provide a basis for future development of one kind of natural antifoulant technology to prevent marine biofouling.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity in mice of extracts from Mediterranean marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ubeda, A; Ferrándiz, M L; Terencio, M C; Alcaraz, M J; García-Carrascosa, M; Capaccioni, R; Payá, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the marine invertebrates Leptogorgia ceratophyta, Holothuria tubulosa, Coscinasterias tenuispina and Phallusia fumigata on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice were investigated. The dichloromethane extract of Coscinasterias tenuispina and the methanol extract of Holothuria tubulosa administered p.o. at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, inhibited oedema in a dose-dependent manner 3 h after administration of carrageenan. Both extracts partially decreased elastase activity and PGE2 levels measured in homogenates from inflamed paws, without affecting the levels of this prostanoid present in stomach homogenates. As observed with the selective inhibitor NS398, both extracts can decrease cyclo-oxygenase activity in inflamed tissues but do not modify the constitutive cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Therefore, these extracts represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents active on inflammatory conditions.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides from marine invertebrates as a new frontier for microbial infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-González, Anselmo Jesus; Magalhães, Beatriz Simas; Garcia-Villarino, Monica; López-Abarrategui, Carlos; Sousa, Daniel Amaro; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2010-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are widely expressed in organisms and have been linked to innate and acquired immunities in vertebrates. These compounds are constitutively expressed and rapidly induced at different cellular levels to interact directly with infectious agents and/or modulate immunoreactions involved in defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In invertebrates, antimicrobial peptides represent the major humoral defense system against infection, showing a diverse spectrum of action mechanisms, most of them related to plasma membrane disturbance and lethal alteration of microbial integrity. Marine invertebrates are widespread, extremely diverse, and constantly under an enormous microbial challenge from the ocean environment, itself altered by anthropic influences derived from industrialization and transportation. Consequently, this study reexamines the peptides isolated over the past 2 decades from different origins, bringing phyla not previously reviewed up to date. Moreover, a promising novel use of antimicrobial peptides as effective drugs in human and veterinary medicine could be based on their unusual properties and synergic counterparts as immune response humoral effectors, in addition to their direct microbicidal activity. This has been seen in many other marine proteins that are sufficiently immunogenic to humans, not necessarily in terms of antibody generation but as inflammation promoters and recruitment agents or immune enhancers.

  11. Proteomics Insights: Proteins related to Larval Attachment and Metamorphosis of Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONDETHIMMANAHALLI eCHANDRAMOULI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition in an animal from a pelagic larval stage to a sessile benthic juvenile typically requires major morphological and behavioral changes. Larval competency, attachment and initiation of metamorphosis are thought to be regulated by intrinsic chemical signals and specific sets of proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate larval attachment and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates have yet to be fully elucidated. Despite the many challenges associated with analysis of the larvae proteome, recent proteomic technologies have been used to address specific questions in larval developmental biology. These and other molecular studies have generated substantial amount of information of the proteins and molecular pathways involved in larval attachment and metamorphosis. Furthermore, the results of these studies have shown that systematic changes in protein expression patterns and post-translational modifications (PTM are crucial for the transition from larva to juvenile. The degeneration of larval tissues is mediated by protein degradation, while the development of juvenile organs may require PTM. In terms of application, the identified proteins may serve as targets for antifouling compounds, and biomarkers for environmental stressors. In this review we highlight the strengths and limitations of proteomic tools in the context of the study of marine invertebrate larval biology.

  12. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Marine Invertebrate (Polychaete and Assessment of Its Efficacy against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by chemical and physical method makes the process often cumbersome due the usage of toxic and expensive chemicals. The present study reports the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine invertebrate (polychaete extract at room temperature. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption maximum at 418–420 nm. Structure and composition of AgNPs were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Average particle size of AgNPs ranged from 40 to 90 nm, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of the nanoparticles dispersion confirmed the presence of elemental silver signal, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD substantiated the crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticle. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectral analysis showed the presence of amides phenols, ethers, and fatty acids as major biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver ions. The possible mechanism responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs by these biomolecules was also illustrated by chemical reactions. The synthesized AgNPs showed comparatively good antibacterial activity against the tested human pathogens. This study advocates that not only plants and microbes but also marine invertebrates do have potential for synthesizing nanoparticles by a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach.

  13. Proteomics insights: proteins related to larval attachment and metamorphosis of marine invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2014-10-31

    The transition in an animal from a pelagic larval stage to a sessile benthic juvenile typically requires major morphological and behavioral changes. Larval competency, attachment and initiation of metamorphosis are thought to be regulated by intrinsic chemical signals and specific sets of proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate larval attachment and metamorphosis in marine invertebrates have yet to be fully elucidated. Despite the many challenges associated with analysis of the larvae proteome, recent proteomic technologies have been used to address specific questions in larval developmental biology. These and other molecular studies have generated substantial amount of information of the proteins and molecular pathways involved in larval attachment and metamorphosis. Furthermore, the results of these studies have shown that systematic changes in protein expression patterns and post-translational modifications (PTMs) are crucial for the transition from larva to juvenile. The degeneration of larval tissues is mediated by protein degradation, while the development of juvenile organs may require PTM. In terms of application, the identified proteins may serve as targets for antifouling compounds, and biomarkers for environmental stressors. In this review we highlight the strengths and limitations of proteomic tools in the context of the study of marine invertebrate larval biology.

  14. Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Przeslawski, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Benthic marine invertebrates live in a multistressor world where stressor levels are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by global warming and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. These changes are causing the oceans to warm, decrease in pH, become hypercapnic, and to become less saturated in carbonate minerals. These stressors have strong impacts on biological processes, but little is known about their combined effects on the development of marine invertebrates. Increasing temperature has a stimulatory effect on development, whereas hypercapnia can depress developmental processes. The pH, pCO2, and CaCO3 of seawater change simultaneously with temperature, challenging our ability to predict future outcomes for marine biota. The need to consider both warming and acidification is reflected in the recent increase in cross-factorial studies of the effects of these stressors on development of marine invertebrates. The outcomes and trends in these studies are synthesized here. Based on this compilation, significant additive or antagonistic effects of warming and acidification of the ocean are common (16 of 20 species studied), and synergistic negative effects also are reported. Fertilization can be robust to near-future warming and acidification, depending on the male-female mating pair. Although larvae and juveniles of some species tolerate near-future levels of warming and acidification (+2°C/pH 7.8), projected far-future conditions (ca. ≥4°C/ ≤pH 7.6) are widely deleterious, with a reduction in the size and survival of larvae. It appears that larvae that calcify are sensitive both to warming and acidification, whereas those that do not calcify are more sensitive to warming. Different sensitivities of life-history stages and species have implications for persistence and community function in a changing ocean. Some species are more resilient than others and may be potential "winners" in the climate-change stakes. As the ocean will change more gradually over

  15. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Millimeter-sized marine plastics: a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Reisser

    Full Text Available Millimeter-sized plastics are abundant in most marine surface waters, and known to carry fouling organisms that potentially play key roles in the fate and ecological impacts of plastic pollution. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy to characterize biodiversity of organisms on the surface of 68 small floating plastics (length range = 1.7-24.3 mm, median = 3.2 mm from Australia-wide coastal and oceanic, tropical to temperate sample collections. Diatoms were the most diverse group of plastic colonizers, represented by 14 genera. We also recorded 'epiplastic' coccolithophores (7 genera, bryozoans, barnacles (Lepas spp., a dinoflagellate (Ceratium, an isopod (Asellota, a marine worm, marine insect eggs (Halobates sp., as well as rounded, elongated, and spiral cells putatively identified as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and fungi. Furthermore, we observed a variety of plastic surface microtextures, including pits and grooves conforming to the shape of microorganisms, suggesting that biota may play an important role in plastic degradation. This study highlights how anthropogenic millimeter-sized polymers have created a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates. The ecological ramifications of this phenomenon for marine organism dispersal, ocean productivity, and biotransfer of plastic-associated pollutants, remains to be elucidated.

  17. Secondary metabolites from Vietnamese marine invertebrates with activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; No, Joo Hwan; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Yang, Gyongseon; Byun, Soo Young; Goo, Junghyun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Van Minh, Chau; Schmidt, Thomas J; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-11

    Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM). Laevigatol B (1) and 5α-cholest-8(14)-ene-3β,7α-diol (5) exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases.

  18. Millimeter-sized marine plastics: a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisser, Julia; Shaw, Jeremy; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Proietti, Maira; Barnes, David K A; Thums, Michele; Wilcox, Chris; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter-sized plastics are abundant in most marine surface waters, and known to carry fouling organisms that potentially play key roles in the fate and ecological impacts of plastic pollution. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy to characterize biodiversity of organisms on the surface of 68 small floating plastics (length range = 1.7-24.3 mm, median = 3.2 mm) from Australia-wide coastal and oceanic, tropical to temperate sample collections. Diatoms were the most diverse group of plastic colonizers, represented by 14 genera. We also recorded 'epiplastic' coccolithophores (7 genera), bryozoans, barnacles (Lepas spp.), a dinoflagellate (Ceratium), an isopod (Asellota), a marine worm, marine insect eggs (Halobates sp.), as well as rounded, elongated, and spiral cells putatively identified as bacteria, cyanobacteria, and fungi. Furthermore, we observed a variety of plastic surface microtextures, including pits and grooves conforming to the shape of microorganisms, suggesting that biota may play an important role in plastic degradation. This study highlights how anthropogenic millimeter-sized polymers have created a new pelagic habitat for microorganisms and invertebrates. The ecological ramifications of this phenomenon for marine organism dispersal, ocean productivity, and biotransfer of plastic-associated pollutants, remains to be elucidated.

  19. Highlights of marine invertebrate-derived biosynthetic products: Their biomedical potential and possible production by microbial associants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjasa, Ocky K.; Vaske, Yvette M.; Navarro, Gabriel; Vervoort, Hélène C.; Tenney, Karen; Linington, Roger G.; Crews, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most productive marine ecosystems and are the source of a large group of structurally unique biosynthetic products. Annual reviews of marine natural products continue to illustrate that the most prolific source of bioactive compounds consist of coral reef invertebrates—sponges, ascidians, mollusks, and bryozoans. This account examines recent milestone developments pertaining to compounds from invertebrates designated as therapeutic leads for biomedical discovery. The focus is on the secondary metabolites, their inspirational structural scaffolds and the possible role of microorganism associants in their biosynthesis. Also important are the increasing concerns regarding the collection of reef invertebrates for the discovery process. The case examples considered here will be useful to insure that future research to unearth bioactive invertebrate-derived compounds will be carried out in a sustainable and environmentally conscious fashion. Our account begins with some observations pertaining to the natural history of these organisms. Many still believe that a serious obstacle to the ultimate development of a marine natural product isolated from coral reef invertebrates is the problem of compound supply. Recent achievements through total synthesis can now be drawn on to forcefully cast this myth aside. The tools of semisynthesis of complex natural products or insights from SAR efforts to simplify an active pharmacophore are at hand and demand discussion. Equally exciting is the prospect that invertebrate-associated micro-organisms may represent the next frontier to accelerate the development of high priority therapeutic candidates. Currently in the United States there are two FDA approved marine-derived therapeutic drugs and two others that are often cited as being marine-inspired. This record will be examined first followed by an analysis of a dozen of our favorite examples of coral reef invertebrate natural products having therapeutic

  20. Chronic Effects of Coated Silver Nanoparticles on Marine Invertebrate Larvae: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine Ying Shan; Chiu, Jill Man Ying

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, have become increasingly popular in consumer products. However, data on their potential biological effects on marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain very limited. This proof of principle study reports the chronic sub-lethal toxicity of two coated AgNPs (oleic acid coated AgNPs and polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs) on marine benthic invertebrate larvae across three phyla (i.e., the barnacle Balanus Amphitrite, the slipper-limpet Crepidula onyx, and the polychaete Hydroides elegans) in terms of growth, development, and metamorphosis. Bioaccumulation and biodistribution of silver were also investigated. Larvae were also exposed to silver nitrate (AgNO3) in parallel to distinguish the toxic effects derived from nano-silver and the aqueous form of silver. The sub-lethal effect of chronic exposure to coated AgNPs resulted in a significant retardation in growth and development, and reduction of larval settlement rate. The larval settlement rate of H. elegans was significantly lower in the coated AgNP treatment than the AgNO3 treatment, suggesting that the toxicity of coated AgNPs might not be solely evoked by the release of silver ions (Ag+) in the test medium. The three species accumulated silver effectively from coated AgNPs as well as AgNO3, and coated AgNPs were observed in the vacuoles of epithelial cell in the digestive tract of C. onyx. Types of surface coatings did not affect the sub-lethal toxicity of AgNPs. This study demonstrated that coated AgNPs exerted toxic effects in a species-specific manner, and their exposure might allow bioaccumulation of silver, and affect growth, development, and settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. This study also highlighted the possibility that coated AgNPs could be taken up through diet and the toxicity of coated AgNPs might be mediated through toxic Ag+ as well as the novel modalities of coated AgNPs.

  1. Chronic Effects of Coated Silver Nanoparticles on Marine Invertebrate Larvae: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ying Shan Chan

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, have become increasingly popular in consumer products. However, data on their potential biological effects on marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain very limited. This proof of principle study reports the chronic sub-lethal toxicity of two coated AgNPs (oleic acid coated AgNPs and polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs on marine benthic invertebrate larvae across three phyla (i.e., the barnacle Balanus Amphitrite, the slipper-limpet Crepidula onyx, and the polychaete Hydroides elegans in terms of growth, development, and metamorphosis. Bioaccumulation and biodistribution of silver were also investigated. Larvae were also exposed to silver nitrate (AgNO3 in parallel to distinguish the toxic effects derived from nano-silver and the aqueous form of silver. The sub-lethal effect of chronic exposure to coated AgNPs resulted in a significant retardation in growth and development, and reduction of larval settlement rate. The larval settlement rate of H. elegans was significantly lower in the coated AgNP treatment than the AgNO3 treatment, suggesting that the toxicity of coated AgNPs might not be solely evoked by the release of silver ions (Ag+ in the test medium. The three species accumulated silver effectively from coated AgNPs as well as AgNO3, and coated AgNPs were observed in the vacuoles of epithelial cell in the digestive tract of C. onyx. Types of surface coatings did not affect the sub-lethal toxicity of AgNPs. This study demonstrated that coated AgNPs exerted toxic effects in a species-specific manner, and their exposure might allow bioaccumulation of silver, and affect growth, development, and settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. This study also highlighted the possibility that coated AgNPs could be taken up through diet and the toxicity of coated AgNPs might be mediated through toxic Ag+ as well as the novel modalities of coated AgNPs.

  2. Evolutionary history of the GABA transporter (GAT group revealed by marine invertebrate GAT-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Kinjo

    Full Text Available The GABA transporter (GAT group is one of the major subgroups in the solute career 6 (SLC6 family of transmembrane proteins. The GAT group, which has been well studied in mammals, has 6 known members, i.e., a taurine transporter (TAUT, four GABA transporters (GAT-1, -2, -3, - 4, and a creatine transporter (CT1, which have important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the GAT group has not been extensively investigated in invertebrates; only TAUT has been reported in marine invertebrates such as bivalves and krills, and GAT-1 has been reported in several insect species and nematodes. Thus, it is unknown how transporters in the GAT group arose during the course of animal evolution. In this study, we cloned GAT-1 cDNAs from the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, whose TAUT cDNA has already been cloned. To understand the evolutionary history of the GAT group, we conducted phylogenetic and synteny analyses on the GAT group transporters of vertebrates and invertebrates. Our findings suggest that transporters of the GAT group evolved through the following processes. First, GAT-1 and CT1 arose by tandem duplication of an ancestral transporter gene before the divergence of Deuterostomia and Protostomia; next, the TAUT gene arose and GAT-3 was formed by the tandem duplication of the TAUT gene; and finally, GAT-2 and GAT-4 evolved from a GAT-3 gene by chromosomal duplication in the ancestral vertebrates. Based on synteny and phylogenetic evidence, the present naming of the GAT group members does not accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships.

  3. Preparation and Representation of Recombinant Mn-Ferritin Flower-Like Spherical Aggregates from Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Yunyun; Chu, Shuangshuang; He, Weina; Li, Ye; Su, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin has important functions in the transition and storage of toxic metal ions, but its regulation and function in many invertebrate species are still largely unknown. In our previous work, the cDNA sequence of Sinonovacula constricta, Apostichopus japonicas and Acaudina leucoprocta were constructed and efficiently expressed in E. Coli BL21 under IPTG induction. In this follow-up study, the recombinant ferritins were exposed to heavy metal manganese. The manganese concentration levels in three recombinant ferritins were greater than horse spleen ferritin (HSF). Compared with HSF, the amount of manganese enrichment in the three recombinant ferritins was 1.75-fold, 3.25-fold and 2.42-fold increases in ScFER, AjFER, and AlFER, respectively. After phosphate stimulation, the concentration of manganese increased and was higher than the ordinary dialysis control groups. The ScFER was four times its baseline value. The AjFER and AlFER were 1.4- and 8-fold higher, respectively. The AlFER sample stimulated by phosphate was 22-fold that of HSF. The morphologies of the resulting Mn-Ferritin from different marine invertebrates were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Surface morphologies were lamella flower-like and are consistent with changes in surface morphologies of the standard Mn-HSF. Invertebrate recombinant ferritin and HSF both can uptake manganese. We found that the structure of A. leucoproctarecombinant Mn-Ferritin aggregate changed over time. The surface formed lamella flower-like aggregate, but gradually merged to create a relatively uniform plate-like phase of aggregate spherically and fused without clear boundaries. PMID:25879665

  4. The structural diversity and promise of antiparasitic marine invertebrate-derived small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Katharine R; Tenney, Karen; Crews, Phillip

    2010-12-01

    This review focuses on six important parasitic diseases that adversely affect the health and lives of over one billion people worldwide. In light of the global human impact of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), several initiatives and campaigns have been mounted to eradicate these infections once and for all. Currently available therapeutics summarized herein are either ineffective and/or have severe and deleterious side effects. Resistant strains continue to emerge and there is an overall unmet and urgent need for new antiparasitic drugs. Marine-derived small molecules (MDSMs) from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. New discoveries of marine natural product privileged structures and compound classes that are being made via natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays are highlighted. It is striking to note that for the first time in history the entire genomes of all six parasites have been sequenced and additional transcriptome and proteomic analyses are available. Furthermore, open and shared, publicly available databases of the genome sequences, compounds, screening assays, and druggable molecular targets are being used by the worldwide research community. A combined assessment of all of the above factors, especially of current discoveries in marine natural products, implies a brighter future with more effective, affordable, and benign antiparasitic therapeutics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Universal primers and PCR of gut contents to study marine invertebrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, L E; Yayanos, A A

    2005-03-01

    Determining the diets of marine invertebrates by gut content analysis is problematic. Many consumed organisms become unrecognizable once partly digested, while those with hard remains (e.g. diatom skeletons) may bias the analysis. Here, we adapt DNA-based methods similar to those used for microbial diversity surveys as a novel approach to study the diets of macrophagous (the deep-sea amphipods Scopelocheirus schellenbergi and Eurythenes gryllus) and microphagous (the bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata) feeders in the deep sea. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in conjunction with 'universal' primers amplified portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene for animals ingested by S. schellenbergi and E. gryllus and the 18S rRNA gene for lesser eukaryotes ingested by L. aequizonata. Amplified sequences were combined with sequences from GenBank to construct phylogenetic trees of ingested organisms. Our analyses indicate that S. schellenbergi, E. gryllus and L. aequizonata diets are considerably more diverse than previously thought, casting new light on the foraging strategies of these species. Finally, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this technique and its potential applicability to diet analyses of other invertebrates.

  6. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  7. Finding food: how marine invertebrates use chemical cues to track and select food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2017-05-10

    Benthic marine invertebrates sense molecules from other organisms and use these molecules to find and evaluate the organisms as sources of food. These processes depend on the detection and discrimination of molecules carried in sea water around and in the mouths of these animals. To understand these processes, researchers have studied how molecules released from food distribute in the sea water as a plume, how animals respond to the plume, the molecular identity of the attractants in the plume, the effect of turbulence on food-searching success, and how animals evaluate the quality of food and make decisions to eat or not. This review covers recent progress on this topic involving interdisciplinary studies of natural products chemistry, fluid dynamics, neuroethology, and ecology.

  8. Molecular detection of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida in sea water and marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagesan Paari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The exportation of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea has been recently decreasing due to the infections with a myxozoan parasite Kudoa septempunctata, and there is a strong demand for strict food safety management because the food poisoning associated with consumption of raw olive flounder harbouring K. septempunctata has been frequently reported in Japan. The life cycle and infection dynamics of K. septempunctata in aquatic environment are currently unknown, which hamper establishment of effective control methods. We investigated sea water and marine invertebrates collected from olive flounder farms for detecting K. septempunctata by DNA-based analysis, to elucidate infection dynamics of K. septempunctata in aquaculture farms. In addition, live marine polychaetes were collected and maintained in well plates to find any possible actinosporean state of K. septempunctata. The level of K. septempunctata DNA in rearing water fluctuated during the sampling period but the DNA was not detected in summer (June–July in farm A and August in farm B. K. septempunctata DNA was also detected in the polychaetes Naineris laevigata intestinal samples, showing decreased pattern of 40 to 0%. No actinosporean stage of K. septempunctata was observed in the polychaetes by microscopy. The absence of K. septempunctata DNA in rearing water of fish farm and the polychaetes N. laevigata intestinal samples during late spring and early summer indicate that the infection may not occur during this period. N. laevigata was suspected as the possible alternate invertebrate host of K. septempunctata, but the actinosporean stage was not found by well plate method and further studies will be necessary. This research provides important baseline information for understanding the infection dynamics of K. septempunctata in olive flounder farms and further establishment of control strategies.

  9. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary Metabolites from Vietnamese Marine Invertebrates with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong Thao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived natural products from invertebrates comprise an extremely diverse and promising source of the compounds from a wide variety of structural classes. This study describes the discovery of five marine natural products with activity against Trypanosoma species by natural product library screening using whole cell in vitro assays. We investigated the anti-trypanosomal activity of the extracts from the soft corals and echinoderms living in Vietnamese seas. Of the samples screened, the methanolic extracts of several marine organisms exhibited potent activities against cultures of Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (EC50 < 5.0 μg/mL. Among the compounds isolated from these extracts, laevigatol B (1 from Lobophytum crassum and L. laevigatum, (24S-ergost-4-ene-3-one (2 from Sinularia dissecta, astropectenol A (3 from Astropecten polyacanthus, and cholest-8-ene-3β,5α,6β,7α-tetraol (4 from Diadema savignyi showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei with EC50 values ranging from 1.57 ± 0.14 to 14.6 ± 1.36 μM, relative to the positive control, pentamidine (EC50 = 0.015 ± 0.003 μM. Laevigatol B (1 and 5α-cholest-8(14-ene-3β,7α-diol (5 exhibited also significant inhibitory effects on T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed and found to be insignificant in all cases. This is the first report on the inhibitory effects of marine organisms collected in Vietnamese seas against Trypanosoma species responsible for neglected tropical diseases.

  11. Shared Physiological and Molecular Responses in Marine Fish and Invertebrates to Environmental Hypoxia: Potential Biomarkers of Adverse Impacts on Marine Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.; Rahman, S.

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the effects of environmental exposure to hypoxia (dissolved oxygen: invertebrates is essential for accurate predictions of its chronic impacts on marine communities. Marked disruption of reproduction and its endocrine control was observed in Atlantic croaker collected from the hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Recent research has shown that growth and its physiological upregulation is also impaired in hypoxia-exposed marine fish. Expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP), which inhibits growth, was increased in croaker livers, whereas plasma levels of IGF, the primary regulator of growth, were decreased in snapper after hypoxia exposure. In addition, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates changes in metabolism during adaptation to hypoxia, was upregulated in croaker collected from hypoxic environments. Interestingly, similar changes in the expression of IGFBP and HIF-1 have been found in marine crustaceans after hypoxia exposure, suggesting these responses to hypoxia are common to marine fish and invertebrates. Preliminary field studies indicate that hypoxia exposure also causes epigenetic modifications, including increases in global DNA methylation, and that these epigenetic changes can influence reproduction and growth in croaker. Epigenetic modifications can be passed to offspring and persist in future generations no longer exposed to an environmental stressor further aggravating its long-term adverse impacts on population abundance and delaying recovery. The growing availability of complete invertebrate genomes and high-throughput DNA sequencing indicates similar epigenetic studies can now be conducted with marine invertebrates. Collectively, the results indicate that environmental hypoxia exposure disrupts major physiological functions in fish and invertebrates critical for maintenance of their populations.

  12. Modeling of Bioaccumulation in Marine Benthic Invertebrates Using a Multispecies Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepens, Noël J; Van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2015-11-17

    The causal links between species traits and bioaccumulation by marine invertebrates are poorly understood. We assessed these links by measuring and modeling polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation by four marine benthic species. Uniformity of exposure was achieved by testing each species in the same aquarium, separated by enclosures, to ensure that the observed variability in bioaccumulation was due to species traits. The relative importance of chemical uptake from pore water or food (organic matter, OM) ingestion was manipulated by using artificial sediment with different OM contents. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranged from 5 to 318, in the order Nereis virens < Arenicola marina ≈ Macoma balthica < Corophium volutator. Calibration of a kinetic model provided species-specific parameters that represented the key species traits, thus illustrating how models provide an opportunity to read across benthic species with different feeding strategies. Key traits included species-specific differentiation between (1) ingestion rates, (2) ingestion of suspended and settled OM, and (3) elimination rates. The high BSAF values and their concomitant variability across the species challenges approaches for exposure assessment based on pore water concentration analysis and equilibrium partition theory. We propose that combining multienclosure testing and modeling will substantially improve exposure assessment in sediment toxicity tests.

  13. Adverse effects of the SSRI antidepressant sertraline on early life stages of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Canesi, Laura; Montagna, Michele; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Garaventa, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Widespread contamination of coastal environments by emerging compounds includes low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. These pollutants are not currently incorporated in monitoring programs despite their effects on non-target organisms are very little documented. Among the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) is one of the most prescribed globally. In this work, earlier life stages of Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to environmental concentrations of SRT in order to study both sub-lethal and lethal responses in 24/48 h-tests. Low concentrations of SRT altered significantly swimming behavior in A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis giving 48 h-EC50 (μg/L) of 113.88 and 282.23, respectively whereas higher values were observed for mortality and immobilization. EC50 embryotoxicity with M. galloprovincialis was 206.80 μg/L. This work add new data about SRT ecotoxicity on marine invertebrates and confirms the applicability of behavioral endpoints to evaluate the environmental impact of antidepressants in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  15. Toxicity of ammonia to three marine fish and three marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Gregory D; Starbuck, Steven M; Hudgins, Douglas B; Li, Xiayoun; Kuhn, David D

    2004-04-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests were performed to obtain more data on the toxicity of ammonia to saltwater organisms. The standards for in-stream ammonia limits in marine environments presently are based on toxicity tests involving both freshwater and saltwater organisms. Acute tests (48 and 96 h) were performed at 20 degrees C, and chronic tests (7 days) were performed at 25 degrees C. Synthetic seawater and natural seawater from the Chesapeake Bay were used and compared. Included among the organisms tested were sheepshead minnow (14 days old), summer flounder (2 months old), Atlantic silverside (14 days old), mysid shrimp (less than 2 days old), ghost shrimp (10 days old), and quahog clam (9 months old). Based on these results, it seems the chronic criterion for ammonia in marine environments could be increased from 0.035 to 0.081 mg/L un-ionized ammonia, which would, of course, increase the chronic limit for total ammonia under typical saltwater conditions by a factor of 2.31. No difference was observed in the toxicity of ammonia in natural water compared to synthetic water for both the summer flounder and Atlantic silverside. Furthermore, the Atlantic silverside became more sensitive to ammonia as the salinity was increased from 14 to 22 ppt, but exhibited no change in toxicity response from 22 to 30 ppt. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 134-142, 2004

  16. Separation and detection of plasmalogen in marine invertebrates by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Abe, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kinoshita, Mikio; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a new method for determining ethanolamine plasmalogen contents in marine invertebrates. This quantification method involves derivatization of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl) subclasses, alkenylacyl (plasmalogen), diacyl, and alkylacyl subclasses, by enzyme treatment and acetylation, followed by separation and detection by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). This method enabled complete separation of the subclasses, and the limit of detection for plasmalogen was 200 ng (260 pmol). The peak area of plasmalogen by ELSD was unaffected by the degree of unsaturated fatty acids in EtnGpl, in contrast to ultraviolet (UV) detection. Thus, this method enables accurate determination of plasmalogen contents in various species containing marine products possessing abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The method developed here was applied to marine invertebrates available in Japan. The examined marine invertebrates showed a wide range of plasmalogen contents ranging from 19 to 504 μmol/100 g wet wt. The plasmalogen levels in samples except those of class Cephalopoda and Crustacea were more than 60 mol% of EtnGpl.

  17. Bioprospecting from cultivable bacterial communities of marine sediment and invertebrates from the underexplored Ubatuba region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerina, Marcelo M P; Correa, Hebelin; Haltli, Brad; Vilegas, Wagner; Kerr, Russell G

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp fisheries along the Brazilian coast have significant environmental impact due to high by-catch rates (21 kg per kilogram of shrimp). Typically discarded, by-catch contains many invertebrates that may host a great variety of bacterial genera, some of which may produce bioactive natural products with biotechnological applications. Therefore, to utilize by-catch that is usually discarded we explored the biotechnological potential of culturable bacteria of two abundant by-catch invertebrate species, the snail Olivancillaria urceus and the sea star Luidia senegalensis. Sediment from the collection area was also investigated. Utilizing multiple isolation approaches, 134 isolates were obtained from the invertebrates and sediment. Small-subunit rRNA (16S) gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belonged to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla and were distributed among 28 genera. Several genera known for their capacity to produce bioactive natural products (Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Serinicoccus and Verrucosispora) were retrieved from the invertebrate samples. To query the bacterial isolates for their ability to produce bioactive metabolites, all strains were fermented and fermentation extracts profiled by UP LC-HRMS and tested for antimicrobial activity. Four strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus warneri.

  18. Photographic Images of Benthic Coral, Algae, and Invertebrate Species in Marine Habitats and Subhabitats around Offshore Islets in the Main Hawaiian Islands 2007 (NODC Accession 0043046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  19. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia s...

  20. Potential Indicators and Reference Points for Good Environmental Status of Commercially Exploited Marine Fishes and Invertebrates in the German EEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Froese, Rainer; Sampang, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Indicators and reference points for assessing the good environmental status of commercially exploited marine fishes and invertebrates are presented, using 20 stocks from the German exclusive economic zone. New estimates of length-weight relationship, von Bertalanffy growth, length at 50% and 90% maturity, age at 50% maturity, and length and age where cohort biomass is maximum are presented for each stock. Twice the stock size below which recruitment may become impaired (SSBpa) is proposed as ...

  1. Formation of reactive species and induction of antioxidant defence systems in polar and temperate marine invertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Doris; Puntarulo, Susana

    2004-08-01

    High oxygen solubility at cold-water temperature is frequently considered to be responsible for an apparently elevated level of antioxidant protection in marine ectotherms from polar environments. However, tissue oxidative stress is in most cases a function of elevated or variable pO2, rather than of an elevated tissue oxygen concentration. This review summarizes current knowledge on pro- and antioxidant processes in marine invertebrates and fish, and relates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in polar ectotherms to homeoviscous adaptations of membrane and storage lipids, as well as to tissue hypoxia and re-oxygenation during physiological stress.

  2. Reprint of 'Diseases in marine invertebrates associated with mariculture and commercial fisheries'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael J.; Bateman, Kelly S.

    2016-07-01

    Diseases in marine invertebrates are increasing in both frequency and intensity around the globe. Diseases in individuals which offer some commercial value are often well documented and subsequently well studied in comparison to those wild groups offering little commercial gain. This is particularly the case with those associated with mariculture or the commercial fisheries. Specifically, these include many Holothuroidea, and numerous crustacea and mollusca species. Pathogens/parasites consisting of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes from all groups have been associated with diseases from such organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Viral pathogens in particular, appear to be an increasingly important group and research into this group will likely highlight a larger number of diseases and pathogens being described in the near future. Interestingly, although there are countless examples of the spread of disease usually associated with transportation of specific infected hosts for development of aquaculture practices, this process appears to be continuing with no real sign of effective management and mitigation strategies being implicated. Notably, even in well developed countries such as the UK and the US, even though live animal trade may be well managed, the transport of frozen food appears to be less well so and as evidence suggests, even these to have the potential to transmit pathogens when used as a food source for example.

  3. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Fan, Xiao; Han, Lijun

    2005-03-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa, Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4% at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocytes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100 μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  4. Introduction to symposium: Poecilogony--a window on larval evolutionary transitions in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, K Emily; McHugh, Damhnait

    2012-07-01

    Poecilogony is the intraspecific variation in developmental mode that has been described in some marine invertebrates. Poecilogonous species produce different larval forms (e.g., free-swimming planktotrophic larvae as well as brooded lecithotrophic or adelphophagic larvae). Poecilogony can be a controversial topic, since it is difficult to identify and characterize the phenomenon with certainty. It has been challenging to determine whether poecilogony represents developmental polymorphism with a genetic basis or developmental polyphenism reflecting plastic responses to environmental cues. Other outstanding questions include whether common mechanisms underlie the developmental variation we observe in poecilogonous species, and whether poecilogony is maintained in different taxa through similar mechanisms or selective pressures. Poecilogonous species provide a unique opportunity to elucidate the cellular, developmental, and genetic mechanisms underlying evolutionary transitions in developmental mode, as well as to help clarify the selective pressures and possible ecological circumstances that might be involved. Here, we describe an integrative approach to the study of poecilogony and its role in larval evolutionary transitions highlighted during a symposium held at the 2012 annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.

  5. Cadmium accumulation and Cd-binding proteins in marine invertebrates--a radiotracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Marijana; Ruus, Anders; Ingebrigtsen, Kristian; Hylland, Ketil

    2005-12-01

    Tissue and subcellular accumulation of cadmium were studied in different tissues of three marine invertebrates (blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the tunicate Ciona intestinalis and the sea star Asterias rubens) using radioactive 109Cd as a tracer. The organisms were exposed to 0.05, 2 and 50 microg Cd l(-1) for 21 days. Quantitative data were obtained by dissecting, weighing and subsequently measuring radioactivity in organs and tissues. Differences between each exposure and each tissue with regard to the amount of radioactivity and metallothionein (MT) content were evaluated. Obvious interspecies differences in Cd accumulation were observed, as well as differences between tissues of the three species. The highest concentrations of Cd in all exposure treatments were found in the hepatopancreas of M. edulis and body wall of A. rubens. Taking all treatments into account, Cd accumulation in the tunic of C. intestinalis was high compared to other tissues from this species. Over 60% of Cd was present in the S50 fraction in all treatments in all three species. Metallothionein levels were increased at the highest Cd-exposure in all species and tissues, except in branchial pharynx of C. intestinalis where the highest MT level was reached following exposure to 2 microg Cd l(-1). The most surprising finding was that even the lowest Cd exposure concentration (0.05 microg Cd l(-1)) caused MT induction in pyloric caeca of A. rubens, but there was no dose-dependent increase in MT at higher exposure levels.

  6. Comparative metagenomics of viral assemblages inhabiting four phyla of marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Michael Gudenkauf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, killing 10-20% of oceanic biomass each day. However, despite their ecological importance, viruses inhabiting many echinoderms, cnidarians, urochordates, and marine arthropods have not been investigated with significant breadth. We conducted a broad survey of the viral assemblages inhabiting these hosts through viral metagenomics and phylogenetic analysis. Results indicate that different invertebrate groups harbor distinct viral assemblages. Interestingly, however, no significant difference is observed between the viral assemblages of echinoderms and arthropods. These similarities and differences may be due to cellular, immunological, geographical, and ecological differences amongst host phyla, although mechanistic determination is beyond the purview of this work. Additionally, we present evidence of the detection of several viral families that have not yet been observed in these hosts. Finally, we confirm the result of previous investigation that method of library construction significantly biases metagenomic results by altering the representation of of ssDNA and dsDNA viral genomes.

  7. Interspecific variation in heavy metal body concentrations in Hong Kong marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, G

    2001-01-01

    Accumulated body concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc were investigated in 19 species of intertidal invertebrates (the barnacles Tetraclita squamosa, Capitulum mitella, Balanus amphitrite, Megabalanus volcano, the bivalves Saccostrea cucullata, Septifer virgatus and Brachidontes atratus, the chiton Acanthopleura japonica and the gastropods Cellana grata, Cellana toreuma, Patelloida saccharina, Patelloida pygmaea, Siphonaria japonica, Tegula argyrostoma, Lunella coronata, Monodonta labio, Nerita albicilla, Thais clavigera and Thais luteostoma) collected from a relatively unpolluted area in Hong Kong, i.e. two shores within the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve. In general body metal concentrations could be explained by the accumulation strategy of the analysed organism and by physiological requirements for the essential metals, i.e. copper and zinc. Zinc concentrations were, therefore, greatest in the barnacles and the oyster S. cucullata. Copper concentrations were greatest in those gastropods containing the respiratory pigment haemocyanin and in S. cucullata. One species collected from the sheltered shore, i.e. T. luteostoma, had much higher copper body concentrations compared with exposed shore conspecifics and this may be attributed to a diet that was dominated by oysters, which have high copper body concentrations. In contrast to both copper and zinc, cadmium body concentrations showed little interspecific variation.

  8. Geochemistry of marine sediments of the Brazilian Northeastern continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Souza do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine sediment samples collected from the northeastern Brazilian continental shelf, at water depths between 20 and 80 m, consisted mainly of sands with an almost total absence of gravel and granules. Medium, coarse and very coarse sand grains are mostly composed of halimeda, lithothamnium, rodoliths and bioclastic sands with a carbonate content varying between 77 and 96 %. The chemistry in general shows a decreasing content of Ca (86.1 % >Si (6 % > Cl (3.6 % > Sr (0.8 % > K (0.66 % > S (0.62 % > Al (0.6 % > Na (0.55% > Mg (0.43 % > Fe (0.4 % > P (0.2 % > Br (0.04 % in the samples. There was no correlation between CaCO3 and chemical contents and grain size with depth and bio-components. With the exception of Sr of marine origin, all other elements (P, S, Br, Cl, Fe are of continental origin. The lithothamnium of some offshore samples shows higher CaCO3 content, while Mg and Na are present only in halimedas. Bioclastic sands contain no Br, and silt and clay fractions are rare and characterize samples closer to the coast. These marine bioclastic granulates are of very pure biogenic calcium carbonates and are thus highly to be recommended for economic purposes.Os granulados marinhos, da Plataforma Continental do nordeste brasileiro, coletados de profundidades entre 20 e 80 m, são predominantemente areias cascalhosas constituídas de halimedas, litotames, rodolitos e areias bioclásticas, cujos teores de carbonatos variam de 77 a 96 %. A concentração média geral de elementos químicos na ordem decrescente é Ca (86.1 % > Si (6 % > Cl (3.6 % > Sr (0.8 % > K (0.66 % > S (0.62 % > Al (0.6 % > Na (0.55 % > Mg (0.43 % > Fe (0.4 % > P (0.2 % > Br (0,04 %, independentemente da profundidade e tipo de bio-componente. Com exceção do Sr, que é de origem marinha, os demais elementos (P, S, Br, Cl, Fe são de origem continental. Elementos como Mg e Na foram restritos às halimedas em apenas duas amostras, enquanto Br não foi detectado nas areias

  9. Plasticity of hatching and the duration of planktonic development in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Strathmann, Richard R

    2011-07-01

    Plasticity in hatching potentially adjusts risks of benthic and planktonic development for benthic marine invertebrates. The proportionate effect of hatching plasticity on duration of larval swimming is greatest for animals that can potentially brood or encapsulate offspring until hatching near metamorphic competence. As an example, early hatching of the nudibranch mollusk Phestilla sibogae is stimulated by scattering of encapsulated offspring, as by a predator feeding on the gelatinous egg ribbon. When egg ribbons are undisturbed, hatching is at or near metamorphic competence. Disturbance of an unguarded benthic egg mass can insert 4 or more days of obligate larval dispersal into the life history. As another example, the spionid annelid Boccardia proboscidea broods capsules, each with both cannibalistic and developmentally arrested planktivorous siblings plus nurse eggs. Early hatching produces mainly planktivorous larvae with a planktonic duration of 15 days. Late hatching produces mainly adelphophages who have eaten their planktivorous siblings and metamorphose with little or no period of swimming. Mothers actively hatch their offspring by tearing the capsules, and appeared to time hatching in response to their environment and not to the stage of development of their offspring. Higher temperature increased the variance of brooding time. Females appeared to hatch capsules at an earlier developmental stage at lower temperatures. Species that release gametes or zygotes directly into the plankton have less scope for plasticity in stage at hatching. Their embryos develop singly with little protection and hatch at early stages, often as blastulae or gastrulae. Time of hatching cannot be greatly advanced, and sensory capabilities of blastulae may be limited.

  10. Biodiversity in marine invertebrate responses to acute warming revealed by a comparative multi-omics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Sommer, Ulf; Sihra, Jaspreet K; Thorne, Michael A S; Morley, Simon A; King, Michelle; Viant, Mark R; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-01-01

    Understanding species' responses to environmental change underpins our abilities to make predictions on future biodiversity under any range of scenarios. In spite of the huge biodiversity in most ecosystems, a model species approach is often taken in environmental studies. To date, we still do not know how many species we need to study to input into models and inform on ecosystem-level responses to change. In this study, we tested current paradigms on factors setting thermal limits by investigating the acute warming response of six Antarctic marine invertebrates: a crustacean Paraceradocus miersi, a brachiopod Liothyrella uva, two bivalve molluscs, Laternula elliptica, Aequiyoldia eightsii, a gastropod mollusc Marseniopsis mollis and an echinoderm Cucumaria georgiana. Each species was warmed at the rate of 1 °C h(-1) and taken to the same physiological end point (just prior to heat coma). Their molecular responses were evaluated using complementary metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches with the aim of discovering the underlying mechanisms of their resilience or sensitivity to warming. The responses were species-specific; only two showed accumulation of anaerobic end products and three exhibited the classical heat shock response with expression of HSP70 transcripts. These diverse cellular measures did not directly correlate with resilience to heat stress and suggested that each species may have a different critical point of failure. Thus, one unifying molecular mechanism underpinning response to warming could not be assigned, and no overarching paradigm was supported. This biodiversity in response makes future ecosystems predictions extremely challenging, as we clearly need to develop a macrophysiology-type approach to cellular evaluations of the environmental stress response, studying a range of well-rationalized members from different community levels and of different phylogenetic origins rather than extrapolating from one or two arbitrary model species

  11. Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Symbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about the associations during larval development of animal hosts, although four different metazoan phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Acoelomorpha, and Mollusca produce larvae associated with Symbiodinium. These phyla represent considerable diversities in larval forms, manner of symbiont acquisition, and requirements on the presence of symbionts for successful metamorphosis. Importantly, the different requirements are conveyed by specific symbiont types that are selected by the host animal larvae. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether these associations during larval stages already represent mutualistic interactions, as evident from the relationship of Symbiodinium with their adult animal hosts. For instance, molecular studies suggest that the host larval transcriptome is nearly unaltered after symbiont acquisition. Even so, a symbiosis-specific gene has been identified in Symbiodinium that is expressed in larval host stages, and similar genes are currently being described for host organisms. However, some reports suggest that the metabolic exchange between host larvae and Symbiodinium may not cover the energetic requirements of the host. Here, we review current studies to summarize what is known about the association between metazoan larvae and Symbiodinium. In particular, our aim was to gather in how far the mutualistic relationship present between adult animals hosts and Symbiodinium is already laid out at the time of symbiont acquisition by host larvae. We conclude that the mutualistic relationship between animal hosts and algal symbionts in many cases is not set up during larval development. Furthermore, symbiont identity may influence whether a mutualism can be established during host larval stages.

  12. Low global sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature in calcified marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Morley, Simon A; Bates, Amanda E; Clark, Melody S; Day, Robert W; Lamare, Miles; Martin, Stephanie M; Southgate, Paul C; Tan, Koh Siang; Tyler, Paul A; Peck, Lloyd S

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a key component of energy budgets that scales with body size and varies with large-scale environmental geographical patterns. Here we conduct an analysis of standard metabolic rates (SMR) of marine ectotherms across a 70° latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres that spanned collection temperatures of 0-30 °C. To account for latitudinal differences in the size and skeletal composition between species, SMR was mass normalized to that of a standard-sized (223 mg) ash-free dry mass individual. SMR was measured for 17 species of calcified invertebrates (bivalves, gastropods, urchins and brachiopods), using a single consistent methodology, including 11 species whose SMR was described for the first time. SMR of 15 out of 17 species had a mass-scaling exponent between 2/3 and 1, with no greater support for a 3/4 rather than a 2/3 scaling exponent. After accounting for taxonomy and variability in parameter estimates among species using variance-weighted linear mixed effects modelling, temperature sensitivity of SMR had an activation energy (Ea) of 0.16 for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere species which was lower than predicted under the metabolic theory of ecology (Ea 0.2-1.2 eV). Northern Hemisphere species, however, had a higher SMR at each habitat temperature, but a lower mass-scaling exponent relative to SMR. Evolutionary trade-offs that may be driving differences in metabolic rate (such as metabolic cold adaptation of Northern Hemisphere species) will have important impacts on species abilities to respond to changing environments.

  13. Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?

    KAUST Repository

    Mies, Miguel

    2017-05-30

    Symbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about the associations during larval development of animal hosts, although four different metazoan phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Acoelomorpha, and Mollusca) produce larvae associated with Symbiodinium. These phyla represent considerable diversities in larval forms, manner of symbiont acquisition, and requirements on the presence of symbionts for successful metamorphosis. Importantly, the different requirements are conveyed by specific symbiont types that are selected by the host animal larvae. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether these associations during larval stages already represent mutualistic interactions, as evident from the relationship of Symbiodinium with their adult animal hosts. For instance, molecular studies suggest that the host larval transcriptome is nearly unaltered after symbiont acquisition. Even so, a symbiosis-specific gene has been identified in Symbiodinium that is expressed in larval host stages, and similar genes are currently being described for host organisms. However, some reports suggest that the metabolic exchange between host larvae and Symbiodinium may not cover the energetic requirements of the host. Here, we review current studies to summarize what is known about the association between metazoan larvae and Symbiodinium. In particular, our aim was to gather in how far the mutualistic relationship present between adult animals hosts and Symbiodinium is already laid out at the time of symbiont acquisition by host larvae. We conclude that the mutualistic relationship between animal hosts and algal symbionts in many cases is not set up during larval development. Furthermore, symbiont identity may influence whether a mutualism can be established during host larval stages.

  14. Accumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from two contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: a laboratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S.; McLeese, D.W.; Peterson, M.R.

    1981-03-01

    Animals from areas with contaminated sediments have been shown in some cases to contain high levels of trace metals. In other cases, the tissue levels of contaminants were relatively constant regardless of the metal contents of the sediments. The availability of sediment-bound metals to bottom-dwelling organisms has been the subject of a few studies. This study describes the uptake of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead from natural, highly contaminated sediments by three marine invertebrates: Nereis virens, Macoma balthica and Crangon septemspinosa.

  15. Free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile Invertebrados bentónicos marinos de vida libre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW R LEE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the species richness of all the possible taxa of free-living benthic marine invertebrates in Chile. In addition, the extent of endemism to the Pacific Islands and deep-sea, the number of non-indigenous species, and the contribution that the Chilean benthic marine invertebrate fauna makes to the world benthic marine invertebrate fauna was examined. A total of 4,553 species were found. The most speciose taxa were the Crustacea, Mollusca and Polychaeta. Species richness data was not available for a number of taxa, despite evidence that these taxa are present in the Chilean benthos. The Chilean marine invertebrate benthic fauna constitutes 2.47 % of the world marine invertebrate benthic fauna. There are 599 species endemic to the Pacific Islands and 205 in the deep-sea. There are 25 invasive or non-indigenous species so far identified in Chile. Though the Chilean fauna is speciose there is still a considerable amount of diversity yet to be described, particularly amongst the small bodied invertebrates and from the less well explored habitats, such as the deep-seaSe realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura para determinar la riqueza de especies de todos los taxa de invertebrados bentónicos de vida libre en Chile. Además, se analizó el endemismo de invertebrados marinos bentónicos para las islas chilenas del Pacífico y el mar profundo y el número de especies no indígenas; del mismo modo que la contribución de estos invertebrados a la riqueza mundial de invertebrados bentónicos marinos. Para Chile se acumuló un total de 4.553 especies de invertebrados bentónicos. Los taxa con más especies fueron Crustacea, Mollusca y Polychaeta. En algunos taxa de invertebrados no se encontró información sobre la diversidad de especies presentes en Chile, a pesar de existir evidencia de que éstos están presentes en el bentos marino chileno. Los invertebrados bentónicos marinos

  16. Marine invertebrate pathology and other data from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 1976-08-24 to 1976-10-13 (NODC Accession 7700664)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine invertebrate pathology and other data were collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)...

  17. Novel circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in marine invertebrates reveal high sequence diversity and consistent predicted intrinsic disorder patterns within putative structural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Schenck, Ryan O; Harbeitner, Rachel C; Lawler, Stephanie N; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep) in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap) encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses.

  18. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E G; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-03-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants.

  19. Copper toxicity to larval stages of three marine invertebrates and copper complexation capacity in San Diego Bay, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio; Rosen, Gunther; Lapota, David; Chadwick, David B; Kear-Padilla, Lora; Zirino, Alberto

    2005-03-15

    Temporal and spatial measurements of the toxicity (EC50), chemical speciation, and complexation capacity (Cu-CC) of copper in waters from San Diego Bay suggest control of the Cu-CC over copper bioavailability. While spatial distributions of total copper (CuT) indicate an increase in concentration from the mouth toward the head of San Diego Bay, the distribution of aqueous free copper ion (Cu(II)aq) shows the opposite trend. This suggests that the bioavailability of copper to organisms decreases toward the head of the bay, and is corroborated by the increase in the amount of copper needed to reach an EC50, observed for larval stages of three marine invertebrates (Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sand dollar, Dendraster excentricus, and purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and by the increase in Cu-CC heading into the head of the bay. The amount of Cu(II)aq required to produce a 50% reduction in normal larval development (referred to here as pCuTox,) of the mussel, the most sensitive of the three marine invertebrates, was generally at or above approximately 1 x 10(-11) mol L(-1) equivalents of Cu (i.e., pCuTox approximately 11 = -(log [Cu(II)aq])). These results suggest that the copper complexation capacity in San Diego Bay controls copper toxicity by keeping the concentration of Cu(II)aq at nontoxic levels.

  20. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants. PMID:15270076

  1. Okadaic Acid Meet and Greet: An Insight into Detection Methods, Response Strategies and Genotoxic Effects in Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Méndez, Josefina; Eirín-López, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) constitute one of the most important sources of contamination in the oceans, producing high concentrations of potentially harmful biotoxins that are accumulated across the food chains. One such biotoxin, Okadaic Acid (OA), is produced by marine dinoflagellates and subsequently accumulated within the tissues of filtering marine organisms feeding on HABs, rapidly spreading to their predators in the food chain and eventually reaching human consumers causing Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) syndrome. While numerous studies have thoroughly evaluated the effects of OA in mammals, the attention drawn to marine organisms in this regard has been scarce, even though they constitute primary targets for this biotoxin. With this in mind, the present work aimed to provide a timely and comprehensive insight into the current literature on the effect of OA in marine invertebrates, along with the strategies developed by these organisms to respond to its toxic effect together with the most important methods and techniques used for OA detection and evaluation. PMID:23939476

  2. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  3. The use of enzymatic biomarkers in two marine invertebrates Nereis diversicolor and Patella vulgata for the biomonitoring of Tangier's bay (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhri, Hikmat; Sayah, Fouad

    2009-02-01

    The fast increase of anthropogenic activities has led to a continual influx of xenobiotics into the marine ecosystems. Quantifying biochemical parameters in marine invertebrates makes possible the evaluation of pollutants' damaging effect. In fact, to examine the health state of Tangier's bay, we focused on the study of catalase, esterase, acetylcholinesterase and alpha-amylase activities as biomarkers in two species of marine invertebrates Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) and Patella vulgata (Mollusca, Prosobranchia), collected from different sites along the Mediterranean coastline of Tangier. Our results showed that these biochemical parameters are disturbed following the level of decreasing environmental quality, and for this reason they are promising in the biomonitoring studies of the Moroccan marine environment.

  4. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  5. Molecular Techniques Revealed Highly Diverse Microbial Communities in Natural Marine Biofilms on Polystyrene Dishes for Invertebrate Larval Settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, On On

    2014-01-09

    Biofilm microbial communities play an important role in the larval settlement response of marine invertebrates. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be resolved, mainly because of the uncertainties in characterizing members in the communities using traditional 16S rRNA gene-based molecular methods and in identifying the chemical signals involved. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to characterize the bacterial communities in intertidal and subtidal marine biofilms developed during two seasons. We revealed highly diverse biofilm bacterial communities that varied with season and tidal level. Over 3,000 operational taxonomic units with estimates of up to 8,000 species were recovered in a biofilm sample, which is by far the highest number recorded in subtropical marine biofilms. Nineteen phyla were found, of which Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant one in the intertidal and subtidal biofilms, respectively. Apart from these, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes were the major groups recovered in both intertidal and subtidal biofilms, although their relative abundance varied among samples. Full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed for the four biofilm samples and showed similar bacterial compositions at the phylum level to those revealed by pyrosequencing. Laboratory assays confirmed that cyrids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite preferred to settle on the intertidal rather than subtidal biofilms. This preference was independent of the biofilm bacterial density or biomass but was probably related to the biofilm community structure, particularly, the Proteobacterial and Cyanobacterial groups. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  6. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins in aquatic invertebrates: Evolutionary significance and application in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-04-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is known to play a fundamental role in biological processes and is highly conserved across animal taxa. The ABC proteins function as active transporters for multiple substrates across the cellular membrane by ATP hydrolysis. As this superfamily is derived from a common ancestor, ABC genes have evolved via lineage-specific duplications through the process of adaptation. In this review, we summarized information about the ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates, considering their evolution and putative functions in defense mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted to examine the evolutionary significance of ABC gene families in aquatic invertebrates. Particularly, a massive expansion of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR)-mediated efflux transporters was identified in the absence of the ABCG2 (BCRP) gene in Ecdysozoa and Platyzoa, suggesting that a loss of Abcg2 gene occurred sporadically in these species during divergence of Protostome to Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, in aquatic invertebrates, the ecotoxicological significance of MXR is discussed while considering the role of MXR-mediated efflux transporters in response to various environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global change ecotoxicology: Identification of early life history bottlenecks in marine invertebrates, variable species responses and variable experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine biota because increased atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean warming, acidification, hypercapnia and decreased carbonate saturation. These stressors have toxic effects on invertebrate development. The persistence and success of populations requires all ontogenetic stages be completed successfully and, due to their sensitivity to environmental stressors, developmental stages may be a population bottleneck in a changing ocean. Global change ecotoxicology is being used to identify the marine invertebrate developmental stages vulnerable to climate change. This overview of research, and the methodologies used, shows that most studies focus on acidification, with few studies on ocean warming, despite a long history of research on developmental thermotolerance. The interactive effects of stressors are poorly studied. Experimental approaches differ among studies. Fertilization in many species exhibits a broad tolerance to warming and/or acidification, although different methodologies confound inter-study comparisons. Early development is susceptible to warming and most calcifying larvae are sensitive to acidification/increased pCO₂. In multistressor studies moderate warming diminishes the negative impact of acidification on calcification in some species. Development of non-calcifying larvae appears resilient to near-future ocean change. Although differences in species sensitivities to ocean change stressors undoubtedly reflect different tolerance levels, inconsistent handling of gametes, embryos and larvae probably influences different research outcomes. Due to the integrative 'developmental domino effect', life history responses will be influenced by the ontogenetic stage at which experimental incubations are initiated. Exposure to climate change stressors from early development (fertilization where possible) in multistressor experiments is needed to identify ontogenetic sensitivities and this will be facilitated by more consistent

  8. Distribution of benthic marine invertebrates at northern latitudes ― An evaluation applying multi-algorithm species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Karin; Fiorentino, Dario; Schnurr, Sarah; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro; Huettmann, Falk; Holst, Sabine; Brix, Saskia; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-01-01

    Different techniques of species distribution modeling were applied to evaluate the distribution of eight benthic marine species in Icelandic waters. The species examined were Symplectoscyphus tricuspidatus, Stegopoma plicatile (both Hydrozoa), Prionospio cirrifera, Amphicteis gunneri (both Polychaeta), Desmosoma strombergi, Eurycope producta (both Isopoda), Andaniella pectinata and Harpinia crenulata (both Amphipoda). Information on 13 environmental variables (temperature mean, temperature mean SD, temperature minimum, temperature maximum, salinity mean, salinity mean SD, oxygen content, particulate organic carbon, seasonal variation index, bottom roughness, sediment thickness, acidification) and records of occurrences of these eight species was collated in an ArcGIS project. Modeling methods applied were MARS, TreeNet, and MaxENT. According to area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) model assessment values, models with moderate to outstanding discriminatory power were found for all species. There was a good overlap in the overall pattern of prediction for most species independent on the modeling technique. Among the three applied techniques MARS seemed to generalize most whereas TreeNet predictions very precisely reflected information from the training data set. The distribution of the selected benthic invertebrate species in Icelandic waters could be linked to a variety of environmental factors related to oceanography, seabed topography and human impact. Their multivariate interactions acted as a structuring force of species distribution, instead of just their one by one individual influence. The selected predictors varied between the different models for the same species. They substituted each other in different models. The expected distribution of the examined species was mapped for a seascape of known environmental settings. Such maps will serve as excellent references in future impact studies and enable the detection of changes in the distribution of

  9. Marine debris in a World Heritage Listed Brazilian estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Spach, Henry L; Cattani, André P; Lamour, Marcelo R; Santos, Lilyane O; Cordeiro, Nathalie M A; Broadhurst, Matt K

    2015-02-28

    Using monthly otter-trawl deployments, spatial and temporal variability among the relative densities of marine debris were assessed in the Paranaguá estuarine complex; a subtropical World Heritage Listed area in southern Brazil. During 432 deployments over 12 months, 291 marine debris items were identified; of which most (92%) were plastic, and more specifically shopping bags, food packages, candy wrappers and cups typically >21 mm long. The most contaminated sectors were those closest to Paranaguá city and the adjacent port, and had up to 23.37±3.22 pieces ha(-1). Less urbanized sectors had between 12.84±1.49 and 9.32±1.10 pieces ha(-1). Contamination did not vary between dry or wet seasons, but rather was probably affected by consistent urban disposal and localized hydrological processes. Marine debris might be minimized by using more environment friendly materials, however a concrete solution requires adequately integrating local government and civil society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioaccumulation of arsenic in marine fish and invertebrates from Alaska and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Ernest, Don W; Kagley, Anna

    2004-08-01

    Past studies determined that concentrations of arsenic in the liver of flathead sole from Alaska were generally higher than those found in fish from other locations sampled along the west coast of the United States (Meador et al. 1994). A study was conducted to examine arsenic concentrations and patterns of bioaccumulation in fish and potential prey species from two geographic locations. Flathead sole were collected from four sites in the Gulf of Alaska and white croaker and English sole were collected from five sites in California. Potential prey species from each site were also examined and found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. In California, the sites with the lowest sediment concentrations of arsenic, total organic carbon, and acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) contained invertebrates with the highest tissue concentrations. Regression analysis determined that arsenic in polychaetes was highly correlated to sediment concentrations of arsenic normalized to AVS but was higher overall for the California samples. Even though invertebrates from several of the California sites exhibited much higher concentrations of arsenic than invertebrates from the Alaska sites, liver and muscle tissue from flathead sole collected in Alaska usually exhibited higher concentrations than fish from the California sites. When concentrations of arsenic in fish liver were plotted against concentrations of arsenic in sediment normalized to AVS levels, a very high correlation was obtained for all sites. This suggests that AVS, or some factor correlated with AVS, may have been responsible for controlling arsenic bioaccumulation in these fish species through dietary uptake and exposure to arsenic in water. Based on the available data, it appears that dietary uptake may be related to fish tissue concentrations, but uptake of aqueous arsenic may be responsible for the higher tissue concentrations in fish from Alaska.

  11. Marine debris ingestion by sea turtles (Testudines) on the Brazilian coast: an underestimated threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; Lacerda, Pedro Dutra; da Silva Mendes, Sarah; Barbosa, Bruno Corrêa; Paschoalini, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-12-30

    Assessment of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles is important, especially to ensure their survival. From January to December 2011, 23 specimens of five species of sea turtles were found dead or dying after being rehabilitated, along the coast of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To detect the presence of marine debris in the digestive tract of these turtles, we conducted a postmortem examination from the esophagus until the distal portion of the large intestine for each specimen. Of the total number of turtles, 39% had ingested marine debris such as soft plastic, hard plastic, metal, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle caps, human hair, tampons, and latex condoms. Five of the seven sea turtles species are found along the Brazilian coast, where they feed and breed. A large number of animals are exposed to various kinds of threats, including debris ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using CTD casts and other instruments from SEA TRANSPORTER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-20 to 1979-01-15 (NODC Accession 8000022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using CTD, net casts, and other instruments...

  13. To brood or not to brood: Are marine invertebrates that protect their offspring more resilient to ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Noelle Marie; Lombardi, Chiara; Demarchi, Lucia; Schulze, Anja; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Calosi, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed by seawater resulting in increasingly acidic oceans, a process known as ocean acidification (OA). OA is thought to have largely deleterious effects on marine invertebrates, primarily impacting early life stages and consequently, their recruitment and species’ survival. Most research in this field has been limited to short-term, single-species and single-life stage studies, making it difficult to determine which taxa will be evolutionarily successful under OA conditions. We circumvent these limitations by relating the dominance and distribution of the known polychaete worm species living in a naturally acidic seawater vent system to their life history strategies. These data are coupled with breeding experiments, showing all dominant species in this natural system exhibit parental care. Our results provide evidence supporting the idea that long-term survival of marine species in acidic conditions is related to life history strategies where eggs are kept in protected maternal environments (brooders) or where larvae have no free swimming phases (direct developers). Our findings are the first to formally validate the hypothesis that species with life history strategies linked to parental care are more protected in an acidifying ocean compared to their relatives employing broadcast spawning and pelagic larval development.

  14. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-10-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different

  15. Patterns and processes in abundance-body size relationships for marine benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; White, Piran C L; Spencer, Matthew; Raffaelli, Dave

    2012-03-01

    1. The nature of abundance-body size relationships in animal communities, and especially the drivers behind the observed patterns, have been a focus of persistent debate in animal ecology. In a recent review, Allen et al. (2006) categorized five mechanistic explanations behind the commonly observed polymodality in these relationships: energetic constraints; phylogenetic constraints; biogeographical determinants; habitat structure; and community interactions. Progress in understanding of these patterns and the processes underlying them have been hindered by the use of a range of methods that differ in their validity and robustness. 2. Here, we used data on invertebrate body sizes from a variety of sandy beaches in the UK to test the hypothesis that these communities display modality in their abundance-body size relationships. We quantified modality in the relationships using kernel density estimation and smoothed bootstrap resampling and then evaluated the competing explanations for this modality based on the patterns identified in conjunction with measurements of the physical beach environment. 3. We found bimodal distributions in the body size spectrum for benthic invertebrates at nine of 16 sites. There was a consistent trough in the spectrum at around 0·5-1 mm diameter, which reflected the traditional split between meiofauna and macrofauna. Beaches with finer particle sizes and more heterogeneous macrofauna hosted communities with more than two modes. 4. Our results suggest that modality in sandy beach benthic communities is unlikely to be explained by any single hypothesis. There will be an interplay between physical and biological factors, with different explanations accounting for modality at different scales. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  16. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marine snow increases the adverse effects of oil on benthic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenennaam, Van Justine S.; Rahsepar, Shokouh; Radović, Jagoš R.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Wonink, Jessica; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2018-01-01

    After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a MOSSFA (Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation) event took place, transporting an estimated 14% of total released oil to the sediment, and smothering parts of the benthic ecosystem. This microcosm study describes the effects of oiled

  18. Effects of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, and Chemical Properties on Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation from Marine Sediments in Two Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, H; Jackman, P; Dangerfield, N D; Ross, P S

    2017-08-01

    Shellfish and sediment invertebrates have been widely used to assess pollution trends over space and time in coastal environments around the world. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of different test species over a range of sediment-contaminant concentrations and profiles. The bioavailability of sediment-related contaminants was evaluated using sediments collected from sites (n = 12) throughout the Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Two benthic marine invertebrates-the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata-were exposed for 28 days in a controlled environment to these field-collected coastal sediments. The congener-specific uptake of legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and emergent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in sediments and in invertebrates after the experimental exposure. The polychaete Neanthes accumulated lower concentrations of PCBs but higher concentrations of PBDEs. The present study indicates that differences in bioaccumulation between these two invertebrates shape the accumulation of PCB and PBDE congeners, reflect differences in feeding strategies, and reveal the physicochemical properties of the contaminants and sediment properties. Because biota-sediment accumulation factor values are often calculated for environmental monitoring or site-specific impact assessments, our results provide insight into potentially confounding factors and the need for caution when selecting indicator species for coastal marine pollution.

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across American Samoa from 2012 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2010 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  3. Photographic images of benthic coral, algae and invertebrate species in marine habitats and subhabitats around offshore islets in the main Hawaiian Islands, April 2 - September 20, 2007 (NODC Accession 0043046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  4. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  5. Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management. Marine Pollution Bulletin (In press) Colwell RR (1996) Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science 274: 2025- 2031 Conway DVP, White RG, Hugues-Dit-Ciles J... that threaten naturally evolved biodiversity, the consequences of which are increasingly being realized (Anil et al. 2002). The unintentional introduction of disease causing pathogenic bacteria, which are transported from the place of origin or formed during...

  6. Screening for microplastics in sediment, water, marine invertebrates and fish: Method development and microplastic accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Therese M; Vethaak, A Dick; Almroth, Bethanie Carney; Ariese, Freek; van Velzen, Martin; Hassellöv, Martin; Leslie, Heather A

    2017-09-15

    Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on density separation was developed. For analysis of microplastics in biota we found that an adapted enzymatic digestion protocol using proteinase K performed best, with a 97% recovery of spiked plastic particles and no observed degradation effects on the plastics in subsequent Raman analysis. Field analysis revealed that 8 of 9 tested invertebrate species from the North Sea and 68% of analyzed individuals of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Swedish West Coast had microplastics in them. Based on the number of plastic particles per kg d.w. the microplastic concentrations found in mussels were approximately a thousand-fold higher compared to those in sediment and surface water samples from the same location. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Saxena, Rohit; Ghose, Supriyo; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India. Methods Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups. Results In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursa crumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization. Conclusions The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:25183067

  8. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Saxena, Rohit; Ghose, Supriyo; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India. Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups. In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursa crumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization. The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  9. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayun Mehrabani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g., Antarctic anchor ice, or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g., plants, intertidal begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We examined sub-polar marine organisms to develop sample textures and screened them for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods for comparison to data for Antarctic organisms. The sub-polar organisms tested were all found to form ice readily. We also screened artificial 3-D printed samples using the same previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. Despite limitations inherent to our techniques, it appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe feature (corresponding to patterning found on valves of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, or on the spines of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri slowed ice formation an average of 25% compared to a grid feature (corresponding to patterning found on sub-polar butterclams, Saxidomas nuttalli. The geometric dimensions of the features have only a small (∼6% effect on ice formation. Surface texture affects ice formation, but does not explain by itself the large variation in ice formation and species-specific ice resistance observed in other work. This suggests future examination of other factors, such as material elastic properties and surface coatings, and their

  10. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrabani, Homayun; Tse, Kyle; Evangelista, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g. Antarctic anchor ice), or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g. plants, intertidal) begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We screened biological and artifical samples for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. It appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe featur...

  11. Survival, growth and reproduction of cryopreserved larvae from a marine invertebrate, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Suquet

    Full Text Available This study is the first demonstration of successful post-thawing development to reproduction stage of diploid cryopreserved larvae in an aquatic invertebrate. Survival, growth and reproductive performances were studied in juvenile and adult Pacific oysters grown from cryopreserved embryos. Cryopreservation was performed at three early stages: trochophore (13±2 hours post fertilization: hpf, early D-larvae (24±2 hpf and late D-larvae (43±2 hpf. From the beginning (88 days at the end of the ongrowing phase (195 days, no mortality was recorded and mean body weights did not differ between the thawed oysters and the control. At the end of the growing-out phase (982 days, survival of the oysters cryopreserved at 13±2 hpf and at 43±2 hpf was significantly higher (P<0.001 than those of the control (non cryopreserved larvae. Only the batches cryopreserved at 24±2 hpf showed lower survival than the control. Reproductive integrity of the mature oysters, formely cryopreserved at 13±2 hpf and 24±2 hpf, was estimated by the sperm movement and the larval development of their offspring in 13 crosses gamete pools (five males and five females in each pool. In all but two crosses out of 13 tested (P<0.001, development rates of the offspring were not significantly different between frozen and unfrozen parents. In all, the growth and reproductive performances of oysters formerly cryopreserved at larval stages are close to those of controls. Furthermore, these performances did not differ between the three initial larval stages of cryopreservation. The utility of larvae cryopreservation is discussed and compared with the cryopreservation of gametes as a technique for selection programs and shellfish cryobanking.

  12. Organization and operation of the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate export fishery in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S LeGore

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This fishery was examined utilizing public records,stakeholder interviews,and operational site visits to describe the fishery for the Puerto Rico Coral Reef Advisory Committee as a first step toward development of policies for the effective management of these natural resources.The fishery is not large,including fewer than 20 licensed fishers operating primarily on the west end of the island.Only three operators export product,with the remaining fishers providing specimens to the exporters based upon customer orders.Most collection of coral reef species occurs over hard rubble zones mixed with relic reef structures and rock,or on the sides and frontal areas of active reefs.Other species are collected from among mangrove prop root zones,tidal flats,and seagrass beds.Collections are made using simple barrier and dip nets for fish and motile invertebrates such as shrimp. Invertebrates such as crabs,starfish,and sea cucumbers are commonly collected by overturning small rocks, gathering the specimens,and then replacing the rocks in their original positions.Specimens are carried to the boat and transferred to individual cup holders to maximize survival.Although statements concerning former use of chemicals to assist capture were noted,no evidence of current chemical use was observed.Specimens are held in re-circulating seawater systems onshore until collections are aggregated and shipped.The fishery strives to operate with mortality of 3%are described as unacceptable to customers.More than 100 fish species are collected in this fishery,but the top ten species account for >70%of the total numbers and >60% of the total value of the fishery,with a single species,Gramma loreto (Royal Gramma,comprising >40%of the numbers. More than 100 species of invertebrates are collected,but this fishery is also dominated by a handful of species,including anemones,hermit crabs,turbo snails,serpent starfish,and feather duster polychaetes.Se estudió la pesquería de

  13. Sensors for isolation of anti-cancer compounds found within marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Gordon; LaRue, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Highly evolved bacteria living within immobile marine animals are being targeted as a source of antitumor pharmaceuticals. This paper describes 2 electo-optical sensor systems developed for identifying species of tunicates and actinobacteria that live within them. Two stages of identification include 1) a benthic survey apparatus to locate species and 2) a laboratory housed cell analysis platform used to classify their bacterial micro-biome. Marine Optics Sampling- There are over 3000 species of Tunicates that thrive in diverse habitats. We use a system of cameras, GPS and the GPS/photo integration application on a PC laptop to compile a time / location stamp for each image taken during the dive survey. A shape-map of x/y coordinates of photos are stored for later identification and sampling. Flow Cytometers/cell sorters housed at The Medical University of South Carolina and The University of Maryland have been modified to produce low-noise, high signal wave forms used for bacteria analysis. We strive to describe salient contrasts between these two fundamentally different sensor systems. Accents are placed on analog transducers and initial step sensing systems and output.

  14. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades--where and what are we bioprospecting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Costa Leal

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990-2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively. Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no

  15. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  16. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades--where and what are we bioprospecting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990-2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  17. Offshore expansion of the Brazilian coastal upwelling zones during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Douglas V. O.; Santos, Thiago P.; Venancio, Igor M.; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2017-11-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions in upwelling regions can provide relevant information about changes in primary productivity, ocean-atmosphere interactions and the carbon budget. Here, we assessed new data on planktonic foraminifera from a sediment core located near to coastal upwelling zones along the Brazilian coast. Our new data was combined with previous records to reveal the state of upwelling systems along the western South Atlantic margin throughout the last two deglacial and interglacial periods sensu lato. Despite the contemporary oligotrophic scenario of the Santos Basin, a remarkably high relative abundance of Globigerina bulloides and low temperatures at a depth of 100 m indicated upwelling conditions similar to current shelf upwelling zones from 130 to 90 kyr BP. Comparing these results with previous studies, we argue that Brazilian shelf upwelling zones expanded offshore between 20 and 28°S. We develop two conceptual scenarios to characterize the system: (1) during Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS 5), the system expanded along the continental margin between 20 and 28°S following the eccentricity maximum; and (2) after 20 kyr BP, the system retracted to current continental shelf zones. We propose a new mechanism whereby variation of the Earth's eccentricity, which drives seasonality, is the main factor controlling expansion or retraction of the Brazilian upwelling system. Absence of such conditions in more recent periods supports our model and indicates that current upwelling zones are the remnants of a larger upwelling system. However, more studies are required to better define the latitudinal boundaries of the Brazilian upwelling system in the past and its possible influences over the regional carbon budget.

  18. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  19. Barcodes of marine invertebrates from north Iberian ports: Native diversity and resistance to biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, L; Ardura, A; Arias, A; Borrell, Y J; Clusa, L; Dopico, E; de Rojas, A Hernandez; Lopez, B; Muñoz-Colmenero, M; Roca, A; Valiente, A G; Zaiko, A; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-11-15

    Ports are gateways for many marine organisms transported by ships worldwide, especially non-indigenous species (NIS). In this study carried out in North Iberian ports (Cantabrian Sea, Bay of Biscay) we have observed 38% of exotic macroinvertebrates. Four species, namely the barnacle Austrominius modestus, the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis, exhibited clear signs of invasiveness. A total of 671 barcode (cytochrome oxidase subunit I or 18S rRNA) genes were obtained and confirmed the species status of some cryptic NIS. Negative and significant correlation between diversity estimators of native biota and proportion of NIS suggests biotic resistance in ports. This could be applied to management of port biota for contributing to prevent the settlement of biopollutants in these areas which are very sensitive to biological invasions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  1. Bacterias marinas productoras de compuestos antibacterianos aisladas a partir de invertebrados intermareales Marine bacteria producing antibacterial compounds Isolated from inter-tidal invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó actividades prospectivas de muestreo de invertebrados intermareales en la Bahía de Ancón (Lima - Perú con el objetivo de seleccionar bacterias marinas productoras de sustancias antimicrobianas. El estudio comprendió el aislamiento de bacterias en agar marino, pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro y observaciones de microscopía electrónica. Se reporta el aislamiento, caracterización fenotípica y propiedades antimicrobianas de diez cepas de bacterias marinas que incluyen a los géneros Vibrio, Pseudomonas y Flavobacterium y del orden Actinomycetal que inhiben a patógenos de humanos. Los resultados indicarían que los invertebrados marinos serían fuentes de bacterias productoras de sustancias antibióticas.Prospective sampling activities of intertidal invertebrates in the Ancon Bay (Lima, Peru were done in order to select marine bacteria producing antimicrobial substances. The study included the isolation of bacteria in marine agar, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and electronic microscopic observations. We report the isolation, phenotypical characterization and antimicrobial properties of 10 strains of marine bacteria including the genus Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium, and the order Actinomycetae that inhibit human pathogens. The results indicate that the marine invertebrates would be sources of bacteria producing antibiotic substances.

  2. Thermal analysis and structural characterization of chitinous exoskeleton from two marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B.A., E-mail: balej05@yahoo.com.mx [Laboratory of Natural Polymers, CIAD – Coordinación Guaymas, Carretera al Varadero Nacional km. 6.6, Col. Las Playitas, 85480 Guaymas, Sonora (Mexico); Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico); May-Crespo, J.; Quintana-Owen, P.; Gónzalez-Gómez, W.S. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico); Yañez-Limón, J.M. [Materials and Engineering Science, CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J.J., E-mail: jjag@mda.cinvestav.mx [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Mérida, Carretera antigua a Progreso, km. 6. Apdo, Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2015-06-20

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of exoskeletons: Antipathes caribbeana and Limulus polyphemus. • DMTA revealed Limulus has a stronger structure with a stepper glass transition. • DSC measurements exhibited a much larger water holding capacity in Antipathes. • X-ray diffraction analysis shows a higher crystallinity index in Limulus • FTIR showed α-chitin structures and high temperature C–N groups prevalence. - ABSTRACT: Thermomechanical and structural properties of two marine species exoskeletons, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral) and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure), were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). DMTA curves indicate the viscoelastic behavior and glass transition around 255 °C, black coral presented a second transition (175 °C) associated to the acetamide group attached to the α-chitin chain. DSC measurements showed a endothermic peak around 100 °C, with enthalpies of 4.02 and 118.04 J/g, indicating strong differences between exoskeletons respect to their water holding capacity and strength water–polymer interaction. A comparative analysis involving DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that lower values ΔH in xiphosure correspond to a material with a higher crystallinity (30), in contrast black coral exhibits higher values ΔH and a lower crystallinity (19). FTIR confirmed α-chitin based structure, at higher temperature diminishes the amide bands and a new one appears, related to C–N groups.

  3. Rapid transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-06-10

    Non-model organisms represent the majority of life forms in our planet. However, the lack of genetic information hinders us to understand the unique biological phenomena in non-model organisms at the molecular level. In this study, we applied a tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling on a non-model marine fouling organism, Bugula neritina. Using a 454 pyrosequencing platform with the updated titanium reagents, we generated a total of 48M bp transcriptome data consisting of 131 450 high-quality reads. Of these, 122 650 reads (93%) were assembled to produce 6392 contigs with an average length of 538 bases and the remaining 8800 reads were singletons. Of the total 15 192 unigenes, 13 863 ORFs were predicated, of which 6917 were functionally annotated based on gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous groups. Subsequent proteome analysis identified and quantified 882 proteins from B. neritina. These results would provide fundamental and important information for the subsequent studies of molecular mechanism in larval biology, development, antifouling research. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, the combined use of two high-throughput technologies as a powerful approach for accelerating the studies of non-model but otherwise important species. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Thirteen new records of marine invertebrates and two of fishes from Cape Verde Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Actinoporus elegans Duchassaing, 1850 and Anthothoe affinis (Johnson, 1861 are new records from Cape Verde Islands. Also new to the marine fauna of Cape Verde are an undescribed mysid species of the genus Heteromysis that lives in associationwith the polychaete Branchiomma nigromaculata, the shrimp Tulearicoaris neglecta Chace, 1969 that lives in association with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum, an undescribed nudibranch of the genus Hypselodoris, and two undescribed species of the parasitic gastropod genus Melanella and Melanella cf. eburnea. An undescribedplathelmint of the genus Pseudobiceros, the nudibranch Phyllidia flava (Aradas, 1847 and the parasitic gastropod Echineulima leucophaes (Tomlin & Shackleford, 1913 are recorded, based on colour photos taken in the field. The crab Nepinnotheres viridis Manning, 1993 was encountered in the bivalve Pseudochama radians, which represents the first host record for this pinnotherid species. The nudibranch Tambja anayana, previously only known from a single animal, was reencountered and photographed alive. The sea anemone Actinoporus elegans, previously only known from the western Atlantic, is also reported here from São Tomé Island. In addition, the bythiid fish Grammonus longhursti and an undescribed species of the genus Apletodon are recorded from the Cape Verde Islands for the first time.

  5. Transport of Exogenous Organic Substances by Invertebrate Integuments: The Field Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomme, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    Transport, organic substances, monosaccharides, amino acids, marine invertebrates, integument, DOM, marine animals, L-alanine, D-glucos......Transport, organic substances, monosaccharides, amino acids, marine invertebrates, integument, DOM, marine animals, L-alanine, D-glucos...

  6. A molecular systematic survey of cultured microbial associates of deep-water marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen; Harmody, Dedra; Dang, Phat; Ledger, Angela; Pomponi, Shirley; McCarthy, Peter; Lopez, Jose

    2005-04-01

    A taxonomic survey was conducted to determine the microbial diversity held within the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Marine Microbial Culture Collection (HBMMCC). The collection consists of approximately 17,000 microbial isolates, with 11,000 from a depth of greater than 150 ft seawater. A total of 2273 heterotrophic bacterial isolates were inventoried using the DNA fingerprinting technique amplified rDNA restriction analysis on approximately 750-800 base pairs (bp) encompassing hypervariable regions in the 5' portion of the small subunit (SSU) 16S rRNA gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained from restriction digests with RsaI, HaeIII, and HhaI were used to infer taxonomic similarity. SSU 16S rDNA fragments were sequenced from a total of 356 isolates for more definitive taxonomic analysis. Sequence results show that this subset of the HBMMCC contains 224 different phylotypes from six major bacterial clades (Proteobacteria (Alpha, Beta, Gamma), Cytophaga, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroides (CFB), Gram + high GC content, Gram + low GC content). The 2273 microorganisms surveyed encompass 834 alpha-Proteobacteria (representing 60 different phylotypes), 25 beta-Proteobacteria (3 phylotypes), 767 gamma-Proteobacteria (77 phylotypes), 122 CFB (17 phylotypes), 327 Gram + high GC content (43 phylotypes), and 198 Gram + low GC content isolates (24 phylotypes). Notably, 11 phylotypes were < or =93% similar to the closest sequence match in the GenBank database even after sequencing a larger portion of the 16S rRNA gene (approximately 1400 bp), indicating the likely discovery of novel microbial taxa. Furthermore, previously reported "uncultured" microbes, such as sponge-specific isolates, are part of the HBMMCC. The results of this research will be available online as a searchable taxonomic database (www.hboi.edu/dbmr/dbmr_hbmmd.html).

  7. Phylogeographic Structure in Benthic Marine Invertebrates of the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile with Differing Dispersal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Pilar A.; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C.; Gálvez, Francisca E.; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C.; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure. PMID:24586356

  8. Phylogeographic structure in benthic marine invertebrates of the southeast Pacific coast of Chile with differing dispersal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Pilar A; Segovia, Nicolás I; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C; Gálvez, Francisca E; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure.

  9. Underwater soundscape of marine protected areas in the south Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gendriz, I; Padovese, L R

    2016-04-15

    The Laje de Santos Marine State Park (LSMSP) and Xixová-Japuí State Park (XJSP) are two protected areas (PA), close to the Santos Bay in the south Brazilian coast. The region encompasses both important biodiversity and anthropogenic activities. This study aims to serve as a first reference survey of the underwater soundscape of these PAs. Additionally it evaluates the presence of the anthropogenic and biological sound in these areas. One month of continuous recorded underwater sound, at selected locations in XJSP and LSMSP, is used in this study. The data were characterized by its spectral content and by the temporal evolution of Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). Both locations showed sound events with daily periodicities, mainly related with boats and fish chorus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting Species Cover of Marine Macrophyte and Invertebrate Species Combining Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Machine Learning and Regression Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Teeveer, Karolin; Vahtmäe, Ele; Pärnoja, Merli

    2013-01-01

    ...), an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea...

  11. Predicting species cover of marine macrophyte and invertebrate species combining hyperspectral remote sensing, machine learning and regression techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Teeveer, Karolin; Vahtmäe, Ele; Pärnoja, Merli

    2014-01-01

    ...), an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea...

  12. Purification and characterization of a T-antigen specific lectin from the coelomic fluid of a marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gowda, N.M.; Goswami, U.; Khan, M.I.

    Purification and characterization of a T-antigen specific lectin from the coelomic fluid of a marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) Nagaraj M. Gowda 1,2 , Usha Goswami 1 and M. Islam Khan 2* 1 Gene lab, National Institute of Oceanography...-L-Serine, Gal β 1-3 GalNAc α 1-O-methyl and Gal β 1-3 GalNAc β 1-O-methyl were purchased from Dextra Labs, London, UK, all other chemicals used were of analytical grade. 2.2 Purification of lectin Adult sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra) were collected from...

  13. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ingenamine G isolated from the Brazilian marine sponge Pachychalina alcaloidifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Sombra, Carla Maria Lima; de Oliveira, Jaine H H L; Berlinck, Roberto Gomes de Souza; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Claudia

    2008-05-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the order Haplosclerida are one of the more prolific sources of new natural products possessing various biological activities. The present study examined the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of ingenamine G, an alkaloid isolated from the Brazilian marine sponge Pachychalina alcaloidifera. Ingenamine G displayed a moderate cytotoxic activity against human proliferating lymphocytes evaluated by the MTT assay (IC(50) 15 microg/mL). The hemolytic assay showed that ingenamine G cytotoxic activity was not related to membrane disruption. The comet assay and chromosome aberration analysis were applied to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of ingenamine G, respectively. Cultured human lymphocytes were treated with 5, 10, 15 and 20 microg/mL of ingenamine G during the G(1), G(1)/S, S (pulses of 1 and 6 h), and G(2) phases of the cell cycle. All tested concentrations were cytotoxic, reduced significantly the mitotic index, and were clastogenic in all phases of the cell cycle, especially in S phase. While an increase in DNA-strand breaks was observed starting with the concentration corresponding to the IC(50). The presence of genotoxicity and polyploidy during interphase and mitosis, respectively, suggests that ingenamine G at high concentrations is clastogenic and indirectly affects the construction of mitotic fuse.

  14. Trypanocidal activity of organic extracts from the Brazilian and Spanish marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Carreira de Paula

    Full Text Available Abstract Chagas' disease is a parasitic infection caused by protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that affect millions of people worldwide. The available drugs for treatment of this infection cause serious side effects and have variable efficacy, especially in the chronic phase of the disease. In this context, natural compounds have shown great potential for the discovery of new chemotherapies for the treatment of this infection and various other diseases. In present study, we evaluated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of five species of Brazilian and Spanish marine sponges (Condrosia reniformes, Tethya rubra, Tethya ignis, Mycale angulosa and Dysidea avara against T. cruzi. By GC–MS data, we observed that in these extracts were present the major classes of the following compounds: hydrocarbons, terpenes, steroids and alcohols. The extracts showed activity against the three forms of this parasite and did not induce toxicity in mammalian cells. Better activities were observed with the extracts of marine sponges, C. reniformes (EC50 = 0.6 μg/ml, D. avara (EC50 = 1.1 μg/ml and M. angulosa (EC50 = 3.8 μg/ml, against trypomastigote forms. In intracellular amastigote forms, the extract of T. ignis showed IC50 of 7.2 μg/ml and SI of 24.65. On this basis, our results indicate that these extracts can be promising chemotherapeutic agents against T. cruzi.

  15. Medicines from Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Coleman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

  16. Hawaii ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, terrestrial, and native stream invertebrate species in coastal Hawaii. Vector...

  17. Maryland ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare coastal invertebrate species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data set...

  18. Shallow-water Marine Invertebrates French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2000 and 2002, (NODC Accession 0001083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset focuses on marine surveys used to obtain a more in depth record of the marine fauna from French Frigate Shoals and includes a note on nonindigenous...

  19. Predicting species cover of marine macrophyte and invertebrate species combining hyperspectral remote sensing, machine learning and regression techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonne Kotta

    Full Text Available In order to understand biotic patterns and their changes in nature there is an obvious need for high-quality seamless measurements of such patterns. If remote sensing methods have been applied with reasonable success in terrestrial environment, their use in aquatic ecosystems still remained challenging. In the present study we combined hyperspectral remote sensing and boosted regression tree modelling (BTR, an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea. The BRT technique combined with remote sensing and traditional spatial modelling succeeded in identifying, constructing and testing functionality of abiotic environmental predictors on the coverage of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate species. Our models easily predicted a large quantity of macrophyte and invertebrate species cover and recaptured multitude of interactions between environment and biota indicating a strong potential of the method in the modelling of aquatic species in the large variety of ecosystems.

  20. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine...

  1. Effects of the 2015 heat wave on benthic invertebrates in the Tabarca Marine Protected Area (southeast Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Izquierdo-Muñoz, Andrés; Gago, Juan F; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Antón, Josefa; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A

    2016-12-01

    In the late summer of 2015, extensive mortality of scleratinian corals, gorgonians, and sponges was observed in the Marine Protected Area of Tabarca (southeast Spain). Quantitative data indicated that at 25 m depth the sea fan Eunicella singularis was the most affected species (50% of colonies affected by partial mortality); while in shallow waters more than 40% of the endemic scleractinian coral Cladocora caespitosa population showed tissue lesions that affected more than 10% of their surfaces. Other affected species were the scleractinian corals Oculina patagonica and Phyllangia mouchezii, the sea fan Leptogorgia sarmentosa and the sponge Sarcotragus fasciculatus. This mortality event coincided with an abnormal rise in seawater temperature in this region. Microbiological analysis showed a higher abundance of culturable Vibrio species in invertebrates exhibiting tissue lesions, which indicated that these opportunistic pathogens could be a key factor in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detailed analysis of the male reproductive system in a potential bio-indicator species - The marine invertebrate Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Lu

    Full Text Available For the first time, this study has systemically investigated the male reproductive system in a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae, which has significant potential as a bio-indicator species of coastal marine pollution. The abdomen of G. caespitosa was divided by intersegmental septa into over 80 trunk segments. Each segment served as a germinal chamber with a C-shaped gonadal arrangement consisting of several distinct compartments: a seminiferous epithelium (SE compartment located in the centre of the chamber, with each of its two ends connecting to a nurse cell (NC compartment and then an efferent duct (ED compartment. The SE compartment contained a multilayered seminiferous epithelium where spermatogenesis was initiated. Spermatids were released in pairs into the lumen of the SE compartment and then transported to the NC compartment where they underwent spermiogenesis with the support of secretory vesicles released by the nurse cells. Spermatozoa were stored in the ED compartment and subsequently released into the seawater through the vas deferens. Unlike vertebrates where germ cells differentiated in close proximity to the nurse cell population (i.e. Sertoli cells, the spermatogenic cells of G. caespitosa exhibited no direct contact with supporting cells at any spermatogenic stage. This finding suggested that the spermatogenesis in G. caespitosa was more dependent on intrinsic developmental programming than most species. Notwithstanding such differences, there were clear parallels between the male reproductive system of G. caespitosa and mammals, in terms of the structure and function. The independence of spermatogenic cells from supporting cells in G. caespitosa raised the possibility of inducing spermiogenesis in vitro, which would provide a useful tool to dissect the mechanisms underlying this complex cell differentiation process in invertebrates and other higher order animals.

  3. Assessing the impact of diclofenac, ibuprofen and sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on the fertilisation biology of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zanuri, Norlaila Binti; Bentley, Matthew G; Caldwell, Gary S

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to synthetic chemicals is a key environmental challenge faced by aquatic organisms. The time and dose effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, and sildenafil citrate on sperm motility and successful fertilisation are studied using the echinoderms, Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina, all important components of the marine benthos. Motility was reduced for all species when exposed to diclofenac concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L. Exposure to ≥1.0 μg/L of ibuprofen affected only P. miliaris gametes and fertilisation success of A. marina. A. rubens and P. miliaris sperm increased in both percentage motility and swimming velocity when exposed to sildenafil citrate at concentrations ≥18 and ≥ 50 ng/L, respectively. Pre-incubation of sperm with sildenafil citrate significantly increased fertilisation success in A. rubens and P. miliaris but not in A. marina. Pre-incubated A. rubens oocytes fertilised successfully in ibuprofen. According to EU Directive 93/67/EEC, diclofenac is classified as a very toxic substance to gametes of A. rubens, P. miliaris, and A. marina (EC 50  = 100-1000 μg/L) while ibuprofen is classified as very toxic to gametes of P. miliaris but non-toxic to gametes of A. marina (EC 50  > 10,000 μg/L). The present study indicates that diclofenac exposure may have negative impacts on invertebrate reproductive success, whereas ibuprofen potentially may compromise P. miliaris reproduction. This study provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms that allow marine invertebrates to survive and reproduce in contaminated and changing habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. UVR and PAR absorbing compounds of marine brown macroalgae along a latitudinal gradient of the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Caroline; Ramlov, Fernanda; de Lucena, Leidson Allan Ferreira; Uarrota, Virgilio; Batista, Manuela Bernardes; Sissini, Marina Nasri; Oliveira, Iara; Briani, Bruno; Martins, Cintia D L; Nunes, José Marcos de Castro; Rörig, Leonardo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bonomi-Barufi, José

    2018-01-01

    Absorption spectra are indicative of biological sample chemical composition and can be used as a basis for the construction of descriptive and predictive models for biotechnological screening or assays. In marine algae, chemical composition can vary due to species-specific differences in biochemistry, as well as intra-specific responses to unique environmental variables. Different indices (UVCi, UVB+Ai and PARi) were proposed and calculated to evaluate how photoprotective compounds vary in 18 species of Phaeophyceae. In addition, they were correlated to abiotic factors. Through this technique, seven main peaks were detected in the absorbing spectra of marine brown algal extracts. The highest photoprotective indices values were found in species collected in tropical areas, where higher solar radiation is observed compared to the southern Brazilian coast. Considering additional abiotic factors, water temperature and nitrate concentration were negatively correlated with UV indices. PARi's indices were positively affected by nitrate. All species collected on the Brazilian coast have absorption peaks in the region of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, suggesting that tropical marine brown macroalgae may have developed an effective antioxidant defense system, suggesting adaptation to environments characterized by high solar radiation. UVR/PAR indices congregated essential information to possible future biotechnological screening, facilitating selection of high priority species or sites, fostering actions to enhance alternative sustainable management strategies of coastal environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Redesign of PCR primers for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for marine invertebrates and application in all-taxa biotic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J; Meyer, C; Parker, M; Hawk, H

    2013-09-01

    DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for species detection, identification and discovery. Metazoan DNA barcoding is primarily based upon a specific region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene that is PCR amplified by primers HCO2198 and LCO1490 ('Folmer primers') designed by Folmer et al. (Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 1994, 294). Analysis of sequences published since 1994 has revealed mismatches in the Folmer primers to many metazoans. These sequences also show that an extremely high level of degeneracy would be necessary in updated Folmer primers to maintain broad taxonomic utility. In primers jgHCO2198 and jgLCO1490, we replaced most fully degenerated sites with inosine nucleotides that complement all four natural nucleotides and modified other sites to better match major marine invertebrate groups. The modified primers were used to amplify and sequence cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from 9105 specimens from Moorea, French Polynesia and San Francisco Bay, California, USA representing 23 phyla, 42 classes and 121 orders. The new primers, jgHCO2198 and jgLCO1490, are well suited for routine DNA barcoding, all-taxon surveys and metazoan metagenomics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identification of Tight-Binding Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 Inhibitors in Aqueous Extracts of Marine Invertebrates by the Combination of Enzymatic and Interaction-Based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Sarduy, Emir; Guerra, Yasel; Covaleda Cortés, Giovanni; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Chávez Planes, María A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural products from marine origin constitute a very promising and underexplored source of interesting compounds for modern biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. However, their evaluation is quite challenging and requires specifically designed assays to reliably identify the compounds of interest in a highly heterogeneous and interfering context. In the present study, we describe a general strategy for the confident identification of tight-binding protease inhibitors in the aqueous extracts of 62 Cuban marine invertebrates, using Plasmodium falciparum hemoglobinases Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 as model enzymes. To this end, we first developed a screening strategy that combined enzymatic with interaction-based assays and then validated screening conditions using five reference extracts. Interferences were evaluated and minimized. The results from the massive screening of such extracts, the validation of several hits by a variety of interaction-based assays and the purification and functional characterization of PhPI, a multifunctional and reversible tight-binding inhibitor for Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 from the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla, are presented. PMID:28430158

  7. Identification of Tight-Binding Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 Inhibitors in Aqueous Extracts of Marine Invertebrates by the Combination of Enzymatic and Interaction-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Salas-Sarduy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products from marine origin constitute a very promising and underexplored source of interesting compounds for modern biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. However, their evaluation is quite challenging and requires specifically designed assays to reliably identify the compounds of interest in a highly heterogeneous and interfering context. In the present study, we describe a general strategy for the confident identification of tight-binding protease inhibitors in the aqueous extracts of 62 Cuban marine invertebrates, using Plasmodium falciparum hemoglobinases Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 as model enzymes. To this end, we first developed a screening strategy that combined enzymatic with interaction-based assays and then validated screening conditions using five reference extracts. Interferences were evaluated and minimized. The results from the massive screening of such extracts, the validation of several hits by a variety of interaction-based assays and the purification and functional characterization of PhPI, a multifunctional and reversible tight-binding inhibitor for Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 from the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla, are presented.

  8. Mapping of marine benthic invertebrates in the Oslofjord and the Skagerrak: sampling data of museum collections from 1950-1955 and from recent investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Oug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from large sampling programmes for the mapping of marine invertebrates in the Oslofjord, Norway, and the Skagerrak, spanning more than six decades, are compiled and digitized to provide easy access in modern data repositories. Two sampling programmes undertaken in the period 1950–55 are still the most extensive mapping of marine benthic fauna in the area. Information from a total of more than 900 localities, or sampling events, covering all benthic habitats in the Oslofjord and coastal waters to Kvitsøy in Rogaland county, have been carefully digitized from field notes, original sea charts, and primary observations from sample handling in the field. Geographical coordinates referred to WGS84 chart datum have been fixed with a general accuracy of 20 m in the Oslofjord and 100–250 m in coastal areas, based on precise map sketches with cross-bearings to land objects and chart annotations. Most samples were collected using triangular, Agassiz and lightweight dredges. The collected material has been deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo. Two recent projects, ‘Polyskag’ and ‘Bioskag’ (2006–2014, are briefly described. The projects focused on the diversity of marine bristle worms (Polychaeta, inter alia providing material for molecular genetic analyses. Type localities for early described species and generally understudied biotopes were visited. The data from the 1950s, together with recent studies, constitute a considerable resource for studies of biodiversity, facilitated through the sharing of species records from the museum collections in modern data repositories. The accurate positioning of sampling localities in the 1950s is of particular value for documenting species distributions over long time spans, thus providing a reference base for studying present and future species changes and assessing the effects of human influence and environmental changes in the Oslofjord and the Skagerrak.

  9. Marine Microorganism-Invertebrate Assemblages: Perspectives to Solve the “Supply Problem” in the Initial Steps of Drug Discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, M.C.; Sheridan, C.; Osinga, R.; Dionisio, G.; Rocha, R.J.M.; Silva, B.; Rosa, R.; Calado, R.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical diversity associated with marine natural products (MNP) is unanimously acknowledged as the “blue gold” in the urgent quest for new drugs. Consequently, a significant increase in the discovery of MNP published in the literature has been observed in the past decades, particularly from

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2012-05-03 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0162464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2008-10-07 to 2013-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0162470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-08-03 to 2016-09-24 (NCEI Accession 0162465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  13. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across Wake Island from 2011-03-23 to 2014-03-19 (NCEI Accession 0162467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011-04-07 to 2014-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0162461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across American Samoa from 2012-04-03 to 2015-03-26 (NCEI Accession 0162468)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  16. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  17. Invertebrate biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Summers, A P

    2017-05-22

    Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution. Our goal is to capture the field of invertebrate biomechanics, which has blossomed from having a primary focus on discoveries at the interface of physics and biology to being inextricably linked with integrative challenges that span biology, physics, mathematics and engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does life history predict past and current connectivity for rocky intertidal invertebrates across a marine biogeographic barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, D J; Minchinton, T E; Perrin, C

    2009-05-01

    The southeast Australian coast potentially includes a complex biogeographic barrier, largely lacking exposed rocky shore that may limit the dispersal of rocky intertidal taxa and contribute to the maintenance of two biogeographic regions. Surprisingly, within the 300-km barrier region, several species considered exposed rocky shore specialists occurred within sheltered sites. We analysed COI sequence variation for 10 rocky intertidal invertebrate species, with a range of life histories, to test the hypotheses that larval type and habitat specificity are strong predictors of gene flow between biogeographic regions. Our data revealed that the southeast corner of Australia includes a strong barrier to gene flow for six of eight species with planktonic larvae, and a coalescence analysis of sequence differentiation (IM model) suggests that a barrier has existed since the Pleistocene. In contrast, two direct developers were not affected by the barrier. Our comparative approach and data from earlier studies (reviewed here) do not support the hypothesis that larval type predicts gene flow across this barrier, instead we found that the ability to utilize sheltered habitat provides a clearer explanation of the phylogeographic break. Indeed, the species that displayed little or no evidence of a phylogeographic break across the barrier each displayed unexpectedly relaxed habitat specificity.

  19. Invertebrate neurophylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Stefan; Loesel, Rudi; Purschke, Günter

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrate nervous systems are highly disparate between different taxa. This is reflected in the terminology used to describe them, which is very rich and often confusing. Even very general terms such as 'brain', 'nerve', and 'eye' have been used in various ways in the different animal groups......, but no consensus on the exact meaning exists. This impedes our understanding of the architecture of the invertebrate nervous system in general and of evolutionary transformations of nervous system characters between different taxa....

  20. Going where traditional markers have not gone before: utility of and promise for RAD sequencing in marine invertebrate phylogeography and population genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, A.M.; Herrera, S.; Layden, M.J.; Martindale, M.Q.; Shank, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout a genome has the power to refine the understanding of population demographic history and to identify genomic regions under selection in natural populations. To this end, population genomic approaches that harness the power of next-generation sequencing to understand the ecology and evolution of marine invertebrates represent a boon to test long-standing questions in marine biology and conservation. We employed restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify SNPs in natural populations of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging cnidarian model with a broad geographic range in estuarine habitats in North and South America, and portions of England. We identified hundreds of SNP-containing tags in thousands of RAD loci from 30 barcoded individuals inhabiting four locations from Nova Scotia to South Carolina. Population genomic analyses using high-confidence SNPs resulted in a highly-resolved phylogeography, a result not achieved in previous studies using traditional markers. Plots of locus-specific FST against heterozygosity suggest that a majority of polymorphic sites are neutral, with a smaller proportion suggesting evidence for balancing selection. Loci inferred to be under balancing selection were mapped to the genome, where 90% were located in gene bodies, indicating potential targets of selection. Results from analyses with and without a reference genome supported similar conclusions, further supporting RAD-seq as a method that can be efficiently applied to species lacking existing genomic resources. We discuss the utility of RAD-seq approaches in burgeoning Nematostella research as well as in other cnidarian species, particularly corals, to determine phylogeographic relationships of populations and identify regions of the genome undergoing selection. PMID:23473066

  1. Non-native marine invertebrates are more tolerant towards environmental stress than taxonomically related native species: results from a globally replicated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Mark; da Gama, Bernardo A P; Gerner, Nadine V; Gobin, Judith; Gröner, Frederike; Harry, Anil; Jenkins, Stuart R; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Mummelthei, Corinna; Sareyka, Jörg; Xavier, Eduardo A; Wahl, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To predict the risk associated with future introductions, ecologists seek to identify traits that determine the invasiveness of species. Among numerous designated characteristics, tolerance towards environmental stress is one of the most favored. However, there is little empirical support for the assumption that non-native species generally cope better with temporarily unfavorable conditions than native species. To test this concept, we ran five pairwise comparisons between native and non-native marine invertebrates at temperate, subtropical, and tropical sites. We included (natives named first) six bivalves: Brachidontes exustus and Perna viridis, P. perna and Isognomon bicolor, Saccostrea glomerata and Crassostrea gigas, two ascidians: Diplosoma listerianum and Didemnum vexillum as well as two crustaceans: Gammarus zaddachi and G. tigrinus. We simulated acute fluctuations in salinity, oxygen concentration, and temperature, while we measured respiration and survival rates. Under stressful conditions, non-native species consistently showed less pronounced deviations from their normal respiratory performance than their native counterparts. We suggest that this indicates that they have a wider tolerance range. Furthermore, they also revealed higher survival rates under stress. Thus, stress tolerance seems to be a property of successful invaders and could therefore be a useful criterion for screening profiles and risk assessment protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting the toxicity of trace metals to fertilization success in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-03-01

    Significant amounts of trace metals have been released into both nearshore and deep sea environments in recent years, resulting in increased concentrations that can be toxic to marine organisms. Trace metals can negatively affect external fertilization processes in marine broadcast spawners and may cause a reduction in fertilization success at elevated concentrations. Due to its sensitivity and ecological importance, fertilization success has been widely used as a toxicity endpoint in ecotoxicological testing, which is an important method of evaluating the toxicity of contaminants for management planning. Ecotoxicological data regarding fertilization success are available across the major marine phyla, but there remain uncertainties that impair our ability to confidently interpret and analyse these data. At present, the cellular and biochemical events underlying trace metal toxicity in external fertilization are not known. Metal behavior and speciation play an important role in bioavailability and toxicity but are often overlooked, and disparities in experimental designs between studies limit the degree to which results can be synthesised and compared to those of other relevant species. We reviewed all available literature covering cellular toxicity mechanisms, metal toxicities and speciation, and differences in methodologies between studies. We conclude that the concept of metal toxicity should be approached in a more holistic manner that involves elucidating toxicity mechanisms, improving the understanding of metal behavior and speciation on bioavailability and toxicity, and standardizing the fertilization assay methods among different groups of organisms. We identify opportunities to improve the fertilization assay that will allow robust critical and comparative analysis between species and their sensitivities to trace metals during external fertilization, and enable data to be more readily extrapolated to field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on marine benthic invertebrates and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changkeun; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-08-01

    Concern about leakage of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep-sea storage in geological reservoirs is increasing because of its possible adverse effects on marine organisms locally or at nearby coastal areas both in sediment and water column. In the present study, we examined how elevated CO2 affects various intertidal epibenthic (benthic copepod), intertidal endobenthic (Manila clam and Venus clam), sub-tidal benthic (brittle starfish), and free-living (marine medaka) organisms in areas expected to be impacted by leakage. Acute lethal and sub-lethal effects were detected in the adult stage of all test organisms exposed to varying concentrations of CO2, due to the associated decline in pH (8.3 to 5.2) during 96-h exposure. However, intertidal organisms (such as benthic copepods and clams) showed remarkable resistance to elevated CO2, with the Venus clam being the most tolerant (LpH50 = 5.45). Sub-tidal species (such as brittle starfish [LpH50 = 6.16] and marine medaka [LpH50 = 5.91]) were more sensitive to elevated CO2 compared to intertidal species, possibly because they have fewer defensive capabilities. Of note, the exposure duration might regulate the degree of acute sub-lethal effects, as evidenced by the Venus clam, which showed a time-dependent effect to elevated CO2. Finally, copper was chosen as a model toxic element to find out the synergistic or antagonistic effects between ocean acidification and metal pollution. Combination of CO2 and Cu exposure enhances the adverse effects to organisms, generally supporting a synergistic effect scenario. Overall, the significant variation in the degree to which CO2 adversely affected organisms (viz., working range and strength) was clearly observed, supporting the general concept of species-dependent effects of elevated CO2.

  4. Silent oceans: ocean acidification impoverishes natural soundscapes by altering sound production of the world's noisiest marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2016-03-16

    Soundscapes are multidimensional spaces that carry meaningful information for many species about the location and quality of nearby and distant resources. Because soundscapes are the sum of the acoustic signals produced by individual organisms and their interactions, they can be used as a proxy for the condition of whole ecosystems and their occupants. Ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions is known to have profound effects on marine life. However, despite the increasingly recognized ecological importance of soundscapes, there is no empirical test of whether ocean acidification can affect biological sound production. Using field recordings obtained from three geographically separated natural CO2 vents, we show that forecasted end-of-century ocean acidification conditions can profoundly reduce the biological sound level and frequency of snapping shrimp snaps. Snapping shrimp were among the noisiest marine organisms and the suppression of their sound production at vents was responsible for the vast majority of the soundscape alteration observed. To assess mechanisms that could account for these observations, we tested whether long-term exposure (two to three months) to elevated CO2 induced a similar reduction in the snapping behaviour (loudness and frequency) of snapping shrimp. The results indicated that the soniferous behaviour of these animals was substantially reduced in both frequency (snaps per minute) and sound level of snaps produced. As coastal marine soundscapes are dominated by biological sounds produced by snapping shrimp, the observed suppression of this component of soundscapes could have important and possibly pervasive ecological consequences for organisms that use soundscapes as a source of information. This trend towards silence could be of particular importance for those species whose larval stages use sound for orientation towards settlement habitats. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Costa, R.; Araujo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To

  6. Western Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Development of an LC-MS-MS method for the quantification of taurine derivatives in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimbault, P; Alberic, P; Elfakir, C; Lafosse, M

    2004-09-15

    Sulfur amino acids, such as taurine, hypotaurine, and thiotaurine, were found in high quantities in tissues of marine symbiotic organisms (e.g., bivalves, tubeworms) living close to hydrothermal vent sites. Therefore, they are assumed to play a key role in the S-oxidizing base metabolism or sulfide detoxification. We propose here a specific, rapid, and original analytical procedure for the direct determination of sulfur amino acids at the level of a few parts per billion in biological samples, avoiding the classical low specific post-column ortho-phthaldialdehyde derivatization step required by non-ultraviolet-absorbing molecules. Indeed, by coupling liquid chromatography on a porous graphitic stationary phase under isocratic conditions (10 mM ammonium acetate buffer adjusted to pH 9.3) to tandem mass spectrometry (ionization process by pneumatically assisted electrospray in negative ion mode), it is possible to perform specific quantification of these metabolites in less than 10 min directly in biological matrices without any derivatization step or other tedious sample treatments. Thus, taurine, hypotaurine, and thiotaurine have been identified and assayed in several deep sea organisms, showing that the developed method is well suited for this kind of application.

  8. Recovery from hybrid breakdown in a marine invertebrate is faster, stronger and more repeatable under environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, A S; Pritchard, V L; Edmands, S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how environmental stress alters the consequences of hybridization is important, because the rate of hybridization and the likelihood of hybrid speciation both appear elevated in harsh, disturbed or marginal habitats. We assessed fitness, morphometrics and molecular genetic composition over 14 generations of hybridization between two highly divergent populations of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus. Replicated, experimental hybrid populations in both control and high-salinity conditions showed a decline in fitness, followed by a recovery. Recovery was faster in the salinity stress treatment, returning to parental levels up to two generations earlier than in the control. This recovery was stable in the high-salinity treatment, whereas in the control treatment, fitness dropped back below parental levels at the final time point. Recovery in the high-salinity treatment was also stronger in terms of competitive fitness and heat-shock tolerance. Finally, consequences of hybridization were more repeatable under salinity stress, where among-replicate variance for survivorship and molecular genetic composition was lower than in the control treatment. In a system with low effective population sizes (estimates ranged from 17 to 63), where genetic drift might be expected to be the predominate force, strong selection under harsh environmental conditions apparently promoted faster, stronger and more repeatable recovery from depressed hybrid fitness. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria inhibited by extracts and fractions from Brazilian marine sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho,Palloma R.; Guilherme R. S. Muricy; Mara F. L. Silva; Marcia Giambiagi de Marval; Laport,Marinella S.

    2010-01-01

    The growing number of bacterial strains resistant to conventional antibiotics has become a serious medical problem in recent years. Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and many species can be useful for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This study reports the in vitro screening of marine sponges in the search for novel substances against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Sponge extracts were tested against 44 bacterial strains, including fourteen antibiotic-resista...

  10. Challenges and rewards of research in marine natural products chemistry in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; da Rocha, Rosana M; de Oliveira, Jaine H H L; Hernández, Isara L C; Seleghim, Mirna H R; Granato, Ana Claudia; de Almeida, Erika V R; Nuñez, Cecília V; Muricy, Guilherme; Peixinho, Solange; Pessoa, Claudia; Moraes, Manoel O; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Nascimento, Gislene G F; Thiemann, Otavio; Silva, Marcio; Souza, Ana O; Silva, Celio L; Minarini, Paulo R R

    2004-03-01

    Brazil is blessed with a great biodiversity, which constitutes one of the most important sources of biologically active compounds, even if it has been largely underexplored. As is the case of the Amazon and Atlantic rainforests, the Brazilian marine fauna remains practically unexplored in the search for new biologically active natural products. Considering that marine organisms have been shown to be one of the most promising sources of new bioactive compounds for the treatment of different human diseases, the 8000 km of the Brazilian coastline represents a great potential for finding new pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. This review presents the status of marine natural products chemistry in Brazil, including results reported by different research groups with emphasis on the isolation, structure elucidation, and evaluation of biological activities of natural products isolated from sponges, ascidians, octocorals, and Opistobranch mollusks. A brief overview of the first Brazilian program on the isolation of marine bacteria and fungi, directed toward the production of biologically active compounds, is also discussed. The current multidisciplinary collaborative program under development at the Universidade de São Paulo proposes to establish a new paradigm toward the management of the Brazilian marine biodiversity, integrating research on the species diversity, ecology, taxonomy, and biogeography of marine invertebrates and microorganisms. This program also includes a broad screening program of Brazilian marine bioresources, to search for active compounds that may be of interest for the development of new drug leads.

  11. Fossil Invertebrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beginning with a very brief mention of ideas on the origin of life, and whether there are two kingdoms of organisms or five, this book soon gets down to its main task: to provide a con- cise systematic-cwn-morphological summary of invertebrate groups, with an idea of their geological and geographical oc- currence. Depth of ...

  12. Ultrastructural investigation and in vitro recapitulation of spermatid differentiation in a potential bio-indicator species - The marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Lu

    Full Text Available Galeolaria gemineoa is a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, whose spermatozoa have been regarded as a sensitive indicator for water quality monitoring. In this study, 10 steps of spermiogenesis have been identified at the ultrastructural level and this differentiation process has been recapitulated in vitro up to the point of spermiogenesis (step 7-9 spermatids. On completion of the second meiosis, newly formed spermatids were detached from the seminiferous epithelium and released to the lumen of each germinal chamber. These spermatids were present in pairs and interconnected by a cytoplasmic bridge throughout the entire spermiogenic process. On the basis of morphological events such as formation of the acrosome, elongation of the flagellum, and condensation of the nucleus, spermiogenesis has been temporally divided into Golgi phase, acrosomal phase and maturation phase. During the Golgi phase, proacrosomal vesicles appeared at the posterior pole of the spermatids and gradually fused into a proacrosomal vacuole. Simultaneously, the distal centriole docked onto the plasma membrane and gave rise to a formative flagellum. The acrosomal phase was characterised by differentiation of the acrosome, condensation of the chromatin and formation of a mitochondrial sheath surrounding the initial portion of the flagellum. During the maturation phase, the fully differentiated acrosome migrated to the anterior pole and excess cytoplasm was extruded from the spermatids in the form of residual bodies. In addition, we successfully induced step 1-3 spermatids to differentiate into the step 7-9 spermatids in both male germinal fluid and 10% foetal bovine serum in RPMI 1640 medium, but failed to replicate this process in female or boiled male germinal fluids. This finding supports our concept that spermatid differentiation in this species is dependent on intrinsic developmental programming and does not require input from accompanying nurse cells.

  13. Ultrastructural investigation and in vitro recapitulation of spermatid differentiation in a potential bio-indicator species – The marine invertebrate Galeolaria gemineoa (Polychaeta: Serpulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonggang; Lin, Minjie

    2017-01-01

    Galeolaria gemineoa is a sessile broadcast-spawning marine invertebrate, whose spermatozoa have been regarded as a sensitive indicator for water quality monitoring. In this study, 10 steps of spermiogenesis have been identified at the ultrastructural level and this differentiation process has been recapitulated in vitro up to the point of spermiogenesis (step 7–9 spermatids). On completion of the second meiosis, newly formed spermatids were detached from the seminiferous epithelium and released to the lumen of each germinal chamber. These spermatids were present in pairs and interconnected by a cytoplasmic bridge throughout the entire spermiogenic process. On the basis of morphological events such as formation of the acrosome, elongation of the flagellum, and condensation of the nucleus, spermiogenesis has been temporally divided into Golgi phase, acrosomal phase and maturation phase. During the Golgi phase, proacrosomal vesicles appeared at the posterior pole of the spermatids and gradually fused into a proacrosomal vacuole. Simultaneously, the distal centriole docked onto the plasma membrane and gave rise to a formative flagellum. The acrosomal phase was characterised by differentiation of the acrosome, condensation of the chromatin and formation of a mitochondrial sheath surrounding the initial portion of the flagellum. During the maturation phase, the fully differentiated acrosome migrated to the anterior pole and excess cytoplasm was extruded from the spermatids in the form of residual bodies. In addition, we successfully induced step 1–3 spermatids to differentiate into the step 7–9 spermatids in both male germinal fluid and 10% foetal bovine serum in RPMI 1640 medium, but failed to replicate this process in female or boiled male germinal fluids. This finding supports our concept that spermatid differentiation in this species is dependent on intrinsic developmental programming and does not require input from accompanying nurse cells. PMID:28850628

  14. Divergence between Antarctic and South American marine invertebrates: What molecular biology tells us about Scotia Arc geodynamics and the intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Elie; González-Wevar, Claudio; Díaz, Angie; Gérard, Karin; Hüne, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    Continental drift processes such as major gateway openings have been historically advocated to explain the distribution of marine benthic taxa in the Southern Ocean (SO). The separation between Antarctic Peninsula and the southern tip of South America together with the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) represent the final step for the complete isolation of the Antarctic region. However, there is still controversy concerning the timing and mode of this process, and especially about the role of the Scotia Arc geodynamics in the development of a fully deep and intensified ACC circulation. Based on mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI) sequences obtained from different taxa, we performed molecular comparisons between Antarctic and South American relatives to provide independent time estimations of Antarctica's isolation. We include in the analyses congeneric Antarctic and Patagonian near-shore marine benthic invertebrates including indirect developers (Nacella, Yoldia, Sterechinus, and Parbolasia) and brooders (Xymenopsis and Trophonella). Considering the levels of genetic differentiation between relatives from both regions and assuming the molecular clock hypothesis, we estimated the onset of their respective divergence. On one hand, similar levels of genetic distance in broadcast-spawners (7%-8.3%) support the hypothesis that the development of an effective barrier between Antarctica and South America occurred almost simultaneously for these groups. Divergence time estimations based on specific substitution rates indicate that the separation occurred near the Mio-Pliocene transition, long after the physical separation of both continents. Genetic distance and divergence time estimation in direct developers indicate an older separation time, close to the mid-Miocene. Even when the analyzed groups included both broadcast-spawners and brooder organisms, the divergence between Antarctic and South America lineages rather than being related to

  15. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea includes marine and...

  16. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibiotic resistance genes detected in the marine sponge Petromica citrina from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Silva Laport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose a significant threat to human health, the environmental reservoirs of the resistance determinants are still poorly understood. This study reports the detection of resistance genes (ermB, mecA, mupA, qnrA, qnrB and tetL to antibiotics among certain culturable and unculturable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Petromica citrina. The antimicrobial activities elicited by P. citrina and its associated bacteria are also described. The results indicate that the marine environment could play an important role in the development of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of resistance genes among bacteria.

  18. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilson Grove Formation is exposed from Petaluma north to northern Santa Rosa, and from Bennett Valley west to Bodega Bay. A fauna of at least 107 invertebrate taxa consisting of two brachiopods, 95 mollusks (48 bivalves and 46 gastropods), at least eight arthropods, and at least two echinoids have been collected, ranging in age from late Miocene to late Pliocene. Rocks and fossils from the southwest part of the outcrop area, along the Estero de San Antonio, were deposited in a deep-water marine environment. At Meacham Hill, near the Stony Point Rock Quarry, and along the northern margin of the outcrop area at River Road and Wilson Grove, the Wilson Grove Formation was deposited in shallow marine to continental environments. At Meacham Hill, these shallow water deposits represent a brackish bay to continental environment, whereas at River Road and Wilson Grove, fossils suggest normal, euhaline (normal marine salinity) conditions. A few taxa from the River Road area suggest water temperatures slightly warmer than along the adjacent coast today because their modern ranges do not extend as far north in latitude as River Road. In addition, fossil collections from along River Road contain the bivalve mollusks Macoma addicotti (Nikas) and Nuttallia jamesii Roth and Naidu, both of which are restricted to the late Pliocene. The late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) also crops out northeast of the River Road area and underlies the late Pliocene section at Wilson Grove by almost 300 m. Outcrops in the central part of the region are older than those to the northeast, and presumably younger than deposits to the southwest. The Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) occurs at Steinbeck Ranch in the central portion of the outcrop area. At Spring Hill, also in the central part of the outcrop area, the sanddollar Scutellaster sp., cf. S. oregonensis (Clark) has been recently collected. This species, questionably identified here, is restricted to the late Miocene from

  19. Invertebrates in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive program using invertebrates as subjects in conditioning demonstrations and experiments. Provides a bibliography of reviews about invertebrate learning in addition to information on obtaining required apparatus and invertebrates.

  20. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  1. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria inhibited by extracts and fractions from Brazilian marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palloma R. Marinho

    Full Text Available The growing number of bacterial strains resistant to conventional antibiotics has become a serious medical problem in recent years. Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and many species can be useful for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This study reports the in vitro screening of marine sponges in the search for novel substances against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Sponge extracts were tested against 44 bacterial strains, including fourteen antibiotic-resistant strains. Ten out of the twelve sponge species studied showed activity in one or more of the bioassays. Aqueous extracts of Cinachyrella sp. and Petromica citrina showed a large action spectrum over resistant-bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecalis. Aqueous extract of P. citrina was fractioned and aqueous fraction showed a greatest inhibitory activity on Staphylococcus strains. In addition, this fraction demonstrated a bactericidal effect on exponentially growing S. aureus cells at the MIC (16 µg/mL. The mechanism of action of bioactive fraction is still unclear, but we showed that it affect protein biosynthesis of Staphylococcus. Our results demonstrated for the first time that P. citrina is a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  2. Nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaça, Sibelle T; Vargas, Sarah M; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Molfetti, Érica; Reis, Estéfane C; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R

    2012-09-01

    Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ~40 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  4. Marine debris ingestion by Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Mendes, Sarah; de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; de Faria, Adriana Fonseca; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-03-15

    Chelonia mydas is distributed in several regions of the world and they are common in coastal regions and around islands. Between August 2008 and July 2009, 20 specimens of C. mydas were found dead on the beaches of Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The stomachs were removed and anthropogenic wastes were separated according their malleability and color. Of those animals, nine had ingested marine debris. Soft plastic was the most frequent among the samples and the majority of fragments was white or colorless and was between zero and five cm. Many studies have shown a high incidence of eating waste for some species of sea turtles. The record of ingestion of mostly transparent and white anthropogenic wastes in this study strengthens the hypothesis that these animals mistake them for jellyfish. Although the intake of anthropogenic waste causes impact on the lives of sea turtles, such studies are still scarce in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Marine environmental changes at the Brazilian equatorial margin related to Amazon River evolution during the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammertsma, Emmy; Troelstra, Simon; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; do Carmo, Dermeval A.; D'Avila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Today, the nutrient-rich Amazon River outflow causes massive algal blooms in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean, forming a considerable carbon sink as well as a primary food source in the otherwise oligotrophic surface water. However, the history of this high-productivity system is largely unknown, although a strong relation to the evolution of the Amazon River can be expected. The Amazon submarine fan provides direct evidence for the development of a transcontinental river system, of which the base of the primarily Andean-sourced siliciclastic deposits is dated as late Miocene. Ditch cuttings from Amazon Fan exploration 'Well 2' were made available by Petrobras for microfossil and lithological research. 'Well 2' is located on the uppermost fan at a water depth of 750 meters. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and foraminifer assemblages were studied to reconstruct Neogene marine environmental changes in relation to the Amazon River development. Planktonic foraminifera are present throughout the studied section and largely confirm the already available biostratigraphic age determination based on nannofossils. Benthic foraminifer assemblages indicate that the paleo-water depth has not substantially deviated from current conditions. The ecological affinities of most observed dinocyst taxa are well known, which allows us to reconstruct changes in paleo-productivity based on the assemblages. Mineral composition suggests that local river systems already drained into the Amazon basin before the onset of the transcontinental system, but environmental conditions remained oligotrophic at this time. Decreased abundances of both dinocysts and planktonic foraminifera during the Pleistocene are related to highest sedimentation rates (dilution effect). Overall, a complex interplay of orogenesis, climatic and sea level variations during the Neogene are responsible for the fluvially-induced changes in the marine environment at the Atlantic margin.

  6. Offshore drilling effects in Brazilian SE marine sediments: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Marina Pereira; Farias, Cássia; Hamacher, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    The exploration and production of oil and gas reserves often result to drill cutting accumulations on the seafloor adjacent to drill locations. In this study, the detection of drilling influence on marine sediments was performed by meta-analytical comparison between data from pre- and post-drilling surveys undertaken in offshore Campos Basin, southeast of Brazil. Besides this overall appraisal on the geochemical variables, a multivariate assessment, considering only the post-drilling data, was performed. Among the variables, fines content, carbonates, total organic carbon, barium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, only barium, copper, and hydrocarbons were related to drilling impacts. In relation to the point of discharge, relative elevated levels in the post-drilling campaigns were observed preferentially up to 500 m in the northeast and southwest directions, associated to the Brazil Current-predominant direction. Other distributed concentrations in the surroundings seem to indicate the dilution and dispersion of drilling waste promoted by meteoceanographic factors.

  7. Isolation of Brazilian marine fungi capable of growing on DDD pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Scarlet Nere; Nitschke, Marcia; Mouad, Ana Maria; Landgraf, Maria Diva; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Sette, Lara Durães; Porto, André Luiz Meleiro

    2011-02-01

    The fungi Aspergillus sydowii Ce15, Aspergillus sydowii Ce19, Aspergillus sydowii Gc12, Bionectria sp. Ce5, Penicillium miczynskii Gc5, Penicillium raistrickii Ce16 and Trichoderma sp. Gc1, isolated from marine sponges Geodia corticostylifera and Chelonaplysylla erecta, were evaluated for their ability to grow in the presence of DDD pesticide. Increasing concentrations of DDD pesticide, i.e., 5.0 mg (1.56 × 10⁻¹² mmol), 10.0 mg (3.12 × 10⁻²) mmol) and 15.0 mg (4.68 × 10⁻² mmol) in solid and liquid culture media were tested. The fungi Trichoderma sp. Gc1 and Penicillium miczynskii Gc5 were able to grow in the presence of up to 15.0 mg of DDD, suggesting their potential for biodegradation. A 100% degradation of DDD was attained in liquid culture medium when Trichoderma sp. Gc1 was previously cultivated for 5 days and supplemented with 5.0 mg of DDD in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. However, the quantitative analysis showed that DDD was accumulated on mycelium and biodegradation level reached a maximum value of 58% after 14 days.

  8. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta, Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp., and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.. The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1 showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.

  9. Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ruschel Lopes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Water chlorophyll-α concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain to assess growth. At the end of the culture period, the average wet flesh weight, dry flesh weight, and shell weight were determined, as well as the distribution of oysters per size class. Six nonlinear models (logistic, exponential, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, and Von Bertalanffy were adjusted to the oyster growth data set. Final mean shell sizes were higher in São Francisco do Sul than in Florianópolis. In addition, oysters cultured in São Francisco do Sul were more uniformly distributed in the four size classes than those cultured in Florianópolis. The highest average values of wet flesh weight and shell weight were observed in São Francisco do Sul, whereas dry flesh weight did not differ between the sites. The estuary environment is more promising for the cultivation of oysters.

  10. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    AD-AI12 555 DAMES AND MOORE SEATTLE WA* FIG 8/1 COMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY. VOLUME IV. INVERTEBRATES .(U)DEC 81 W M BAYLOCK, J P HOUGHTON DACW67-80-C-OIDI...December 1981 Volume IV, Invertebrates 6. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT NUMBER 682-021-05 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUmaER(S) DACW67-80-C-0101 S. PERFORMING... Invertebrates Air Quality, Birds Is. KEY WORDS (Continue an reverse old. It necomemy w red ty a b eek mireber) Salmonids Wetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish

  11. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida). Spiny Lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOBSTER, BIOLOGY , AQUATIC ORGANISMS, COASTAL REGIONS, FISHES, CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA, ENVIRONMENTS, INVERTEBRATES , HISTORY, LIFE( BIOLOGY ), POPULATION...BIOLOGISTS, ECOLOGY, REQUIREMENTS, LIFE CYCLES, MARINE BIOLOGY , TAXONOMY, PROFILES, ROCK

  12. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OYSTERS, *MARINE BIOLOGY , COASTAL REGIONS, ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTS, REQUIREMENTS, LIFE CYCLES, BIOLOGY , AQUATIC ORGANISMS, FISHES, INVERTEBRATES ...HISTORY, LIFE( BIOLOGY ), POPULATION, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), SALINITY, FEEDING, ESTUARIES, TAXONOMY

  13. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  14. Tumors in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tascedda, F; Ottaviani, E.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathol...

  15. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Ward, Jeffrey A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-05-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.3.1.1 Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report, we provide a description of the methods and results of experiments conducted in FY 2010-FY 2011 to evaluate potential responses of selected aquatic organisms. Preliminary EMF laboratory experiments during FY 2010 and 2011 entailed exposures with representative fish and invertebrate species including juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). These species were selected for their ecological, commercial, and/or recreational importance, as well as their potential to encounter an MHK device or transmission cable during part or all of their life cycle. Based on previous studies, acute effects such as mortality were not expected to occur from EMF exposures. Therefore, our measurement endpoints focused on behavioral responses (e.g., detection of EMF, interference with feeding behavior, avoidance or attraction to EMF), developmental changes (i.e., growth and survival from egg or larval stage to juvenile), and exposure markers indicative of physiological responses to stress. EMF intensities during the various tests ranged from 0.1 to 3 millitesla, representing a range of upper bounding conditions reported in the literature. Experiments to date have shown there is little evidence to indicate distinct or extreme behavioral responses in the presence of elevated EMF for the species tested. Several developmental and physiological responses were observed in the fish exposures, although most were not

  16. Associative Learning in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D.; Byrne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron–motor neuron (SN–MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  17. Nonassociative Learning in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, John H.; Hawkins, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The simplicity and tractability of the neural circuits mediating behaviors in invertebrates have facilitated the cellular/molecular dissection of neural mechanisms underlying learning. The review has a particular focus on the general principles that have emerged from analyses of an example of nonassociative learning, sensitization in the marine mollusk Aplysia. Learning and memory rely on multiple mechanisms of plasticity at multiple sites of the neuronal circuits, with the relative contribution to memory of the different sites varying as a function of the extent of training and time after training. The same intracellular signaling cascades that induce short-term modifications in synaptic transmission can also be used to induce long-term changes. Although short-term memory relies on covalent modifications of preexisting proteins, long-term memory also requires regulated gene transcription and translation. Maintenance of long-term cellular memory involves both intracellular and extracellular feedback loops, which sustain the regulation of gene expression and the modification of targeted molecules. PMID:25722464

  18. Taphofacies of Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian marine invertebrates from the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations, part of the outcropped marine sequence of the Tapajós Group (Southern Amazonas Basin, Brazil) - regional palaeoecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. P.; Scomazzon, A. K.; Nascimento, S.; Lemos, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most relevant characteristics of the Pennsylvanian shallow-water carbonates of the Amazonas Basin is its diverse and well preserved invertebrate fossiliferous assemblages. In order to better understand the origin of these fossil concentrations, taphonomic data were obtained along well exposed areas of the uppermost part of the Monte Alegre Formation and basal part of the Itaituba Formation, which, based on conodonts, fusulinids and palynomorphs is of Atokan age. The taphonomic data focused on invertebrate organisms were supported by petrographic analysis. The understanding of the stacking pattern of the strata in the studied section allowed the identification of five type taphofacies, which contributed in the development of regional palaeoecological models, expressed as block-diagrams. These characterize the distribution of the environmental parameters, the composition of the faunal associations and the distribution and amplitude of the taphonomic processes that created the taphonomic signatures of the bioclastic elements throughout the supratidal to lower intertidal/deep subtidal depositional environments pertinent to the studied depositional environment. The regional palaeoecological models here presented are related to the particularities of the depositional environments of the studied rocks and are exclusive for the characterization of this intracratonic basin set influenced by high frequency climatic variations. Lithofacies, biofacies and taphofacies associations also reflect depositional conditions pertinent to the studied regional context, differing from the elements observed in modern intracratonic contexts analogous to the one studied, from different sedimentary basins around the world. Therefore, invertebrate taphonomy, supported by the analysis of sedimentary facies, fulfills the purposes recommended in this work, demonstrating its potential as a tool for palaeoecological analysis in the Pennsylvanian outcropping section in the southern

  19. Gene manupulations in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Čermáková, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Gene manipulations in invertebrates are based on the same approches used in vertebrates. The are applied for the development of new genotypes in model species, convenient as model systems of human hereditary diseases etc. Gene manipulations are important as well for practical purposes, which is shown by the example of trangenic mosquitoes. Recently, it has been proved that programmable nucleases can be successfully used in invertebrates. Key words: Gene manipulations, invertebrates, methods, ...

  20. Coral reef invertebrate microbiomes correlate with the presence of photosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, David G; Dennis, Paul G; Uthicke, Sven; Soo, Rochelle M; Tyson, Gene W; Webster, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    Coral reefs provide habitat for an array of marine invertebrates that host symbiotic microbiomes. Photosynthetic symbionts including Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and diatoms potentially influence the diversity of their host-associated microbiomes by releasing carbon-containing photosynthates and other organic compounds that fuel microbial metabolism. Here we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon pyrosequencing to characterise the microbiomes of 11 common Great Barrier Reef marine invertebrate species that host photosynthetic symbionts and five taxa in which they are absent. The presence of photosynthetic symbionts influenced the composition but not the species richness, evenness and phylogenetic diversity of invertebrate-associated microbiomes. Invertebrates without photosynthetic symbionts were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, whereas those hosting photosynthetic symbionts were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Interestingly, many microbial species from photosymbiont-bearing invertebrates, including Oceanospirillales spp., Alteromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Halomonas spp., are implicated in the metabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). DMSP is produced in high concentrations by photosynthetic dinoflagellates and is involved in climate regulation by facilitating cloud formation. Microbiomes correlated with host taxa and replicate individuals from most sampled species grouped in distance-based redundancy analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences. This study highlights the complex nature of invertebrate holobionts and confirms the importance of photosynthetic symbionts in structuring marine invertebrate bacterial communities.

  1. Marine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, L.; Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Meffert, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.; van Rijswick, P.C.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Orth, R.J.; van Katwijk, M.M.; van der Heide, T.

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives.

  2. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  3. A Parallel Population Genomic and Hydrodynamic Approach to Fishery Management of Highly-Dispersive Marine Invertebrates: The Case of the Fijian Black-Lip Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monal M Lal

    Full Text Available Fishery management and conservation of marine species increasingly relies on genetic data to delineate biologically relevant stock boundaries. Unfortunately for high gene flow species which may display low, but statistically significant population structure, there is no clear consensus on the level of differentiation required to resolve distinct stocks. The use of fine-scale neutral and adaptive variation, considered together with environmental data can offer additional insights to this problem. Genome-wide genetic data (4,123 SNPs, together with an independent hydrodynamic particle dispersal model were used to inform farm and fishery management in the Fijian black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, where comprehensive fishery management is lacking, and the sustainability of exploitation uncertain. Weak fine-scale patterns of population structure were detected, indicative of broad-scale panmixia among wild oysters, while a hatchery-sourced farmed population exhibited a higher degree of genetic divergence (Fst = 0.0850-0.102. This hatchery-produced population had also experienced a bottleneck (NeLD = 5.1; 95% C.I. = [5.1-5.3]; compared to infinite NeLD estimates for all wild oysters. Simulation of larval transport pathways confirmed the existence of broad-scale mixture by surface ocean currents, correlating well with fine-scale patterns of population structuring. Fst outlier tests failed to detect large numbers of loci supportive of selection, with 2-5 directional outlier SNPs identified (average Fst = 0.116. The lack of biologically significant population genetic structure, absence of evidence for local adaptation and larval dispersal simulation, all indicate the existence of a single genetic stock of P. margaritifera in the Fiji Islands. This approach using independent genomic and oceanographic tools has allowed fundamental insights into stock structure in this species, with transferability to other highly-dispersive marine taxa for their

  4. A Parallel Population Genomic and Hydrodynamic Approach to Fishery Management of Highly-Dispersive Marine Invertebrates: The Case of the Fijian Black-Lip Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Monal M; Southgate, Paul C; Jerry, Dean R; Bosserelle, Cyprien; Zenger, Kyall R

    2016-01-01

    Fishery management and conservation of marine species increasingly relies on genetic data to delineate biologically relevant stock boundaries. Unfortunately for high gene flow species which may display low, but statistically significant population structure, there is no clear consensus on the level of differentiation required to resolve distinct stocks. The use of fine-scale neutral and adaptive variation, considered together with environmental data can offer additional insights to this problem. Genome-wide genetic data (4,123 SNPs), together with an independent hydrodynamic particle dispersal model were used to inform farm and fishery management in the Fijian black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, where comprehensive fishery management is lacking, and the sustainability of exploitation uncertain. Weak fine-scale patterns of population structure were detected, indicative of broad-scale panmixia among wild oysters, while a hatchery-sourced farmed population exhibited a higher degree of genetic divergence (Fst = 0.0850-0.102). This hatchery-produced population had also experienced a bottleneck (NeLD = 5.1; 95% C.I. = [5.1-5.3]); compared to infinite NeLD estimates for all wild oysters. Simulation of larval transport pathways confirmed the existence of broad-scale mixture by surface ocean currents, correlating well with fine-scale patterns of population structuring. Fst outlier tests failed to detect large numbers of loci supportive of selection, with 2-5 directional outlier SNPs identified (average Fst = 0.116). The lack of biologically significant population genetic structure, absence of evidence for local adaptation and larval dispersal simulation, all indicate the existence of a single genetic stock of P. margaritifera in the Fiji Islands. This approach using independent genomic and oceanographic tools has allowed fundamental insights into stock structure in this species, with transferability to other highly-dispersive marine taxa for their conservation

  5. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  6. Genotype by sequencing identifies natural selection as a driver of intraspecific divergence in Atlantic populations of the high dispersal marine invertebrate, Macoma petalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metivier, Stacy L; Kim, Jin-Hong; Addison, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that the Bay of Fundy population of the intertidal tellinid bivalve Macoma petalum is genetically divergent from coastal populations in the Gulf of Maine and Nova Scotia. To further examine the evolutionary forces driving this genetic break, we performed double digest genotype by sequencing (GBS) to survey the nuclear genome for evidence of both neutral and selective processes shaping this pattern. The resulting reads were mapped to a partial transcriptome of its sister species, M. balthica, to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in protein-coding genes. Population assignment tests, principle components analyses, analysis of molecular variance, and outlier tests all support differentiation between the Bay of Fundy genotype and the genotypes of the Gulf of Maine, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Nova Scotia. Although both neutral and non-neutral patterns of genetic subdivision were significant, genetic structure among the regions was nearly 20 times higher for loci putatively under selection, suggesting a strong role for natural selection as a driver of genetic diversity in this species. Genetic differences were the greatest between the Bay of Fundy and all other population samples, and some outlier proteins were involved in immunity-related processes. Our results suggest that in combination with limited gene flow across the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, local adaptation is an important driver of intraspecific genetic variation in this marine species with high dispersal potential.

  7. Do invertebrates have culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Danchin, Étienne; Blanchet, Simon; Mery, Frédérick; Wagner, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper in Current Biology1 showed for the first time that female invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster) can perform mate choice copying. Here, we discuss how female mating preferences in this species may be transmitted culturally. If culture occurs in invertebrates, it may be a relatively ancient evolutionary process that may have contributed to the evolution of many different taxa. This would considerably broaden the taxonomic range of cultural processes and suggest the need to incl...

  8. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Embryonic chimerism does not induce tolerance in an invertebrate model organism

    OpenAIRE

    Poudyal, Monita; Rosa, Sabrina; Powell, Anahid E.; Moreno, Maria; Stephen L Dellaporta; Buss, Leo W.; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2007-01-01

    In colonial marine invertebrates, allorecognition restricts somatic fusion and thus, chimerism, to histocompatible individuals. Little is understood, however, about how invertebrates respond to chimerism formed across histocompatibility barriers or whether embryonic exposure to histoincompatible cells induces allotolerance. We here evaded natural allorecognition barriers by generating well mixed embryonic chimeras of Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria:Hydrozoa) and developed molecular ma...

  10. Indigenous ectosymbiotic bacteria associated with diverse hydrothermal vent invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K

    2010-08-01

    Symbioses involving bacteria and invertebrates contribute to the biological diversity and high productivity of both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Well-known examples from chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments involve ectosymbiotic microbes associated with the external surfaces of marine invertebrates. Some of these ectosymbioses confer protection or defence from predators or the environment itself, some are nutritional in nature, and many still are of unknown function. Several recently discovered hydrothermal vent invertebrates, including two populations of yeti crab (Kiwa spp.), a limpet (Symmetromphalus aff. hageni), and the scaly-foot snail (as yet undescribed), support a consortium of diverse bacteria. Comparisons of these ectosymbioses to those previously described revealed similarities among the associated microorganisms, suggesting that certain microbes are indigenous to the surfaces of marine invertebrates. In particular, members of the Thiovulgaceae (epsilonproteobacteria) and Thiotrichaceae (gammaproteobacteria) appear to preferentially form ectosymbioses with vent crustaceans and gastropods. Interactions between specific Proteobacteria and the surfaces of many marine invertebrates likely have ecological and evolutionary significance at these chemically challenging habitats. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Orr: NPRB_1016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska and a retrospective analysis of the groundfish trawl database.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A comprehensive species list of marine invertebrates of Alaska has been lacking. The checklist of Austin (1985) treated the marine invertebrates of the southern...

  12. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Orr_An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska and a retrospective analysis of the groundfish trawl database.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A comprehensive species list of marine invertebrates of Alaska has been lacking. The checklist of Austin (1985) treated the marine invertebrates of the southern...

  13. Macrofauna invertebrada do solo em sistema integrado de produção agropecuária no Cerrado = Soil invertebrate macrofauna in an integrated livestock production system in the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna invertebrada do solo de um sistema de produção envolvendo a rotação lavoura e pecuária, sob plantio direto. O trabalho foi conduzido no Município de Dourados, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, num LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distroférrico típico, em parcelas commonocultivo e preparo convencional do solo, sistema integrado lavoura/pecuária em plantio direto e pastagem contínua, e um fragmento de vegetação nativa. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro épocas distintas: janeiro/2002, junho/2002, janeiro/2003 e julho/2003, conforme o método recomendado pelo programa “Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility” (TSBF. Os sistemas com menor interferência antrópica apresentaram maior abundância e riqueza da comunidade da macrofauna invertebrada do solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the density and diversity of soil invertebrate macrofauna in a crop-livestock rotation production system under no-tillage. The field experiment was performed in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, on a Typic Hapludox soil, in parcels under a conventional monoculturesystem, a crop-livestock rotation system under no-tillage and continuous pasture, and a native vegetation fragment. The evaluations were conducted in January 2002, June 2002, January 2003 and July 2003, according to the method recommended by the Tropical SoilBiology and Fertility (TSBF program. Systems with less anthropic interference showed greater abundance and richness of soil invertebrate macrofauna.

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and brackish water invertebrate species in Mississippi. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in North Carolina. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, and estuarine invertebrate species in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, freshwater, and terrestrial invertebrate species in Northern California. Vector...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater (limited to threatened/endangered/rare) invertebrate species for the...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in South Florida. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  3. Aquarium Culture of Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two methods for rearing small aquatic invertebrates using submerged surfaces in an unfiltered current of water where fish are present. Presents suggestions on how to use the invertebrate communities in the classroom. (JRH)

  4. Hawaii ESI: INVERTPT (Invertebrate Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream invertebrates, anchialine pool invertebrates, and threatened/endangered terrestrial...

  5. Modes of evolution mainly among marine invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mac Gillavry, H.J.

    1968-01-01

    Three modes of evolution are distinguished: 1. evolutionary radiation, 2. opportunistic adaptation, 3. sustained change. Material evidence of evolution is almost non-existent in the first mode, very slight in the second. Opportunistic adaptation is characteristic of the sublittoral benthos;

  6. Oncology of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John E

    2004-09-01

    In this article, "Invertebrates" are considered to be all those animals that are not in the five main groups of vertebrates (Mammalia,Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, and three classes of fish), and the term neoplasm is used in its traditional sense of "new, uncontrolled, growth". The history of study of such lesions is reviewed and methods of investigation and control are outlined.

  7. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D.. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  8. Stalking the Neighborhood Invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, James W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a six-week simulation of basic research in which high school students acquire, observe, describe, illustrate, and report on an invertebrate of their choice. Includes chart used to evaluate student monographs, and comments relating to student experiences while engaged in their projects. (Author/JN)

  9. The endocannabinoid system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzet, M; Stefano, G B

    2002-01-01

    What is the role of the cannabinoid system in invertebrates and can it tell us something about the human system? We discuss in this review the possible presence of the cannabinoid system in invertebrates. Endocannabinoid processes, i.e., enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids, have been identified in various species of invertebrates. These signal molecules appear to have multiple roles in invertebrates; diminishing sensory input, control of reproduction, feeding behavior, neurotransmission and antiinflammatory actions. We propose that since this system worked so well, it was retained during evolution, and that invertebrates can serve as a model to study endogenous cannabinoid signaling. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  11. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  12. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  13. Operant conditioning in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2003-12-01

    Learning to anticipate future events on the basis of past experience with the consequences of one's own behavior (operant conditioning) is a simple form of learning that humans share with most other animals, including invertebrates. Three model organisms have recently made significant contributions towards a mechanistic model of operant conditioning, because of their special technical advantages. Research using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster implicated the ignorant gene in operant conditioning in the heat-box, research on the sea slug Aplysia californica contributed a cellular mechanism of behavior selection at a convergence point of operant behavior and reward, and research on the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis elucidated the role of a behavior-initiating neuron in operant conditioning. These insights demonstrate the usefulness of a variety of invertebrate model systems to complement and stimulate research in vertebrates.

  14. Clinical techniques of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Matthew E; Heatley, J Jill; Chitty, John

    2006-05-01

    This article highlights techniques and equipment needed to successfully restrain, diagnose, and treat gastropods (including snails and slugs) and arthropods (including spiders, scorpions, honey-bees, cockroaches, silkworms, phasmids, centipedes, and millipedes). A review of current clinical techniques for invertebrates kept as pets and those kept for agricultural use is provided. The specific techniques of restraint, assessment of hydration, fluid therapy, diagnostic sampling, imaging, exoskeleton repair, ectoparasite control and removal, euthanasia, and postmortem examination are reviewed for use in the invertebrate patient. The authors intend this article to stimulate further research and reporting on appropriate and humane techniques for use in these species and to increase the ability of the veterinary practitioner to successfully attend to these animals.

  15. Insects and other invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  16. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  17. Variable immune molecules in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerenius, Lage; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2013-12-01

    Recently it has become evident that invertebrates may mount a highly variable immune response that is dependent on which pathogen is involved. The molecular mechanisms behind this diversity are beginning to be unravelled and in several invertebrate taxa immune proteins exhibiting a broad range of diversity have been found. In some cases, evidence has been gathered suggesting that this molecular diversity translates into the ability of an affected invertebrate to mount a defence that is specifically aimed at a particular pathogen.

  18. Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Trevor [Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: trevor.williams@inecol.edu.mx

    2008-11-15

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes, Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles, Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts. (author)

  19. Medicinal compounds of Marine origin | Pandey | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous bioactive compounds of therapeutic interest have been isolated from marine invertebrates, and some of them have been reported to be of microbial origin. Several of these compounds ... KeyWords: Chemical compounds, seas, wonder drugs, marine invertebrates, oceanic biodiversity. Journal of Pharmaceutical ...

  20. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  1. Aggression in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Edward A; Huber, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Invertebrates are outstanding model systems for the study of aggression. Recent advances and promising new research approaches are bringing investigators closer to the goal of integrating behavioral findings with those from other disciplines of the neurosciences. The presence of highly structured, easily evoked behavioral systems offer unique opportunities to quantify the aggressive state of individuals, to explore the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of dominance relationships, to investigate the dynamic properties of hierarchy formation, and to explore the significance of neural, neurochemical and genetic mechanisms in these behavioral phenomena.

  2. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Functional neuropeptidomics in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haes, Wouter; Van Sinay, Elien; Detienne, Giel; Temmerman, Liesbet; Schoofs, Liliane; Boonen, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides are key messengers in almost all physiological processes. They originate from larger precursors and are extensively processed to become bioactive. Neuropeptidomics aims to comprehensively identify the collection of neuropeptides in an organism, organ, tissue or cell. The neuropeptidome of several invertebrates is thoroughly explored since they are important model organisms (and models for human diseases), disease vectors and pest species. The charting of the neuropeptidome is the first step towards understanding peptidergic signaling. This review will first discuss the latest developments in exploring the neuropeptidome. The physiological roles and modes of action of neuropeptides can be explored in two ways, which are largely orthogonal and therefore complementary. The first way consists of inferring the functions of neuropeptides by a forward approach where neuropeptide profiles are compared under different physiological conditions. Second is the reverse approach were neuropeptide collections are used to screen for receptor-binding. This is followed by localization studies and functional tests. This review will focus on how these different functional screening methods contributed to the field of invertebrate neuropeptidomics and expanded our knowledge of peptidergic signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Invertebrate communities of the High Arctic ponds in Hornsund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoto Tomi P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available How environmental conditions influence current distributions of organisms at the local scale in sensitive High Arctic freshwaters is essential to understand in order to better comprehend the cascading consequences of the ongoing climate change. This knowledge is also important background data for paleolimnological assessments of long-term limnoecological changes and in describing the range of environmental variability. We sampled five limnologically different freshwater sites from the Fuglebergsletta marine terrace in Hornsund, southern Svalbard, for aquatic invertebrates. Invertebrate communities were tested against non-climatic environmental drivers as limnological and catchment variables. A clear separation in the communities between the sites was observed. The largest and deepest lake was characterized by a diverse Chironomidae community but Cladocera were absent. In a pond with marine influence, crustaceans, such as Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and calanoid Copepoda were the most abundant invertebrates. Two nutrient-rich ponds were dominated by a chironomid, Orthocladius consobrinus, whereas themost eutrophic pond was dominated by the cladoceran Daphnia pulex, suggesting decreasing diversity along with the trophic status. Overall, nutrient related variables appeared to have an important influence on the invertebrate community composition and diversity, the trophic state of the sites being linked with their exposure to geese guano. Other segregating variables included water color, presence/absence of fish, abundance of aquatic vegetation and lake depth. These results suggest that since most of these variables are climate-driven at a larger scale, the impacts of the ongoing climate change will have cumulative effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  5. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p joint confidence region included the intercept of 0 (−103.0 ± 707.9) and slope of 1 (1.01 ± 0.12). Use of this model requires that only dry and wet mass measurements be obtained, resulting in significant time, sample size, and cost savings compared to traditional bomb calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  6. Drug Discovery from Marine Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwick, William H.; Fenner, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marin...

  7. Consistent multi-level trophic effects of marine reserve protection across northern New Zealand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham J Edgar; Rick D Stuart-Smith; Russell J Thomson; Debbie J Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether...

  8. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic): Bluefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Marine Fisheries Service, Panama City, Florida,for reviewing this manuscript. vi Figure 1. Bluefish. BLUEFISH NOMENCLATURE/TAXONOMY/RANGE westward to...indicated Southeast Fisheries Center, Beaufort, that larval bluefish ate mostly North Carolina; pers. comm.). copepods, but also fed on cladocerans and...eat mostly copepods, cladocerans , and invertebrate eggs; juveniles eat larger invertebrates and fishes. Adult bluefish eat fishes and seem to prefer

  9. Cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, J M; Agraval, J; Gleeson, D; Heasman, K; Glass, M

    2006-03-01

    Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The presence of cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates has been controversial, due to conflicting evidence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, using expanded search parameters. Evidence presented in the literature varied in validity, ranging from crude in vivo behavioural assays to robust in silico ortholog discovery. No research existed for several clades of invertebrates; we therefore tested for cannabinoid receptors in seven representative species, using tritiated ligand binding assays with [3H]CP55,940 displaced by the CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A. Specific binding of [3H]CP55,940 was found in neural membranes of Ciona intestinalis (Deuterstoma, a positive control), Lumbricusterrestris (Lophotrochozoa), and three ecdysozoans: Peripatoides novae-zealandiae (Onychophora), Jasus edwardi (Crustacea) and Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda); the potency of displacement by SR141716A was comparable to measurements on rat cerebellum. No specific binding was observed in Actinothoe albocincta (Cnidaria) or Tethya aurantium (Porifera). The phylogenetic distribution of cannabinoid receptors may address taxonomic questions; previous studies suggested that the loss of CB1 was a synapomorphy shared by ecdysozoans. Our discovery of cannabinoid receptors in some nematodes, onychophorans, and crustaceans does not contradict the Ecdysozoa hypothesis, but gives it no support. We hypothesize that cannabinoid receptors evolved in the last common ancestor of bilaterians, with secondary loss occurring in insects and other clades. Conflicting data regarding Cnidarians precludes hypotheses regarding the last common ancestor of eumetazoans. No cannabinoid receptors are expressed in sponges, which probably diverged before the origin of the eumetazoan ancestor.

  10. IACUC Challenges in Invertebrate Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Clark, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With billions of individuals and possibly hundreds of thousands of genera, invertebrates represent the largest number and greatest diversity of all animals used in research. Although the capacity for nociception is recognized in many invertebrate taxa, researchers and IACUC members are challenged by a lack of clear understanding of invertebrate welfare and by differing standards of moral concern for these taxa. In practice this has led IACUCs to consider invertebrates in two major groups: species worthy of increased moral concern approximating that shown to vertebrate species (this group includes cephalopods and to some extent decapod crustaceans) and all others. This dichotomy has led to differences in how invertebrate research is regulated and documented. This article presents two case studies illustrating specific concerns in invertebrate research protocols and then provides relevant information to address practical IACUC matters related to regulatory and ethical issues, sourcing and record keeping, risk management, assessment of pain and nociception in invertebrates, housing and husbandry, invasive procedures, veterinary care, and humane endpoints.

  11. Marine infectious disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as consumers in marine food webs. Although some parasites might increase with disturbance, most probably decline as food webs unravel. There are several ways to adapt epidemiological theory to the marine environment. In particular, because the ocean represents a three-dimensional moving habitat for hosts and parasites, models should open up the spatial scales at which infective stages and host larvae travel. In addition to open recruitment and dimensionality, marine parasites are subject to fishing, filter feeders, dosedependent infection, environmental forcing, and death-based transmission. Adding such considerations to marine disease models will make it easier to predict which infectious diseases will increase or decrease in a changing ocean.

  12. Drug discovery from marine microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, William H; Fenner, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or as molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow-water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of "associated" or symbiotic microorganisms and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts.

  13. Occluding junctions of invertebrate epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonusaite, Sima; Donini, Andrew; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity and architecture is immense. This is achieved by the organization and function of four tissue types found in most metazoan phyla-epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissue is found in all extant animals (parazoan and metazoan alike). Epithelial cells form cellular sheets that cover internal or external surfaces and regulate the passage of material between separated compartments. The transepithelial movement of biological material between compartments can occur across the transcellular pathway (i.e. across cells) or the paracellular pathway (i.e. between cells) and the latter is regulated by occluding junctions that typically link cells in a subapical domain. In this review, information on occluding junctions of invertebrate epithelia is consolidated and discussed in the context of morphology, ultrastructure and physiology. In addition, an overview of what is currently known about invertebrate occluding junction proteins and their role in maintaining the integrity of invertebrate epithelia and regulating the barrier properties of these tissues is presented.

  14. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  15. Invertebrate models in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Eirik; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    While drug addiction is a uniquely human problem, most research examining the biological mechanisms of the transition from substance use to addiction is conducted with vertebrate animal models. Many other fields of neuroscience have greatly benefitted from contributions from simple and manipulable invertebrate model systems. However, the potential of invertebrate research has yet to be fully capitalised on in the field of addiction neuroscience. This may be because of the complexity of addiction and the clinical imperative of addiction research. We argue that the homocentric diagnostic criteria of addiction are no more a hindrance to the use of invertebrate models than they are to vertebrate models. We highlight the strengths of the diversity of different invertebrate model systems in terms of neuroanatomy and molecular machinery, and stress that working with a range of different models will aid in understanding addiction and not be a disadvantage. Finally, we discuss the specific advantages of utilising invertebrate animals for addiction research and highlight key areas in which invertebrates are suited for making unique and meaningful contributions to this field. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. RUNX in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Woollard, A

    2017-01-01

    Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C. elegans, are invaluable systems in which to probe the molecular basis of RUNX function within a whole organism. Additionally, comparative analyses of Runx sequence and function allows for the development of novel evolutionary insights. Strikingly, recent data has emerged that reveals the presence of a Runx gene in a protist, demonstrating even more widespread occurrence of Runx genes than was previously thought. This review will summarize recent progress in using invertebrate organisms to investigate RUNX function during development and regeneration, highlighting emerging unifying themes.

  17. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.

    2013-05-20

    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  18. Temperature Control of Larval Dispersal and the Implications for Marine Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary I. O'Connor; John F. Bruno; Steven D. Gaines; Benjamin S. Halpern; Sarah E. Lester; Brian P. Kinlan; Jack M. Weiss

    2007-01-01

    .... Temperature can also cause variability in metabolic rate within species. Here, we compare the effect of temperature on a key component of marine life cycles among a geographically and taxonomically diverse group of marine fish and invertebrates...

  19. Invertebrate immune diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Julie; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Smith, L Courtney

    2011-09-01

    The arms race between hosts and pathogens (and other non-self) drives the molecular diversification of immune response genes in the host. Over long periods of evolutionary time, many different defense strategies have been employed by a wide variety of invertebrates. We review here penaeidins and crustins in crustaceans, the allorecognition system encoded by fuhc, fester and Uncle fester in a colonial tunicate, Dscam and PGRPs in arthropods, FREPs in snails, VCBPs in protochordates, and the Sp185/333 system in the purple sea urchin. Comparisons among immune systems, including those reviewed here have not identified an immune specific regulatory "genetic toolkit", however, repeatedly identified sequences (or "building materials" on which the tools act) are present in a broad range of immune systems. These include a Toll/TLR system, a primitive complement system, an LPS binding protein, and a RAG core/Transib element. Repeatedly identified domains and motifs that function in immune proteins include NACHT, LRR, Ig, death, TIR, lectin domains, and a thioester motif. In addition, there are repeatedly identified mechanisms (or "construction methods") that generate sequence diversity in genes with immune function. These include genomic instability, duplications and/or deletions of sequences and the generation of clusters of similar genes or exons that appear as families, gene recombination, gene conversion, retrotransposition, alternative splicing, multiple alleles for single copy genes, and RNA editing. These commonly employed "materials and methods" for building and maintaining an effective immune system that might have been part of that ancestral system appear now as a fragmented and likely incomplete set, likely due to the rapid evolutionary change (or loss) of host genes that are under pressure to keep pace with pathogen diversity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What determines sclerobiont colonization on marine mollusk shells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi Agostini, Vanessa; Ritter, Matias do Nascimento; José Macedo, Alexandre; Muxagata, Erik; Erthal, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Empty mollusk shells may act as colonization surfaces for sclerobionts depending on the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the shells. However, the main factors that can affect the establishment of an organism on hard substrates and the colonization patterns on modern and time-averaged shells remain unclear. Using experimental and field approaches, we compared sclerobiont (i.e., bacteria and invertebrate) colonization patterns on the exposed shells (internal and external sides) of three bivalve species (Anadara brasiliana, Mactra isabelleana, and Amarilladesma mactroides) with different external shell textures. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the host characteristics (mode of life, body size, color alteration, external and internal ornamentation and mineralogy) of sclerobionts on dead mollusk shells (bivalve and gastropod) collected from the Southern Brazilian coast. Finally, we compared field observations with experiments to evaluate how the biological signs of the present-day invertebrate settlements are preserved in molluscan death assemblages (incipient fossil record) in a subtropical shallow coastal setting. The results enhance our understanding of sclerobiont colonization over modern and paleoecology perspectives. The data suggest that sclerobiont settlement is enhanced by (i) high(er) biofilm bacteria density, which is more attracted to surfaces with high ornamentation; (ii) heterogeneous internal and external shell surface; (iii) shallow infaunal or attached epifaunal life modes; (iv) colorful or post-mortem oxidized shell surfaces; (v) shell size (1,351 mm2); and (vi) calcitic mineralogy. Although the biofilm bacteria density, shell size, and texture are considered the most important factors, the effects of other covarying attributes should also be considered. We observed a similar pattern of sclerobiont colonization frequency over modern and paleoecology perspectives, with an increase of invertebrates occurring on textured bivalve

  1. 77 FR 75601 - Boundary Expansion of Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries; Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... corals, sponges and a myriad of other invertebrates cover hard bottom areas and these sessile invertebrate communities are washed with food rich water from the north. These invertebrate reefs also provide... rich diversity and health of this thriving marine ecosystem depends on the cold nutrient rich source...

  2. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  3. Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: a review with new data for freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Julio A; Alonso, Alvaro; Salamanca, Annabella

    2005-03-01

    Published data on nitrate (NO3-) toxicity to freshwater and marine animals are reviewed. New data on nitrate toxicity to the freshwater invertebrates Eulimnogammarus toletanus, Echinogammarus echinosetosus and Hydropsyche exocellata are also presented. The main toxic action of nitrate is due to the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments to forms that are incapable of carrying oxygen. Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals increases with increasing nitrate concentrations and exposure times. In contrast, nitrate toxicity may decrease with increasing body size, water salinity, and environmental adaptation. Freshwater animals appear to be more sensitive to nitrate than marine animals. A nitrate concentration of 10 mg NO3-N/l (USA federal maximum level for drinking water) can adversely affect, at least during long-term exposures, freshwater invertebrates (E. toletanus, E. echinosetosus, Cheumatopsyche pettiti, Hydropsyche occidentalis), fishes (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Salmo clarki), and amphibians (Pseudacris triseriata, Rana pipiens, Rana temporaria, Bufo bufo). Safe levels below this nitrate concentration are recommended to protect sensitive freshwater animals from nitrate pollution. Furthermore, a maximum level of 2 mg NO3-N/l would be appropriate for protecting the most sensitive freshwater species. In the case of marine animals, a maximum level of 20 mg NO3-N/l may in general be acceptable. However, early developmental stages of some marine invertebrates, that are well adapted to low nitrate concentrations, may be so susceptible to nitrate as sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

  4. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  5. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  6. Ecology of the marine protists, the Labyrinthulomycetes (Thraustochytrids and Labyrinthulids)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.

    production and chemical alteration of detritus. Labyrinthulomycetes re-portedly cause diseases in animals and there are indications that they live as commensals or mutualists within the guts and tissues of marine invertebrates, as well as being saprobic...

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Sponge Clathria indica (Dendy, 1889)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravichandran, S.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Anbuchezhian, R.M.

    in marine invertebrates. The aim of the present work was to study the antimicrobial properties of the Indian sponge Clathria indica with special reference to the identification of antimicrobial peptides. Crude methanolic extract and its chloroform, n...

  8. Sensitivities of marine macrozoobenthos to environmental pressures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, A.; Loon, van W.M.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The relative sensitivities of 309 common invertebrate species in Dutch marine waters are presented for environmental and anthropogenic pressures like organic enrichment, sedimentation and fisheries. The species were furthermore appointed to trophic groups like suspension and deposit feeders. The

  9. Patterns of genetic connectivity in invertebrates of temperate MPA networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marti-Puig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperate reefs are among the most threatened marine habitats due to impacts caused by high density of human settlements, coastal development, pollution, fisheries and tourism. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs are an important tool for ensuring long-term health and conservation of ecological processes in the marine environment. Design of the MPA network has to be based on deep understanding of spatial patterns of species distribution, and on the make-up of connectivity among populations. Most benthic invertebrates are sessile and/or sedentary in the adult phase, and their dispersal relies mainly on the gametes and/or larval behaviours. Genetic markers allow us to quantify gene flow and structuring among populations, and to infer patterns of genetic connectivity. Based on the information available in the peer reviewed literature on genetic connectivity in benthic invertebrates of temperate MPAs, we provide a comment about the gaps and the needs. Moreover, we propose a rationale to plan and optimise future studies on this topic. A conceptual framework for planning effective studies on genetic connectivity in an MPAs network is provided, including general recommendations on sampling design, key species and molecular markers to use.

  10. Notes on the Holocene marine fauna of eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Funder, Svend Visby; Hjorth, Christian

    1986-01-01

    A list of invertebrates, notably molluscs, from the raised Holocene marine sedimets in eastern North Greenland is given. The faunas have low diversity, and contain an element of Arctic sublittoral and bathyal species indicative of cold surface water.......A list of invertebrates, notably molluscs, from the raised Holocene marine sedimets in eastern North Greenland is given. The faunas have low diversity, and contain an element of Arctic sublittoral and bathyal species indicative of cold surface water....

  11. How does the connectivity between populations mediate range limits of marine invertebrates? A case study of larval dispersal between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel (North-East Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée; Lazure, Pascal; Thiébaut, Éric

    2010-10-01

    For many marine species, larval dispersal plays a crucial role in population persistence, re-colonization of disturbed areas, and distribution of species range limits through the control of population connectivity. Along the French Atlantic coast (NE Atlantic), a biogeographical transition zone has been reported between temperate and cold-temperate marine faunal assemblages. Hydrodynamics in this area are highly complex and variable including numerous mesoscale features (e.g. river plumes, fronts, upwellings, low salinity lenses), which could constrain larval transport and connectivity. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess how hydrodynamic conditions and biological traits influence larval transport and contribute to population connectivity along the biogeographical transition zone between the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel. A coupled bio-physical individual-based model was used at a regional scale to track larval trajectories under realistic hydroclimatic conditions (tides, river run-offs, and meteorological conditions) and for some common life-history traits. Larval particles were released monthly from February to August for the years 2001 to 2005, from 16 spawning populations corresponding to the main bays and estuaries of the study area. Two planktonic larval durations (2 vs. 4 weeks) and three vertical distributions (no swimming behaviour, diel vertical migration, and ontogenic vertical migration) were considered. Dispersal kernels were described by 17 parameters and analysed in a multivariate approach to calculate connectivity matrices and indices. The main factors responsible for the variability of the dispersal kernels were the spawning month in relation to the seasonal variations in river run-offs and wind conditions, the planktonic larval duration, the spawning population location, and the larval behaviour. No significant inter-annual variability was observed. Self-retention rates were high and larval exchanges occurred mainly within

  12. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  13. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  14. Secondary metabolites from the South China Sea invertebrates: chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei; Gu, Yucheng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries has driven scientists to search for new sources of bioactive natural products. Marine invertebrates are a rich source of novel, bioactive secondary metabolites and they have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists in the fields of chemistry, pharmacology, ecology, and molecular biology. During the past 25 years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from the invertebrates inhabiting the South China Sea. These metabolites are responsible for various bioactivities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities, and/or they act on the cardiovascular system. This review will focus on the marine natural product chemistry of invertebrates from the South China Sea, aiming to give the reader a brief view of the compounds isolated from these invertebrates, as well as their biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from the beginning of 1980 to the end of 2005, with 340 citations and 811 compounds from invertebrates from the South China Sea, including sponges, coelenterates, molluscs and echinoderms.

  15. Pharmacological lifespan extension of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucanic, Mark; Lithgow, Gordon J; Alavez, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying small, drug-like compounds that slow aging in multiple species, particularly in mammals. Such compounds may prove to be useful in treating and retarding age-related disease in humans. Just as invertebrate models have been essential in helping us understand the genetic pathways that control aging, these model organisms are also proving valuable in discovering chemical compounds that influence longevity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has numerous advantages for such studies including its short lifespan and has been exploited by a number of investigators to find compounds that impact aging. Here, we summarize the progress being made in identifying compounds that extend the lifespan of invertebrates, and introduce the challenges we face in translating this research into human therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ion regulation in invertebrates: molecular and integrative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto, Flavia Pinheiro; Wheatly, Michele G

    2006-01-01

    The subject of ion regulation in invertebrates is discussed, using a variety of invertebrate model species and approaches that range from the whole-organism level to tissue, subcellular, and molecular levels to illustrate the future direction of the field. These organisms inhabit a variety of aquatic, freshwater, and terrestrial environments, showing specific adaptations to each environment. This overview discusses mechanisms of metal detoxification and the presence of Cl-ATPase in marine organisms to avoid excess intracellular Cl(-); Ca(2+) regulation and endocrine aspects of adaptations to transitional (semiterrestrial) environments; adaptations to Ca(2+)-poor freshwater, particularly the reabsorption of Ca(2+) through specific transporters found in the urine; and finally, ionoregulatory mechanisms for life on land, such as Ca(2+) conservation during molting in isopods and the presence of K(+) channels in insect Malpighian tubules. Convergent mechanisms for dealing with similar problems in dissimilar habitats are discussed, taking into consideration that invertebrates will continue to serve as model systems for the evolution of ionoregulation in different habitats.

  17. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2006-11-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity and memory has long been a matter of debate. A recent study on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes now establishes Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) as a key immune surveillance factor with characteristics analogous to antibodies.

  18. Regional Patterns in Invertebrate Assemblages on Offshore Oil Platforms Along the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, S.; Page, H. M.; Miller, R. J.; Doheny, B.; Dugan, J. E.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Twenty-seven oil and gas platforms are arrayed offshore California from north of Point Conception south to San Pedro Bay (a coastline distance of >300 km). To test the hypothesis that variability in the structure of sessile invertebrate communities on the platforms is associated with regional differences in sea surface temperature, we sampled space-holding invertebrate taxa photographically on 23 platforms and compared the composition and cover of invertebrates among and within regions using multivariate analyses. To explore temporal variability in invertebrate assemblages, we also compared the cover and composition of invertebrates on a subset of platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) where data were collected over ten years previously. The composition of invertebrate assemblages differed significantly among regions, and was driven by variation in the relative abundance of certain anemone, bryozoan, tubiferous annelid, sponge, and bivalve taxa. The presence of non-native bryozoan and anemone taxa on some platforms in the south (San Pedro Bay) and southeast SBC contributed to the distinction of these assemblages from the others. Comparison of survey data on the subset of platforms in the SBC surveyed over ten years apart revealed little change in the cover of major space-holding taxa (e.g., anemones Metridium, Corynactis) across platforms, although there was an increase in cover of the non-native bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata between surveys. The existence of geographical patterns in the composition of platform invertebrate assemblages suggests that these assemblages may be useful as barometers of short and longer-term environmental change. For biogeographic transition zones, such as the SBC, monitoring of platform invertebrate assemblages could permit an evaluation of the concept that these zones are particularly susceptible to shifts in the composition of marine species driven by ocean climate.

  19. The Marine Magnetotelluric Method (MMT) applied of hydrocarbons exploration in Brazilian waters; Aplicacao do Metodo Magnetotelurico Marinho (MMT) na exploracao de hidrocarbonetos em aguas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vinicius R.; Flexor, Jean M.; La Terra, Emanuele F.; Fontes, Sergio L. [Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lugao, Patricia P. [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Western-Geco

    2008-07-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is a natural-source, electromagnetic geophysical method of imaging structures below the earth's surface. It is used to map the subsurface Earth's resistivity by measuring the naturally occurring electric and magnetic fields at the Earth's surface. These natural EM fields are generated in the Earth's atmosphere mainly by lightning strokes and by interactions between the solar wind and the ionosphere. Natural variations in the earth's magnetic field induce electric currents (or telluric currents) under the earth's surface. Concurrent measurements of orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields allow for the calculation of the impedance tensor, which is complex and frequency-dependent and from which it is possible to gain insight into the resistivity structure of the surrounding material. The marine magnetotelluric method (MMT) is the application of MT method to investigate the sea-floor resistivity's distribution. A MMT sounding with 96 stations was realized in the region of Santos Basin on a subsalt section to assist the interpretation of seismic data in order to estimate the depth of base of the salt (subsalt) since this imaging in general is problematic. The high contrast of the electrical resistivity between the salt and the surrounding sediments is an excellent objective and it constitutes a great opportunity to test the applicability of the MMT method in oil exploration studies. The geological interpretation of the seismic profile of the studied area shows the existence of several bodies of salt with depths of the base that could vary more from 7000 m to more than 9000 m. The top of the body of more important salt of the profile begins to the 3500 m and your base is not solved by the seismic sign that it reaches a maximum depth of 9000 m. The MMT data of the central profile were submitted an inversion procedure - 2D by using the non linear conjugate gradients that produces smooth models for

  20. Neuroexcitatory Drug Receptors in Mammals and Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-16

    Include S*crt -Classification) Contract number Neuroexcitatory Drug Rcceptors in Mammals and Invertebrates (unclassified) DAAL 03-87-K-0020 12...mammals ever encountered. We demonstrated that theoe convulsant drugs acted potently on GABA-A receptors in mammals and invertebrates , using a...in understanding the physiology and toxicology of GABA. \\We also began studies on biochemical isol.&tion of invertebrate GABA-A rýeptor proteins in

  1. Heavy metals of inshore benthic invertebrates from the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauke, G-P; Clason, B; Savinov, V M; Savinova, T

    2003-05-01

    To assess metals in biota of the Barents Sea, information is presented on concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in the marine inshore benthic invertebrates Gammarus oceanicus, Littorina rudis, Nucella lapillus, Mytilus edulis and Arenicola marina collected in summer 1994. For geographical comparisons, the metal content to body size relationship was taken into account due to the different body sizes found at the localities investigated. In general, our data provide further evidence for the cadmium anomaly in invertebrates from polar waters which has been frequently discussed in the literature, with Cd concentrations reaching 1 mg x kg(-1) dry wt in G. oceanicus, 7 mg x kg(-1) in L. rudis and 24 mg x kg(-1) in N. lapillus. In contrast, our results obtained for Cd in M. edulis and A. marina are largely within a world-wide reported range (1-2 and 0.2-0.9 mg x kg(-1), respectively). Although some severe Ni emissions in the Kola region (Russia) mainly from nickel smelters have been reported, we do not find indications of an enhanced Ni availability in the marine biota studied compared to other areas

  2. LEARNING AND ASSOCIATED PHENOMENA IN INVERTEBRATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEARNING, INVERTEBRATES , ADAPTATION(PHYSIOLOGY), BEHAVIOR, PARAMECIUM, ANNELIDA, CEPHALOPODA, CRUSTACEA, HYMENOPTERA, GANGLIA, NERVE CELLS, CONDITIONED RESPONSE, EMBRYOS, BIOLOGY, SYMPOSIA, UNITED KINGDOM.

  3. Negative effects overpower the positive of kelp to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Sean D

    2003-09-01

    Marine macroalgal forests are one of the most widespread and studied habitats on subtidal coasts, but there remain challenges in understanding why many sessile invertebrates are anomalously absent from understorey communities. In a series of experiments on recruitment of invertebrates, I partitioned the habitat-modifying effects of kelp into their positive and negative effects. Experiments revealed that a reduction of light intensity and removal of sediment by canopies acted to facilitate recruitment, but physical abrasion by the canopy acted as a negative force to overpower these positive effects. Understorey assemblages, therefore, represent biased subsets of taxa from a local pool capable of colonization. On balance, negative effects acted to exclude invertebrates from the understorey community. The asymmetric strength of negative effects not only explains the enigma of exclusion but also indicates that, when it exists, understorey coexistence with canopy plants must reflect a more even match between positive and negative effects.

  4. Catecholaminergic System of Invertebrates: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects in Comparison With the Octopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Valentina P; Accordi, Fiorenza; Chimenti, Claudio; Civinini, Annalena; Crivellato, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we examined the catecholaminergic system of invertebrates, starting from protists and getting to chordates. Different techniques used by numerous researchers revealed, in most examined phyla, the presence of catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline or of the enzymes involved in their synthesis. The catecholamines are generally linked to the nervous system and they can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones; moreover they play a very important role as regards the response to a large number of stress situations. Nevertheless, in some invertebrate phyla belonging to Protostoma, the monoamine octopamine is the main biogenic amine. The presence of catecholamines in some protists suggests a role as intracellular or interorganismal signaling molecules and an ancient origin of their synthetic pathways. The catecholamines appear also involved in the regulation of bioluminescence and in the control of larval development and metamorphosis in some marine invertebrate phyla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fish and invertebrate data integration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  6. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: NPRB_1220:Mitochondrial DNA-based identification of eggs, larvae and dietary components of commercially and ecologically important fish species and selected invertebrates in the northeast Pacif

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate identification of various life history stages and prey items of marine fishes and invertebrates is central for understanding distribution,abundance, trophic...

  7. Chemoreception of the Seagrass Posidonia Oceanica by Benthic Invertebrates is Altered by Seawater Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupo, Valerio; Maibam, Chingoileima; Buia, Maria Cristina; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Scipione, Maria Beatrice; Lorenti, Maurizio; Fink, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Several plants and invertebrates interact and communicate by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These compounds may play the role of infochemicals, being able to carry complex information to selected species, thus mediating inter- or intra-specific communications. Volatile organic compounds derived from the wounding of marine diatoms, for example, carry information for several benthic and planktonic invertebrates. Although the ecological importance of VOCs has been demonstrated, both in terrestrial plants and in marine microalgae, their role as infochemicals has not been demonstrated in seagrasses. In addition, benthic communities, even the most complex and resilient, as those associated to seagrass meadows, are affected by ocean acidification at various levels. Therefore, the acidification of oceans could produce interference in the way seagrass-associated invertebrates recognize and choose their specific environments. We simulated the wounding of Posidonia oceanica leaves collected at two sites (a control site at normal pH, and a naturally acidified site) off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy). We extracted the VOCs and tested a set of 13 species of associated invertebrates for their specific chemotactic responses in order to determine if: a) seagrasses produce VOCs playing the role of infochemicals, and b) their effects can be altered by seawater pH. Our results indicate that several invertebrates recognize the odor of wounded P. oceanica leaves, especially those strictly associated to the leaf stratum of the seagrass. Their chemotactic reactions may be modulated by the seawater pH, thus impairing the chemical communications in seagrass-associated communities in acidified conditions. In fact, 54% of the tested species exhibited a changed behavioral response in acidified waters (pH 7.7). Furthermore, the differences observed in the abundance of invertebrates, in natural vs. acidified field conditions, are in agreement with these behavioral

  8. Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

    2013-05-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Research Note Do mammalian herbivores influence invertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the indirect influence of mammalian herbivores on invertebrates, by utilising long-term mammalian herbivore exclosures in Kruger National Park. The exclosures span three distinct habitat types (crest, footslope and riparian) on a catena. By performing invertebrate collections in the exclosures and in a ...

  10. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  11. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; Oers, van Monique M.

    2017-01-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships

  12. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikema, A. L., Jr.; Herricks, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) toxicant effects on invertebrates; (2) microcosm and community effects, and (3) biological control of aquatic life. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Toxicity of Engineered Nanoparticles to Aquatic Invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influenc...... on bioaccumulation focusing on the effect of nanoparticle coating, uptake, and depuration in aquatic invertebrates.......This chapter provides a targeted description of some of the most important processes that influence toxicity and uptake of nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates. It discusses silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), on how aspects of dissolution and chemical species obtained from this process can influence...... ecotoxicity of aquatic invertebrates. The chapter focuses on how fullerenes affect the toxicity of other pollutants, but also reflect on the fate and behavior of C60 in the aquatic environment, as well as ecotoxicity to aquatic invertebrates. It presents the case of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs...

  14. Protection of Marine Fish Stocks at Risk of Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Musick; S.A. Berkeley; G.M. Cailliet; M. Camhi; G. Huntsman; M. Nammack; Melvin L. Warren

    2000-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommends that registory agencies closely scrutinize both marine fish and invertebrate stocks that may be at risk of extinction and take remedial action before populations are threatened or endungered. Initial AFS analyses of marine stocks at risk in North America show at least four primary geographic "hot spots" with...

  15. Superoxide dismutase in the marine sponge Cliona celata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, D.; Esteves, A.I.; Almeida, M.; Xavier, J.; Humanes, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase in the cosmopolitan sponge Cliona celata (Grant, 1826), since this enzyme has been described as a useful biomarker for marine pollution in other marine invertebrates. The quantification of the

  16. Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of some marine sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Among marine invertebrates, sponges are one of the most productive marine ecosystems, with regard to presence of novel bio-active compounds. Few sponges (n = 18) were collected from Palk Bay and. Gulf of Mannar waters of India and their methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extracts were screened ...

  17. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Morgan D; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2002-03-19

    Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of delta15N and delta13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Invertebrates varied predictably in delta15N with enrichment of 3-8 per thousand below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing delta15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in delta13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Enrichment of delta15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of delta13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in delta15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  18. Salmon-derived nitrogen in terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimchen Thomas E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bi-directional flow of nutrients between marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide essential resources that structure communities in transitional habitats. On the Pacific coast of North America, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. constitute a dominant nutrient subsidy to aquatic habitats and riparian vegetation, although the contribution to terrestrial habitats is not well established. We use a dual isotope approach of δ15N and δ13C to test for the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple trophic levels of litter-based terrestrial invertebrates below and above waterfalls that act as a barrier to salmon migration on two watersheds in coastal British Columbia. Results Invertebrates varied predictably in δ15N with enrichment of 3–8‰ below the falls compared with above the falls in all trophic groups on both watersheds. We observed increasing δ15N levels in our invertebrate groups with increasing consumption of dietary protein. Invertebrates varied in δ13C but did not always vary predictably with trophic level or habitat. From 19.4 to 71.5% of invertebrate total nitrogen was originally derived from salmon depending on taxa, watershed, and degree of fractionation from the source. Conclusions Enrichment of δ15N in the invertebrate community below the falls in conjunction with the absence of δ13C enrichment suggests that enrichment in δ15N occurs primarily through salmon-derived nitrogen subsidies to litter, soil and vegetation N pools rather than from direct consumption of salmon tissue or salmon tissue consumers. Salmon nutrient subsidies to terrestrial habitats may result in shifts in invertebrate community structure, with subsequent implications for higher vertebrate consumers, particularly the passerines.

  19. Bioinvasion in a Brazilian bay: filling gaps in the knowledge of southwestern Atlantic biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Ignacio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico, American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA inventories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad

  20. 43 CFR 15.2 - Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and marine life. 15.2 Section 15.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.2 Removal or destruction of natural features and marine life. No person... marine invertebrates, seaweeds, grasses, or any soil, rock, artifacts, stones or other materials. No...

  1. Draft Test Guideline: Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity Invertebrates, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  2. Gamete plasticity in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Angela J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2008-09-09

    Sperm competition has classically been thought to maintain anisogamy (large eggs and smaller sperm) because males are thought to maximize their chance of winning fertilizations by trading sperm size for number. More recently it has been recognized that sperm quality (e.g., size, velocity) can also influence sperm competition, although studies have yielded conflicting results. Because sex evolved in the sea, debate has continued over the role of sperm competition and sperm environment in determining both sperm and egg size in externally fertilizing broadcast spawners. Remarkably, however, there have been no direct tests of whether broadcast spawners change the traits of their gametes depending on the likelihood of sperm competition. We manipulated the density (and thus, sperm environment) of a broadcast spawning ascidian (Styela plicata) in the field and then determined whether the phenotype of eggs and sperm changed. We found that sperm from adults kept at high density were larger and more motile than sperm from low-density adults. In vitro fertilizations revealed that sperm from high-density adults also lived longer and induced less polyspermy. Adult density also affected egg traits: eggs from high-density adults were smaller targets for sperm overall but produced larger ovicells than eggs from low-density adults. This suggests that broadcast spawning mothers balance (potentially conflicting) pre- and postzygotic selection pressures on egg size. Overall, our results suggest that sperm competition does not represent a strong force maintaining anisogamy in broadcast spawners. Instead, sperm limitation seems to select for large eggs and smaller, more numerous sperm.

  3. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    46 expanding (Winston and Woollacott 2008). (From this point on, B. neritina will be used to 47 refer to the species complex, or sensu lato definition...control), 0.1,1.0, 151 10, or 100 uM of either NA or phentolamine. 152 Larvae were immediately transferred from Falcon tubes to 24 well polystyrene ...exposure. Larvae were 158 designated as attached if they had settled on the polystyrene and could not be moved by a 159 pipetted stream of water

  4. Ten new records of marine invertebrates from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Telmatactis cricoides (Duchassaign, 1850 and Actinia n. sp., themolluscs Tonna galea Linnaeus, 1758, Vitreolina philippi (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854,Melanella n. sp., Phidiana lynceus (de Rayneval & Ponzi, 1854 and Anomia patelliformis(Linnaeus, 1761, the nemertine Baseodiscus delineatus (DelleChiaje, 1825 and the echinoderms Leptosynapta inhaerens (O. F. Müller, 1776 and Stichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817, are here recorded from the Azores for the first time. The presence of the two starfishspecies Chaetaster longipes (Retzius, 1805 and Luidia ciliaris (Philippi, 1837 in the Azores is confirmed and the spawning behaviour of the sea urchin Echinocyamus pusillus (O. F. Müller, 1776 is described.

  5. Antifouling activities of marine sedentary invertebrates on some macrofoulers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilsanand, V.; Wagh, A.B.; Bapuji, M.

    pfeifferae, Dercitopsis sp.] against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and green mussel Perna viridis are reported here. All the extracts examined inhibited the settlement of cyprids of B. amphitrite. Toxicity revival studies indicate...

  6. Catalog of the Benthic Invertebrate Collections of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Mollusca

    OpenAIRE

    Luke, Spencer R.

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of catalogs of holdings of the Benthic Invertebrate Collections of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. ... The present catalog, containing 6,819 entries, covers the marine Mollusca. The arrangement is systematic and each entry includes a catalog number and relevant field data.... Higher taxonomic categories used are as in Kay Cunningham Vaught, A Classification of Living Mollusca, R. Tucker Abbott and Kenneth J. Boss, eds. American Malacologists, Inc., Melb...

  7. Investigating Ciliated Sensory Neurons and Molecular Tools in the Invertebrate Chordate, Ciona intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Hurless, Victoria Lynne

    2015-01-01

    There are two main objectives of this dissertation, which were explored in the marine invertebrate chordate developmental model Ciona intestinalis. First, to identify new genes involved in epidermal sensory neurons (ESN) of the ascidian peripheral nervous system (PNS) and to infer their function. To do this, we performed a comparative RNA -sequencing (RNA-SEQ) experiment on wild type embryos, and embryos that overexpressed an important regulatory gene, Pou4, that is involved in the ESN regula...

  8. Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetken, Matthias; Bachmann, Jean; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption (ED) in invertebrates has generated remarkably little interest in the past compared to research with aquatic vertebrates in this area. However, with more than 95% of all known species in the animal kingdom, invertebrates constitute a very important part of the global biodiversity with key species for the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that ED in invertebrates has been investigated on a smaller scale than in vertebrates, invertebrates provide some of the best documented examples for deleterious effects in wildlife populations following an exposure to endocrine-active substances. The article provides an overview of the diversity in endocrine systems of invertebrates. The principal susceptibility of invertebrates to endocrine-active compounds is demonstrated with the case studies of tributyltin effects in mollusks and of insect growth regulators, the latter as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters. The additional evidence for ED in invertebrates from laboratory and field studies is summarized as an update and amendment of the EDIETA report from 1998. Finally, conclusions about the scale and implications of the observed effects are drawn and research needs are defined.

  9. On the existence of cytokines in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, A; Bilej, M; Torreele, E; De Baetselier, P

    2001-05-01

    Based on the assumption that invertebrates, like vertebrates, possess factors regulating responses to infection or wounding, studies dealing with the evolution of immunity have focussed on the isolation and characterisation of putative cytokine-related molecules from invertebrates. Until recently, most of our knowledge of cytokine- and cytokine receptor-like molecules in invertebrates relies on functional assays and similarities at the physicochemical level. As such, a phylogenetic relationship between invertebrate cytokine-like molecules and vertebrate counterparts could not be convincingly demonstrated. Recent genomic sequence analyses of interleukin-1-receptor-related molecules, that is Toll-like receptors, and members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily suggest that the innate immune system of invertebrates and vertebrates evolved independently. In addition, data from protochordates and annelids suggest that invertebrate cytokine-like molecules and vertebrate factors do not have the same evolutionary origin. We propose instead that the convergence of function of invertebrate cytokine-like molecules and vertebrate counterparts involved in innate immune defences may be based on similar lectin-like activities.

  10. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  11. Nitric oxide: an antiparasitic molecule of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Ana

    2006-05-01

    Since Furchgott, Ignarro and Murad won the Nobel prize in 1998 for their work on the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule, many reports have shown the seemingly limitless range of body functions controlled by this compound. In vertebrates, the role of NO as a defense against infection caused by viruses, bacteria, and protozoan and metazoan parasites has been known for several years. New evidence, however, shows that NO is also important in defending invertebrates against parasites. This discovery is a breakthrough in the understanding of how the invertebrate immune system works, and it has implications for the emerging field of invertebrate ecological immunology.

  12. Analysis of benthic invertebrate communities as a function of distance from two fish-processing plant effluent discharges in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William

    2012-07-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities have been known to change due to impacts from nutrient-rich industrial outputs, such as those from pulp and paper, sewage-treatment plants, or aquaculture. Fish-processing plants have been recognized as contributors of large volumes of nutrient rich effluent to marine and estuarine environments, but their effect on benthic invertebrate communities is unknown. Benthic invertebrates and sediment samples were obtained from marine sampling stations at 0-, 10-, 30-, and 100-m distances from two fish-processing outfalls in Atlantic Canada. Sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, sulphide, and redox, as well as invertebrate abundance, density, taxa richness, Simpson's Inverse Diversity Index, Bray-Curtis Index of (%) Similarity, and the AZTI marine biotic index (AMBI), were determined for all sampling sites. Results from this study illustrate that taxa richness and density significantly increased as distance from the outfall discharge increased. In our study, TOC was only significantly correlated to AMBI but not to the other benthic invertebrate assemblage descriptors calculated in this study (invertebrate density, taxa richness, Simpson's Inverse Diversity Index). The study results suggest that taxa richness and density may be affected by effluent from fish-processing plants.

  13. Nonindigenous marine species at Waikiki and Hawaii Kai, Oahu, Hawaii in 2001 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys of the marine algae, invertebrates and reef fishes of Waikiki and the Kuapa Pond and Maunalua Bay areas of Hawaii Kai were conducted with the objective of...

  14. Two types of endosymbiotic bacteria in the enigmatic marine worm Xenoturbella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Obst, Matthias; Nakano, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Two types of endosymbiotic bacteria were identified in the gastrodermis of the marine invertebrate Xenoturbella bocki (Xenoturbellida, Bilateria). While previously described Chlamydia-like endosymbionts were rare, Gammaproteobacteria distantly related to other endosymbionts and pathogens were...

  15. INVERTEBRATE FERRITIN: OCCURRENCE IN MOLLUSCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOWE, K M; LOWENSTAM, H A; NESSON, M H

    1963-10-04

    Ferritin, in both crystalline and paracrystalline forms, occurs in the columnar epithelial cells of the dorsal wall of the radula of the marine chiton Cryptochiton stelleri, order, Polyplacophora. The ferritin occurs in association with the magnetite of the radular teeth. It has been isolated and crystallized in the presence of cadmium sulfate.

  16. Marine Toxins: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    Oceans provide enormous and diverse space for marine life. Invertebrates are conspicuous inhabitants in certain zones such as the intertidal; many are soft-bodied, relatively immobile and lack obvious physical defenses. These animals frequently have evolved chemical defenses against predators and overgrowth by fouling organisms. Marine animals may accumulate and use a variety of toxins from prey organisms and from symbiotic microorganisms for their own purposes. Thus, toxic animals are particularly abundant in the oceans. The toxins vary from small molecules to high molecular weight proteins and display unique chemical and biological features of scientific interest. Many of these substances can serve as useful research tools or molecular models for the design of new drugs and pesticides. This chapter provides an initial survey of these toxins and their salient properties.

  17. A Review of Marine Growth Protection System (MGPS) Options for the Royal Australian Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    of the three most toxic heavy metals to marine invertebrates of several trophic groups [5]. Copper has been shown to decrease the reproductive...history stages of marine invertebrates and algae begin to be negatively affected by copper concentrations at least an order of magnitude lower than...Salinity and temperature tolerances of the green and brown mussels, Perna viridis and Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical

  18. Diversity of large DNA viruses of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Bergoin, Max; van Oers, Monique M

    2017-07-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the diversity of large DNA viruses known to be pathogenic for invertebrates. We present their taxonomical classification and describe the evolutionary relationships among various groups of invertebrate-infecting viruses. We also indicate the relationships of the invertebrate viruses to viruses infecting mammals or other vertebrates. The shared characteristics of the viruses within the various families are described, including the structure of the virus particle, genome properties, and gene expression strategies. Finally, we explain the transmission and mode of infection of the most important viruses in these families and indicate, which orders of invertebrates are susceptible to these pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncoupling proteins of invertebrates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Barylski, Jakub; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) mediate inducible proton conductance in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Herein, we summarize our knowledge regarding UCPs in invertebrates. Since 2001, the presence of UCPs has been demonstrated in nematodes, mollusks, amphioxi, and insects. We discuss the following important issues concerning invertebrate UCPs: their evolutionary relationships, molecular and functional properties, and physiological impact. Evolutionary analysis indicates that the branch of vertebrate and invertebrate UCP4-5 diverged early in the evolutionary process prior to the divergence of the animal groups. Several proposed physiological roles of invertebrate UCPs are energy control, metabolic balance, and preventive action against oxidative stress. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):691-699, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Are invertebrates relevant models in ageing research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    is an evolutionary conserved key protein kinase in the TOR pathway that regulates growth, proliferation and cell metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors and stress. Comparing the ageing process in invertebrate model organisms with relatively short lifespan with mammals provides valuable information about...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the ageing process faster than mammal systems. Inhibition of the TOR pathway activity via either genetic manipulation or rapamycin increases lifespan profoundly in most invertebrate model organisms. This contribution will review the recent findings in invertebrates concerning...... the TOR pathway and effects of TOR inhibition by rapamycin on lifespan. Besides some contradictory results, the majority points out that rapamycin induces longevity. This suggests that administration of rapamycin in invertebrates is a promising tool for pursuing the scientific puzzle of lifespan...

  1. Invertebrate inventory of the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The composition and distribution of invertebrate species on the Alaska Peninsula is not well known. This pilot project was intended to test methods and to document...

  2. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  3. The status and significance of invertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, L.M.; Kiggundu, V.; Pabire Ghandi, W.

    2004-01-01

    Invertebrates constitute a major link in energy flow culminating into fish production in aquatic ecosystems. In tropical water bodies relatively little research has been done on invertebrate ecology especially their role in fishery production. European scientists through periodic expeditions to Africa in the last quarter of the 20th century carried out the earliest research on zooplankton. Rzoska (1957) listed these early workers including Stuhlmann (1888), Weltner (1897) and Mraz...

  4. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pigeault, R.; Garnier, R.; Rivero, A.; Gandon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host–parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produ...

  5. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  6. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). 2014. Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomponi, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major

  7. Invertebrate community characteristics in biologically active carbon filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Lijun; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Biologically active carbon (BAC) system was set up in a water plant of South China during January to December 2007, to study the invertebrate community characteristics of BAC filter. Thirty-seven invertebrate species were found, of which 28 belonging to rotifers. Filter operation could lead to an output of invertebrates in high abundances with the filtrate, and the maximum density could reach 5608 individuals/m3. Average abundances in the effluent water increased in 27-33 folds in comparison to the influent water during the sampling period. Invertebrate community succession had the following trend: filter-feeding animals-->small benthic invertebrates-->large benthic and resistant invertebrates. Abundances of large-sized invertebrates (copepod adult and oligochaete) at bigger-media column were significantly higher than that at small-media column. The results implied the abundant species diversity of invertebrate in BAC filter. The relationship between invertebrate and biofilm still remain to be studied in detail.

  8. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  9. Control of breathing in invertebrate model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Syed, Naweed I

    2012-07-01

    The invertebrates have adopted a myriad of breathing strategies to facilitate the extraction of adequate quantities of oxygen from their surrounding environments. Their respiratory structures can take a wide variety of forms, including integumentary surfaces, lungs, gills, tracheal systems, and even parallel combinations of these same gas exchange structures. Like their vertebrate counterparts, the invertebrates have evolved elaborate control strategies to regulate their breathing activity. Our goal in this article is to present the reader with a description of what is known regarding the control of breathing in some of the specific invertebrate species that have been used as model systems to study different mechanistic aspects of the control of breathing. We will examine how several species have been used to study fundamental principles of respiratory rhythm generation, central and peripheral chemosensory modulation of breathing, and plasticity in the control of breathing. We will also present the reader with an overview of some of the behavioral and neuronal adaptability that has been extensively documented in these animals. By presenting explicit invertebrate species as model organisms, we will illustrate mechanistic principles that form the neuronal foundation of respiratory control, and moreover appear likely to be conserved across not only invertebrates, but vertebrate species as well. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1745-1766, 2012.

  10. Marine-derived fungi: Source of biologically potent and novel compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Tilvi, S.; Gawas, S.G.

    , Marine natural products, Isolation, Characterization 2    CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Marine fungi-invertebrate association 3. Bioactivities of marine fungal metabolites and medicinal potentials 4. Metabolites from marine derived fungi reported... in 2010-2014 4.1. Metabolites from Aspergillus sp. 4.2. Metabolites from Penicillium sp. 4.3. Metabolites from Trichoderma sp. 4.4. Metabolites from Chaetomiumglobosum 4.5.Metabolites fromPhomopsissp 4.6. Metabolites from Phoma sp. 4.7. Metabolites...

  11. Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa A Miller; Kudela, Raphael M.; Abdu Mekebri; Dave Crane; Oates, Stori C.; M Timothy Tinker; Michelle Staedler; Miller, Woutrina A.; Sharon Toy-Choutka; Clare Dominik; Dane Hardin; Gregg Langlois; Michael Murray; Kim Ward; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebr...

  12. Nonindigenous Marine Species at Waikiki and Hawaii Kai, Oahu, Hawaii in 2001-2002 (NODC Accession 0001061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys of the marine algae, invertebrates and reef fishes of Waikiki and the Kuapa Pond and Maunalua Bay areas of Hawaii Kai were conducted with the objective of...

  13. Biodiversity of marine communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with observations in 1996 on introduced exotic species (NODC Accession 0000330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine and estuarine invertebrate and fish communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii were surveyed between January and October, 1996. Samples were taken and...

  14. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  15. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Cardiac biology and disease in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2009-01-01

    It may seem ridiculous to consider cardiac diseases in sub-vertebrate animals; when on earth is a tarantula, a butterfly or a snail going to be presented as a clinical case with heart failure or a congenital cardiac abnormality? This article examines the work of research groups investigating invertebrates as valuable models of heart disease in man. Examining invertebrates with gene defects similar to those in human patients with heart disease, congenital or acquired, allows us to probe deeply into the aetiopathogenesis of many cardiac conditions.

  17. Comparative eicosanoid physiology in invertebrate animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Samuelson, D W

    1991-05-01

    A comparative survey of eicosanoid physiology in invertebrate animals is presented. Topics include host skin penetration behavior in blood flukes, oocyte maturation in starfishes, prevention of polyspermic fertilizations in sea urchins, ion regulation in bivalves, egg production in snails, egg release in scallops, neurobiology of Aplysia, hatching in barnacles, and release of egg-laying behavior in some insects. Some eicosanoid actions, such as ion regulation, may be common to most vertebrate and invertebrate animals, whereas other actions, such as mediation of whole organism behavior, are not shared. Comparative physiology is revealing that the biological significance of eicosanoids extends far beyond vertebrate animals.

  18. HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF INVERTEBRATES FOR EVALUATING CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many studies in toxicologic pathology evaluate the effects of toxicants on fishes because of their similarities with other vertebrates, invertebrates can also provide insights into toxicant impacts on ecosystems. Invertebrates not only serve as food resources (e.g., ...

  19. Marine microbial symbiosis heats up: the phylogenetic and functional response of a sponge holobiont to thermal stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lu; Liu, Michael; Simister, Rachel; Webster, Nicole S; Thomas, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale mortality of marine invertebrates is a major global concern for ocean ecosystems and many sessile, reef-building animals, such as sponges and corals, are experiencing significant declines through temperature-induced disease and bleaching. The health and survival of marine invertebrates is often dependent on intimate symbiotic associations with complex microbial communities, yet we have a very limited understanding of the detailed biology and ecology of both the host and the symbio...

  20. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  1. Anthropometry of Brazilian Air Force pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gilvan V; Halpern, Manny; Gordon, Claire C

    2017-10-01

    Anthropometric data are essential for the design of military equipment including sizing of aircraft cockpits and personal gear. Currently, there are no anthropometric databases specific to Brazilian military personnel. The aim of this study was to create a Brazilian anthropometric database of Air Force pilots. The methods, protocols, descriptions, definitions, landmarks, tools and measurements procedures followed the instructions outlined in Measurer's Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011 - NATICK/TR-11/017. The participants were measured countrywide, in all five Brazilian Geographical Regions. Thirty-nine anthropometric measurements related to cockpit design were selected. The results of 2133 males and 206 females aged 16-52 years constitute a set of basic data for cockpit design, space arrangement issues and adjustments, protective gear and equipment design, as well as for digital human modelling. Another important implication is that this study can be considered a starting point for reducing gender bias in women's career as pilots. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes the first large-scale anthropometric survey of the Brazilian Air Force pilots and the development of the related database. This study provides critical data for improving aircraft cockpit design for ergonomics and comprehensive pilot accommodation, protective gear and uniform design, as well as digital human modelling.

  2. Optimising stereo baited underwater video for sampling fish and invertebrates in temperate coastal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, R. K. F.; Peters, J. R.; McCloskey, R. M.; Hinder, S. L.

    2014-10-01

    Stereo Baited Remote Underwater Video systems (BRUVs) provide a quantitative sampling method for assessing mobile fauna in a range of habitat types and environments. This non-destructive and cost-effective technique is increasingly used for assessing estuarine, coastal and marine fauna. Although single camera systems have been used to assess the relative abundance (Nmax) of marine fish and invertebrates in low visibility North Atlantic near shore and coastal waters, stereo systems remain in their infancy within such environments and their use requires validation. Stereo systems that measure fish and invertebrate size enable size-frequency analysis of populations, providing critical information about life history and population status. We investigated the performance and efficacy of stereo BRUV systems within Welsh shallow coastal waters to test the effectiveness of this method. Data are presented on the capacity of the system to measure fish and invertebrate size under the constraints of low visibility (diversity. Our study recorded 19 species of mobile fauna with species-time accumulation curves providing evidence that a minimum deployment time of 1 h is required to sample 66% of the fish species, and 2 h to sample 83%. Results suggest that the efficiency of surveys for target species (e.g. gadoids) could be maximised by modifying the sampling duration between 1 h and 2 h. The study also demonstrates that measurements of fish and invertebrate length could be taken on 41% of individuals (of those counted in relative abundance measures using Nmax), a statistic that varies between species. This indicates a need to modify the construction of the equipment for improved fish assemblage size frequency analysis. This is particularly relevant in areas and habitats where seine netting and trawling are not possible. We describe how the system can be modified for optimised usage within low visibility waters and suggest potential uses of the system.

  3. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  4. Global Warming and Mass Mortalities of Benthic Invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Irene; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lionello, Piero; Zambianchi, Enrico; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface) of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945–2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas. PMID:25535973

  5. Global warming and mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rivetti

    Full Text Available Satellite data show a steady increase, in the last decades, of the surface temperature (upper few millimetres of the water surface of the Mediterranean Sea. Reports of mass mortalities of benthic marine invertebrates increased in the same period. Some local studies interpreted the two phenomena in a cause-effect fashion. However, a basin-wide picture of temperature changes combined with a systematic assessment on invertebrate mass mortalities was still lacking. Both the thermal structure of the water column in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1945-2011 and all documented invertebrate mass mortality events in the basin are analysed to ascertain if: 1- documented mass mortalities occurred under conditions of positive temperature trends at basin scale, and 2- atypical thermal conditions were registered at the smaller spatial and temporal scale of mass mortality events. The thermal structure of the shallow water column over the last 67 years was reconstructed using data from three public sources: MEDAR-MEDATLAS, World Ocean Database, MFS-VOS programme. A review of the mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates at Mediterranean scale was also carried out. The analysis of in situ temperature profiles shows that the Mediterranean Sea changed in a non-homogeneous fashion. The frequency of mass mortalities is increasing. The areas subjected to these events correspond to positive thermal anomalies. Statistically significant temperature trends in the upper layers of the Mediterranean Sea show an increase of up to 0.07°C/yr for a large fraction of the basin. Mass mortalities are consistent with both the temperature increase at basin scale and the thermal changes at local scale, up to 5.2°C. Our research supports the existence of a causal link between positive thermal anomalies and observed invertebrate mass mortalities in the Mediterranean Sea, invoking focused mitigation initiatives in sensitive areas.

  6. Food sources of macro-invertebrates in an important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam determined by dual stable isotope signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Tai; Hamaoka, Hideki; Sogabe, Atsushi; Quy, Tran Dang; Nhuan, Mai Trong; Omori, Koji

    2012-08-01

    Dual stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) were applied to determine the contribution of mangrove materials and other organic carbon sources to the invertebrate community in an ecologically important mangrove ecosystem of Vietnam. We have analyzed 181 specimens of 30 invertebrate species and found δ13C and δ15N ranging from - 14.5 to - 26.8‰ and from 1.3 to 12.1‰, respectively. From taxa measured for stable isotopes, polychaete, gastropods, bivalves, and grapsid crabs living in mangrove forest showed relative low δ13C values, while fiddler crabs inhabiting in the land-water ecotone showed the highest δ13C values. The δ13C showed that just a few mangrove inhabitants directly relied on the mangrove materials. The wide ranges of δ13C and δ15N signatures indicated that the invertebrates utilized heterogeneous diets, comprising benthic microalgae, marine phytoplankton, particulate organic matter, sediment organic matter, mangrove detritus, and meiofauna and rotten animal tissues as the supplemental nutrient food sources. Moreover, the significant correlation between δ13C values and body sizes of invertebrates showed that snails Littoraria melanostoma and Terebralia sulcata, bivalve Glauconome virens, and portunid crab Scylla serrata exhibited ontogenetic shifts in diets. The present study showed that adjacent habitats such as tidal flat and mangrove creeks seem to contribute an important microalgal food resource for invertebrates and highlighted the need for conservations of mangrove forests and the adjacent habitats.

  7. Temporal abiotic variability structures invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whatley, M.H.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic variability is known to structure lotic invertebrate communities, yet its influence on lentic invertebrates is not clear. This study tests the hypothesis that variability of nutrients and macro-ions are structuring invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches. This was

  8. Effects of invertebrates in lotic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Wallace; J.J. Jr. Hutchens

    2000-01-01

    Freshwater invertebrates perform many roles in ecosystem processes (Palmer et al., 1997) and these roles are frequently associated with a diverse array of feeding habits which have been organized into functional feeding groups (FFGs). Wallace and Webster (1996) reviewed many roles ofFFGs in stream ecosystems. Streams differ markedly from most ecosystems in that the...

  9. Evolution of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Garnier, R; Rivero, A; Gandon, S

    2016-09-28

    Over a decade ago, the discovery of transgenerational immunity in invertebrates shifted existing paradigms on the lack of sophistication of their immune system. Nonetheless, the prevalence of this trait and the ecological factors driving its evolution in invertebrates remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a theoretical host-parasite model and predict that long lifespan and low dispersal should promote the evolution of transgenerational immunity. We also predict that in species that produce both philopatric and dispersing individuals, it may pay to have a plastic allocation strategy with a higher transgenerational immunity investment in philopatric offspring because they are more likely to encounter locally adapted pathogens. We review all experimental studies published to date, comprising 21 invertebrate species in nine different orders, and we show that, as expected, longevity and dispersal correlate with the transfer of immunity to offspring. The validity of our prediction regarding the plasticity of investment in transgenerational immunity remains to be tested in invertebrates, but also in vertebrate species. We discuss the implications of our work for the study of the evolution of immunity, and we suggest further avenues of research to expand our knowledge of the impact of transgenerational immune protection in host-parasite interactions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Physical, chemical and macrobenthic invertebrate fauna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study conducted on three swampy water bodies draining through the University of Lagos into the Lagos Lagoon describes the physical, chemical and macrobenthic invertebrate characteristics of these water bodies at the study sites. Three stations, one at each water body were sampled fortnightly from June to ...

  11. Invertebrate fauna associated with water hyacinth ( Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Benin River was studied between February and August, 1990. Water hyacinth along with water samples was collected for analysis. The range of water temperature was 26.0–32.2oC, dissolved oxygen (D.O) was 1.60–14.98 mgl-1 and salinity ...

  12. Libbie Henrietta Hyman: Eminent Invertebrate Zoologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rose M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the life and work of the famous invertebrate zoologist Libbie Henrietta Hyman. Focuses on her work at the American Museum of History and her role as informal mentor and valued colleague and collaborator to zoologists all over the world. Contains 17 references. (DDR)

  13. Invertebrate lysozymes: Diversity and distribution, molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chicken (c)-type lysozyme and goose (g)-type lysozyme are predominantly, but not exclusively, found in vertebrate animals, while the invertebrate (i)-type ... Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 ...

  14. Recent N-Atom Containing Compounds from Indo-Pacific Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashman, Yoel; Bishara, Ashgan; Aknin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    A large variety of unique N-atom containing compounds (alkaloids) without terrestrial counterparts, have been isolated from marine invertebrates, mainly sponges and ascidians. Many of these compounds display interesting biological activities. In this report we present studies on nitrogenous compounds, isolated by our group during the last few years, from Indo-Pacific sponges, one ascidian and one gorgonian. The major part of the review deals with metabolites from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp., namely, four groups of secondary metabolites, the salarins, tulearins, taumycins and tausalarins. PMID:21139846

  15. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, I.M.; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone Heimann

    2013-01-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces...

  16. Cryopreservation of marine invertebrate early-life stages: applications in marine quality assessment and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Rosendo, Estefanía

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral es desarrollar protocolos de criopreservación para estados tempranos de desarrollo para varias especies de invertebrados marinos: erizo de mar Paracentrotus lividus, ostra Crassostrea gigas y dos especies de mejillón, Mytilus galoprovinciallis y Perna canaliculus. Este trabajo de divide en cinco capítulos, una introducción general, tres capítulos de experimentación como compilaciones de siete artículos, cada uno de ellos con sus introducciones, material y mé...

  17. Hypoxic tolerance in air-breathing invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Harrison, Jon F

    2004-08-12

    Terrestrial invertebrates experience hypoxia in many habitats and under a variety of physiological conditions. Some groups (at least insects) are much more capable of recovery from anoxia than most vertebrates, but there is still a tremendous unexplained variation in hypoxia/anoxia tolerance among terrestrial invertebrates. Crustaceans and arachnids may be less often confronted with hypoxic environments than insects and myriapods and also seem to be less hypoxia/anoxia tolerant. Tracheated groups, especially those that are able to ventilate their tracheal system like many insects, cope with lower critical PO2 than nontracheated groups. Modulation of oxygen carrier proteins is normally not important in hypoxia resistance. Recent application of genetic and cellular tools are revealing that many of the same pathways documented for mammals (e.g. HIF, nitric oxide) function to regulate morphological and biochemical responses to hypoxia/anoxia in insects.

  18. Ethics and invertebrates: a cephalopod perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer A; Anderson, Roland C

    2007-05-04

    This paper first explores 3 philosophical bases for attitudes to invertebrates, Contractarian/Kantian, Utilitarian, and Rights-based, and what they lead us to conclude about how we use and care for these animals. We next discuss the problems of evaluating pain and suffering in invertebrates, pointing out that physiological responses to stress are widely similar across the animal kingdom and that most animals show behavioral responses to potentially painful stimuli. Since cephalopods are often used as a test group for consideration of pain, distress and proper conditions for captivity and handling, we evaluate their behavioral and cognitive capacities. Given these capacities, we then discuss practical issues: minimization of their pain and suffering during harvesting for food; ensuring that captive cephalopods are properly cared for, stimulated and allowed to live as full a life as possible; and, lastly, working for their conservation.

  19. Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of Southern Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Tourinho, Paula da Silva; Sul, Juliana Assunção Ivar do; Fillmann,Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle’s size or weight. M...

  20. Assessment of species composition, diversity, and biomass in marine habitats and subhabitats around offshore islets in the main Hawaiian islands, April 2 - September 20, 2007 (NCEI Accession 0042684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  1. Determination of baseline conditions for introduced marine species in nearshore waters of the island of Kaho'olawe, Hawaii in January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the marine macroalgae and invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal zones was conducted at seven sites around Kaho'olawe Island from January 12 to 14,...

  2. EVALUATION OF A FIRST-ORDER MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF THE BIOACCUMULATION OF PCBS AND DDT FROM SEDIMENT INTO THE MARINE DEPOSIT-FEEDING CLAM MACOMA NASUTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A first-order model for predicting contaminant bioaccumulation from sediments into benthic invertebrates was validated using a marine deposit-feeding clam, Macoma nasuta, exposed to polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-spiked and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-contaminated sediments. ...

  3. Determination of Baseline Conditions for Introduced Marine Species in Nearshore Waters of the Island of Kaho'olawe, Hawaii in January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the marine macroalgae and invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal zones was conducted at seven sites around Kaho'olawe Island from January 12 to 14,...

  4. Assessment of Species Composition, Diversity, and Biomass in Marine Habitats and Subhabitats around Offshore Islets in the Main Hawaiian Islands 2007 (NODC Accession 0042684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  5. Tropical CO2seeps reveal the impact of ocean acidification on coral reef invertebrate recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ro; Foggo, Andrew; Fabricius, Katharina; Balistreri, Annalisa; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2017-11-30

    Rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification by reducing seawater pH and carbonate saturation levels. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that many larval and juvenile marine invertebrates are vulnerable to these changes in surface ocean chemistry, but challenges remain in predicting effects at community and ecosystem levels. We investigated the effect of ocean acidification on invertebrate recruitment at two coral reef CO 2 seeps in Papua New Guinea. Invertebrate communities differed significantly between 'reference' (median pH7.97, 8.00), 'high CO 2 ' (median pH7.77, 7.79), and 'extreme CO 2 ' (median pH7.32, 7.68) conditions at each reef. There were also significant reductions in calcifying taxa, copepods and amphipods as CO 2 levels increased. The observed shifts in recruitment were comparable to those previously described in the Mediterranean, revealing an ecological mechanism by which shallow coastal systems are affected by near-future levels of ocean acidification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  7. Relationship between invertebrate fauna and bromeliad size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VA. Araújo

    Full Text Available Several bromeliads species store water and organic substrates, allowing the establishment of phytotelmata and associated fauna on their leaves. In this study, we sampled 70 individuals of Vriesea sp. (Carrière (Bromeliaceae, in rupestrian fields in the Serra de Ouro Branco-MG, Brazil. The relationships between invertebrate species richness and abundance and size of bromeliads were tested using multiple regression. We found 19 species associated with bromeliads, mainly Diptera larvae. The abundance of the phytotelmate fauna increased principally in relation to the volume of water in the bromeliad reservoir. Phytotelmata richness was affected principally by diameter of the reservoir. There was a significant relationship between the abundance and richness of invertebrates associated with leaves with diameter and height of the plant. Invertebrate richness was better explained by abundance of individuals. These results suggest that the increase of richness was attended by higher numbers of microhabitats and more space for colonization of bigger bromeliads. Additionally, there was more chance of sampling different species in locales with greater abundance of individuals.

  8. Relationship between invertebrate fauna and bromeliad size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, V A; Melo, S K; Araújo, A P A; Gomes, M L M; Carneiro, M A A

    2007-11-01

    Several bromeliads species store water and organic substrates, allowing the establishment of phytotelmata and associated fauna on their leaves. In this study, we sampled 70 individuals of Vriesea sp. (Carrière) (Bromeliaceae), in rupestrian fields in the Serra de Ouro Branco-MG, Brazil. The relationships between invertebrate species richness and abundance and size of bromeliads were tested using multiple regression. We found 19 species associated with bromeliads, mainly Diptera larvae. The abundance of the phytotelmate fauna increased principally in relation to the volume of water in the bromeliad reservoir. Phytotelmata richness was affected principally by diameter of the reservoir. There was a significant relationship between the abundance and richness of invertebrates associated with leaves with diameter and height of the plant. Invertebrate richness was better explained by abundance of individuals. These results suggest that the increase of richness was attended by higher numbers of microhabitats and more space for colonization of bigger bromeliads. Additionally, there was more chance of sampling different species in locales with greater abundance of individuals.

  9. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Photoenhanced Toxicity of Petroleum to Aquatic Invertebrates and Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G

    2017-07-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is a distinct mechanism of petroleum toxicity that is mediated by the interaction of solar radiation with specific polycyclic aromatic compounds in oil. Phototoxicity is observed as a twofold to greater than 1000-fold increase in chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms that also have been exposed to light sources containing sufficient quantity and quality of ultraviolet radiation (UV). When tested under natural sunlight or laboratory sources of UV, fresh, and weathered middle distillates, crudes and heavy oils can exhibit photoenhanced toxicity. These same products do not exhibit phototoxicity in standard test protocols because of low UV irradiance in laboratory lighting. Fresh, estuarine, and marine waters have been shown to have sufficient solar radiation exposure to elicit photoenhanced toxicity, and a diversity of aquatic invertebrate and fish species can exhibit photoenhanced toxicity when exposed to combinations of oil and UV. Risks of photoenhanced toxicity will be greatest to early life stages of aquatic organisms that are translucent to UV and that inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas exposed to oil.

  11. Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia)

    OpenAIRE

    Goodheart, Jessica A.; Bazinet, Adam L.; Valdés, Ángel; Collins, Allen G.; Cummings, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialize...

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ... While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, ...

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue ... Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, .... population of Chumbe Island Coral Park,.

  14. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  15. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of Hawai’i and other Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    introductions of fish, invertebrates , and "live" rock from the aquarium trade (Padilla and Williams 2004, Weigle et al. 2005). The lionfish Pterois volitans may... invertebrate NIS (Eldredge and Smith 2001). Copies of all of these reports can be downloaded from the Bishop Museum website (http://hbs.bishopmuseuh...the history of Anthozoa 6 these introductions to Hawai’i and concluded that Ctenophora 1 most of the efforts to introduce marine species Porifera 12

  16. A Vulnerability Assessment of Fish and Invertebrates to Climate Change on the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan A; Morrison, Wendy E; Nelson, Mark W; Stachura, Megan M; Teeters, Eric J; Griffis, Roger B; Alexander, Michael A; Scott, James D; Alade, Larry; Bell, Richard J; Chute, Antonie S; Curti, Kiersten L; Curtis, Tobey H; Kircheis, Daniel; Kocik, John F; Lucey, Sean M; McCandless, Camilla T; Milke, Lisa M; Richardson, David E; Robillard, Eric; Walsh, Harvey J; McManus, M Conor; Marancik, Katrin E; Griswold, Carolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and decadal variability are impacting marine fish and invertebrate species worldwide and these impacts will continue for the foreseeable future. Quantitative approaches have been developed to examine climate impacts on productivity, abundance, and distribution of various marine fish and invertebrate species. However, it is difficult to apply these approaches to large numbers of species owing to the lack of mechanistic understanding sufficient for quantitative analyses, as well as the lack of scientific infrastructure to support these more detailed studies. Vulnerability assessments provide a framework for evaluating climate impacts over a broad range of species with existing information. These methods combine the exposure of a species to a stressor (climate change and decadal variability) and the sensitivity of species to the stressor. These two components are then combined to estimate an overall vulnerability. Quantitative data are used when available, but qualitative information and expert opinion are used when quantitative data is lacking. Here we conduct a climate vulnerability assessment on 82 fish and invertebrate species in the Northeast U.S. Shelf including exploited, forage, and protected species. We define climate vulnerability as the extent to which abundance or productivity of a species in the region could be impacted by climate change and decadal variability. We find that the overall climate vulnerability is high to very high for approximately half the species assessed; diadromous and benthic invertebrate species exhibit the greatest vulnerability. In addition, the majority of species included in the assessment have a high potential for a change in distribution in response to projected changes in climate. Negative effects of climate change are expected for approximately half of the species assessed, but some species are expected to be positively affected (e.g., increase in productivity or move into the region). These results will inform

  17. A Vulnerability Assessment of Fish and Invertebrates to Climate Change on the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan A.; Morrison, Wendy E.; Nelson, Mark W.; Stachura, Megan M.; Teeters, Eric J.; Griffis, Roger B.; Alexander, Michael A.; Scott, James D.; Alade, Larry; Bell, Richard J.; Chute, Antonie S.; Curti, Kiersten L.; Curtis, Tobey H.; Kircheis, Daniel; Kocik, John F.; Lucey, Sean M.; McCandless, Camilla T.; Milke, Lisa M.; Richardson, David E.; Robillard, Eric; Walsh, Harvey J.; McManus, M. Conor; Marancik, Katrin E.; Griswold, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and decadal variability are impacting marine fish and invertebrate species worldwide and these impacts will continue for the foreseeable future. Quantitative approaches have been developed to examine climate impacts on productivity, abundance, and distribution of various marine fish and invertebrate species. However, it is difficult to apply these approaches to large numbers of species owing to the lack of mechanistic understanding sufficient for quantitative analyses, as well as the lack of scientific infrastructure to support these more detailed studies. Vulnerability assessments provide a framework for evaluating climate impacts over a broad range of species with existing information. These methods combine the exposure of a species to a stressor (climate change and decadal variability) and the sensitivity of species to the stressor. These two components are then combined to estimate an overall vulnerability. Quantitative data are used when available, but qualitative information and expert opinion are used when quantitative data is lacking. Here we conduct a climate vulnerability assessment on 82 fish and invertebrate species in the Northeast U.S. Shelf including exploited, forage, and protected species. We define climate vulnerability as the extent to which abundance or productivity of a species in the region could be impacted by climate change and decadal variability. We find that the overall climate vulnerability is high to very high for approximately half the species assessed; diadromous and benthic invertebrate species exhibit the greatest vulnerability. In addition, the majority of species included in the assessment have a high potential for a change in distribution in response to projected changes in climate. Negative effects of climate change are expected for approximately half of the species assessed, but some species are expected to be positively affected (e.g., increase in productivity or move into the region). These results will inform

  18. A Vulnerability Assessment of Fish and Invertebrates to Climate Change on the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Hare

    Full Text Available Climate change and decadal variability are impacting marine fish and invertebrate species worldwide and these impacts will continue for the foreseeable future. Quantitative approaches have been developed to examine climate impacts on productivity, abundance, and distribution of various marine fish and invertebrate species. However, it is difficult to apply these approaches to large numbers of species owing to the lack of mechanistic understanding sufficient for quantitative analyses, as well as the lack of scientific infrastructure to support these more detailed studies. Vulnerability assessments provide a framework for evaluating climate impacts over a broad range of species with existing information. These methods combine the exposure of a species to a stressor (climate change and decadal variability and the sensitivity of species to the stressor. These two components are then combined to estimate an overall vulnerability. Quantitative data are used when available, but qualitative information and expert opinion are used when quantitative data is lacking. Here we conduct a climate vulnerability assessment on 82 fish and invertebrate species in the Northeast U.S. Shelf including exploited, forage, and protected species. We define climate vulnerability as the extent to which abundance or productivity of a species in the region could be impacted by climate change and decadal variability. We find that the overall climate vulnerability is high to very high for approximately half the species assessed; diadromous and benthic invertebrate species exhibit the greatest vulnerability. In addition, the majority of species included in the assessment have a high potential for a change in distribution in response to projected changes in climate. Negative effects of climate change are expected for approximately half of the species assessed, but some species are expected to be positively affected (e.g., increase in productivity or move into the region. These

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicolet K J, Hoogenboom M O, Gardiner N M, Pratchett. M S, Willis B L (2013) The corallivorous invertebrate. Drupella aids in transmission of brown band disease on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 32: 585–595. Packer L, Gibbs J, Sheffield C, Hanner R (2009) DNA bar- coding and the mediocrity of morphology. Molecu ...

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ...

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage-.

  2. The value of algae as a substrate for intertidal invertebrates in the White Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovgan O. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to researching zoobenthos communities of the intertidal zone, where the role of the substrate is represented by littoral phytobenthos. Macrophytes are subject to changes in time and are part of the trophic structure of marine communities as comparing with an inert ground substrate. The comprehensive study of littoral biocenoses allows reveal interrelation of benthic organisms with the vegetable substrate where they inhabit. The aim of the work is the investigation of structure and distribution features of epibenthic communities on the littoral macrophytes of the Chupa inlet (the White Sea. The investigations were conducted at The White Sea Biological Station "Kartesh" (WSBS during the summer period of three years (2012–2015. The material was being collected on the intertidal zone of the Levaya bay, Kruglaya bay, and Sel'dyanaya bay of the Chupa inlet by the method of vertical transects using the accounting frame (0.25 m2 in the three-fold repetition. In the processing of samples, the abundance of algae and epibionts has been defined; the biomass and number of macrophytes and invertebrates have been measured. In the course of the work, it has been revealed that Fucus algae create a favorable habitat for epibenthos including moving animals. A variety of seaweed substrates contributes to increase of invertebrates' biomass. The only exceptions are parts of the bays, where seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and Pelvetia caniculata are abundant. These algae are not favourable substrate for most of epibenthic organisms and serve as habitat mainly of sedentary invertebrates due to the morphology of the thallus. Mussels Mytilus edulis are dominant invertebrates in the communities, where Fucus is the substrate. Filamentous algae contribute to active development of Hydrobia ulvae communities.

  3. Temperature tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a changing climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate change. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate change. Here, we evaluate changes in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) temperatures. Temperatures increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing temperatures. The velocity of climate change (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different temperature measures, and are therefore lagging behind most temperature measures. If these species cannot withstand a change in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in

  4. Asellus aquaticus and other invertebrates in drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine

    Few if any drinking water distribution systems worldwide are completely free of invertebrate animals and presumably it has been that way since the very first distribution system was constructed. Invertebrates visible to the naked eye cause consumer complaints and are considered a sign of bad...... hygiene. Whereas invertebrates in drinking water are known to host parasites in tropical countries they are largely regarded an aesthetical problem in temperate countries. Publications on invertebrate distribution in Danish systems have been completely absent and while reports from various countries have...... described the occurrence of invertebrates in drinking water there have been a knowledge gap concerning a quantitative approach to the controlling parameters of their distribution and occurrence. This thesis describes the distribution and controlling parameters of invertebrates with special emphasis...

  5. The marine leech Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, parasitic on the angel shark Squatina spp. and sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae, Carchariidae in Southern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto J. M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the marine leech, Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, is reported on the southern coast of Brazil, based on seven lots with 47 specimens, between 71 and 182 mm in total length, collected on the dorsal region of angel sharks, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930; S. guggenheim Marini, 1936; S. punctata Marini, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squatinidae; and on the head of a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Carchariidae. This is the first record of S. loricata in the western Atlantic and of its parasitic association with S. argentina, S. guggenheim, S. punctata, and C. taurus.

  6. The Effects of Selected Hydrazines Upon Fish and Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    AMRL-TR-79-93 THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED HYDRAZINES UPON FISH AND INVERTEBRATES J. W. FISHER D. S. MYERS M. L. MEYERS FEBRUARY 1980 Approved for public...HYDRAZINES UPON FISH AND INVERTEBRATES 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) J. W. Fisher D. S. Myers M. L. Meyers 9...estimations using two freshwater fish, golden shiners and channel catfish, and two invertebrates , amphipods and isopods. The data did not clearly indicate

  7. Conservation of estrogen receptor function in invertebrate reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Brande L.; Walker, Chris; Azizi, Bahareh; Tolbert, Laren; Williams, Loren Dean; Snell, Terry W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Though rotifers are phylogenetically distant from humans, and have specialized reproductive physiology, this work identifies a surprising conservation in the control of reproduction between humans and rotifers through the estrogen receptor. Until recently, steroid signaling has been observed in only a few invertebrate taxa and its role in regulating invertebrate reproduction has not been clea...

  8. Sexual selection and the evolution of egg-sperm interactions in broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; Sherman, Craig D H

    2013-08-01

    Many marine invertebrate taxa are broadcast spawners, where multiple individuals release their gametes into the water for external fertilization, often in the presence of gametes from heterospecifics. Consequently, sperm encounter the considerable challenges of locating and fertilizing eggs from conspecific females. To overcome these challenges, many taxa exhibit species-specific attraction of sperm toward eggs through chemical signals released from eggs (sperm chemotaxis) and species-specific gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) that mediate compatibility of gametes at fertilization. In this prospective review, we highlight these selective forces, but also emphasize the role that sexual selection, manifested through sperm competition, cryptic female choice, and evolutionary conflicts of interest between the sexes (sexual conflict), can also play in mediating the action of egg chemoattractants and GRPs, and thus individual reproductive fitness. Furthermore, we explore patterns of selection at the level of gametes (sperm phenotype, gamete plasticity, and egg traits) to identify putative traits targeted by sexual selection in these species. We conclude by emphasizing the excellent, but relatively untapped, potential of broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates as model systems to illuminate several areas of research in post-mating sexual selection.

  9. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  10. Invertebrates Collected on and around Carroll Island, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INVERTEBRATES , *MARYLAND, *WATER POLLUTION, TEST FACILITIES, TEST FACILITIES, ECOLOGY, CHESAPEAKE BAY, WATER POLLUTION, AIR POLLUTION, ANNELIDA, MOLLUSCA, PROTOZOA, ARTHROPODA, CRUSTACEA, ARACHNIDA, PLANKTON, WORMS.

  11. Marine mollusc predator-escape behaviour altered by near-future carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Lefevre, Sjannie; McCormick, Mark I; Domenici, Paolo; Nilsson, Göran E; Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-07

    Ocean acidification poses a range of threats to marine invertebrates; however, the potential effects of rising carbon dioxide (CO2) on marine invertebrate behaviour are largely unknown. Marine gastropod conch snails have a modified foot and operculum allowing them to leap backwards rapidly when faced with a predator, such as a venomous cone shell. Here, we show that projected near-future seawater CO2 levels (961 µatm) impair this escape behaviour during a predator-prey interaction. Elevated-CO2 halved the number of snails that jumped from the predator, increased their latency to jump and altered their escape trajectory. Physical ability to jump was not affected by elevated-CO2 indicating instead that decision-making was impaired. Antipredator behaviour was fully restored by treatment with gabazine, a GABA antagonist of some invertebrate nervous systems, indicating potential interference of neurotransmitter receptor function by elevated-CO2, as previously observed in marine fishes. Altered behaviour of marine invertebrates at projected future CO2 levels could have potentially far-reaching implications for marine ecosystems.

  12. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  13. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  14. Data ingegration - birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  15. Development of calcareous skeletal elements in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Fred H; Killian, Christopher E; Livingston, Brian T

    2003-06-01

    Most metazoans require skeletal support systems. While the formation of bones and teeth in vertebrates has been well studied, endo- and exoskeleton development of non-vertebrates, especially calcification during terminal differentiation, has been neglected. Biomineralization of skeletons in invertebrates presents interesting research opportunities. We undertake here to survey some of the better understood examples of skeletal development in selected invertebrates. The differentiation of the skeletal spicules of euechinoid larvae and other non-vertebrate deuterostomes, the shells of molluscs, and the calcification of crustacean carapaces are surveyed. The diversity of these different kinds of animals and our present limited understanding make it difficult to identify unifying themes, but there certainly are unifying questions: How is the mineral precursor secreted? What is the nature of the interaction of mineral with the matrix proteins of the skeleton? Is there any conservation of protein domains in matrix proteins found in skeletal elements from different phyla? Are there common strategies in the development of organs that form mineralized structures?

  16. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics.......Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  17. Marine Science Initiative at South Carolina State College: An Investigation of the Biosensing Parameters Regulating Bacterial and Larval Attachment on Substrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-12

    mannitol salt agar (MSA), and thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose medium (TCBS). The plates were put intn a covered cardboard box and were stored overnight at...aliquots of marine salts diluent (MSD) and were streaked onto Zobell’s marine agar , incubated at 25 C for 18 to 24 hr. (or 48 hr. for slow growing colonies...Harbor, sampling and identifying marine Invertebrates and fishes, histological and life- history analyses of marine organisms, analyses of heavy metals

  18. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in…

  19. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  20. Freshwater invertebrates of sub-Antarctic Marion Island | Dartnall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antarctic Marion Island were examined for invertebrates. Sixty-eight species were found, including 45 new records for the Island. Of these 56 were bona fide aquatic invertebrates, the rest being terrestrial or brackish interlopers that had fallen or been ...

  1. Aquatic invertebrate fauna of wells in a tropical mountain climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study, conducted between May 2012 and September 2013, aimed to determine the distribution of groundwater invertebrates in the Bamoun tableland, Cameroon. A total of 216 samples taken from 30 wells in four localities – Foumban, Foumbot, Kouoptamo and Magba – contained 80 invertebrate taxa ...

  2. Macro Invertebrate Fauna of Udu-Ughievwen Wetlands, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro invertebrate fauna of Udu-Ughievwen wetlands, Southern Nigeria with emphasis on the species composition, diversity and distribution is discussed. A total of 62 macro-invertebrate taxa distributed into 27 families were recorded. Coleoptera and Odonata made up 16.13% by species respectively, while Arachnida and ...

  3. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Melodie A. McGeoch; Hendrik Sithole; Samways, Michael J.; Simaika, John P; Pryke, James S.; Mike Picker; Charmaine Uys; Armstrong, Adrian J.; Ansie S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Ian A. Engelbrecht; Brigitte Braschler; Michelle Hamer

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here ...

  4. The Genetic Basis of Specificity in Dinoflagellate-Invertebrate Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-21

    invertebrates can distinguish between certain dinoflagellates with which they form symbioses , and others with which they appear incompatible, and...expressed specificity in dinoflagellate-invertebrate symbioses . From the mass of evidence available, it is apparent that specificity is an ultimate

  5. Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution to the study of the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates and the biological quality of some rivers in the watershed boumerzoug (east of Algeria) ... stations (G1, G2, G3, S1, S2, S3, S4, B1) and bad qualities for stations (B2, B3, B4). Key words: Benthic macro-invertebrates ; Bio- indicators ; Pollution ; IBGN ; Quality.

  6. Application of TSL Underwater Robots (AUV) for Investigation of Benthic Ecosystems and Quantification of Benthic Invertebrate Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golikov, S. Yu; Dulepov, V. I.; Maiorov, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    The issues on the application of autonomous underwater vehicles for assessing the abundance, biomass, distribution and reserves of invertebrates in the marine benthic ecosystems and on the environmental monitoring are discussed. An example of the application of methodology to assess some of the quantitative characteristics of macrobenthos is provided based upon using the information obtained from the TSL AUV in the Peter the Great Gulf (the Sea of Japan) in the Bay of Paris and the Eastern Bosphorus Strait within the area of the bridge leading to the Russian island. For the quantitative determination of the benthic invertebrate reserves, the values of biomass density of specific species are determined. Based on the data of direct measurements and weightings, the equations of weight dependencies on the size of animals are estimated according to the studied species that are well described by the power law dependence.

  7. Marine cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The assessment of hull fouling as a mechanism for the introduction and dispersal of marine alien species in the main Hawaiian Islands through surveys at harbors on Oahu's southern and southwestern coasts during 2003 (NODC Accession 0001455)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys for adult invertebrates that were part of the hull fouling communities were done to determine to what extent marine alien invasive species (AIS) are being...

  9. Quiet(er) marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rob; Erbe, Christine; Ashe, Erin; Clark, Christopher W

    2015-11-15

    A core task in endangered species conservation is identifying important habitats and managing human activities to mitigate threats. Many marine organisms, from invertebrates to fish to marine mammals, use acoustic cues to find food, avoid predators, choose mates, and navigate. Ocean noise can affect animal behavior and disrupt trophic linkages. Substantial potential exists for area-based management to reduce exposure of animals to chronic ocean noise. Incorporating noise into spatial planning (e.g., critical habitat designation or marine protected areas) may improve ecological integrity and promote ecological resilience to withstand additional stressors. Previous work identified areas with high ship noise requiring mitigation. This study introduces the concept of "opportunity sites" - important habitats that experience low ship noise. Working with existing patterns in ocean noise and animal distribution will facilitate conservation gains while minimizing societal costs, by identifying opportunities to protect important wildlife habitats that happen to be quiet. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Brackish habitat dictates cultivable Actinobacterial diversity from marine sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Ellis

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates such as sponges and ascidians have demonstrated potential as sources of bio-medically relevant small molecules. Metagenomic analysis has shown that many of these invertebrates harbor populations of Actinobacteria, many of which are cultivable. While some populations within invertebrates are transmitted vertically, others are obtained from the environment. We hypothesized that cultivable diversity from sponges living in brackish mangrove habitats have associations with Actinobacterial populations that differ from those found in clear tropical waters. In this study, we analyzed the cultivable Actinobacterial populations from sponges found in these two distinct habitats with the aim of understanding the secondary metabolite potential. Importantly, we wanted to broadly evaluate the potential differences among these groups to guide future Actinobacterial collection strategies for the purposes of drug discovery.

  11. Brackish habitat dictates cultivable Actinobacterial diversity from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Gregory A; Thomas, Chris S; Chanana, Shaurya; Adnani, Navid; Szachowicz, Emily; Braun, Doug R; Harper, Mary Kay; Wyche, Thomas P; Bugni, Tim S

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates such as sponges and ascidians have demonstrated potential as sources of bio-medically relevant small molecules. Metagenomic analysis has shown that many of these invertebrates harbor populations of Actinobacteria, many of which are cultivable. While some populations within invertebrates are transmitted vertically, others are obtained from the environment. We hypothesized that cultivable diversity from sponges living in brackish mangrove habitats have associations with Actinobacterial populations that differ from those found in clear tropical waters. In this study, we analyzed the cultivable Actinobacterial populations from sponges found in these two distinct habitats with the aim of understanding the secondary metabolite potential. Importantly, we wanted to broadly evaluate the potential differences among these groups to guide future Actinobacterial collection strategies for the purposes of drug discovery.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high .... pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce around Mauritius. .... accurate approach to molluscan systematics. They are helpful in ...

  14. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics ..... of enteric pathogens from warm-blooded animals, including ...

  16. The prophenoloxidase-activating system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerenius, Lage; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2004-04-01

    A major innate defense system in invertebrates is the melanization of pathogens and damaged tissues. This important process is controlled by the enzyme phenoloxidase (PO) that in turn is regulated in a highly elaborate manner for avoiding unnecessary production of highly toxic and reactive compounds. Recent progress, especially in arthropods, in the elucidation of mechanisms controlling the activation of zymogenic proPO into active PO by a cascade of serine proteinases and other factors is reviewed. The proPO-activating system (proPO system) is triggered by the presence of minute amounts of compounds of microbial origins, such as beta-1,3-glucans, lipopolysaccharides, and peptidoglycans, which ensures that the system will become active in the presence of potential pathogens. The presence of specific proteinase inhibitors prevents superfluous activation. Concomitant with proPO activation, many other immune reactions will be produced, such as the generation of factors with anti-microbial, cytotoxic, opsonic, or encapsulation-promoting activities.

  17. Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-12-01

    In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks. The entire motor repertoire can be spanned by applying a well-defined set of operations and transformations to these primitives and by combining them in many different ways according to well-defined syntactic rules. Motor and movement primitives and modules might exist at the neural, dynamic and kinematic levels with complicated mapping among the elementary building blocks subserving these different levels of representation. Hence, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in unravelling the nature of these primitives, new experimental, computational and conceptual approaches are needed to further advance our understanding of motor compositionality.

  18. An evolutionary tree for invertebrate globin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M; Pedwaydon, J; Czelusniak, J; Suzuki, T; Gotoh, T; Moens, L; Shishikura, F; Walz, D; Vinogradov, S

    1988-01-01

    A phylogenetic tree was constructed from 245 globin amino acid sequences. Of the six plant globins, five represented the Leguminosae and one the Ulmaceae. Among the invertebrate sequences, 7 represented the phylum Annelida, 13 represented Insecta and Crustacea of the phylum Arthropoda, and 6 represented the phylum Mollusca. Of the vertebrate globins, 4 represented the Agnatha and 209 represented the Gnathostomata. A common alignment was achieved for the 245 sequences using the parsimony principle, and a matrix of minimum mutational distances was constructed. The most parsimonious phylogenetic tree, i.e., the one having the lowest number of nucleotide substitutions that cause amino acid replacements, was obtained employing clustering and branch-swapping algorithms. Based on the available fossil record, the earliest split in the ancestral metazoan lineage was placed at 680 million years before present (Myr BP), the origin of vertebrates was placed at 510 Myr BP, and the separation of the Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes was placed at 425 Myr BP. Local "molecular clock" calculations were used to date the branch points on the descending branches of the various lineages within the plant and invertebrate portions of the tree. The tree divided the 245 sequences into five distinct clades that corresponded exactly to the five groups plants, annelids, arthropods, molluscs, and vertebrates. Furthermore, the maximum parsimony tree, in contrast to the unweighted pair group and distance Wagner trees, was consistent with the available fossil record and supported the hypotheses that the primitive hemoglobin of metazoans was monomeric and that the multisubunit extracellular hemoglobins found among the Annelida and the Arthropoda represent independently derived states.

  19. Measuring The Impact Of Motivation On Achievement And Course Completion Rates In MarineNet Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Confined Spaces ESHSAHA28 Hazardous Waste Generator (RCRA) ESHSAHA34 Hazardous Materials in the Workplace ESHSAHA36 Workplace Inspections ESHSAHA40... Station MCIZ1851ZZ Electronics Mathematics for Marines MCIZ2820ZZ Fundamentals of Digital Logic MCIZ286HZZ Introduction to Test Equipment MCIZ287BZZ... Brazilian Portuguese Headstart2 Module 1 CLHSPOR01A Brazilian Portuguese Headstart2 Module 2 CLHSPOR02A Brazilian Portuguese Headstart2 Module 3 CLHSPOR03A

  20. Rolling Stones: Studying Aquatic Invertebrates on Hard Rock Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S.; Cooper, C. M.

    2005-05-01

    Rock is an important habitat for aquatic insects and other invertebrates, but studying invertebrates on this substrate poses many potential problems to the ecologist. Rock is a common stream bed control material. Thus, land managers, for stream rehabilitation and erosion control/channel stability, are introducing rock to large numbers of streams, including many that previously did not contain this substrate. Two key impediments to study of rock-inhabiting invertebrates include accurate measurement of individual rock surface areas and calculating total available surface area for stream regions with overlapping layers of rock. We present an overview of concepts and methods used for study of rock-inhabiting invertebrates and provide information on new methods that enhance our ability to make easier realistic estimates. These new methods, especially one for calculating rock surface area based on weight or water displacement measurements of rocks, provide an accurate and efficient means for estimating invertebrate density. By combining recent methods to extrapolate invertebrate densities from individual rocks to estimates of total bottom densities of aquatic invertebrates for a reach or region of stream bottom area, we obtain much greater accuracy and precision in quantifying densities and estimating secondary production of rock-dwelling communities.