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Sample records for brazilian electric sector

  1. Socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector: effects of the environmental legislation; Politica socio-ambiental do setor eletrico brasileiro: efeitos da legislacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, A.C.; Menezes, C.F.S. [Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral (DNPM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Projeto RADAMBRASIL

    1993-12-31

    This work discusses the socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector. Implications of environmental legal aspects on the electric sector are also discussed. The main problems concerning the implementation of the socio-environment policy are presented 3 refs.

  2. Investments in the Brazilian electric sector; Os investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Octavio Pinto Barreto de

    2008-05-15

    This work covers the investments in the Brazilian electric sector. Initially it describes the investments since 1879 in order to give a better understanding of the historical return obtained by investors, associated risks, investors' profile and investment's funding. Then some financial considerations related to new investments analysis are presented, emphasizing: the discounted cash flow theory, the equity return, the business risks and the characteristics of the main project accounts. Additionally, a hydroelectric case study is presented, in which the effect at the energy price of uncertainties in cost's projections, regional tax benefits, tax alternatives, and others are stressed. (author)

  3. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  4. Limits to tariff policies in the reformation of the Brazilian electric sector; Limites da politica tarifaria na reforma do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Jose L.; Guerra, Sinclair M.-G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    Since 1977 the Brazilian electric sector has experienced an institutional and economic crisis.The new regulations for this sector and particularly the proposal for restructuring the electric utilities in Sao Paulo are presented 3 refs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: sguerra at fem.unicamp.br

  5. Insertion of the free consumers in the Brazilian electrical sector: challenges and opportunities; Insercao dos consumidores livres no setor eletrico brasileiro: desafios e oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Cristiane Padilha

    2010-03-15

    This thesis analyses the role of free consumers in the Brazilian Electric Power Sector. Therefore, it evaluates the role of free consumers in other markets worldwide and analyses the current Brazilian regulatory framework that was introduced in 2004. The current model has replaced the one adopted in the 1990s, when the first reform of the Brazilian Electricity Sector occurred. To assess the role of free consumers in the electricity sector, this work analyses the benefits that this kind of consumers perceive and the risks they are exposed to when they switch from the captive market and go towards the open market. It also evaluates the influence of free consumers over the other industry agents: generators, distributors, retail consumers and society. It also identifies new options for free consumers in the Brazilian electric energy (author)

  6. Exhaustion of the Brazilian electric sector regulatory model: theoretical versus practical aspects; Esgotamento do modelo regulatorio do setor eletrico brasileiro: aspectos teoricos versus aspectos praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mails: marciogiannini@hotmail.com; guido@ppe.ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    The recent Brazilian regulatory experience demonstrates that it is no easy the changing for a new performance and behaviour model in the electric sector, mainly when it is observed the distance among initial objectives of the reform and the obtained results. The reforms introduction in the sector, which in ultimate analysis aimed the efficiency increasing in the sector, supported by a fragile institutional structure and regulatory collapse, obtained as unfolding the crisis of the electric power in 2001. (author)

  7. Tariffs and investments at the Brazilian electric sector; Tarifas e investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)

  8. Problems and challenges in Brazilian electric power sector: energy or energetic model crisis?; Problemas e desafios do setor eletrico brasileiro: crise da energia ou crise do modelo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ildo Luis; Vieira, Jose Paulo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia

    2002-07-01

    For the Brazilian electric sector built up from the sixties, the plan was always the viability of the private accumulation, materializing in a implicit privatization based on the purchase decision and sectorial investments. From the nineties on this logic became more deep, aiming the total handing over to the private interests, the control of the concessionaires through the share control sales and the creation of regulatory and legal frame work to guarantee this objective. This paper discusses the challenge and problems of the Brazilian electric sector.

  9. Influence of financial crisis in new investments international Brazilian electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alcala; Cantuaria, Andre Luis

    2010-09-15

    Electricity sector in addition to being a public utility, requires a substantial investment, explore natural resources and the basis of all production chains and consumption of our society. In conclusion, the econometric model used to study the investment to 2010 by Eletrobras meets a correlation acceptable. So a well dependence exists between power and investment in the projects selected. The lack of sophistication and low level of development in credit derivatives financial systems in Brazil, both as a healthy situation of the accounts and balance sheets, due to bitter experience in past crises are allowing a better resistance now.

  10. Analysis of constraints to the introduction of LNG plants in the Brazilian electric sector; Analise dos condicionantes para a introducao de plantas a GNL no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Tatiane Moraes Pestana

    2010-03-15

    This work aims analyze the constraints to the introduction of LNG in the Brazilian energy matrix. Therefore, considers the current regulatory framework and the investments recently made by PETROBRAS to acquire LNG in the international market in order to supply power plants in the country. In order to assess the current status of the LNG plants in the electricity sector, factors are analyzed in terms of the natural gas industry and electric power industry, such as: storage, LNG contracts, operating dispatch, LNG plants pricing and operational flexibility. Despite the increase in LNG international trade and the prospect of using this product in Brazil, there are some challenges for the effective use of LNG plants by Brazilian electric sector. Some of the challenges are the need to review the methodology of calculating the cost benefit of LNG power plants. Another important challenge is to examine the use of underground storage and its influence in the operating dispatch of LNG plants. (author)

  11. The concurrence safeguard on Brazilian electric power sector and the introduction of the competition; A defesa da concorrencia no setor eletrico brasileiro e a introducao da competicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Jose Guilherme A. do; Ribeiro Filho, Ary Pinto; Ishihara, Claudio Akio [Agencia Nacinal de Enegia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate is the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of the work is to introduce the incentive to the competition as government policy instrument for Brazilian electric power sector.

  12. The structural changes in the brazilian electric sector and the utilities strategic management; A restruturacao do setor eletrico brasileiro e o gerenciamento estrategico das empresas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotero, Roberto C.; Santana, Edvaldo Alves de [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Producao e Sistemas

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to show structural and market changes in brazilian electric sector and their implications on new business environment. Factors that will affect power utilities are pointed out and how they should be thoughtful in new model. Is pointed out the strategic change as a mean for utility optimization in efficiency and comparative advantage search. (author) 11 refs.; e-mail: rcl at eps.ufsc.br

  13. The good, the bad and the ugly: The privatization of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Bruno; Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Figuiera, Luiz Augusto

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of five electricity distribution companies in the Northeast of Brazil using technical and financial indexes. Three privatized and two public firms were analyzed between 1997 and 2008. The financial indexes are related to the capacity of the business to generate value for shareholders, while the technical indexes are related to the quality of service provided to customers. We observed the privatized firms had their financial indexes improved after the privatization, increasing the value of the firm for the shareholders. However, there is no evidence that the privatization affected the quality of service provided to consumers.

  14. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], emails: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  15. Using of electric power auctions in the Brazilian energy sector; A utilizacao de leiloes de energia eletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis Henrique Bassi [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: lhbassi@aneel.gov.br; Camargo, Ivan Marques de Toledo [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: ivancamargo@unb.br

    2006-07-01

    The Brazilian power industry has undergone fundamental institutional changes in order to introduce competition in generation segment by allowing more flexibility to the electricity trading arrangements since mid 90. These reforms were aimed at increasing economic efficiency and both cost and energy price reduction. The restructuring process requested a highly complex legal framework in order to: ensure the necessary investments for the expansion of power infrastructure; stimulate the participation of private capital; and guarantee power supply adequacy at desired safety and reliability levels. The electricity rationing, occurred in 2001, was a result of: lack of investments, growing demand and supply vulnerability to adverse hydrological shocks. As a consequence, the Brazilian Government initiated a wide debate concerning the loopholes in the implanted model as well as the improvements needed to be adopted. The refinement of the electricity trading arrangements is an important aspect of the electric sector model revitalization. It resulted in the implantation of energy auctions aiming at increasing transactions transparency as well as establishing a long run energy price market reference and promoting market efficiency and competition. This paper analyses the implementation of energy auctions as a mechanism for trading power purchase agreements in the long term. It also discusses the Brazilian power industry restructuring process, in the face of the distribution utilities' obligation to purchase power for their captive customers. (author)

  16. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  17. Competitive strategies and models of business management in the Brazilian electric sector; Estrategias competitivas e modelos de gestao empresarial no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Breno Pinto

    1999-12-15

    This study draws attention to the fact that most of the discussions and studies related to the restructuring of electricity industry in Brazil, almost exclusively address the technological and institutional aspects involved in the question, when competitive strategies and management models to be followed by power companies are essential to ensure the consolidation of new design of the institutional industry in the daily operation of business. The proposition is that the evaluation of competitive strategies and management models can be a working tool for the State, in addition to offer to the electric power companies administrators an initial map or check list for planning and operation of its business, in the institutional model that is being implemented for the Brazilian electric sector.

  18. The Brazilian electric sector regulation as reference for the hydrogen regulation as energetic vector; A regulacao do setor eletrico brasileiro como referencia para regulacao do hidrogenio como vetor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro, Andre de Goes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPSB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: apater@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is based on the Brazilian electric sector to outline parallels for introduction of hydrogen as energetic vector in Brazilian matrix. For this purpose it was achieved an analysis of regulation theory, of electric sector reorganization, the new model of energy trade and the NOS role. In face of this analysis, hydrogen regulation may be established through a mix of four models: tariff model by return tax; tariff by marginal cost; regulation by performance and price cap. This new industrial sector should start vertical and with its maturity become non vertical as electric sector after its reorganization. Regarding the market, advanced purchase of hydrogen should be established enabling the reduction of incertitude in trade as well as reduction of implantation costs. NOS should pursue electric energy generation from hydrogen as this may carry impacts in transmission networks as well as in distribution network depending on how hydrogen was generated, whether in large scale or for local consumption supply. (author)

  19. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis; Comercializacao de energia no novo ambiente do setor eletrico brasileiro. Uma metodologia para analise de estrategias de alocacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorelam@cesp.com.br; Lima, Wagner da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: wagner@pea.usp.br; Castro, Roberto [ELEKTRO - Eletricidade e Servicos S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: castro@mt2net.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  20. Dynamics of risk management in the regulated contracting environment of the Brazilian electrical sector; Dinamica da gestao de riscos no ambiente de contratacao regulada do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio Cavaliere de

    2008-11-15

    This thesis analyses the dynamics of risk management in the regulated contracting environment of the Brazilian electrical sector. As in the new model the distribution utilities are obliged to ensure energy contracting to supply their whole markets, these companies became exposed to volume risks related to the demand uncertainties. So the new model following similar directives from the first phase developed management tools to mitigate the new risks mentioned above. As in a well structured market it is expected that the risks should be evenly shared or that risk management tools should be provided for all, this work intended to analyze the dynamics of the designed mechanisms and their impacts over the regulated market. In this work the risks of the electricity markets are studied and the management tools devised for the Brazilian market are identified. Finally for understanding the dynamics a thorough analysis of the auctions, of the mechanism for compensation of surplus and deficits and tariffs are carried on. The results show that the management tools were regularly employed by distribution companies, but the risks were merely transferred to the captive customers leading to distortions and asymmetries that conflict with the basis that guided the second phase of the reform. The work proposes remedial actions to mitigate the observed impacts and to provide risk management tools to the captive customer. (author)

  1. Investments in the Brazilian electric sector and the financial crisis; Investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro e a crise financeira mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Gestao de Ativos no Exterior; Oliveira, Andre Luis Cantuaria Cardoso [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Financas e Investimentos

    2010-07-01

    The electricity sector in addition to being a public utility, requires a substantial investment, explore natural resources and the basis of all production chains and consumption of our society. The dynamics of this sector goes beyond the individual performance of energy companies and will also interfere in matters of political, economic, social and environmental development of nations. The lack of sophistication and low level of development in credit derivatives financial systems in Brazil, both as a healthy situation of the accounts and balance sheets, the fruit of bitter experience in past crises are allowing a better resistance to weather the current crisis. But it is an important trading partner of Brazil, through various business financial economic crises that is affecting the U.S. economy and the world has also affected the economy of our country, but with less intensity. The econometric model used to study the investment to be initiated in 2010 by ELETROBRAS meets a correlation acceptable; this demonstrates that a well dependence exists between power and investment to the projects to be implemented. (author)

  2. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  3. Performance indicators proposal for the government electric power distribution facilities in the Brazilian electric sector; Proposta de indicadores de desempenho as distribuidoras de energia federalizadas do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carregaro, Jose Carlos

    2003-07-01

    In this dissertation a set of indicators is proposed to the Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S/A - ELETROBRAS, allowing the holding companies to attain the top position in the market, and a global vision of their performance. The methodology applied the definition of the performance indicators and the context, existing studies, and the indicators used by the Brazilian electric sector. It is expected that the proposed set of indicators be used by ELETROBRAS for a better planning and a more objective control of the holding companies performance, as well as an analysis of their administration strong and weak aspects.

  4. The sustainable expansion of the brazilian electric sector from the use of sustainability indicators as support instruments to decision; A expansao sustentavel do setor eletrico brasileiro a partir do uso de indicadores de sustentabilidade como instrumento de apoio a decisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais (IVIG)]. E-mail: luciano@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br; Soares, Jeferson B. [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Recursos Energeticos]. E-mail: jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br; Rovere, Emilio L. La [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente (LIMA)]. E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a proposal of an integrated evaluation methodology of offer electric energy expansion, considering not only technological and economical aspects but the environmental and social aspects as well. The proposal is based on the establishment of an indicators set for electricity generation from: small hydroelectric power plants, sugar cane bagasse, biodiesel, eolic wind, urban solid residues and natural gas. From those indicators a multicriteria analysis is applied to a case study, allowing to learn simultaneously the influence of environmental and social questions on the decision making of the brazilian electric sector expansion.

  5. A proposal for evaluation of the owner capital cost for the Brazilian electric power sector; Uma proposta de avaliacao do custo do capital proprio para o setor de energia eletrica brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira L.

    2003-12-01

    This work studies the owner capital cost of the brazilian electric sector, according to three methods: Comparable Accounting Earnings, that uses historical values in its measuring and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), elaborated from the expected values. The obtained results by using the CAE method showed that the Brazilian electric sector has not been rewarded in its real necessity of maintenance and expansion. From this observation, it was considered appropriated not to take this method in the methodology presently proposed, which will be using only the single average of the CAPM and DCF models. The use of the results single average of this model presents the advantage of selecting specific characteristics of each one, and diluting the effects of occasional peak values. The owner capital cost obtained from this work was the average value of 19.73% for the studied period - 1995/2003 (17.12% for 2003), proximate to the obtained result by ANEEL - brazilian agency of electric power - for investments in energy distribution in Brazil, 17.47%, while Minardi and Sanvicente (2003) obtained 36.06% for the owner capital cost of CEMIG in 2002, specifically.

  6. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  7. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  8. Evaluation of capital investment in thermoelectric generation projects in the Brazilian electric sector using the real options theory; Avaliacao de investimento de capital em projetos de geracao termoeletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro usando teoria das opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alessandro de Lima

    2000-04-01

    In the Brazilian Electric System about 92% of the generated electricity is of hydraulic origin. Today the system is operating practically in the limit of your capacity. Solutions of short time to make possible the expansion of the offer of electricity generation go by the installation of cycle combining thermal using natural gas as fuel. In this dissertation, it was used the real options theory to evaluate generation assets in the Brazilian electricity sector. In Brazil, central operator dispatches a flexible thermal when the electricity spot price is larger than the operation costs. The operation decision is like an European call, where underlying asset is the electricity and the strike price is the operation cost. The value of the capacity is the sum of all decisions to operate the thermal unit, in the remaining life of unit. It was used Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming to evaluate this model. The problem is divided in two parts. In the first part, the base case is fixed and evaluated and the expected NPV and project risk are calculated in function of contract level. In the second part, many sensibilities are done in relation to base case. At the end, the value of flexibility is calculated for each contract level. (author)

  9. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR); Centralizacao e transferencia de recursos no setor eletrico brasileiro: a reserva global de reversao (RGR) e a reserva global de garantia (RGG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de

    1991-12-31

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs.

  10. Electricity sector human resources review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottingham, C. [Canadian Electricity Association, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) has conducted a review of the human resources (HR) sector to provide industry with labour force data. The study developed a detailed forward looking industry profile in order to identify industry best practices and to develop an HR strategy for the Canadian electricity sector. The study revealed a declining Canadian born labor force and questioned whether immigration can fulfill Canada's labor needs. Demand for talent will continue as the electric power industry expands with new supply and infrastructure development over the next 20 years. tabs., figs.

  11. The electric sector and its insert in a global scenery; O setor eletrico e sua insercao num cenario globalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira Lopes

    1999-11-01

    The document discusses the following issues of the Brazilian electric power sector: historical aspects; the creation of the ELETROBRAS and the sectorial debts process; financial and productive globalization; electric industry and the new environment and the new businesses. The author concludes the work detaching the new business appearance in the Brazilian electric power sector.

  12. Analysis of exports of the brazilian mineral sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Geovani Schwingel Franck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to analyze the pattern of specialization of exports of brazilian mineral sector, identifying the most dynamic productive sectors in the period between 1999 and 2015. For this purpose, the Import Coverage Ratio was calculated, as well as the Intra-industry Trade rate (IIT, and the Sector Concentration of Exports. Data were collected from the Foreign Trade Information Analysis System (Alice Web. The results indicated that Brazil has a few competitive mineral groups in its export basket, and that it is concentrated in a few sectors. It was found that the most competitive sectors were Niobium ore, iron, manganese, gold, aluminum, other semimanufaturado and copper.

  13. Electricity sector human resources review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facette, J. [Canadian Association of Technicians and Technologists (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity industry is expanding, with new supply and infrastructure development equivalent to 35 per cent of existing capacity over the next 20 years. This paper examines the preliminary results of a human resources sector review providing industry specific labor force data. The key objectives of the review were to develop detailed industry profiles, identify root causes of human resources issues, identify industry best practices and develop a human resources strategy for the Canadian electricity sector. Estimates of current employment were provided, with age of employees, retirement projections, regional projections and estimated supply/demand gaps. Current shortages were identified, including wind energy technicians. The paper also identified a declining Canadian born labor force and a concurrent dependence on immigrants. A project research methodology was provided with a list of participating major employers. tabs., figs.

  14. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N. [Lawyer - Legal Department of PPC S.A., 28, Halkokondili Street, GR-10432 Athens (Greece)

    2009-03-15

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  15. Follow the Leaders: competition in the Brazilian Auto Financing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. S. Moita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the competitive pattern and strategy of the firms in the Brazilian automobile financing market. First, we analyzed the strong segmentation observed in this market, determining market niches. We then estimated reaction functions to price changes. The results indicated that the three largest companies in the sector have a strong influence on interest rate setting within the entire segment. This phenomenon characterizes the competition of this sector as the leader-follower type, rather than Bertrand competition, the latter of which is often expected in the banking sector and it demonstrates the existence of the leading firms' market power.

  16. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors wit

  17. Corporate governance and efficiency in the Electricity Sector using Data Envelopment Analysis: a study in the brazilian stock market DOI: 10.5007/2175-8077.2011v13n31p161

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Peixoto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Different Corporate Governance mechanisms have been suggested to minimize agency problems between managers and shareholders, and between controlling and minority shareholders. The aim of this study is to analyze the corporate governance mechanisms result in greater efficiency for Brazilian stock companies in the electricity sector, in 2007-2009. The hypothesis to be verified is that the lower the voting concentration   and the dependence of the council, and the greater the cash flow concentration, the greater the performance of the company will be. The analyzed sample involved thirty-three companies, fourteen being classified into one of the levels of CG (Level 1, Level 2 or New Market and the remainder being members of the traditional market. To measure the efficiency of the companies, the non-parametric DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis method was used, and to relate the efficiency with the governance variables, we adopted regression analysis of panel data. The results demonstrated that the use of CG mechanisms positively influences business efficiency, but not in the expected magnitude. It was found that the cash flow concentration is positively related to the efficiency of firms, supporting the governance literature. For future work, the use of other input and output variables is suggested.

  18. The challenges of the enterprise stainability in the Brazilian electric power sector; O desafio da sustentabilidade empresarial no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Katia C.; Pires, Silvia Helena M.; Matos, Denise F. de; Paz, Luciana L.R.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Medeiros, Alexandre M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Otimizacao Energetica e Meio Ambiente], e-mail: igs@cepel.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the analyses and assessments carried out at the first phase of the 'Socioenvironmental Indexes for the Management of Enterprise Sustainability of the ELETROBRAS (IGS-GELB) group', under development by the CEPEL. The paper presents the assessment, detailed development, and the comparative analysis of the different reports and questionnaires for evaluation of the enterprise sustainability existing in Brazil and in the world, and sector enterprise practices.

  19. Complex organizations: the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao-Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao], e-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (BNP), in the proposed size and after 20 years of paralysis, requires profound changes in the current organizational modeling of the national nuclear industry. The effectiveness of any process of organizational change is limited to three factors. The theoretical bottleneck happens when you do not know enough about a phenomenon in order to effect the desired changes. The resource bottleneck occurs when knowledge may be available to change people's behavior but the funds necessary for implementation may be lacking. The organizational bottleneck emerges when there are knowledge and resources to solve a problem, but may not able to organize the resources in order to carry out the problem-solving effort. In the case of resumption of BNP seems clear that there is the knowledge of what is needed to make policy and the intention to allocate the necessary resources. But the question is the following: the current organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector is consistent with the goals laid down in the scenario of resumption of BNP? That is, is there organizational ability to leverage a program of the size proposed for the nuclear area? Find answers to these questions is crucial, because the organizational model of the Brazilian nuclear sector consists of elements involving a complex interorganizational system. Thus, this article is to examine the appropriateness of the current organizational modeling of the Brazilian nuclear sector to current demands of society. As a result, the article aims to propose recommendations for a remodeling of the nuclear sector, taking into account the current national and international scenarios of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-06-30

    The goal of the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) project was to address cyber security issues for the electric sector, particularly in the near and mid-term. The following table identifies the strategies from the DOE Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity published in September 2011 that are applicable to the NESCOR project.

  1. The generation expansion planning of the Brazilian electric sector employing genetic algorithms; O planejamento da expansao da geracao do setor eletrico brasileiro utilizando os algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazay, Heloisa Firmo

    2001-07-01

    The generation expansion-planning problem is a non-linear large-scale optimisation problem, which is even larger when it refers to the Brazilian system, and when one considers the multiple intervening uncertainty sources. To handle the complexity of the problem, decomposition schemes have been used. Usually, such schemes divide the expansion problem into two sub-problems: one related to the construction of new plants (investment sub-problem) and another dealing with the task of operating the system (operation sub-problem). This thesis proposes a genetic algorithm to solve the investment sub-problem. Initially, an analysis of the state of the art on the generation expansion planning and the field of the genetic algorithms are presented. Then follows a practical application of the proposed algorithm in a model of generation expansion planning under uncertainty. Finally, the results obtained in two case studies are presented and analysed. These results indicate that the proposed genetic algorithm is an effective alternative to the solution of the investment sub-problem. (author)

  2. Considerations on the public services regulation: examples from the brazilian electric sector; Consideracoes a respeito da regulacao de servicos publicos: exemplos do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral de Almeida [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    This paper evaluates the main concepts involved in public services, natural monopoly and regulation. The efficiency of regulation in public services industry are also analysed, especially in face the privatization process of electric industry in Brazil. (author) 6 refs.; e-mail: fprado at sp.gov.br

  3. The Ten-Year 2007-2016 Plan of Power Expansion in the context of the recovering of Brazilian electric sector planning: advances and possible enhancements; O Plano Decenal de Expansao de Energia 2007/2016 no contexto da retomada do planejamento do setor eletrico brasileiro: avancos e possiveis aprimoramentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratini, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the methodology for power consumption projection presented in the Ten-year (2007-2016) Plan of Power Expansion (PDEE 2007/2016) and to propose some questions for discussion. Indeed, bearing in mind the progress achieved in the recent past with respect to the resumption of long term planning in the Brazilian electric power sector, it is pertinent to promote a discussion about the possible limitations of the expansion methodology proposed in PDEE. In short, it is believed that, starting from such a discussion, it could be possible to contribute towards the aim of making the planning process of the Brazilian electric power sector expansion more transparent, more consistent and more participative, consequently bringing a greater convergence of the expectations of the agents of the sector. The main questions raised in this paper about the PDEE's methodology are with respect to the absence of sufficient detail about the interactive adjustment of the several models used to project the consumption, as well as to the lack of information about the models themselves. The general conclusion of this paper is that, in order that the PDEE meets its objective of providing correct signals to all the agents, it is necessary to include more incisively the sector's specialists and the private agents in the methodological discussions, so that no important doubts will remain about the various projections. In our understanding, the success of such an enterprise will depend not only on the disposition of the agents, but on the greater detail and depth that should be previously given to the questions raised in this paper. It is certainly a significant challenge, of a high complexity but of an even higher importance to the electric power sector and to the Brazilian economy. (author)

  4. Nuclear Electric looks to the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, James

    1995-03-01

    The state-owned utility Nuclear Electric, which is responsible for nuclear power generation in England and Wales, was created in 1990 following withdrawal of nuclear from electricity privatisation. Having successfully made itself much more commercial, Nuclear Electric would like the freedom of operating in the private sector. (author).

  5. Wind energy technical-economic viability under the new regulatory rules of the Brazilian electric sector; Viabilidade tecnico-economica da energia eolica face ao novo marco regulatorio do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques

    2001-02-15

    The wind energy development in the world shows as one of the most important and promising technologies in the clean energy generation complement. This work presents the wind energy evolution and utilization in the electric power generation, the environmental impacts and perspectives. Considering the great wind potential in Brazil and the new rules of the electric sector, technical feasibility studies were developed based on regions north and northeast wind data as well as economic feasibility studies based on the new regulatory rules for the energy renewable sources. The results show that is possible to generate clean energy within the new context of the electricity sector.(author)

  6. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  7. Supporting Services Functionality in Brazilian Sectors: The Primacy of Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Gaspar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available E - commerce can benefit companies by enabling new business models, improving efficiencies, and building competitive advantages. But there are some critical issues to be addressed in order to a chieve those benefits, and one of them relates to the effectiveness of online customer servicing in e - commerce, also referred to as supporting services functionality (SSF. In this paper we discuss a subset of SSF in 110 large Brazilian companies represent ing 11 key sectors of the economy. Results enabled the ranking of sectors according to levels of SSF effectiveness, and the conclusion was that the nature of business may explain why general banks and telecommunications companies currently perform the bett er, while siderurgy and metallurgy, wholesale and international commerce, and chemical and petrochemical companies have the lowest performance in implementing the tools for customer support in e - commerce .

  8. Development of Brazilian Biodiesel Sector from the Perspective of Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Françoise Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the main program with respect to biodiesel is the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBP. It is also considered the regulation mark of biodiesel production in Brazil and its directives are social inclusion and regional development. Considering these directives, this paper aims to analyse the perspective of biodiesel sector stakeholders in Brazil to understand whether NPBP directives are in consonance with the reality of the sector for its development. A questionnaire was created with 48 questions in order to understand the importance of 13 variables for the stakeholders, and the responses were treated by factor analysis (FA. The results showed the existence of a trade-off related to technological advances in biodiesel production that confronts NPBP directives, that is, the biodiesel sector tends not to evolve in terms of the use of advanced technologies. If policies change so as to develop the biodiesel sector using advanced technologies, NPBP should change its directives in order to involve family farmers in another way in the Brazilian economy.

  9. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  10. Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farid Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the 1970's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the Brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. The methodology used here is based on the Malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called Data Envelopment Analysis. The results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.O setor agropecuário brasileiro passou por um processo de modernização a partir dos anos 70, conseqüentemente, espera-se que exista uma contrapartida de progresso tecnológico e de ganhos de produtividade para o setor. Diante de tal fato tem-se como objetivo, neste estudo, avaliar o progresso tecnológico e o crescimento da produtividade total dos fatores (PTF do setor agropecuário brasileiro ao longo do período de 1970 a 1996. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada no índice Malmquist de produtividade e nas técnicas de programação matemática denominadas de Análise de Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Os resultados alcançados foram condizentes com estudos prévios e apontam para progresso técnico e ganhos de produtividade para o setor, porém concentrados em algumas regiões.

  11. Opening up to the private sector for electric power supply; Uma reabertura a iniciativa privada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqueres, Jose Luiz [ELETROBRAS, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A summary of the electric power policy adopted by the Brazilian government in the last sixty years is presented. Due to this policy all the electric power producers became state-owned and the tariff levels applied were below the average levels in the developed countries. A new legislation recently voted will permit the participation of private enterprises in the sector and the necessary growth in electricity production 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  13. Electricity Sector Council : human resources challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldie, T. [Electricity Sector Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The electricity sector is currently undergoing significant human resource challenges. Several charts illustrated the aging Canadian workforce; workforce by key occupation; statistics on a 2004 sector study requirements of retirement estimations; and average annual growth rate of the domestic labour force. Several slides also depicted the dependence on immigrants for labour growth; trades intake through immigration; and a 2007 environmental scan. The presentation also provided information on the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) and its projects and occupational standards currently under development. The ESC in partnership with Human Resources and Social Development Canada has begun the process of developing a National Occupational Standard for geoexchange professionals. It is intended to enable colleges and Ministries of Education to standardize national training and evaluate new hires. Last, several slides containing background information on the ESC board of directors were included along with slides of labour market information; connectivity; and projects under development. tabs., figs.

  14. Use of wastes as option for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Henriques, Rachel Martins [Virtual Institute of Climate Change (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, Amaro Olimpio Jr. [Center for Integrated Studies of the Environment and Climate Change (CentroClima/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68565, CEP 21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    The present study presents an analysis of the options available for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions in the Brazilian power sector. The objective is to verify the potential use of wastes for electrical energy generation and its competitiveness in comparison with other sources of renewable energy. A comparison was made using marginal abatement cost curves derived from a reference scenario obtained from earlier studies dealing with the expansion of the Brazilian power sector. The results showed that the availability of wastes is significant and that they can be used at a cost 20-60% lower than that of wind power generation, a subsidized source of energy in Brazil. It can therefore be concluded that it would be more efficient if incentives were applied to the use of wastes for electrical power generation since it offers socio-environmental benefits which go far beyond the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  15. A vision about the professional qualification in the new Brazilian electric energy sector. Threats and opportunities; Uma visao sobre a formacao profissional nas empresas do novo setor de energia eletrica brasileiro. Ameacas e oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos Filho, Afranio B. de Alencar

    2001-07-01

    This work intends to examine which new qualification and abilities will be necessary to the electric power professional in the face of the deep changes that affects the energy market in the end of this century in Brazil.This question lead us to investigate, at the same time, two decisive points of the process: the energy sector restructuring that demands a new professional and the professional training translated in programs with information contents to attend this contemporary demand.

  16. The Brazilian electric power sector reformulation process: an analysis of the veto players; O processo de reforma do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise dos 'veto players'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxo, Leticia

    2007-07-01

    The electric power sector reformulation implemented in the Brazil makes evident the intrinsic difficulty to handle with complex set of veto players. The multiplicity of veto players characterized by distinct ideologies results in the multiplication of business rounds related to the elaboration and implementation of the new game rules, whose agreement involves conflicts on the presented proposal, resulting in the slowness pf reformulation process conclusion.

  17. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  18. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  19. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  20. Analysis of institutional evolution of regulatory activity in the Brazilian electric sector: 1920-1997; Analise da evolucao institucional da atividade de regulacao no setor eletrico brasileiro: 1920-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Mauricio Lopes; Ferreira, Elnatan Chagas; Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMIC/FEEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], Email: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of the institutional evolution of the governmental organizations which were responsible for the regulation of the electrical energy sector in Brazil (before the establishment of the ANEEL) is presented . Taking into account the various levels of subordination and independence in their actuation, the different missions and powers given to these agencies regarding the inspection, controlling, planning and regulating the industry, are compared and discussed. The conducted analysis is essentially formal, based on the legal instruments which defined and established the creation of those agencies. (author)

  1. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  2. Electric energy auctions in Brazil and its effect on emissions of greenhouse gases by the electric sector; Leiloes de energia eletrica no Brasil e sua influencia nas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa pelo setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpire, Ricardo; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The result of the auctions of electricity, after the new regulatory framework in 2004, has shown the increased participation of fossil sources of thermal generation, contributing to increased emission of greenhouse gases by the Brazilian Electricity Sector. This article aims to analyze the correlation between growth in electric generation sector and rising greenhouse gases, especially through the study of the winning projects of electric power auctions conducted with the advent of the New Institutional Model of the Power Sector from 2004, comparing with the existing policies and prospects of the next auction of the electric sector. (author)

  3. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-06-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered.

  4. Electricity Profile Study for Domestic and Commercial Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarashid Ponniran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As Malaysia move towards as a developed country, it is expected that the electricity consumption in domestic and commercial sectors will increase as well as more industrials and households need. This study is to investigate the electricity profile in domestic and commercial sectors by monitoring some appropriate appliances that contribute high electricity consumption. The characteristics for every major loads are examined and the potential energy saving is compared to an efficient electrical appliances in order to obtain the effective energy consumption. Questionnaires have been used to collect respondents, appliances and equipments information. For appliances and equipments measurement data, power quality equipment has been. Samples for domestic sector involved 150 respondents from three residential classes which are high, middle and rural. While for commercial sector, 100 respondents are involved which are restaurant, hotel, workshop, and store/office. It shows, in domestic sector, refrigerator appliance consumed high electricity meanwhile in commercial sector; compressor equipment contributed high consumption in electricity. It is also indicated that by using efficient electrical appliances it can reduce the amount of electricity consumption. However, instead of using high efficient appliances, human factor also contribute significant impact on reducing electricity consumption. By integrating between human factor, high efficient appliances/equipment and government policy, the electricity consumption can be used and managed wisely. Therefore the strategies to build energy efficient society have been proposed in order to achieve efficient electricity consumption.

  5. Governing Liberia’s Electricity Sector Reforms: Challenges and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molley Okomfo Kiazolu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to electricity remains a major challenge for Liberia’s economic recovery despite recent efforts by the government to reform the sector. This paper assesses the post-war reforms of the electricity sector relative to their outcomes – accessibility, affordability and the quality of electric power. The paper also evaluates Liberia’s electricity sector reform by comparing it to reform in Cote d’Ivoire. The paper argues that existing reforms do not adequately address the underlying challenges facing the electricity sector. Both productive and allocative efficiencies remain low amidst excessive government influence, and investment in infrastructure is grossly inadequate compared to regional benchmarks. Presently, electricity is one of the major, if not the single largest, cost for businesses in Liberia, and less than one per cent of households are connected to the public grid. This paper offers some policy recommendations to improve efficiencies in the sector. First, that the electricity sector be restructured; the Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC should be reorganised as an independent economic regulator, while the Ministry of Lands, Mines and Energy (MLME should perform the legal and social regulatory function. Second, the sector should be unbundled into power generation, transmission and distribution, and each component privatised through competition for the market. Third, that as an independent economic regulator, the LEC should adopt cost-of-service regulation to encourage long-term and sustained investment in power generation and transmission, thereby improving access to electricity

  6. Proceedings of the 9. CBE: Brazilian congress on energy; 4. SLAE: Latin American seminar on energy. Energy solution for Brazil. V. 2: Development, planning and public policy for energy sector. Financing models for energy sector; Anais do 9. CBE: Congresso brasileiro de energia; 4. SLAE: Seminario latino-americano de energia. Solucoes para a energia no Brasil. V. 2: Desenvolvimento, planejamento e politicas publicas do setor energetico. Modelos de financiamento para o setor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Papers are presented comprehending the development, planning and government policies for the Brazilian energy sector, emphasizing the following subjects: petroleum, natural gas, electric power, energy consumption, demand and management, power generation, distribution.

  7. Lost in Translation : Interpreting the Brazilian Electric Power Privatisation Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDid Latin American privatisation polices fail because of flawed implementation of fundamentally sound policies or because privatisation policies were themselves seriously flawed? Using the Brazilian electric power reforms as a narrative tool, this paper examines the causal chain assumed

  8. Implications of the new Brazilian electric sector model in the process of distributed generation using the sugar cane bagasse; Implicacoes do novo modelo do setor eletrico brasileiro no processo de geracao distribuida com a utilizacao do bagaco da cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos (FZEA). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola]. E-mail: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This articles study what are the main implications of the new electrical sector model as an alternative to improve the electric power generation by using the sugar cane bagasse in the process of cogeneration.

  9. The Incorporation of Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: reflections based on brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiel Valadares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims seeks to broaden the debate on the incorporation of the theme Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector (EPS through the literature review on the reflective character to be taken to transpose concepts from the private sector to the public sector. It was understood that needs a critical discussion on the process of appropriating that theme in Brazil. It was observed that the Brazilian Public Administration is marked by a hybrid model of administration, in which patrimonial practices, bureaucratic and managerial coexist, making the complex adaptation of entrepreneurship. Therefore, we must be wary of exaggerated expectations regarding this theme in Brazilian Public Administration, as have several limitations that meet the sustainability of democratic governments.

  10. IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Szuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

  11. Toward a More Efficient and Innovative Electricity Sector in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Russia is in the process of one of the most ambitious electricity sector reforms ever undertaken, reflecting the importance of an efficient and reliable electricity sector for promoting economic activity, growth and community prosperity. The outcome of this process will have a substantial impact on Russia’s energy sector and longer-term economic performance. It will help to determine the nature and pace of investment and modernisation of the sector and will help to shape incentives for efficient, flexible and innovative operation and end-use.

  12. Investigation of a strong positive ionospheric storm during geomagnetic disturbances occurred in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém (BELE), Brasília (BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (UEPP), and Porto Alegre (POAL), Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas (PAL) and São José dos Campos (SJC), Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  13. New electricity act brings in private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-02-01

    Opening up the State`s electricity industry, previously the domain of the former Queensland Electricity Commission (QEC), is part of an overall restructuring of the industry under the new Queensland Electricity Act. Under this Act, the QEC was split into generating and transmission and supply corporations. The Act provides for the regulation of the electricity industry and the regulation of the use of electricity and safety in relation to the supply and use of electricity.(Author). 6 photos.

  14. The wind power in Brazil: Proinfa and the new model of the electric sector; A energia eolica no Brasil: Proinfa e o novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Proinfa - Programa de Incentivo as Fontes Alternativas de Energia (Energy Alternative Sources Improvement Program), its maturation period, the first stage results and the difficulties and the conflicts generated by the New Model of Electric Sector for the development of the aeolian energy in the Brazilian electric matrix.

  15. Influence of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazilian economy: an analyze by economy’s sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Ferreira Serra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of Foreign Direct Investment’s (FDI entrance in the several Brazilian economies’ sectors. In order to this, are observed the global flow of FDI, the Brazilian legislation that regulates the FDI’s entrance, such as the historical context that has influenced the FDI’s inflows in Brazil. Then it is analyzed the entrance of FDI and the growth of Brazilian’s Economy sectors, between year 2000 and 2008, observing if there is a direct relations between them. Finally, contends that the two analyzed factors are connected, but the national economy’s growth influences more in the entrance of FDI then the opposite, and also are shown others factors that influences the FDI entrance and the intern growth, suggesting more national investments in order to attract more FDI to enlarge the international commerce and obtain more technology development.

  16. Integrated planning of resources by hydrographic basins: a proposal of a model for the Brazilian electric sector; Planejamento integrado de recursos por bacias hidrograficas: uma proposta de modelo para o setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: ivo@fem.unicamp.br, bajay@fem.unmp.br, jannuzzi@fem.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the idea of associating the Resource Integrated Planning (RIP) to the Basin Plans gathering and searching compromising solutions for the three developers: electric power energy, fuel and water, bringing improvements related to the traditional planning processes.

  17. How to engage across sectors: lessons from agriculture and nutrition in the Brazilian School Feeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. METHODS The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Main actors involved with the development of the law were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed using a well-established theoretical framework. RESULTS The study provides five key lessons for promoting intersectorality. First, nutrition and health practitioners can afford to embrace bold ideas when working with other sectors. Second, they should engage with more powerful sectors (or subsectors and position nutrition goals as providing solutions that meet the interests of these sector. Third is the need to focus on a common goal – which may not be explicitly nutrition-related – as the focus of the intersectoral action. Fourth, philosophical, political, and governance spaces are needed to bring together different sectors. Fifth, evidence on the success of the intersectoral approach increases the acceptance of the process. CONCLUSIONS This study on policy processes shows how a convergence of factors enabled a link between family farming and school feeding in Brazil. It highlights that there are strategies to engage other sectors toward nutrition goals which provides benefits for all sectors involved.

  18. Decision making in the electricity sector using performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Nuno [ISEL-ADESPA, Lisbon (Portugal); FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Neves-Silva, Rui; Melo, Joao Joanaz de [FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal)

    2017-02-15

    The studies on the electricity sector are usually focused on the supply side, considering consumers as price-takers, i.e. assuming no demand elasticity. The present paper highlights the role of consumers on the electricity sector, assuming that consumers react to electricity prices and make decisions. Many studies focused on the demand side disaggregate consumers by activities, leading to a highly complex analyse. In the present paper, consumers are divided by three main types. In the present paper, the Government makes decisions on the measures to implement to influence the production and the consumption. To study the impact of the Government decisions, the present paper studies and implements a tool: a decision support system. This tool is based on a conceptual model and assists the task of test and analyse the electricity sector using scenarios to obtain a set of performance indicators that would allow to make quantitative balance and to eliminate unfeasible measures. The performance indicators quantify the technical, environmental, social and economical aspects of the electricity sector and help to understand the effect of consumer practices, production technology and Government measures on the electricity sector. Based on the scenarios produced, it is possible to conclude that the price signal is important for consumers and it is a way to guide their behaviour. It is also possible to conclude that is preferable to apply incentives on supporting energy-efficiency measures implementation than on reduce the price of electricity sold to consumers. (orig.)

  19. Market Monitoring and Analysis: Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Zogolli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available EU electricity liberalisation remains an essential energy reform programme, in scale in any other major region of the world. While other regions of the world have seen major pauses to their energy market reforms (most notably in the United States, the EU in the form of the European Commission, continues to press ahead. Electricity market power in Albania is in a difficult situation as a consequence of the lack of the adequate home-brew electricity resources and the great dependency from the hydro resources, inadequacy of the interconnections capacity with the neighbouring networks of electricity power, the considerable technical and economic barriers, and the difficult financials.In countries where no “official” power pool has been set up, different kinds of privates’ entities, e.g. generators, distributors, traders, large consumers, stock exchanges, system operator etc. or a combination of them, have promoted the creation of PX-s. The idea is that because electricity is a homogeneous product, standardized contracts can be traded on organized marketplaces. Since such an initiative was not forbidden by any law or by the European Directives many project have emerged in response to different motivations.This process in Europe, known as the liberalization process, has had a wide impact on the European electricity industry.Electricity market liberalisation is the opening of the market to competition; the extension of vertical unbundling of transmission and distribution from the generation and retailing; and the introduction of an independent regulator.The focus of this project is an analysis of the role of electricity PX-s in the recently liberalized electricity markets of Europe. In the context of creating “a” competitive electricity market at a European level, the key questions considered are the functioning of these PX-s with respect to electricity characteristics, market design and regulatory framework. Keywords: Energy,‘Placing on

  20. Simulation of a gas thermal plant in the new environment of the Brazilian electricity sector: a risk versus return analysis; Simulacao de uma usina termica a gas no novo contexto do setor eletrico brasileiro: uma analise risco versus retorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinhel, Antonio Carlos da Costa

    2000-12-15

    This work has as its main objective the evaluation of the financial impact in respect to the investment in a thermal gas plant, taking into consideration the complementary role of thermal electricity generation within the interconnected system. A risk x return analysis is performed, by means of computer simulations based on different assumptions, among which the following: costs involved; electric system expansion scenarios; flexible plant operation; long and short term contracting of generation capacity. The combination between flexibility in operation (the level of take/ship or pay in gas contracts) - which in favorable hydraulic periods allows for the use of water which would otherwise overflow through spillways or stored at low value - and a trading strategy - which reduces the risk exposure to electricity spot prices - makes it possible to have a significant increase in the cost effectiveness of the project. Among the main conclusions of the study, the following should be highlighted: the electricity price gap occurring between the prices practiced in present contracts between suppliers and distributors and those of the 'new energy', resulting from the system expansion; the relevance the flexibility in fuel purchase, in order to allow for the cost reduction of the energy generated, through the elimination of unnecessary gas consumption; the high risk associated to strategies in which investors come up with no signed long term power purchase agreements; and the risks for the system expansion, considering the consumer point of view. (author)

  1. Day-to-day variability of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over the Indian and Brazilian sectors - the role of Equatorial Electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gende, Mauricio; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; De Jesus, Rodolfo; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is a narrow band of current flowing eastward at the ionospheric E-region altitudes along the dayside dip equator. Mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields over the equator results in the formation of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) which in turn generates large electron density variabilities. Simultaneous study on the characteristics of EEJ and EIA is necessary to understand the role of EEJ on the EIA variabilities. Present study reports simultaneous variations of EEJ and GPS-TEC over Indian and Brazilian sectors to understand the role of EEJ on the day-to-day characteristics of the EIA. Magnetometer measurements during the low solar activity year 2004 are used to derive the EEJ values over the two different sectors. The characteristics of EIA are studied using two different chains of GPS receivers along the common meridian of 770E (India) and 450W (Brazil). The diurnal, seasonal and day-to-day variations of EEJ and TEC are described simultaneously. Variations of EIA during different seasons are presented along with the variations of the EEJ in the two hemispheres. The role of EEJ variations on the characteristic features of the EIA such as the strength and temporal extent of the EIA crest etc., have also been reported. Further, the time delay between the occurrences of the day maximum EEJ and the well-developed EIA are studied and corresponding results are presented in this paper. Further, the results from a study on the noon time bite-outs at the anomaly crest locations with their absence over the equator in the Indian and Brazilian sector are also discussed in this paper.

  2. The convergence of the natural gas industry and electric power industry: the Brazilian case; Convergencia entre a industria do gas natural e a industria de energia eletrica: o caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the convergence between power (electric sector) and natural gas industries in Brazil. It also shows how this convergence happens in the USA market and its applicability in the Brazilian market. At the end some conclusions and suggestions are presented to satisfy the Brazilian market, which behaves in a different way as the USA market, i.e. the Brazilian market does not follow seasonal pattern but an aleatory pattern in thermoelectric plants. (author)

  3. Opportunities to Transform the Electricity Sector in Major Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The electricity sector in Major Economies offers significant potential to transform the profile of future energy supply through improved electricity generation efficiency and accelerated deployment of clean energy. Such a transformation would result in important fossil fuel and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions savings from the electricity sector, but requires additional investment with a sustained focus on cleaner, more efficient technologies. Additional costs could be partially offset by the removal of electricity consumption subsidies, a policy that could serve as one important option for further advancing energy efficiency and clean energy. The World Energy Outlook (WEO) 450 Scenario projects global energy trends out to 2030 driven by global implementation of policies and regulatory frameworks to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It highlights a future in which a cleaner, more secure electricity sector emerges, and leads to tremendous opportunities for technology innovation. The 450 Scenario therefore provides a useful tool to evaluate the potential to transform the electricity sector in Major Economies, and the relative costs and benefits compared to a scenario in which no policy or regulatory changes are assumed, as in the WEO Reference Scenario.

  4. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  5. Regional location of electric-electronics sector in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Adán Jacinto Flores Flores; Maritza Álvarez Herrera; Francisco García Fernández

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the degree of regional location of the electric-electronic sector of Mexico. Location coefficient was calculated using variables total employed persons and the total gross output; It was complemented by a shift-share analysis; both methods based on official information from economic censuses of 2004 and 2009. The methods used is descriptive techniques and the results generated depend on the selected period of time, they suggested that the electric-elect...

  6. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DEPFI, Edificio A 1 piso Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan, C.P. (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyzes the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electricity sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided into three parts. The first part presents a chronology of institutional background related to the RES. This is followed by an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electricity sector, which can facilitate the promotion and integration of the RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system of the sector. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (author)

  7. Compensation Rules for Climate Policy in the Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Most previous cap and trade programs have distributed emission allowances for free to incumbent producers. However, in the electricity sector the value of CO[subscript 2] allowances may be far in excess of costs to industry and giving them away to firms diverts allowance value from other purposes. Using a detailed simulation model, this paper…

  8. Regional location of electric-electronics sector in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Jacinto Flores Flores

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure the degree of regional location of the electric-electronic sector of Mexico. Location coefficient was calculated using variables total employed persons and the total gross output; It was complemented by a shift-share analysis; both methods based on official information from economic censuses of 2004 and 2009. The methods used is descriptive techniques and the results generated depend on the selected period of time, they suggested that the electric-electronic sector is highly localized in the northeastern regions and northwestern Mexico, more specifically, in the states of Baja California, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas. However, the state of Baja California Sur has a zero activity in the electric-electronic sector. These findings provide support for the development of targeted policies to actions that promote the competitiveness of high-tech industry of Mexico. A future line of research is to expand the scope of the study to identify the most significant conditions for the electric-electronic sector of Mexico location.

  9. Ionospheric Effects of X-Ray Solar Bursts in the Brazilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Guedes, F.; Takahashi, H.; Costa, J. E.; Otsuka, Y.

    2011-12-01

    When the solar X-ray flux in the interplanetary medium reaches values above a certain threshold, some undesired effects affecting radio communications are expected. Basically, the magnitudes of these effects depend on the X-ray peak brightness and duration, which drive the intensity of the ionosphere response when the associated electromagnetic wave hit the sunlit side of the Earth atmosphere. An important aspect defining the severity of damages to HF radio communications and LF navigation signals in a certain area is the local time when each event takes place. In order to create more accurate warnings referred to possible radio signal loss or degradation in the Brazilian sector, we analyze TEC maps obtained by a GPS network, formed by dual-frequency receivers spread all over the country, to observe ionospheric local changes during several X-ray events in the 0.1-0.8 nm range measured by GOES satellite. Considering the duration, peak brightness, and local time of the events, the final purpose of this study is to understand and predict the degree of changes suffered by the ionosphere during these X-ray bursts. We intend using these results to create a radio blackout warning product to be offered by the Brazilian space weather program named EMBRACE (Estudo e Monitoramento BRAsileiro do Clima Espacial): Brazilian Monitoring and Study of Space Weather.

  10. Strategy for development of the Polish electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybowski, J. [Polish Power Grid Co., Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper represents the strategy for development of the Polish Electricity Sector dealing with specific problems which are common for all of East Central Europe. In 1990 Poland adopted a restructuring program for the entire energy sector. Very ambitious plans were changed several times but still the main direction of change was preserved. The most difficult period of transformation is featured by several contradictions which have to be balanced. Electricity prices should increase in order to cover the modernization and development program but the society is not able to take this burden in such a short time. Furthermore the new environment protection standards force the growth of capital investment program which sooner or later has to be transferred through the electricity prices. New economic mechanisms have to be introduced to the electricity sector to replace the old ones noneffective, centrally planned. This process has to follow slow management changes. Also, introduction of new electricity market is limited by those constraints. However, this process of change would not be possible without parallel governmental initiation like preparation of new energy law and regulatory frames.

  11. Electricity end-uses in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisi, Enedir; Gosch, Samuel; Lamberts, Roberto [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering

    2007-08-15

    The residential energy consumption has been studied in many countries as it usually accounts for a large percentage of the total energy consumption. Energy end-uses have also been a matter of concern as they can assist energy system planning. The objective of this paper is to assess the actual scenario of electricity consumption and estimate electricity end-uses in the residential sector of Brazil for different bioclimatic zones. The analysis is based on a survey performed by 17 energy utilities enclosing a total of 17,643 houses or flats over 12 states in Brazil. The survey was performed to obtain electricity consumption data for all household appliances found in houses and flats. The electricity end-uses were estimated by performing weighted averages according to the location of the dwellings in each bioclimatic zone. Results indicate that the largest end-uses are for refrigerator and freezer together, which account for about 38-49% of the electricity consumption in dwellings in Brazil. Air-conditioning and electric shower are the end-uses that are more dependent on the climatic conditions. The main conclusion that can be made from the analysis is that air-conditioning should be a major concern in the residential sector of Brazil in the near future as its ownership is still low, but its electricity consumption is already significant mainly over summer. (author)

  12. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  13. Spanish Electric Sector Nuclear R and D Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, M.; Francia, L.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the R and D model that, based on the experience gained and lessons learned in nearly forty years of nuclear power use in Spain, is Promoted by the Spanish Electricity Sector for the nuclear R and D activities it develops in a coordinated manner in the frame of the Nuclear Energy Committee of the Association Espanola de la Industria Electrica (UNESA). (Author)

  14. Regional aspects of electricity sector regulations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pobochy Serguey; Yudashkina Galina

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates regional features of the electricity sector regulation in Russia. We use panel data for 77 Russian regions during 1998–2003. Our analysis is based on the interest-group theory of regulation. The objective of the project is to estimate the influence of regional energy company, consumers, and governor on regulation policy in the region. Empirical analysis shows that governors' elections are accompanied by tariffs' decrease. We found that during 1999–2001 there was a gap bet...

  15. Prospective of the Electrical Sector 2002-2011; Prospectiva del Sector Electrico 2002-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In accordance with the 66 Th Article of the regulation of the Law of the Public Service of Electric Energy, the Comision Federal de Electricidad presented for approval of the Secretaria de Energia this prospective that contains the trend analysis of the electric sector, the program of the expansion system and the perspectives of the market for the next 10 years. The first chapter treats about the position of the generation infrastructure of Mexico in the World and continental environment. In chapter two, the regulatory framework of the electric industry is presented, the present and future evolution of the supply and demand of electric energy as contributions of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and the Compania de Luz y Fuerza del Centro is presented in chapter three. Finally, the main programs of savings and efficient use of energy are shown. This document is perfectible therefore the Secretaria de Energia invites to all those interested on the Mexican electric sector for sending their comments to the addresses which appearing in the Annexe five to establish a continuous improvement system of this publication. (Author)

  16. Electricity sector prospective 2009-2024; Prospectiva del sector electrico 2009-2024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza Trejo, Veronica; Doniz Gonzalez; Virginia; Cue Aguilar; Gumersindo [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This prospective planning of the electricity sector is comprised of four chapters and covers the 2009-2024 planning horizon. The first chapter describes recent developments in the international market of electric energy, which analyzes trends in global consumption of electrical energy, global installed capacity by technology type and country, sources of primary and secondary energy used to generate electricity in several countries and regions, the projections of fuel consumption and the dynamic construction of new plants and infrastructure using technology that, in both advanced economies and in the emerging strategic trends represent in the context the global fight against climate change, among which the new technology and advanced nuclear reactor technologies applicable to the use of renewable sources like wind, solar, geothermal, mini hydro, and bioenergy, among others. The second chapter presents the structure of the legal and regulatory framework in the electricity sector and regulatory policy instruments applicable in Mexico and saved the state permits issued in the methods considered in the Public Service Law of Electricity. The third chapter analyzes the evolution of the national electricity market in recent years, considering the behavior of domestic electricity consumption, sales to the public service sector, the seasonal behavior of demand and pricing structure. In the fourth chapter presents the path planning of consumption and electricity demand at the national, sectoral and regional levels in order to identify the requirements of capacity and energy for the period 2009-2024. [Spanish] Esta prospectiva de planeacion del sector electrico se integra por cuatro capitulos y abarca el horizonte de planeacion 2009-2024. El primer capitulo describe la evolucion reciente del mercado internacional de la energia electrica, en el cual se analizan las tendencias en el consumo mundial de energia electrica, capacidad mundial instalada por tipo de tecnologia y paises

  17. PROSPECTING BRAZIL´S DEFENSE SECTOR: BRAZILIAN ARMY´S CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with technological foresight in the defense sector, in Brazil. The theme deals with the case of technological foresight developed by the Brazilian Army (EB, between the years 2009 to 2012. The objective was to identify the systems and materials needed to EB, the technologies required to enable their achievement, and scenarios of national defense industry in 2030. The research method was in two phases, a theoretical framework for the methodology of prospecting, and other empirical, for the fieldwork. The empirical phase was conducted via the Internet, with the consultation of about 2000 respondents, from the most diverse areas of society. The research result was a set of systems, materials and technologies as well as a bunch of tables with probabilities, impact, timing, relevance and risks of the scenarios of national defense industry in 2030. With this information, the EB can develop strategies for transform itself into a new Armed Force, the EB 2030.

  18. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF THE BRAZILIAN MEAT AGRIBUSINESS SECTOR: EXPORTS OR DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the internationalization strategies of the four largest Brazilian companies in the meat (beef, pork and poultry agribusiness sector, by considering the comparative and competitive advantages of the country and the companies. JBS, Marfrig, Sadia and Perdigão were studied, of which the last two merged in May 2009, forming Brasil Foods. The authors looked into what led these companies to start investing  abroad directly, as from 2005, as a complement to their exports, the preferred strategy for placing products in foreign markets. The research method used was the multiple case study, drawing on primary data (interviews, corporate annual reports, financial statements, press releases and shareholder information and secondary data (theses, dissertations, academic articles, reports in newspapers and business journals, using bibliographic and documentary research. Everything was analyzed in the light of international business and strategy theories. The results show that exports still predominate and that investing directly abroad was, in principle, a reactive strategy to sanitary barriers against Brazilian products. However, the acquisition of companies in restriction-free countries has increased as part of a forward-looking strategy for gaining access to new markets and strengthening brands. Key-words: Agribusiness. Internationalization. Strategy. 

  19. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Guedes, F.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; Espinoza, E. S.; Pillat, V. G.; Lima, W. L. C.; Basu, Su.; Basu, Sa.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; MacKenzie, E. M.; Pi, X.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm) began with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME) by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November). In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs), carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station) and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly), Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC) measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet), 20 November (disturbed) and 21 November (recovery phase) are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC) is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA). It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later), the F-region critical frequency (foF2), the F-region peak height (hpF2), and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots) all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  20. Developing Canada`s climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Canada`s climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent).

  1. The rural electric cooperatives in a new scenario of the electric sector; As cooperativas de eletrificacao rural no novo cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], e-mail: macpel@pea.usp.br, e-mail: fribeiro@pea.usp.br, e-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The rural electric cooperatives are agents who have always been on the edge of the electric sector. Now, they must be regularized to the new rules of the electric energy public service established by the 1995 Concessions Law. This work provides an evaluation of the Brazilian rural electric cooperatives regulation apparatus and the regularization public policy applied in Sao Paulo. The evaluation focus is the rural citizen, the electric energy consumer and the citizens who have been excluded from this public service. The interpretation of the problem and the study of the regularization process has led to the evidence that the situation reached an impasse. The thesis is that the attitude of regulatory agencies create a paradox where the cooperatives are not covered by the regulation policies with damage to citizens in these areas. Particularly, given that the Brazilian citizens have won the right of electricity access, the citizen who lives in the cooperative area have no protection by State to do this right effective. This work offers an academic proposal to break this institutional impasse, based on the search of the agents' equilibrium. (author)

  2. PRICING POLICY‟ CONTROL AT THE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamira Anvarovna Daudova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered one of the most important indica-tors characterizing the state of affairs at the electric pow-er sector, i.e. the price set for heat and electricity supply. The rate should stay at a moderate level. However, the rates have been steadily increasing nowadays. The paper gave a description of the price setting machinery in the electric power sector, with the ways capable of enhanc-ing efficiency in price making. The study suggested that the per capita consumption should be shortened round the country, in order to fix the rate of consumption per person that further would entail the rate‟ decrease in the tariffs for heat and electricity supply.Producing heat and electricity at the combined heat and power plant (CHPP in most cases has proven to be more efficient than the separate stations; that is why great attention was given now to developing approaches to breakdown the production cost for heat and electricity in the combined production figures. Efficient application of the combined production of heat and electric power should outline the prices and tariffs understandable by reasons of technology and economy being set for both types of energy, while keeping production profitable for both the separate and combined schemes. During transi-tion to adjusted tariffs under the RAB technique (proce-dure, a company shall start earning income exactly re-ferred to their cost of setting up assets. The effective rate figure should not exceed the limits acceptable that should be consistent with the regional executive power authority representing public interests and consumers at the region. For checking properly networks‟ operational reliability in computing tariffs for electricity supply under RAB technique, the provider should regularly refer (at least once in three years to the study outcomes concern-ing the rate correlation with increase in reliability of net-works (to the optimal level, with the adjustments made to investment programs

  3. A Statistical Survey of the UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagarakis, George; Collin, Adam; Kiprakis, Aristides

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used appliances in the UK residential load sector, as well as a comprehensive technology and market survey conducted by the authors. The article focuses on the individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, which is particularly important for implementing load-use statistics in power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability density functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information that provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  4. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  5. Economic benefits of decarbonising the global electricity sector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F; Foley, A; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H; Holden, P B; Edwards, N R

    2013-01-01

    Conventional economic analyses of stringent climate change mitigation have generally concluded that economic austerity would result from carbon austerity. These analyses however rely critically on the assumption of an economic equilibrium, which dismisses established notions on behavioural heterogeneity, path dependence and technology transitions. Here we show that on the contrary, the decarbonisation of the electricity sector globally can lead to improvements in economic performance. By modelling the process of innovation-diffusion and non-equilibrium dynamics, we establish how climate policy instruments for emissions reductions alter economic activity through energy prices, government spending, enhanced investment and tax revenues. While higher electricity prices reduce income and output, this is over-compensated by enhanced employment generated by investments in new technology. We stress that the current dialogue on the impacts of climate policies must be revisited to reflect the real complex dynamics invo...

  6. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  7. MODELING, DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFUSION OF HYPERMEDIA-INTERNET APPLICATIONS FOR THE BRAZILIAN RURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Zambalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing country in the midst of major social, economic, technological, cultural, and educational change. In the areas of technology and education, the transfer of information and knowledge, with the support of hypermedia applications, Internet, and distance learning have been a major concern of public and private entities, especially in regards to agriculture and animal production. In a country with approximately 195 million inhabitants and 8.5 million square kilometers, where the rural sector accounts for 25% of gross domestic product, 30.3% of exports, and 37% of jobs1, the use of information and communication technologies in education and inclusion is fundamental to promoting developmental strategies and citizenship. In this study, we sought to describe the process of modeling, development and dissemination of hypermedia applications for the Brazilian rural sector, taking as a case unit, the “Digital Citizen” Internet portal. A qualitative research, with exploratory-descriptive goals, and a case study based on documentary and observation is presented. In the current research and beyond, the practices related to modeling, development, and dissemination of hypermedia applications via distance learning (Moodle® and Flash®, as well as investigations and discussions involving government processes and practices related to digital inclusion and social development of rural citizen Brazil are specified. We conclude that Brazil is tackling the challenge of digital and social inclusion, based on a project whose main components included (a deploying an infrastructure for telephone and broadband across the rural areas, (b offering free internet in public schools and rural communities, (c promoting projects and companies that work with hypermedia applications, and (d supporting initiatives that involve the development and provision of services at a distance. The rural citizen has been able to maintain his residence in their midst with

  8. Factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management practices: Evidence from the Brazilian electro-electronic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on the factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management (SCM practices develops four hypotheses based on a literature review, and tests them using survey data of Brazilian electro-electronic firms. The results reveal the big picture of the SCM practices in the sector and suggest that contextual factors such as size, position and bargaining power affect the adoption of SCM practices, which are also more customer oriented. Sector characteristics are very important in analysing SCM practices. Contrary to the findings of literature, the relationship between competitive priorities and SCM practices was not supported statistically.

  9. Electric sector main challenge: public policies and socio-economic factors; Desafios para a reflexao do setor eletrico: politicas publicas e sociedade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutti, Miriam Regina [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Antonio Carlos D. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Frota, Francisco Ivaldo A. [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    Changes in the international scene with evident impacts in the Brazilian reality recommends the incorporation of a new attitude in consideration of the policies linked to the public services, such as the Electric Sector. In this context, it`s indispensable the understanding and expansion of the interaction mechanism with society, since the sectional action planning steps. This work introduces, with a reflexive approach, the basic elements for this discussion 11 refs.

  10. Counter electrojet features in the Brazilian sector: simultaneous observation by radar, digital sounder and magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we show new results regarding equatorial counter electrojet (CEJ events in the Brazilian sector, based on the RESCO radar, two set of fluxgate magnetometer systems and a digital sounder. RESCO radar is a 50 MHz backscatter coherent radar installed in 1998 at São Luís (SLZ, 2.33° S, 44.60° W, an equatorial site. The Digital sounder routinely monitors the electron density profile at the radar site. The magnetometer systems are fluxgate-type installed at SLZ and Eusébio (EUS, 03.89° S, 38.44° W. From the difference between the horizontal component of magnetic field at SLZ station and the same component at EUS (EEJ ground strength several cases of westward morning electrojet and its normal inversion to the eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ have been observed. Also, the EEJ ground strength has shown some cases of CEJ events, which been detected with the RESCO radar too. Detection of these events were investigated with respect to their time and height of occurrence, correlation with sporadic E (Es layers at the same time, and their spectral characteristics as well as the radar echo power intensity.

  11. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newmark, Robin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinez, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tidwell, Vince [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  12. Ionospheric Variability during Sudden Stratopheric Warmings over 60° Geomagnetic Meridian in the Brazilian Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, O. F.; Paula, E. R.; Kherani, A.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Paes, R. D. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present some evidence of the major Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events, which occurred during low solar activity of years 2008, 2009 and medium solar activity of 2013, as observed on Total Electron Content (TEC), MLT wind, and vertical plasma drift parameter. The Total Electron Content (TEC) was collected from the International Global Positioning System (IGS) and from the Brazilian Network of Continuous Monitoring (RBMC) stations. Daytime E´B vertical drift were derived from the magnetometers located at the equatorial station Alta Floresta (9.9ºS, 55.9ºW, dip lat: 1.96º) and an off equatorial station Cuiaba (15.3ºS, 56.0ºW, dip lat: 7.10º), both in the Brazilian sector, while the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) meridional and zonal wind components were measured by the Meteor Radar located at the southern mid-latitude Santa Maria (29.4ºS, 53.3ºW, dip lat: 17.8º) station. During the SSW events the GPS-TEC data exhibit a distinctive daytime and nighttime anomaly pattern with a suppression of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the afternoon and enhancement of EIA during the morning hours. TEC was also characterized by semidiurnal and large amplitude, which lasted for several days mainly in 2008 and 2009 events. For 2013 event, we identify the anomalous variation in E´B drift based on later local time migration of peak value with SSW days. A novel feature of this study is the identification of the similar migration pattern in the TEC anomaly, in spite that the simultaneous solar-flux increases during the SSW event of 2013. Other novel features are the amplification of the 13-16 day periods in the TEC anomaly during the SSW days, and simultaneous amplification of these periods in the meridional and zonal wind components in the MLT region, as far as 30o S. These aspects reveal the presence of coupled atmosphere-ionosphere dynamics during the SSW event and the amplification of the lunar and/or solar tidal component, a characteristic which is

  13. Unusual ionospheric effects observed during the intense 28 October 2003 solar flare in the Brazilian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 28 October 2003 solar flare (X-ray Class X17.2 was one of the most intense solar flares observed in the recent past. In the present investigation we show the unusual ionospheric effects observed in the Brazilian sector during this solar flare, using both the ionospheric sounding observations obtained at the UNIVAP stations: Palmas (7–10.2° S, 48.2° W, dip lat. 5.5° S and Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, dip lat. 17.6° S, Brazil; and ground-based global positioning system (GPS data obtained at the "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" (IBGE stations: Imperatriz (5.5° S, 47.5° W, dip lat. 2.9° S, Brasilia (15.9° S, 47.9° W, dip lat. 11.7° S, Presidente Prudente (22.3° S, 51.4° W, dip lat. 14.9° S, and Porto Alegre (30.1° S, 51.1° W, dip lat. 20.7° S, Brazil; on two consecutive days, viz., 27 (without solar flare and 28 (with solar flare October 2003. It should be mentioned that the vertical total electron content (VTEC from the GPS observations obtained during the solar flare showed an unusual simultaneous increase in the VTEC values at about 11:00 UT at all four stations associated with the solar flare EUV enhancements and lasted for about 3 h. However, no ionograms were obtained at any of the two UNIVAP stations for a period of about 1 h between about 11:00 to 12:00 UT. Before 11:00 UT (from about 10:45 UT and after 12:00 UT (to about 16:00 UT, the ionograms were only partial, with the low frequency end missing. During this intense solar flare, hard X-rays (1 to 10 A, as observed by the GOES 12 satellite, were ejected by the Sun during a long period (several hours, with peak radiation at about 11:10 UT. These hard X-ray radiations can penetrate further into the ionosphere, causing an increase in ionization in the lower part of ionosphere (D-region. In this way, the lack of ionograms or partial ionograms, which indicates no echoes or partial echoes of the transmitted digital ionosonde signals, are

  14. A questão do investimento no Setor Elétrico Brasileiro: reforma e crise The investment in the Brazilian power sector: reform and crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lizardo de Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is presently going through its worse electricity supply crisis in fifty years. This happens after seven year efforts of market-oriented reforms, and inevitably raises the issue of whether the design and rhythm of the reform have been correct. The roots of the present crisis lie in a long period of underinvestment dating from the eighties; sector reforms were aimed at correcting this situation, but have been unsuccessful thus far. This article discusses the causes of this failure and attempts a way out of the present problems. The present crisis requires an emergency answer, but also a long term policy. I argue that such a policy must be based upon the acknowledgement that electricity demand in Brazil will tend to grow fast for the foreseeable future and that sector reform must be based upon dynamic rather than static efficiency. Furthermore, the large Brazilian hydropower system requires special treatment if we are to have investment in hydro and in thermal plants.

  15. MEASURES OF EFFICIENCY AND INVESTMENTS RETURN: AN STUDY OF BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTORS WITH DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS, MALMQUIST INDEX AND ROI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Saurin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine, in a group of companies from the Brazilian electric sector, if there is a relationship between the return on investment (ROI and the concept of efficiency estimated by the method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, as well as evaluating the growth of productivity based on Malmquist Index (Fare et al, 1996. The hypothesis is that firms that had return on investment higher during certain period of time are those employed their resources efficiently in getting their outputs (DEA efficient. The input (1 Products (5 DEA model correspond to the operating cost (I, the network length (km, the number of consumers and the market billed high, medium and low voltage, respectively. The sample consisted of 31 companies of Brazilian electricity distribution and timing of the study was from 2007 to 2009. We calculated the Malmquist index (M0, represented by the change in total factor productivity (TFPC, which is composed by the evolution of technical efficiency (EC and the change in the technological frontier (TC of the companies were also determined ROI for each period. We calculated the correlation between the TFPC, TC, EC, score the DEA and the ROI for the period 2007 to 2009. The results showed a positive correlation, although weak, between efficiency change and the indexes mentioned above, rejecting the initial hypothesis

  16. Cognitive ergonomics: the use of mind mapping tool in maintaining productive sector of a Brazilian paper company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Diego; Mateus, José Roberto; Merino, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    The use of mind maps as a method of building knowledge, planning, organizing activities and ideas can be seen in the literature related to ergonomics. The results of such use are relevant and its use in academic area found. However, regarding to its use in industrial environments, studies can't not be found. With this scenario, and based on the perception of the ergonomist about the importance of using methods such as mind maps in support of human cognition, it seems pertinent to its use in industry sectors whose cognitive demand requires. Given these assumptions, this study aimed to apply the method of Mind Maps in Productive Maintenance sector of a Brazilian paper. The Productive Maintenance sector in the Paper Industry has an important contribution to operational performance. With practical Predictive Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance and Corrective Maintenance, the industry advocates to make the machines to produce paper is not to stop producing when they are programmed to do so. Among the practices cited, the Preventive Maintenance is one that leads to pre-determined intervals in order to reduce the possibility of placing the equipment in a condition below the required level of acceptance. Therefore, this article aims to propose using the tool "mental maps" in order to collaborate in planning and implementation of preventive maintenance activities in the sector of mechanical maintenance of a pulp and paper industry in southern Brazil. The study investigated the maintenance sector through its employees, who went through training about the tool and then use it and ergonomists company.

  17. The evolution and main determinants of productivity in Brazilian electricity distribution 1998-2005. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Fac. CC. Economicas y Empresariales e IUDR - Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Programa de investigacion Energia y Cambio Climatico Fedea-Abengoa (Spain); Tovar, Beatriz [Dpto. de Analisis Economico Aplicado y EIT - Universidad las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Iootty, Mariana [UFRRJ Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes; Pinto, Helder Queiroz Jr. [IE-UFRJ Instituto de Economia - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    This paper estimates changes in the productivity of the Brazilian electricity distribution sector using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on a panel of 18 firms from 1998 to 2005. The study decomposes the productivity change of these distribution firms in terms of technical efficiency, scale-efficiency and technical progress. This exercise aims to help the understanding of the main determinants of the evolution of productivity, focusing its relationship with the restructuring process implemented in the 1990s. TFP index records a yearly positive growth rate of 1.3% in the whole period under analysis for all firms. Technical change was the main component behind this evolution, with an average growth of 2.1% per year, while technical efficiency presented a yearly negative performance of - 0.8%. The results prove that, in general terms, the incentives generated in the reform process do not seem to have led the firms to behave in a more efficient manner. (author)

  18. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electricity Sector Using Smart Electric Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions are emitted from electricity generation through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to power steam turbines. Burning these fuels results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2—the primary heat-trapping, “greenhouse gas” responsible for global warming. Applying smart electric grid technologies can potentially reduce CO2 emissions. Electric grid comprises three major sectors: generation, transmission and distribution grid, and consumption. Smart generation includes the use of renewable energy sources (wind, solar, or hydropower. Smart transmission and distribution relies on optimizing the existing assets of overhead transmission lines, underground cables, transformers, and substations such that minimum generating capacities are required in the future. Smart consumption will depend on the use of more efficient equipment like energy-saving lighting lamps, enabling smart homes and hybrid plug-in electric vehicles technologies. A special interest is given to the Egyptian case study. Main opportunities for Egypt include generating electricity from wind and solar energy sources and its geographical location that makes it a perfect center for interconnecting electrical systems from the Nile basin, North Africa, Gulf, and Europe. Challenges include shortage of investments, absence of political will, aging of transmission and distribution infrastructure, and lack of consumer awareness for power utilization.

  19. Introducing of Green Pricing in the Korean Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boo, K.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    In recent years, the Korean electricity sector has been undergoing restructuring, represented by de-regulation and promotion of competition. Competition will, eventually, force electricity power producers to overly rely on cheap fuels such as coal and nuclear in order to reduce the cost of power generation, which is against the international Green Round, including the UNFCCC. Accordingly, some measures are needed not to let such an market failure discourage the efforts to protect the environment. Up to date, a number of policy measures have been worked out by the Korean government to promote the use of renewable energy in power generation. Such efforts, however, have not been quite successful. Innovative policy tools are called for to promote renewable energy-base power generation in the emerging competitive electricity market. Among various approaches that have been tried and worked out in the developed countries to adequately address this problem, a most popular approach is green pricing. Green pricing is to let the customers pay for the additional cost incurred from installing renewable energy-based generating facilities, consequently making it viable and promoting an increased use of renewables in the power generation. Accordingly, a market research to investigate the willingness to pay for this premium was conducted as a prerequisite to design a green pricing. The major findings of this market research are: First, while limited to the industrial and buildings sectors, awareness of environmental and green pricing is not so disappointing as compared with those in the develop countries(41.3%). Second, companies have not yet fully developed the concept of green pricing and are mainly motivated to purchase green power in the perspective of a great cause rather than in pursuit of direct and indirect economic benefits. Third, regarding fuel choice for power generation, respondents express a strong opposition to nuclear, coal, and oil, while they are more favorable to

  20. Structural analysis of electricity consumption by productive sectors. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Vicent [Departamento de Economia Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edificio B 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); del Rio, Pablo; Hernandez, Felix [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to identify those sectors that contribute most to electricity consumption in Spain, using a methodology based on input-output tables, and to derive some recommendations aimed at increasing energy efficiency in those sectors. This input-output approach is complemented with a sector-focused study in which the availability of electricity-efficient technologies per sector and the barriers to their uptake are identified. This hybrid approach is deemed useful to derive policy implications. We thus propose several instruments to remove those barriers. (author)

  1. Decarbonising the Swedish transport sector with electricity or biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Bo Bramstoft; Skytte, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Sweden has set long-term energy policy targets which aim at eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 [1]. Since the production of power and district heating in Sweden is already close to be carbon neutral, a further reduction of GHG emissions have to be seeked in other sectors......, for example the transport sector. By 2011, approximately 90% of the total fuel consumption in the transport sector stems from fossil fuels, accounting for around 45% of the GHG emissions in Sweden [1]. Therefore, the Swedish transport sector will have to face a major transformation in the next future......, if the ambitious targets of a carbon neutral transport system by 2050 and of being independent from fossil fuels in the vehicle fleet by 2030 have to be achieved [1]. To meet the energy policy targets, radical restructuring of the fuel use and vehicle stock in the transport sector is required. In this context...

  2. Introducing of Green Pricing in the Korean Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boo, K.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    In recent years, the Korean electricity sector has been undergoing restructuring, represented by de-regulation and promotion of competition. Competition will, eventually, force electricity power producers to overly rely on cheap fuels such as coal and nuclear in order to reduce the cost of power generation, which is against the international Green Round, including the UNFCCC. Accordingly, some measures are needed not to let such an market failure discourage the efforts to protect the environment. Up to date, a number of policy measures have been worked out by the Korean government to promote the use of renewable energy in power generation. Such efforts, however, have not been quite successful. Innovative policy tools are called for to promote renewable energy-base power generation in the emerging competitive electricity market. Among various approaches that have been tried and worked out in the developed countries to adequately address this problem, a most popular approach is green pricing. Green pricing is to let the customers pay for the additional cost incurred from installing renewable energy-based generating facilities, consequently making it viable and promoting an increased use of renewables in the power generation. Accordingly, a market research to investigate the willingness to pay for this premium was conducted as a prerequisite to design a green pricing. The major findings of this market research are: First, while limited to the industrial and buildings sectors, awareness of environmental and green pricing is not so disappointing as compared with those in the develop countries(41.3%). Second, companies have not yet fully developed the concept of green pricing and are mainly motivated to purchase green power in the perspective of a great cause rather than in pursuit of direct and indirect economic benefits. Third, regarding fuel choice for power generation, respondents express a strong opposition to nuclear, coal, and oil, while they are more favorable to

  3. Probabilistic risk benchmark of the Brazilian electrical system; Risco probabilistico de referencia do sistema eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Neyl Hamilton Martelotta

    2002-05-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to proceed a first numerical evaluation of the probabilistic risks magnitudes associated with the Brazilian Electrical network, considering the subsystems North, Northeast, South, Southeast and Mid West. This result is relevant because it can be used as an initial comparative reference for future reliability studies of the Brazilian Basic Grid. As a by-product, the whole set of criteria and procedures used in the work are described in detail. They may also serve as a preliminary base for future similar evaluations. (author)

  4. Storm time equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift reversal due to disturbance Hall electric field over the Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.; Denardini, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles over Brazilian sector during two magnetic storm events are investigated in this work. The observations were made at varying phases of magnetic disturbances when the bubble zonal drift velocity was found to reverse westward from its normally eastward velocity. Calculation of the zonal drift based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere modeled by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model showed on a quantitative basis a clear competition between vertical Hall electric field and disturbance zonal winds on the variations observed in the zonal velocity of the plasma bubble. The Hall electric field arising from enhanced ratio of field line-integrated conductivities, ΣH/ΣP, is most often generated by an increase in the integrated Hall conductivity, arising from enhanced energetic particle precipitation in the South American Magnetic Anomaly region for which evidence is provided from observation of anomalous sporadic E layers over Cachoeira Paulista and Fortaleza. Such sporadic E layers are also by themselves evidence for the development of the Hall electric field that modifies the zonal drift.

  5. Water-Constrained Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Modeling Under Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.; Corsi, F.; Prousevitch, A.; Rangwala, I.

    2015-12-01

    Over 80% of U.S. electricity generation uses a thermoelectric process, which requires significant quantities of water for power plant cooling. This water requirement exposes the electric sector to vulnerabilities related to shifts in water availability driven by climate change as well as reductions in power plant efficiencies. Electricity demand is also sensitive to climate change, which in most of the United States leads to warming temperatures that increase total cooling-degree days. The resulting demand increase is typically greater for peak demand periods. This work examines the sensitivity of the development and operations of the U.S. electric sector to the impacts of climate change using an electric sector capacity expansion model that endogenously represents seasonal and local water resource availability as well as climate impacts on water availability, electricity demand, and electricity system performance. Capacity expansion portfolios and water resource implications from 2010 to 2050 are shown at high spatial resolution under a series of climate scenarios. Results demonstrate the importance of water availability for future electric sector capacity planning and operations, especially under more extreme hotter and drier climate scenarios. In addition, region-specific changes in electricity demand and water resources require region-specific responses that depend on local renewable resource availability and electricity market conditions. Climate change and the associated impacts on water availability and temperature can affect the types of power plants that are built, their location, and their impact on regional water resources.

  6. Research, development and innovation in the electrical energy sector of Brazil: toward a tool for the support of the decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Fernando Vieira; Salles-Filho, Sergio; Brittes, Jose Juiz Pereira; Corder, Solange Maria; Boer, Denile Cominato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present a tool to help in the decision making process for the allocation of resources for research, development and innovation in the electrical energy sector in Brazil. It provides a computerized tool for the management of a portfolio of projects which contains myriads of information of projects of research, development, and innovation financed by companies in the area of the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy in Brazil. This tool permits the collection and analysis of this information with a view to evaluating the direction and progress of investments made in the past five years. The electrical energy sector of Brazil invests hundreds of millions of reals each year in research and development (henceforth 'R and D'). The investment of these resources is required by a set of federal laws. This legal framework is a consequence of the process of the privatization of the sector which began in 1997. The investment of the financial resources in R and D projects is supervised by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (henceforth 'ANEEL'). It is the responsibility of ANEEL to evaluate and approve proposed R and D projects, and monitor their results, as per the 'Handbook of R and D of the Electrical Energy Sector.' This tool for supporting the decision-making process serves exactly the purpose of helping both ANEEL in the approval of resources under its supervision, as well as helping companies within the electrical energy sector in the management of applied resources. Almost one billion reals (approximately US $500,000,000) were invested in more than 3000 projects from 1998 to 2006. The data base associated with these projects already contains information concerning 1412 projects from 1998 to 2004, permitting significant analyses of the results and impacts of the allocation of resources. (author)

  7. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  8. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  9. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  10. Link between intermittent electrical energy sources and district heating sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo

    2016-01-01

    Energy has always been one of the key challenges in planning of societies' development worldwide. The COP conference in Paris in December 2015 has shown unprecedented mutual understanding of harmful consequences climate change can cause. Integrating power and heating sectors in an efficient way...

  11. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems Level Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? ...

  12. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacek Kaminski [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Energy and Environmental Policy Division

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. 42 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app.

  13. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Jacek [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Energy and Environmental Policy Division, Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. (author)

  14. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  15. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: status and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engoian, A. [Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris (France); Electricite de France 1, Clamart (France)

    2006-11-15

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry. (author)

  16. Strategic energy systems analysis:Possible pathways for the transition of electricity sector inTanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Avgerinopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of the evolution of electricity sector in Tanzania.Electrification of Africa has raised large discussion and thus, nine scenarios based ondifferent production pathways and demand projections are formulated. The studyconsiders both grid based centralized electricity and decentralized power production.The main differentiation is between a centralized electricity system and decentralizedpower that are closer to demand. A model is created using three modeling tools...

  17. Study the Effect of Value-Added of Services Sector on Forecasting of Electricity Demand in Services Sector due to Price Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy is as one of the important effective factors on economic growth and development. In recent decades, numerous studies in different countries to estimate and forecast electricity demand in different parts of the economy have been made. In this paper, using the method ARDL, estimation and forecasting of electricity demand in the services sector of Iran are determined for the time period from 1983 to 2012. Estimated equations show that the added value of the services sector and a significant positive impact on the demand for electricity in this sector. The price elasticity for services sector is smaller than 1 due to low electricity prices and subsidized electricity. Hence, electricity prices have little impact on the demand for electricity. The results of the estimate represents a long-term relationship between the variables in the services sector. In this paper, based on amendments to the law on subsidies and estimated values, anticipated electricity demand until the end of the fifth development plan was carried out. The results indicate an increase in power consumption in the services sector.

  18. Energy efficiency and the reform of the mexican electrical sector; Eficiencia energetica y reforma al sector electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    In this work are briefly examined how the power efficiency can bloom to its feasible fullness, under a scheme of reform of the Mexican electrical sector. In here are summarized the policies and experiences of the U.S.A. and other countries in which efforts have been made to assure the perseverance of the activities directed to foment a more efficient use of the energy to see its relevance in the Mexican context. Mechanisms are set out to enable the evolution of the markets of present efficient equipment to mature markets, prosperous and, to a great extent, self-sufficient. It is insisted on the necessity of having an energy policy that contemplates and gives total capacity to the energy efficiency as one of the fundamental ingredients for a sustainable development of the electrical sector as well as of the country. [Spanish] En este trabajo se examina brevemente como puede la eficiencia energetica florecer a su plenitud factible, bajo un esquema de reforma al sector electrico mexicano. Se resumen las politicas y experiencias de los EU.. y otros paises en donde se ha tratado de asegurar la perseverancia de las actividades encaminadas a fomentar un uso mas eficiente de la energia para ver su relevancia en el contexto mexicano. Se propone mecanismos para agilizar la evolucion de los mercados de equipos eficientes actuales a mercados maduros, prosperos y, en gran medida, autosuficientes. Se insiste en la necesidad de tener una politica energetica que contemple y de cabida plena a la eficiencia energetica como uno de los ingredientes fundamentales para un desarrollo sustentable tanto del sector electrico como del pais.

  19. Private sector initiative: the Solar Electric Light Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, N. [Solar Electric Light Fund, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The work of the Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF) is described. SELF aims to address the issue of how widely dispersed rural people in developing countries can obtain domestic electric power. ``Solar seed`` electrification projects based on photovoltaic technology and funded through rural credit mechanisms, locally organized, have been launched in Sri Lanka, India, China, Vietnam, South Africa, Uganda, and Nepal. Further projects are planned for Indonesia, Brazil and the Soloman Islands. SELF has provided some support for programs in Zimbabwe and Tanzania. The project in Vietnam is described in detail and investment opportunities in China, India and Sri Lanka are discussed. (UK)

  20. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory; A reestruturacao da industria de energia eletrica brasileira: uma avaliacao da competicao atraves da teoria de mercados contestaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhaes, Elbia [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos em Economia Industrial e de Tecnologia]. E-mail: vinhaes@cse.ufsc.br; Santana, Edvaldo de [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol.

  1. The Clean Development Mechanism and Sustainable Development in China's Electricity Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul A. Steenhof

    2005-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism,a flexibility mechanism contained in the Kyoto Protocol, offers China an important tool to attract investment in clean energy technology and processes into its electricity sector. The Chinese electricity sector places centrally in the country's economy and environment, being a significant contributor to the acid rain and air pollution problems that plague many of China's cities and regions, and therefore a focus of many related energy and environmental policies.China's electricity sector has also been the subject of a number of economic analyses that have showed that it contains the highest potential for clean energy investment through the Clean Development Mechanism of any economic sector in China. This mechanism, through the active participation from investors in more industrialized countries, can help alleviate the environmental problems attributable to electricity generation in China through advancing such technology as wind electricity generation, dean coal technology, high efficient natural gas electricity generation, or utilization of coal mine methane. In this context, the Clean Development Mechanism also compliments a range of environmental and energy policies which are strategizing to encourage the sustainable development of China's economy.

  2. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    compares a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. The STREAM model - an energy scenario simulating tool - provides insight into different potential energy...... mixes and calculates socio economic costs. It is used to model the different transport scenarios and their system integration with the electricity and heating sectors. The major findings of this paper are that an increased share of electric vehicles could significantly reduce the socio-economic cost...... of the energy system in 2050. Electricity demand for H2 generation via electrolysis is more flexible than EV charging and the production can therefore, to a larger degree be used to out-balance variable electricity surplus from a high share of wind and solar energy in the power system. H2 production may...

  3. Expansion plan of the electrical sector; Plan de expansion del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristerna Ocampo, Rafael [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    An analysis of the Mexican electrical market in the year 1994 as far as sales of electrical energy and types of users who utilized that energy, is presented. In addition, an analysis is made of the options for the future supply, where the installed electrical capacity in Mexico in 1994 is described. Also the requirements of additional capacity of power generation, from year 1995 to year 2004 are analyzed. In the internal supply of primary energy in Mexico, the hydrocarbons represent 83%, the diversified sources (nuclear, geothermal, hydro and coal) represent 7% and the biomass as well as complementary coal, the 10% balance of the primary energy. Finally an expansion plan of the transmission network of the Mexican electrical system is described. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis del mercado electrico mexicano en el ano de 1994 en cuanto a ventas de energia electrica y los tipos de usuarios que utilizaron esa energia. Se hace un analisis ademas, de las opciones para la oferta futura, donde se describe la capacidad electrica instalada de Mexico en 1994. Tambien se analizan los requerimientos de capacidad adicional de generacion de 1995 al 2004. En la oferta interna de energia primaria en Mexico, los hidrocarburos representan el 83%, las fuentes diversificadas (nuclear, geotermia, hidro y carboelectrica) representan el 7% y la biomasa asi como el carbon complementario, el 10% restante de la energia primaria. Finalmente se describe un plan de expansion de la red de transmision del sistema electrico mexicano.

  4. Evolution of Experience in Retail Services: An Example of Brazilian Telecommunications Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Antunes Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to exemplify the development of retail services, using a case study. The service sector is booming both globally and in Brazil. Faced with competition, retailers are adopting several innovative services to make buying decisions more attractive. In this study, through a literature review of the theory of retail and through a field visit to a new "concept store" from Vivo S/A (a multinational telecommunications company, the authors explore the marketing strategies adopted by the company, especially those in the service sector. The main findings indicate that Experiential Marketing is still in the process of maturation in the national context. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v12i1.2471

  5. The Impact of Electricity Sector Privatization on Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín

    2008-01-01

    We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves s...

  6. The Impact of Electricity Sector Privatization on Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín

    2008-01-01

    We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves...

  7. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1990 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1990 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. The report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1990 time period, and gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1990. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell annually to four sectors. Data is provided on each retail customer sector and also on the customers Bonneville serves directly: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. 21 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. Energy saving or privatization? The case of the electric residential sector of Mexico; Ahorro de energia o privatizacion? El caso del sector electrico residencial de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The validity of the premise that proposes the privatization of the electric sector as a solution to the problem of obtaining enough investment capital for the continuous expansion of the electric sector is examined. It is shown that the growth of the demand foreseen for the residential sector for year 2000, can be totally reduced by introducing technologies economically feasible to increase the efficiency and end uses of the residential electricity. With the efficient use of the electricity, the economical development is allowed for the residential sector, without large increments of the residential electricity demand. [Espanol] Se examina la validez de la premisa que propone la privatizacion del sector electrico como una solucion al problema de conseguir suficientes capitales de inversion para la continua expansion del sector. Se muestra que se puede reducir casi totalmente el crecimiento en la demanda prevista del sector residencial al ano 2000, introduciendo tecnologias economicamente factibles para aumentar la eficiencia en los usos finales de electricidad residencial. Con el uso eficiente de la electricidad, se permite el desarrollo economico del sector residencial sin grandes incrementos en la demanda residencial de electricidad.

  9. Applying portfolio theory to the electricity sector. Energy versus power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarue, Erik; D' haeseleer, William; De Jonghe, Cedric; Belmans, Ronnie [Leuven University, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Portfolio theory has found its way in numerous applications for optimizing the electricity generation mix of a particular region. Existing models, however, consider typically a single time period and correspondingly do not properly account for actual dispatch constraints and energy sources with a non-dispatchable, variable output. This paper presents a portfolio theory model that explicitly distinguishes between installed capacity (power), electricity generation (energy) and actual instantaneous power delivery. This way, the variability of wind power and ramp limits of conventional power plants are correctly included in the investment optimization. The model is written as a quadratically constrained programming problem and illustrated in a case study. The results show that the introduction of wind power can be motivated to lower the risk on generation cost, albeit to smaller levels than typically reported in the literature. This wind power deployment further requires the need for sufficiently rampable technologies, to deal with its fluctuating output. (author)

  10. The technological course in the Mexican electric sector; La trayectoria tecnologica en el sector electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Diaz, Ricardo [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the historical background of the electric power generation in Mexico and the different types of generation. The area of central control is described, its importance, function and availability. Statistical graphs are shown on the evolution of the electric generation in Mexico, as well as tables with data on the annual installed capacity since 1937 until 1995, and also the maximum demand. Mention is made of the increment needs in the electric power generation in the central control area and a preliminary assessment of the new generation projects in Hydro and fossil power stations is presented [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se presentan los antecedentes historicos de la generacion electrica en Mexico y los diferentes tipos de generacion. Se describe el area de control central, su importancia, funcion y su disponibilidad. Se muestran graficas estadisticas de la evolucion de la generacion electrica en Mexico, de igual manera se muestran tablas con datos de la capacidad instalada anual desde 1937 hasta 1995, asi como la demanda maxima. Se mencionan las necesidades de incremento de la generacion en el area de control central y se muestra una evaluacion preliminar de los proyectos de nueva generacion en centrales hidroelectricas y termoelectricas

  11. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non...

  12. The role of capital costs in decarbonizing the electricity sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Lion; Steckel, Jan Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Low-carbon electricity generation, i.e. renewable energy, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage, is more capital intensive than electricity generation through carbon emitting fossil fuel power stations. High capital costs, expressed as high weighted average cost of capital (WACC), thus tend to encourage the use of fossil fuels. To achieve the same degree of decarbonization, countries with high capital costs therefore need to impose a higher price on carbon emissions than countries with low capital costs. This is particularly relevant for developing and emerging economies, where capital costs tend to be higher than in rich countries. In this paper we quantitatively evaluate how high capital costs impact the transformation of the energy system under climate policy, applying a numerical techno-economic model of the power system. We find that high capital costs can significantly reduce the effectiveness of carbon prices: if carbon emissions are priced at USD 50 per ton and the WACC is 3%, the cost-optimal electricity mix comprises 40% renewable energy. At the same carbon price and a WACC of 15%, the cost-optimal mix comprises almost no renewable energy. At 15% WACC, there is no significant emission mitigation with carbon pricing up to USD 50 per ton, but at 3% WACC and the same carbon price, emissions are reduced by almost half. These results have implications for climate policy; carbon pricing might need to be combined with policies to reduce capital costs of low-carbon options in order to decarbonize power systems.

  13. The Electricity Act 2003: will it transform the Indian power sector?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C. [Dundee Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy

    2005-09-01

    The Electricity Act 2003, which has come into force in India since mid-June 2003, consolidates and replaces a number of older legislations on electricity that prevailed in the country. The new act has introduced significant changes to the industry structure and provides for a more flexible regulatory regime and stricter penal provisions for dishonest use of electricity. The act puts in place some time bound targets for licensees and for the restructuring of the electricity industry. This paper reviews the changes brought about by the new act and analyses whether the new act would be sufficient to transform the Indian power sector. (Author)

  14. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  15. Electricity Use in the Pacific Northwest: Utility Historical Sales by Sector, 1989 and Preceding Years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-06-01

    This report officially releases the compilation of regional 1989 retail customer sector sales data by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report is intended to enable detailed examination of annual regional electricity consumption. It gives statistics covering the time period 1970--1989, and also provides observations based on statistics covering the 1983--1989 time period. The electricity use report is the only information source that provides data obtained from each utility in the region based on the amount of electricity they sell to consumers annually. Data is provided on each retail customer sector: residential, commercial, industrial, direct-service industrial, and irrigation. The data specifically supports forecasting activities, rate development, conservation and market assessments, and conservation and market program development and delivery. All of these activities require a detailed look at electricity use. 25 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. The argentine electric sector reform and its correlation with energy efficiency; La reforma del sector electrico argentino y su relacion con la eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Claudio [MGM International (Argentina)

    2005-04-15

    The reforms in the Argentine electrical sector and the effect these have originated in the energy efficiency policies for public sector are presented. The characteristics exposed of the Argentina Electric sector previous to the 1992 transformation are the departing base that gave rise to the reform fundaments, generating privatizations and a vertical economic scheme. The transformation of the electric sector departing from its environmental regulations yielded in a quality service, good electricity distribution, better prices and proper energy efficiency. [Spanish] Se presentan las reformas en el sector electrico argentino y el efecto que han tenido sobre las politicas de eficiencia energetica elaboradas en el sector publico. Las caracteristicas expuestas del sector electrico argentino previas a la transformacion de 1992 son la base de partida que dio lugar a los fundamentos de la reforma generando privatizaciones y un esquema economico vertical. La transformacion del sector electrico a partir de sus regulaciones energeticas y ambientales redituaron en calidad de servicio, de distribucion de electricidad, precios y en la propia eficiencia energetica.

  17. Deregulation in the electricity sector: Understanding strategic and regulatory risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.R. [City Univ. Business School, Dept. Management Systems and Information, London (United Kingdom); Bunn, D.W. [London Business School, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    This paper is motivated by our experiences since 1990 with developing system simulation models to help UK companies in the restructured electricity industry understand the radically different market within which they must become competitive. When public utilities such as electricity have been restructured, deregulated and/or privatised, the process has often been associated with a major change in the competitive environment. As a consequence, the strategic and regulatory uncertainties ahead for these companies are unprecedented. In such a market there has been no historical evolution and all the participants including the regulatory institutions have very little understanding of how it will operate in the short term and evolve in the future. In this situation, the use of systems dynamic models appears to offer an attractive way of gaining insights into how aspects of the competitive market might evolve. In the absence of real experience and relevant analogies, learning from models assumes a key role. Such models cannot be validated empirically, but can be developed to represent how the system is designed to operate. From such a prototypical basis, sensitivity analysis can generate insights on the strategic opportunities created failings in the market design, or its potential instability to shocks and market imperfections. (au)

  18. VHF radar observations of the dip equatorial E-region during sunset in the Brazilian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the RESCO 50 MHz backscatter radar (2.33° S, 44.2° W, DIP: –0.5, at São Luís, Brazil, we obtained Range Time Intensity (RTI maps covering the equatorial electrojet heights during daytime and evening. These maps revealed a scattering region at an altitude of about 108 km during the sunset period. The type of 3-m irregularity region we present here has not been reported before in the literature, to our knowledge. It was mainly observed around the Southern Hemisphere summer-solstice period, under quiet magnetic activity condition. The occurrence of this echo region coincides in local time with the maximum intensity of an evening pre-reversal eastward electric field of the ionospheric F-region. A tentative explanation is proposed here in terms of the theory of the divergence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ current in the evening ionosphere presented by Haerendel and Eccles (1992, to explain the partial contribution of the divergence to the development of the pre-reversal electric field. The theory predicts an enhanced zonal electric field and hence a vertical electric field below 300 km as a consequence of the EEJ divergence in the evening. The experimental results of the enhanced echoes from the higher heights of the EEJ region seem to provide evidence that the divergence of the EEJ current can indeed be the driver of the observed scattering region.

  19. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  20. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  1. Acquisitions in the Electricity Sector: Active vs. Passive Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2002-07-01

    The starting point of this paper is a mixed oligopoly market consisting of n privately owned profit maximizing firms and 1 state-owned welfare maximizing firm. Motivated by the trend of mergers and acquisitions in the liberalized electricity markets, and by the debate about public or private ownership, the paper looks at two cases. In Case 1, the state-owned company acquires an ownership share in one of the private companies. In Case 2, the state-owned company is partially privatised. The paper focuses on differences in generated quantities and social surplus, depending on whether the investors behind the acquisitions are behaving as active or passive owners. One result shows that in the case of partial privatization, passive ownership provides the highest total industry generation, while active ownership induces maximum social surplus. (author)

  2. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-07-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategis behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  3. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a study sponsored by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) that aims to document and implement an annual process designed to identify a realistic and timely set of input assumptions (e.g., technology cost and performance, fuel costs), and a diverse set of potential futures (standard scenarios), initially for electric sector analysis.

  4. The Impact of CO2 Emission Reductions on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electric power sector is currently one of the largest water withdrawers and fastest growing water consumers in the U.S. Water supply in the United States is becoming increasingly stressed due to growth in population, per capita energy consumption and industrial water use. At ...

  5. The Impact of CO2 Emission Reduction on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electric power sector is currently one of the largest water withdrawers and fastest growing water consumers in the U.S. Water supply in the United States is becoming increasingly stressed due to growth in population, per capita energy consumption and industrial water use. A...

  6. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Mai, Trieu; Logan, Jeffrey; Steinberg, Daniel; McCall, James; Richards, James; Sigrin, Benjamin; Porro, Gian

    2016-12-06

    This is the webinar presentation deck used to present the 2016 Standard Scenarios work. It discusses the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) detailed cost and performance projections for electricity-generating technologies and the standard scenarios of the power sector modeling using ATB inputs.

  7. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinay, C. L. S., E-mail: cmahinay@nip.upd.edu.ph; Ramos, H. J. [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Metro Manila (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  8. Ionospheric response to the 2006 sudden stratospheric warming event over the equatorial and low latitudes in the Brazilian sector using GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R.; Batista, I. S.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; de Abreu, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the response of the ionospheric F-region using GPS-TEC measurements at equatorial and low latitude regions over the Brazilian sector during an sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event in the year 2006. In this work, we present vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase fluctuations derived from GPS network in Brazil. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to check the periodicities of the ∆VTEC during the SSW event. The results show a strong decrease in VTEC and ∆VTEC values in the afternoon over low latitudes from DOY 05-39 (during the SSW event) mainly after the second SSW temperature peak. The ionospheric ∆VTEC pattern over Brazilian sector shows diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations during the 2006 SSW event. In addition, for the first time, variations in ∆VTEC (low latitude stations) with periods of about 02-08 day have been reported during an SSW event. Using GPS stations located in the Brazilian sector, it is reported for the first time that equatorial ionospheric irregularities were not suppressed by the SSW event.

  9. STUDY OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF A BRAZILIAN COMPANY IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozali Araújo Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness industry and agricultural machinery as well as the internationalization of companies are subjects of growing interest. Thus, a case study of a company in the sector of machinery and implements allowed the analysis of the movements of internationalization under the aspects of strategy, entry mode and challenges of internationalization. The study of the theories and the case study allowed a visualization of their application in practice. The literature review explored the themes internationalization, internationalization strategies, entry modes and challenges of internationalization. The data, qualitative and descriptive, were obtained from semi-structured interviews with the export manager and supplemented by secondary data published on the company’s website. The content analyzes of the data showed that the company is in a primary level of internationalization. However, it also presents strategic orientation toward an internationalization process. The development of this paper can serve as a discussion for further development of internationalization theories and also as a reference in the agribusiness industry to understand this process.

  10. Analysis of Grid Emission Factors for the Electricity Sector in Caribbean Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Desgain, Denis DR; Perez Martín, David

    by undertaking a study to calculate standardized grid emissionfactors (GEF) for sixteen independent nations or groups of countries in the Caribbean region as a basis to the further identification of mitigation activities such as CDM PoAs or any other market-related instrument to be approved by the UNFCCC....... The study analyses the following topics: – Status of the calculation and adoption of grid emissionfactors for each country in the region. – Characteristics of electricity generation units in thedifferent Caribbean countries. – Application of the CDM methodological tool forcalculating a standardized grid......, studies of the electricity sector in the region and public information issued by electric utilities....

  11. The electric power sector: from monopoly to competition; Le secteur electrique: du monopole a la concurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergougnoux, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    The traditional organization of the electric power sector, based on a monopoly or quasi-monopoly situation with a juxtaposition of powerful integrated operators for the production and transport of power and its supply to huge geographical areas is today reconsidered in most countries worldwide. The deregulation of the electricity market and the introduction of competition among the power operators raises several questions concerning the organization of markets, the grid access tariffing, the coordination between networks management and markets management, the perenniality of public utility missions etc. This article aims at analyzing these questions in order to foresee the organization of the future European electricity market. (J.S.)

  12. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth. Evidence from Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Lang, Yang; Chang, Chih-Heng [Department of Managerial Economics, Nanhua University, Chiayi 62102 (China); Lin, Hung-Pin [Department of International Business and Trade, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 82445 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (1) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (2) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (1) and (2), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth. (author)

  13. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng-Lang [Department of Managerial Economics, Nanhua University, Chiayi 62102, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hung-Pin, E-mail: lhp0606@stu.edu.t [Department of International Business and Trade, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Heng [Department of Managerial Economics, Nanhua University, Chiayi 62102, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (i) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (ii) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (i) and (ii), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth.

  14. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  15. BRAZILIAN AND INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS APPLIED TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE CHALLENGE OF CONVERGENCE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - IPSAS AND NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Ribeiro Filho (in memoriam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standards applied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS. The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization, demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equity changes. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, among other information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergence analysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a view to verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. The results found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with the international standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPs is observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures

  16. Business strategy in the electric sector: trading in the paraguay electric sector; Estrategias de negocios en el sector electrico: comercializacion en el sistema electrico paraguayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Carlos M.; Soto, Ruben E. Brasa [Itaipu Binacional - Usina Hidroelectrica de Itaipu, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: cartin@itaipu.gov.py

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an suitable analysis for a energy tradder which intends to operate in the paraguay electric market. First, the paper describes the main conceptual aspects and afterwards, formulate hypothesis on the possible highlights on the operative modes of negotiation and finally some results obtained based on hypothesis and simulation.

  17. The opening of the Mexican electric sector to foreign investment. Volume 1; La apertura externa en el sector electrico Mexicano. Volumen 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the first one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research, both of them agencies of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This first volume deals on the World tendencies towards the privatization; the new financing techniques and the reorganization of the Mexican electric industry; the electric rates in the residential sector; the distribution of the income and the electricity expense in Mexican homes, the privatization of the energy in Mexico and the production costs in generation projects planning. These documents were formulated by specialists of the Electric Sector, from the Electric Sector itself as well as from academic entities, public and private [Espanol] Este documento constituye el primero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Este primer volumen trata sobre las tendencias mundiales hacia la privatizacion; las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y reorganizacion de la industria

  18. Report of the 2. Seminar on economic and financial planning of the electric sector; Relatorio do 2. Seminario de planejamento economico financeiro do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book collects working presented at the second seminar of financial and economic planning for the Brazilian electric power system. The main issues discussed are the new economic order and the consequences in the Brazilian electric power system in what concerns pricing, planning and energetic sources

  19. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Maxwell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, questions have arisen in Denmark as to how and why public funding should be allocated to wind power producers. This is, among other reasons, due to pressure from industrial electricity consumers who want their overall energy costs lowered. Utilising existing wind power subsidies across energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial conditions which could allow wind power producers to reduce their reliance on subsidies. It is found that the strategy may be effective in lowering the overall energy costs of electricity consumers. Further, it is found possible to scale up this strategy and realise benefits on a national scale.

  20. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  1. Uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electrical power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.F.; Skytte, K.

    2000-01-01

    market context is modelled. For each of eight Northern European countries, the basic results of the models are the installation of new production capacities, the production on old and new production capacities, the electricity prices, and the interchange between the countries. The investment in new...... this within the context of a model of the Northern European electricity sector. The paper considers uncertainties about future states of nature. More specifically, we consider the inflow of water into a hydropower production system, where the states of nature are represented by a "dry", a "normal" and a "wet...... of electricity and that the consumers pay an energy tax on their use of electricity. The consumers are divided into two groups, households and industry. Also, complementarity formulations are used, as these are shown to be more adequate for certain aspects, in particular where risk aversion within a liberalised...

  2. Re-regulation of the Russian electricity sector; Neuregulierung der russischen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telke, Juergen [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Osteuropaeisches Recht

    2011-04-15

    The Russian electricity sector is going through a phase of radical change. Time-honoured structures are being modernised through privatisation, unbundling and liberalisation, creating a number of interesting investment opportunities. However, prospective investors should take the specifics of the Russian market into account in order to gain a fuller picture of investment opportunities and risks in the areas of production, transmission, wholesale and retail trade.

  3. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  4. Funding for universal service obligations in electricity sector: the case of green power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favard, P.; Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.Ch

    2002-07-01

    The process of deregulation in network industries, in particular in the electric sector, raises the problem of financing the Universal Service Obligations (USO) corresponding to the production, transport and distribution operations. In this paper, we study three ways of funding for an USO of production, especially the 'green' electricity development; the financing with cross-subsidies, the implementation of a fund (financing by a tax) and finally a voluntary funding system by direct subscriptions of consumers. We notably show that this last one Pareto dominates mostly, from a welfare point of view, the other scenarios. (authors)

  5. Flexibility and reliability in long-term planning exercises dedicated to the electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizi, Nadia; Drouineau, Mathilde; Assoumou, Edi; Mazauric, Vincent

    2010-09-15

    Long-term planning models are useful to build plausible options for future energy systems and must consequently address the technological feasibility and associated cost of these options. This paper focuses on the electricity sector and on problems of flexibility and reliability in power systems in order to improve results provided by long-term planning exercises: flexibility needs are integrated as an additional criterion for new investment decisions and, reliability requirements are assessed through the level of electrical losses they induced and a related cost. These approaches are implemented in a long-term planning model and demonstrated through a study of the Reunion Island.

  6. 't Hooft Loops, Electric Flux Sectors and Confinement in SU(2) Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Smekal, Lorenz von

    2002-01-01

    We use 't Hooft loops of maximal size on finite lattices to calculate the free energy in the sectors of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with fixed electric flux as a function of temperature and (spatial) volume. Our results provide evidence for the mass gap. The confinement of electric fluxes in the low temperature phase and their condensation in the high temperature phase are demonstrated. In a surprisingly large scaling window around criticality, the transition is quantitatively well described by universal exponents and amplitude ratios relating the properties of the two phases.

  7. Macroeconomic context of economic reforms in electricity sector of transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Galović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of macroeconomic environment and its impact on economic reforms in electricity sector of CEE countries that have become new EU Member States and SEE countries. The research is based on the thesis that macroeconomic drivers and macroeconomic context of the economic reforms in electricity sector considerably differ between developed and transition countries. The analysis aimed to test the broadly accepted assumption that regulatory reforms and liberalized environment should generally result in cost reflective prices and better quality of services. Our analysis shows that the reform results in CEE and SEE transition countries have been significantly different. Most of new EU Member States have recorded high increase in electricity prices as the result of cost re-flective tariffs level and gradual phase-out of direct and indirect electricity price subsidies. Though these cost-based tariffs have had a positive impact on efficiency improvements, they have also harmed social welfare and competitiveness in CEECs. On the other hand, most of the SEECs (except Croatia are faced with low collection rates and still have low tariffs that do not reflect costs of supply. The other objective of the reform - quality of services has been perceived high in all CEECs, while in most SEE countries the quality of the electricity is still the obstacle to business environment

  8. Service and obligations of public service in the electrical sector law; Servicio universal y obligaciones de servicio publico en la Ley del Sector Electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuetara Martinez, J.M. de la; Gonzalez Sanfiel, A.

    1998-12-01

    Our article starts from the need of reconsidering the traditional public service concept; to this goal, the new categories universal service and public service obligations are useful instruments. After defining its notes, we identify them as different kinds of a common gender and separate then from other next categories, as are general interest services and policy obligations. Finally, we applied the obtained findings to the Electricity Sector, identifying an universal service in the supply of electrical energy to all the claimants and various concrete public service obligations in its principal sub sectors (production, transportation, distribution, trading and supply). (Author)

  9. Globalization, economy financing model crisis and the institutional re-structuration of the Brazilian electric power system; Globalizacao, crise do padrao de financiamento da economia e reestruturacao institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Claudio Schuller

    1995-12-31

    This thesis discusses the crisis in the Brazilian economical financing model and the consequent re-structuration of the Brazilian electric power system, giving special emphasis to: global historical factors; the new economic order; and, the consequences of the financial crisis in the Brazilian electric power system. In addition, it suggests new strategies for the institutional reformulation of the Brazilian electric power system 226 refs., 13 tabs.

  10. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  11. Assessing the influence of manufacturing sectors on electricity demand. A cross-country input-output approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, Miguel Angel; Callejas Albinana, Fernando [Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies and Goods (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The production and consumption of electricity is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe and elsewhere. In turn, the manufacturing sectors are significant end-users of electricity. In contrast to most papers in the literature, which focus on the supply-side, this study tackles the demand-side of electricity. An input-output approach combined with a sensitivity analysis has been developed to analyse the direct and indirect consumptions of electricity by eighteen manufacturing sectors in fifteen European countries, with indirect electricity demand related to the purchase of industrial products from other sectors which, in turn, require the consumption of electricity in their manufacturing processes. We identify the industrial transactions and sectors, which account for a greater share of electricity demand. In addition, the impact of an electricity price increase on the costs and prices of manufacturing products is simulated through a price model, allowing us to identify those sectors whose manufacturing costs are most sensitive to an increase in the electricity price. (author)

  12. Developing Canada's climate change strategy: electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Canada's climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent)

  13. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  14. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be

  15. Electric vehicles or use of hydrogen in the Danish transport sector in 2050?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. The STREAM model - an energy scenario simulating tool - provides insight into different potential energy mixes...... in 2050. Compared to the EV scenario, H2 generation from electrolysis is more flexible and the production can therefore to a larger degree be used to out-balance fluctuating electricity surplus from a high share of wind energy in the power system. H2 production may generate heat that can be used...... as district heating - replacing traditional heating plants, heat pumps and in some cases combined heat and power plants. Therefore the energy generation mix (electricity and heat) is more affected in the H2 scenario than in the EV scenario. Whether the H2 scenario is more costly to implement than the EV...

  16. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  17. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  18. Aspects of the electric sector social benefits; Consideracoes sobre as tarifas sociais do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido; Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mapelegrini@sp.gov.br; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br

    2002-07-01

    In the present days there is a large differentiation in the framing of the low income residential sub category adopted by the electric power distribution concessionaires. The present criteria generates distortions in various Brazilian states whether excluding a large parcel of the population needing the benefit, or including parcels that are not the main target of the social policy, therefore indicating the necessity of a enclosing study for defining a comparison methodology for these questions in Brazil different regions. This work analyses the subject, describing the present situation and the proposals submitted for discussion. It is also presented the main aspects involved in the concepts of poverty and indigence lines used for definition of the public target of the benefit. Some alternatives proposals are discussed such as a geographic focusing with a limit value of consumption to be applied.

  19. Electric power public services license granting for rural electrification cooperatives; Outorga de permissao de servicos publicos de energia eletrica as cooperativas de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia Santos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Area Interdisciplinar de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail: cynthia@fem.unicamp.br; Carbonari Neto, Emigdio [Companhia de Geracao de Energia Eletrica Paranapanema, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ocpg3@cgeep.com.br; Guerra, Helvio Neves [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)]. E-mail: helvio_guerra@uol.com.br

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses the framing and regularization of some rural electrification cooperatives licensed for electric energy public services, and briefly reports the role played by those cooperatives in the development of the Brazilian electric sector.

  20. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  1. Supplier Selection Process Using ELECTRE I Decision Model and an Application in the Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection problem is one of the main topic for the today’s businesses. The supplier selection problem within the supply chain management activities is very important for the businesses, particularly operating in the retail sector. Thus, in this study, the supplier selection problem was discussed in order of importance between energy drinks suppliers of food business in the retail sector. Costs, delivery, quality and flexibility variables were used to select suppliers, and ELECTRE I Method, one of the multiple decision methods, was used to ranking suppliers according to this variables. Which suppliers are more important for the food company was determined by ranking suppliers according to computing net superior values and net inferior values. Results obtained werepresented in tables and certain steps

  2. Cyber Threat and Vulnerability Analysis of the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, Colleen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Sterbentz, Dane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center; Wright, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Mission Support Center

    2016-12-20

    With utilities in the U.S. and around the world increasingly moving toward smart grid technology and other upgrades with inherent cyber vulnerabilities, correlative threats from malicious cyber attacks on the North American electric grid continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. The potential for malicious actors to access and adversely affect physical electricity assets of U.S. electricity generation, transmission, or distribution systems via cyber means is a primary concern for utilities contributing to the bulk electric system. This paper seeks to illustrate the current cyber-physical landscape of the U.S. electric sector in the context of its vulnerabilities to cyber attacks, the likelihood of cyber attacks, and the impacts cyber events and threat actors can achieve on the power grid. In addition, this paper highlights utility perspectives, perceived challenges, and requests for assistance in addressing cyber threats to the electric sector. There have been no reported targeted cyber attacks carried out against utilities in the U.S. that have resulted in permanent or long term damage to power system operations thus far, yet electric utilities throughout the U.S. have seen a steady rise in cyber and physical security related events that continue to raise concern. Asset owners and operators understand that the effects of a coordinated cyber and physical attack on a utility’s operations would threaten electric system reliability–and potentially result in large scale power outages. Utilities are routinely faced with new challenges for dealing with these cyber threats to the grid and consequently maintain a set of best practices to keep systems secure and up to date. Among the greatest challenges is a lack of knowledge or strategy to mitigate new risks that emerge as a result of an exponential rise in complexity of modern control systems. This paper compiles an open-source analysis of cyber threats and risks to the electric grid, utility best practices

  3. Local content: worldwide trends and the Brazilian experience in the oil and gas sector; Conteudo local: tendencias mundiais e a experiencia brasileira no setor de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa Junior, Oswaldo A.; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Associacao Brasileira dos Produtores Independentes de Petroleo e Gas - ABPIP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandez y Fernandez, Eloi [Organizacao Nacional da Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years a trend on increasing requirements for local investments has been observed worldwide in the petroleum industry. Host countries expect to have increasing social and economical benefits from the development of the oil and gas industry. This expectation drives at a more comprehensive concept of local content to include commitment with social, industrial, and technological development. The Brazilian experience has shown a lot of emphasis on local industry development. Initiatives from governmental authorities and the private sector have been implemented to increase the local industry participation in the oil and gas projects. The current regulation focus on the full and fair opportunities for the local suppliers and the local content commitment established in the E and P concession agreements. A key issue on promoting local content initiatives is to assure that the competitiveness of the indigenous industry will be developed and preserved. The constraints on building up the local industry competitiveness will be addressed, focusing on the taxation overburden, lack of adequate local financing, and internal structural aspects affecting industrial productivity. In addition to this, the experiences on measuring local content for offshore construction and drilling are highlighted. Technology development and technical capability have been addressed by incentive programs for the O and G sector. Finally, the technology learning process and the regulatory requirements to invest in R and D programs conducted by Brazilian technological institutions are discussed. (author)

  4. Assessment of demand for natural gas from the electricity sector in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Victor, David G.

    2009-01-01

    competes with coal as a base-load option if price difference is below US $ 4 per MBtu. At higher price difference gas penetrates only the peak power market. Gas demand is lower in the high economic growth scenario, since electricity sector is more flexible in substitution of primary energy. Gas demand...... reduces also in cases when coal supply curve shifts rightwards such as under coal reforms and coal-by-wire scenarios. Local environmental (SO2 emissions) control promotes end of pipe solutions flue gas de-sulfurisation (FGD) initially, though in the longer term mitigation happens by fuel substitution...

  5. Towards future organization of French electricity sector; Vers la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, Dominique; Pierret, Christian [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    This document displays information and questions concerning the future organization of the French electric sector. The directive on the domestic electricity market was adopted in 1996 by the Council of the Ministers of European Union and Parliament. The member states were due to transpose the directive within their national legislation up to 19 February 1999. The directive establishes principles but provides large reaches of maneuver to the member states which can choose the organizational means according to their own expectations. These task is considered as feasible by the authors. It must reinforce the public service by giving added strength to the security of supply and ensuring everybody's access to a well marketed and high quality electric supply. By introduction of certain well controlled elements of competition this evolution should also contribute to cost lowering, boost of the national competitiveness and support of employment. The document contains seven chapters which expose the following items: 1. The objectives of reorganization; 2. The directive and its reach; 3. Strengthening the public service; 4. Revamping the electric service to promote the growth; 5. Preserving the grids for the general benefit; 6. Defining the place of EDF within the new organizational scheme; 7. Developing an efficient regulation. Finally, an appendix is given containing the Directive 96/92/CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 October 1996, concerning the common rules for domestic electricity market.

  6. O campo da energia elétrica no Brasil de 1880 a 2002 The electricity sector in Brazil from 1880 through 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Pombeiro Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Como a energia elétrica é um bem essencial em nossa sociedade, este artigo analisa a evolução da formação e estruturação do setor elétrico brasileiro, desde o surgimento da energia elétrica no Brasil, em 1880, até o final de 2002. A análise se faz a partir da descrição histórica linear, com cortes em fatos determinantes que são detalhados e analisados, mostrando-se os principais atores sociais, seus interesses e influência, na data desses cortes. Foi utilizada a metodologia qualitativa e o referencial da teoria institucional, com base na configuração do campo organizacional, além da análise de documentos e de entrevistas em profundidade, realizadas com dirigentes do setor que participaram dessa história. Finalmente, o artigo mostra como o ambiente externo é o principal elemento que influencia a trajetória do setor elétrico, nomeadamente quanto ao investimento ou não de recursos financeiros.Considering that electricity is essential to modern society, this article analyzes the formation and organization of the Brazilian electricity sector, from its beginning in this country until the end of 2002. The study is based on a linear description of historical facts, with emphasis on crucial events, which were detailed and analyzed, showing the main social players, their interest and influences in these events. It used qualitative methodology and references by the institutional theory, based on the configuration of the organizational field. It also analyzed documents and carried out semi-structured in-depth interviews with directors who took part of the sector's history. Finally, it shows how the external environment is the main influence on the sector's development, especially on the decision to invest or not in it.

  7. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  8. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Carlson, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  9. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset of the wider dialogue on natural gas: 1. What are the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity?; 2. What are the existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and how are they changing in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns?; 3. How are natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices?; and 4. How might demand for natural gas in the electric sector respond to a variety of policy and technology developments over the next 20 to 40 years?

  10. Dynamics of risk management tools and auctions in the second phase of the Brazilian Electricity Market reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere de Souza, Fabio, E-mail: cavaliere@cepel.b [CEPEL, Electric Power Research Center, ELETROBRAS System, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Legey, Luiz Fernando Loureiro [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies, Energy Planning Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    In 2004, the reform of the Brazilian Electricity Market underwent a thorough revision. One of its causes was the electricity rationing that began in June 2001 and lasted until February 2002. Among other measures, the 2004 revision devised new mechanisms intended to reduce risks associated to contracts settled in electricity auctions and those related to investments in new generation plants. As 4 years have passed since the onset of the reform's revision, sufficiently enough data are now available for an analysis of the post-revision dynamics of the Brazilian Electricity Market. This is the purpose of the present paper. We focus on the dynamics of the different types of electricity auctions and on the so-called Mechanism for Compensation of Surpluses and Deficits, both created in the wake of the 2004 revision. The ultimate goal is to understand the behavior of the agents involved in auctions - notably buyers and sellers of electricity - and propose remedial actions to eliminate existing loopholes in the present regulatory framework. To achieve this goal, four steps were necessary. Firstly, a data base to support the analysis was built. Then, the main drivers of the dynamics of the risk management tools were identified. Finally, consequences of the implemented changes were discussed and corrections for observed pitfalls proposed.

  11. Dynamics of risk management tools and auctions in the second phase of the Brazilian Electricity Market reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, Fabio Cavaliere [CEPEL, Electric Power Research Center, ELETROBRAS System, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Legey, Luiz Fernando Loureiro [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies, Energy Planning Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    In 2004, the reform of the Brazilian Electricity Market underwent a thorough revision. One of its causes was the electricity rationing that began in June 2001 and lasted until February 2002. Among other measures, the 2004 revision devised new mechanisms intended to reduce risks associated to contracts settled in electricity auctions and those related to investments in new generation plants. As 4 years have passed since the onset of the reform's revision, sufficiently enough data are now available for an analysis of the post-revision dynamics of the Brazilian Electricity Market. This is the purpose of the present paper. We focus on the dynamics of the different types of electricity auctions and on the so-called Mechanism for Compensation of Surpluses and Deficits, both created in the wake of the 2004 revision. The ultimate goal is to understand the behavior of the agents involved in auctions - notably buyers and sellers of electricity - and propose remedial actions to eliminate existing loopholes in the present regulatory framework. To achieve this goal, four steps were necessary. Firstly, a data base to support the analysis was built. Then, the main drivers of the dynamics of the risk management tools were identified. Finally, consequences of the implemented changes were discussed and corrections for observed pitfalls proposed. (author)

  12. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  13. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  14. Simulation of Electricity Demand Function in Agricultural Sector: An Application of Genetic Algorithm (Case Study: Electricity-Fed Wells of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to several problems arisen from consumption of gas oil, it is necessary to electricity substitute fossil fuels in agriculture wells in Iran. Problems such as lack of opportune and adequate supply of fuel, air and soil pollution, noise pollution and huge costs of installation, operation and maintenance imply the necessity of replacing gas oil systems by electricity-consuming ones in agriculture sector of Iran.However, it is essential to study on the demand of electricity, nowadays, substituting other energy sources.As water wells are the main electricity consumersin agriculture sector, the estimation of energy demand function would be beneficial for policy makers to achieve their goals. The present paper investigates on energy demand function in agriculture sector of Iran.Genetic algorithm techniques are appliedto estimate electricity demand in agricultural sector in three forms: linear, quadratic and exponential equations. Based on the conventional criteria, the exponential model is selected as the best model for estimation. Furthermore, electricity demand of agricultural sector is forecasted under three scenarios for years next three years.

  15. Abatement costs of SO{sub 2}-control options in the Mexican electric-power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islasa, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Colonia Centro, Temixco, Morelos 62580, (Mexico); Grandeb, Genice [Posgrado en Ingenieria de Sistemas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, (Mexico)

    2008-02-15

    Mexico's electricity-sector contributes over 75% of national SO{sub 2}-emissions, causing economic and health damage. These emissions come mostly from the combustion of fossil-fuels, whereas a minor share comes from biomass (wood fuel and sugar cane) burning emissions as well as those produced by industrial processes. For this reason, this study assesses the abatement costs of several SO{sub 2}-control options (including flue-gas desulphurization technologies, hydrotreatment of fuel oil, and the substitution of high-sulfur by low-sulfur content fuels). Likewise, this study has evaluated the implementation of such options in 10 selected power-plants - the main SO{sub 2} emitters in the Mexican Electric Power Sector (MEPS) - with the aim of suggesting solutions for SO{sub 2}-emissions reduction and estimating the corresponding abatement, investment and total costs during the analyzed period. Study's results indicate that the best SO{sub 2}-abatement-costs route may account for a reduction of 41% of MEPS SO{sub 2}-emissions and would require investment and total costs of $841 and $477 million, respectively. This means that an important reduction in the national SO{sub 2}-emissions may be achieved with a relatively small effort.(author)

  16. Management of electricity peak load for residential sector in Baghdad city by using solar generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaneen A. Abbood, Mohammed A. Salih, Hasan N. Muslim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Load management strategies such as peak reduction, load shifting and energy conservation are effective solution to save and optimally usage of electricity. Solar cells - photovoltaic systems (solar PV are one of the modern methods used in the management of peak loads in the electric power system because PV generation coincides with peak load hours in the day. The aim of this work is implementation of management techniques using solar cells for residential sector in Baghdad city. The estimation of solar radiation data and PV system design has been simulated based on MATLAB software. In this study, a 20% efficiency monocrystalline silicon rooftop PV generator of 2kWp with six panels and overall area 10m² has been proposed for each customer in the residential sector of Baghdad. The panels are orientated towards south (azimuth angle equals zero with a tilt angle equals 18° for summery months and 48° for wintery months. The obtained results of demand saving range between 17% for January and 27% for April while 20% for June. The annually demand saving for each consumer is 20%. As well as to the demand saving, this study presents the capability of application the load-shifting technique from high load periods to low load periods, and ability to store the surplus energy produced from PV generator in batteries for usage this energy at a later time.

  17. Access to Power: Governance and Development in the Pakistani Electrical Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ijlal

    This dissertation explores governance in Pakistan through a study of the state-run electrical power sector. At both the micro and macro level, the Pakistani power sector provides a lens into the heart of the Pakistani state and its governance institutions. This ethnographic and historical study offers an in-depth look at state operations in a developing country, situates the current Pakistani power crisis in a larger context of continuity through periods of dictatorship and democracy, and suggests how efforts to make state service delivery more responsive to citizens might be reconceived. A historical review of the Pakistani power sector establishes first and foremost that the current crisis is the product of longer-term processes for which the policy solutions currently being proposed (with the support of international donors and multilateral lenders) are inadequate. Depoliticized attempts at power sector reform have little to offer in light of the pervasively informal and negotiated nature of the fragmented Pakistani state. The institutions of power sector governance are mutually constituted by the formal rules and the informal---personal relationships, language, violence, money, and power. These rules of the game are as relevant to relations within and between public sector organizations as they are to the engagement of citizens with their state. The same rules apply at the margins of the state---informal squatter settlements---as at the core, though the resources brought to bear and the resultant outcomes are different. The internal incoherence of this state underscores the limitations of formal rules in determining outcomes, and the poor prospects for reform efforts that focus exclusively on the formal aspects of governance. To proactively engage with the question of political will leads away from top-down policy perspectives and counter to the depoliticizing tendencies that currently shape policy reforms. Instead, an energized and informed local participation

  18. Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Chapman, Caroline; Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sumner, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.sumner@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This report examines the impact of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the U.S. to examine the impact of a variety of emissions caps-and RPS scenarios both individually and combined. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations simulated in the modeling. - Research highlights: {yields} The report examines renewable portfolio standards and cap-and-trade policy options. {yields} The analysis uses the NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System model. {yields} A carbon emissions cap and an RPS can be complementary policies.{yields} The cap alone case drives significant renewable generation.{yields} A 25% RPS has similar near term emissions as base cap at similar electricity price.

  19. Implications of electric power sector restructuring on climate change mitigation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, G.; Bouille, D. [Instituto de Economia Energetica, (Argentina); Redlinger, R. [UNEP, (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    The Argentine electricity industry has undergone fundamental reforms since 1992, involving large-scale privatisation, and competition in generation and wholesale power markets. In terms of climate change mitigation, these reforms have had the beneficial effect of encouraging improved generation efficiency among thermal power plants and improved end-use consumption efficiency among large industrial firms. However, the reforms have also had the negative effect (from a climate change perspective) of encouraging an ever-increasing use of natural gas combustion for electricity generation, greatly diminishing the role of hydroelectric power which had previously played an important role in the Agentine electricity sector. This report examines the current structure and regulations of the Argentine electricity system and analyses the forces at work which are influencing current technology choices, both in terms of power generation and end-use consumption. The report goes on to examine international experiences in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies; and finally, the report considers the applicability of these various policy mechanisms within the Agentine context. (EHS)

  20. Cancellation of the energy efficiency program in Peru because of the electrical sector privatization; Cancelacion del programa de eficiencia energetica en Peru por la privatizacion del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomecich Cordova, Anibal [Centro de Conservacion de Energia y del Ambiente (CENERGIA) (Peru)

    2005-04-15

    The evolution of the activities related to the electric efficiency before and after the reforms of the electrical sector in Peru derived from the liberation of the economy is explained. In the first part it is explained as an antecedent the development of one of the most successful campaigns regarding demand management, considering it as a variable and not as a datum of the problem for statistic effects. The results of such campaign demonstrated that a proper management of the variable electricity demand, capital investments can be deferred in the electric infrastructure within the frame of sustainable social development. Afterwards it is explained the new regulatory frame and the principles that prevail for the fixation of the tariffs when the electrical sector evolves from a vertical structure to a horizontal structure. Finally it is mentioned the activities that have been carried out in a latter period to the implantation of the reforms in the sector and some important examples such as the obligation for the electric utilities to reduce their technical and commercial losses. [Spanish] Se explica la evolucion de las actividades relacionadas a la eficiencia energetica antes y despues de las reformas del sector electrico en Peru, derivada de la liberacion de la economia. En la primera parte se explica como antecedente el desarrollo de una de las campanas mas exitosas en el manejo de la demanda, considerandola como una variable y no como un dato del problema para efectos estadisticos. Los resultados de tal campana demostraron que manejando adecuadamente la variable demanda de electricidad, se puede diferir inversiones de capital en la infraestructura electrica dentro del marco de un desarrollo social sostenible. A continuacion se explica el nuevo marco regulatorio y los principios que rigen para la fijacion de las tarifas cuando el sector electrico se transforma de una estructura vertical a una estructura horizontal. Finalmente, se menciona las actividades que se

  1. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  2. Private sector participation in the electricity sector : potential and critical issues; La participation du secteur prive dans le domaine de l'electricite : potentiel et enjeux critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunsky, I. [Heenan Blaikie, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed the development of infrastructure in the electricity sector with particular reference to public-private partnerships and project finance. Emerging markets that encourage private-sector investment were presented along with recommendations to negotiate power purchase agreements involving small-scale hydroelectric power; a thermal power plant at Suroit, Quebec; and, wind energy in Quebec's Gaspe Peninsula. Interconnection to the provincial power grid was also reviewed with reference to the risk faced by the promoters of a project in terms of project design, construction, financing, production and maintenance. The risks faced by Hydro-Quebec were also discussed along with risk allocations between the private and public sectors. tabs., figs.

  3. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  4. Recycling of plastic wastes from electric and electronic sector new developments; Reciclado de residuos plasticos del sector electrico y electronico. Nuevos desarrollos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, R.; Larrauri, E.; Cacho, I.

    1999-07-01

    Automated technologies for the identification and sorting of plastic wastes have been developed to get an adequate and cost-effective recycling. When dealing with plastics from end-of-live electric and electronic equipment not only the polymeric matrix but also fillers and/or flame retardant additives and/or pigments, need to be taken in account. At present, several specific projects are being carried out by GAIKER in order to solve the technological challenge of recycling plastics from the electric and electronic sector. (Author)

  5. Optimal pricing and investment in the electricity sector in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ranganath Srinivas

    2001-07-01

    Faulty pricing policies and inadequate investment in the power sector are responsible for the chronic power shortages that plague Tamil Nadu and the rest of India. Formulae for optimal pricing rules are derived for a social welfare maximizing Electricity Board which sells electricity that is used both as an intermediate, and as a final good. Because of distributional constraints, the optimal prices deviate systematically from marginal costs. Optimal relative price-marginal cost differentials are computed for Tamil Nadu, and are found to indicate a lower degree of subsidization than the prevailing prices. The rationalization of electricity tariffs would very likely increase the Board's revenues. The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power in India is examined by comparing actual data for the Madras Atomic Power Project and the Singrauli coal-fired thermal power station. The conventional (non-environmental) costs of power generation are compared at both market prices and shadow prices, calculated according to the UNIDO guidelines for project evaluation. Despite favorable assumptions for the costs of the nuclear plant, coal had a decided edge over nuclear in Tamil Nadu. Remarkably, the edge varied little when market prices are replaced by shadow prices in the computations. With regard to the environmental costs, far too much remains unknown. More research is therefore needed on the environmental impacts of both types of power generation before a final choice can be made.

  6. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benavides

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depends on some variables which are not controlled by policy makers, for example, non-conventional renewable energy investment cost projections, natural gas prices, and the feasibility of exploiting hydroelectric resources. For a carbon tax of 20 US$/tCO2e, the average annual emission reduction would be between 1.1 and 9.1 million tCO2e. However, the price of the electricity would increase between 8.3 and 9.6 US$/MWh. This price shock would decrease the annual GDP growth rate by a maximum amount of 0.13%. This article compares this energy policy with others such as the introduction of non-conventional renewable energy sources and a sectorial cap. The results show that the same global greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction can be obtained with these policies, but the impact on the electricity price and GDP are lower than that of the carbon tax.

  7. POLICIES FOR LIMITING CLIMATE CHANGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The success in achieving the Europe 2020 national objectives depends on the implementation at national level of structural reforms needed to accelerate a growth that is smart, sustainable and favourable to inclusion. The national reform programmes (PNR represent an obligation for each Member State to “translate” at national level the Europe 2020 objectives. In the Romanian National Reform Programme were established, among other priorities, the improvement of the quality of life through sustainable management of renewable resources and mitigation of climate change effects, increasing the energy efficiency, the management of natural resources and pollution reduction. In this paper there will be analyzed the general objectives of the climate change limitation and combating, the strategies to reduce climate change, implemented at the global, european and national level, and also directions for development of the electricity sector. In terms of global strategies, the main measures adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and through the major Conferences of Parties will be analyzed. At the European level, will be examined the Community objectives relating to the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and the adopted measures to meet the proposed targets, and at the national level there will be evaluated the measures through which Romania implements the policies set at the global and community level. Regarding the directions of development of the energy sector at the European level there will be exposed and analyzed the measures imposed by the European Commission and the Member States, and at the national level, the main directions for action of the energy sector in Romania.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Sub-manufacturing Sectors Using TOPSIS and ELECTRE Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri ÖMÜRBEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance analysis is defined as a process of collecting, analyzing and reporting data systematically and regularly for a business to monitor its sources it has used, products and services it has produced, and the results it gained. For operators, it means quantitative expression of actions which are performed by a business or maintained in a program. In this study, financial performances of manufacture sectors are analyzed by the methods of TOPSIS and ELECTRE using current ratio, cash ratio, total debt / total assets, inventory turnover rate, equity turnover rate, net profit / equity, operating ıncome /net sales, net profit / sales and cost of good sold / net sales criteria. The findings suggest that coal and refined petroleum product manufacturing industry is in the first place in both methods.

  9. 2015 Standard Scenarios Annual Report: U.S. Electric Sector Scenario Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mulcahy, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-16

    This report is one of several products resulting from an initial effort to provide a consistent set of technology cost and performance data and to define a conceptual and consistent scenario framework that can be used in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) future analyses. The long-term objective of this effort is to identify a range of possible futures of the U.S. electricity sector in which to consider specific energy system issues through (1) defining a set of prospective scenarios that bound ranges of key technology, market, and policy assumptions and (2) assessing these scenarios in NREL’s market models to understand the range of resulting outcomes, including energy technology deployment and production, energy prices, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  10. Response of nighttime equatorial and low latitude F-region to the geomagnetic storm of August 18, 2003, in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; Lima, W. L. C.; Otsuka, Y.; Huang, C.-S.; Espinoza, E. S.; Pi, X.; de Abreu, A. J.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Pillat, V. G.; Abalde, J. R.; Pimenta, A. A.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    This paper presents an investigation of geomagnetic storm effects in the equatorial and low latitude F-region in the Brazilian sector during the intense geomagnetic storm on 18 August, 2003 (SSC 14:21 UT on 17/08; ΣKp = 52+; Ap = 108; ∣Dst∣ max = 168 at 1600 UT on 18/08). Simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements from two stations, viz., Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W; dip latitude 5.7°S) and Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W; dip latitude 17.6°S), Brazil, are presented for the nights of 16-17, 17-18 and 18-19 August, 2003 (quiet, disturbed and recovery phases). Both stations are equipped with the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI). Quiet and disturbed conditions of the F-region ionosphere are compared using data collected from the two stations. The relationship between magnetospheric disturbance and low-latitude ionospheric dynamics, and generation of ionospheric irregularities are discussed. On the disturbed nights (17-18 and 18-19 August), the low latitude station S. J. Campos showed strong enhancements in the F-region critical frequency (foF2), whereas the near equatorial station Palmas showed strong uplifting of the F-layer about 1 h earlier. Normally during the June solstice months (May-August) in the Brazilian sector, large-scale ionospheric irregularities in form of plasma bubbles are rarely observed. On the night of 17-18 August, ionsospheric sounding observations at Palmas showed the presence of bottomside spread-F, whereas on the night of 18-19 August, the observations at Palmas and S. J. Campos showed the presence of plasma bubbles when the storm recovery phase had just started. The complementary GPS data available from several stations in the "Rede Brasileira de Monitoramento Continuo de GPS (Brazilian Network for Continuous GPS Monitoring)" are used to obtain the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and the rate of change of TEC per minute on UT days 18 and 19 August, 2003 and presented. Also, several global ionospheric TEC maps

  11. Ionospheric conductances and currents of a morning sector auroral arc from Swarm-A electric and magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juusola, L.; Archer, W. E.; Kauristie, K.; Burchill, J. K.; Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    We show the first ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances derived from Swarm magnetic and electric field measurements during a crossing of a morning sector auroral arc. Only Swarm-A was used, with assumptions of negligible azimuthal gradients and vanishing eastward electric field. We find upward field-aligned current, enhanced Hall and Pedersen conductances, and relatively weak electric field coincident with the arc. Poleward of the arc, the field-aligned current was downward, conductances lower, and the electric field enhanced. The arc was embedded in a westward electrojet, immediately equatorward of the peak current density. The equatorward portion of the electrojet could thus be considered conductance dominant and the poleward portion electric field dominant. Although the electric field measured by Swarm was intense, resulting in conductances lower than those typically reported, comparable electric fields have been observed earlier. These results demonstrate how Swarm data can significantly contribute to our understanding of the ionospheric electrodynamics.

  12. Sustainable expansion of electricity sector. Sustainability indicators as an instrument to support decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovere, Emilio Lebre La; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Lauria, Tatiana [Energy Planning Program (Coordination of Post Graduation Programs in Engineering at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, Sala 211, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to put forward a proposal for a methodology to analyze the sustainability of the expansion of electricity generation. To do so, an approach is needed that takes into account, in an integrated perspective, the technical, socioeconomic, environmental and technological factors of the various alternatives for sector expansion. In this regard, multicriteria analysis (MCA) is proposed as an evaluation tool. It will be applied to a situation that involves the selection of the following expansion alternatives: small hydropowers, wind energy, generation from sugarcane bagasse, biodiesel, urban solid wastes, natural gas and nuclear energy. The methodology involved the development of indicators encompassing technological, environmental social and economic dimensions, for each of the aforementioned expansion alternatives, and the results were very interesting, from a multicriteria point of view, in their capacity to internalize socioenvironmental, technological and economic aspects in the decision making process for electricity generation expansion. It may well prove to be a useful tool for supporting this decision, although efforts are required to standardize the methodology with regard to its evaluation procedures. (author)

  13. The Impact of Ownership Unbundling on Cost Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from the New Zealand Electricity Distribution Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Filippini, Massimo; Wetzel, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Several countries around the world have introduced reforms to the electric power sector. One important element of these reforms is the introduction of an unbundling process, i.e., the separation of the competitive activities of supply and production from the monopole activity of transmission and distribution of electricity. There are several forms of unbundling: functional, legal and ownership. New Zealand, for instance, adopted an ownership unbundling in 1998. As discussed in the literature,...

  14. The Brazilian electric energy market. Lessons and perspectives; O mercado brasileiro de energia eletrica. Licoes e perspectivas decorrentes do racionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Edna Lopes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira [CSPE - Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses the technical and commercial characteristics of the electric power Brazilian market taking into account his constitution and structuration, the throwback during the operation and adjustings due to rationing administrative process, where various alternatives of commercialization were identified, considering the full supply unavailability. The paper intends to present the implications decurrent from the gradual maturing of the consumption market and the new actors, resulting from the national market restructuration, the initial premises and the acceleration of the market opening time schedule, consequence of the adjustings introduced during the period of the Southeast, Centralwest and Northeast regions rationing, in the period of 2001-21002.

  15. The importance of the technology variable in the public policies for the public electric sector; A importancia da variavel tecnologica no contexto das politicas publicas para setor eletrico brasileiro - SEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Valcir dos Reis [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico; Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica

    1998-12-31

    In this article we analyze the institutional and the organizational changes of Brazilian Electric Sector - BES at the light of world technological and institutional transformations. Firstly, we show a panorama of the main changes in the directives of central countries energy policies and the technological evolution of electrical industry. Afterwards, we analyze the relationships between these two levels of change and the regulation process in this industry. Finally we analyze the two levels of the public policies that sustains the institutionalization of the activities of the BES. The first one, involves the wider measures of industrial and technological policy of the country; while the second one is about the current process of institutional changes. (author) 20 refs.; e-mail: valcir at ppe.ufrj.br; furtado at ige.unicamp.br

  16. Actions in the electrical sector to propitiate the environmental protection; Acciones en el sector electrico para propiciar la proteccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Gaspari, Mateo [Fideicomiso de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The saving of electrical energy is one of the most efficient means to propitiate the environmental protection in the surroundings of the facilities used in the production of electrical energy. The emission of polluting agents associated with the electric power generation is analyzed, among them, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, along with the particulate emission of ash or soot. In addition, an analysis is made of the contribution of the electrical energy saving to the environmental protection and the actions that the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico will undertake on the electric energy saving for the 1995 to the 2000 period. [Spanish] El ahorro de energia electrica es uno de los medios mas eficientes para propiciar la proteccion ambiental en el entorno de las instalaciones usadas en la produccion de energia electrica. Se analiza la emision de contaminantes asociados con la generacion electrica, entre ellos, el CO{sub 2}, el SO{sub 2} y NO{sub 2}, junto con la emision de particulas de ceniza o de hollin. Ademas se analiza la contribucion del ahorro de energia electrica a la proteccion ambiental y las acciones que emprendera la Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico sobre ahorro de energia electrica para el periodo 1995 al 2000.

  17. Trading of the electric power originated at biomass - regulatory incentives in the new electric sector model; Comercializacao de energia eletrica proveniente de biomassa. Incentivos regulatorios no novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energeticos e Sistemas Eletricos]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Agapito, Cassiano Augusto; Lima, Rodrigo Alves [AES Tiete S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cassiano.agapito@aes.com; rodrigoa.lima@aes.com

    2006-07-01

    Brazil offers excellent conditions to produce and use biomass as fuel in large scale. The electric energy generation from biomass presents a huge potential, however it is poorly explored up to this moment. Among the prime reasons by the lack of investments in that sector are the institutional obstacles and the risk aversion of investors who have a different focus in business and have difficulty to understand the complex market rules. The Brazilian government shows interest in increase the share of that source in the national installed capacity, since various social and environmental advantages, besides supplementary between the hydraulic and biomass inventory. The regulation changes since the law 10,848/04 and the decree 5,163/04 modify the structure of the electrical energy market and brought some incentives to the sells of the energy deriving from biomass. The possibility of trade your capacity, the annual Physical Guarantee definition and the reduction on transmission and distribution costs will be the center of our discussion. (author)

  18. Applicability of laws and regulations of the Brazilian power sector in the Western Amazon; Aplicabilidade das leis e normas do setor eletrico brasileiro nos estados da Amazonia Ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This analysis is developed within a broad context that is characterized by efficient use of electricity in a region environmentally and socially diverse. It considers that energy efficiency is required throughout the process from generation to power consumption, resulting in an interdisciplinary view of the problems reported here. With this guiding principle, the article analyzes the crises of electricity and makes a historical account of some important legal provisions to the environmental and social problems of the state. It assumes that the applicability of the Electric Sector Legislation, in Amazon, becomes inadequate, once in the depopulated endless area, the solutions do not come, simply, by modern technologies where either the traditional ones have place. Studies carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas bring subsidies to the analysis, which aims to create a forum for discussion about the practice of treating as equal parts of deep diversity. (author)

  19. Automatic Control Systems (ACS for Generation and Sale of Electric Power Under Conditions of Industry-Sector Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Petrusha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible risks pertaining to transition of electric-power industry to market relations have been considered in the paper. The paper presents an integrated ACS for generation and sale of electric power as an improvement of methodology for organizational and technical management. The given system is based on integration of operating Automatic Dispatch Control System (ADCS and developing Automatic Electricity Meter Reading System (AEMRS. The paper proposes to form an inter-branch sector of ACS PLC (Automatic Control System for Prolongation of Life Cycle users which is oriented on provision of development strategy.

  20. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A; Boletim estatistico comercial da CELESC: Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates 6 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Tracking the genealogy of CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector: An intersectoral approach applied to the Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon Moran, Miguel Angel; Albinana, Fernando Callejas [Faculty of Law and Business, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Facultad of Social Sciences and Law, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo 45071 (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyses the factors leading to CO{sub 2} emissions in the Spanish electricity generation sector in order to propose effective mitigation policies aimed at tackling those emissions. Traditionally, two broad categories of those factors have been considered in the literature: those related to the supply of electricity (technological features of the sector) and those related to the level of economic activity (demand factors). This paper focuses on an additional element, which has usually been neglected, the structural factor, which refers to the set of intersectoral transactions (related to the technologies used in other productive sectors) which connect, in either a direct or an indirect way, the general economic activity with the supply of electricity and, thus, with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. This analysis allows us to identify the so-called 'sectors structurally responsible for emissions' (SSER), whose production functions involve transactions which connect the demand for goods and services with the emissions of the electricity generation sector. The methodology is based on an input-output approach and a sensitivity analysis. The paper shows that there are structural rigidities, deeply ingrained within the economic system, which lead to emissions from the electricity generation sector for which this sector cannot be held responsible. These rigidities limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at emissions mitigation in this sector. (author)

  2. Optimization of alternative options for SO{sub 2} emissions control in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Colonia Centro, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jis@cie.unam.mx; Grande, Genice [Posgrado en Ingenieria de Sistemas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    This article develops a least-cost optimization model in terms of the projected SO{sub 2} abatement costs of nine selected options for SO{sub 2} emissions control in the 10 most polluting power plants of the Mexican electrical sector (MES)-including SO{sub 2} scrubbing technologies, fuel oil hydrotreating desulphurization and fuel substitutions. The model not only finds the optimal combination of SO{sub 2} control options and generating units at 10% reduction intervals referred to the total SO{sub 2} emissions but also meets the restriction imposed in the NOM-085-ECOL-1994 (Mexican Official Norm) for allowable emission levels within critical zones. Similarly, two schemes are studied and analysed in this model: the first case considers the economical benefits derived from the substitution of fuel oil by imported low sulphur content coal in the Petacalco power plant and; the second case does not considered such economical benefits. Finally, results are obtained for these two cases in terms of the corresponding costs-investment, O and M, fuel-, abatement costs and the SO{sub 2} emissions reduction.

  3. Electric sector and environment: the institutionalization of the environmental question; Setor eletrico e meio ambiente: a institucionalizacao da questao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Nair Palhano

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the trajectory of the environmental question in the planning of government policies. For this, the historic process of the emergence and institutionalization of the debate over the environment in the electric sector was redeemed, mainly observing the changes that occurred in the organizational and planning structure of projects. The electric sector is understood to be comprised of the network of interests and social relationships that sustain the set of policies whose principle axis is the generation, transmission and distribution of energy; this network may or may not be extrapolated beyond the design of its institutional structure. During the course of the studies carried out to prepare this thesis, the environmental question was understood, at least in a preliminary fashion, to consist of a general set of problems, diagnoses, situations, plans, programs and actions, as are institutional forms that explicitly refer to the environment as their subject, cause or objective for being or their justification. The research that the work presented here was based upon was oriented by methodological procedures that are characteristic of institutional analyses and representation studies, and used documentation available about and produced by the Electric Sector as a source of information as well as interviews and questionnaires with people directly or indirectly involved with the topic. This procedure allowed for the observation that the treatment of the environmental question in the electric sector underwent moments that varied according to the level of internalization during the different stages of the sector's projects, as well as during the formulation of its institutional policy. (author)

  4. Identification of the potential for flexible electric power consumption with industry, commercial and service sectors; Kortlaegning af potentialet for fleksibelt elforbrug i industri, handel og service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    The potential for flexible electric power consumption is divided into sectors (manufacturing industry and the commercial and service sectors) and types of energy. A distinction is made between the potential for increasing flexibility within the current electricity consumption (load shifting, peak clipping and valley-filling) and using power to substitute fuel when electric power prices are low (fuel-shift). The greatest potential for flexible electricity consumption is to replace current use of fuels for process heat with electricity when electricity prices are low (fuel-shift). (LN)

  5. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  6. Climate mitigation’s impact on global and regional electric power sector water use in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan

    2013-08-05

    Over the course of this coming century, global electricity use is expected to grow at least five fold and if stringent greenhouse gas emissions controls are in place the growth could be more than seven fold from current levels. Given that the electric power sector represents the second largest anthropogenic use of water and given growing concerns about the nature and extent of future water scarcity driven by population growth and a changing climate, significant concern has been expressed about the electricity sector’s use of water going forward. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that an often overlooked but absolutely critical issue that needs to be taken into account in discussions about the sustainability of the electric sector’s water use going forward is the tremendous turn over in electricity capital stock that will occur over the course of this century; i.e., in the scenarios examined here more than 80% of global electricity production in the year 2050 is from facilities that have not yet been built. The authors show that because of the large scale changes in the global electricity system, the water withdrawal intensity of electricity production is likely to drop precipitously with the result being relatively constant water withdrawals over the course of the century even in the face of the large growth in electricity usage. The ability to cost effectively reduce the water intensity of power plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage systems in particular is key to constraining overall global water use.

  7. Financial vulnerability of the electricity sector to drought, and the impacts of changes in generation mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.

    2015-12-01

    Electric power utilities are increasingly cognizant of the risks water scarcity and rising temperatures pose for generators that use water as a "fuel" (i.e., hydroelectric dams) and generators that use water for cooling (i.e., coal, natural gas and nuclear). At the same time, utilities are under increasing market and policy pressure to retire coal-fired generation, the primary source of carbon emissions in the electric power sector. Due to falling costs of renewables and low natural gas prices, retiring coal fired generation is mostly being replaced with combined cycle natural gas, wind and solar. An immediate benefit of this shift has been a reduction in water withdrawals per megawatt-hour and reduced thermal impacts in surface water systems. In the process of retiring older coal-fired power plants, many of which use water intensive open-loop cooling systems, utilities are making their systems less vulnerable to water scarcity and higher water temperatures. However, it is not clear whether financial risks from water scarcity will decrease as result of this change. In particular, the choice to replace coal with natural gas combined cycle plants leaves utilities financially exposed to natural gas prices, especially during droughts when natural gas generation is used to replace lost hydropower production. Utility-scale solar, while more expensive than natural gas combined cycle generation, gives utilities an opportunity to simultaneously reduce their exposure to water scarcity and fuel price risk. In this study, we assess how switching from coal to natural gas and solar changes a utility's financial exposure to drought. We model impacts on retail prices and a utility's rate of return under current conditions and non-stationarity in natural gas prices and temperature and streamflows to determine whether increased exposure to natural gas prices offsets corresponding gains in water use efficiency. We also evaluate whether utility scale solar is an effective hedge

  8. The Need for a Higher Fuel Efficiency of the Electricity Sector - An Analysis of Opportunities and Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimstra, J.

    2007-07-01

    The electricity sector is the single largest user of primary energy in the world. The issues of fuel prices, security of supply and greenhouse gas emissions are therefore closely connected with electricity generation. The total energy efficiency of the electricity sector is only 32.5% so that quick improvements are required. However, the uncertainty over fuel prices and technology preferences is such that most investors are hesitant. The life of existing, often low-efficiency, power plants is therefore extended. At the same time, the demand for electricity is rapidly increasing and the gap between capacity and demand decreases. This paper intends to bring more clarity into the economic and environmental boundary conditions of power plants. The goal is to find an attractive way for rapid efficiency improvement with an even better system reliability without increasing the costs. The paper discusses fuel price developments and the costs of generating technologies in connection with the typical demand pattern of electricity. Ultimately, it appears that local generation, preferably coupled with cogeneration, can be an important part of the solution. (auth)

  9. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial...

  10. Innovation Networks: the Contribution of Partnerships to Innovative Performance of Firms in the Brazilian Electrical-Electronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvye Ane Massaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation networks have been identified in the literature as a way to complement firms’ innovative capabilities through collaboration with other partners. To provide empirical evidence for this assertion, this paper investigates the contribution of partners established in innovation networks for innovative performance of firms in the Brazilian electricalelectronics industry. For this purpose, we carried out an exploratory and descriptive survey among 185 companies. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. As the main findings, we observed that the establishment of collaborative relationships with customers, competitors and universities/research institutions can contribute to organizational and process innovation. However, despite obtaining some significant results concerning the contribution of different partners in the network, electrical-electronics industry companies also attach great importance to internal activities to develop their innovations.

  11. Energy consumption in trade and service sector. Supplementary report 2: Data for electricity consumption; Energiforbruget i handels- og servicesektoren. Bilagsrapport 2: Noegletal for elforbruget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This supplement contains electricity consumption data for the commercial and service sectors in Denmark, described for 32 separate branches. Values for electric power use per area, per employee, per service time (opening hours) and per man-hour are given. Electric heating is taken into account. Lighting, ventilation, cooling/refrigeration etc. are listed. (EG)

  12. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the electrical sector; Reduccion de emisiones de CO{sub 2} en el sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox Palafox, Sergio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    The climatic change is directly tied to the increase in the concentration of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere, product of human activities, mainly by the burning of fossil fuels and the deforestation. In this presentation it is spoken on the climatic change; the actions of Mexico with respect to the climatic change are mentioned; the importance of the renewable energies, such as the wind power the hydraulic energy, the geothermal and the sun power, and finally the present situation of the Mexican electrical sector is presented. [Spanish] El cambio climatico esta directamente vinculado con el aumento en la concentracion de gases de efecto invernadero en la atmosfera, producto de actividades humanas, principalmente por la quema de combustibles fosiles y la deforestacion. En esta presentacion se habla sobre cambio climatico; se mencionan las acciones de Mexico con respecto al cambio climatico; la importancia de las energias renovables, como la eolica, la hidraulica, la geotermica y la solar, y por ultimo se presenta la situacion actual del sector electrico mexicano.

  13. Achieving 60% CO{sub 2} reductions within the UK energy system-Implications for the electricity generation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odenberger, M. [Energy Conversion, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Johnsson, F. [Energy Conversion, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: filip.johnsson@me.chalmers.se

    2007-04-15

    This paper explores how investment in the UK electricity generation sector can contribute to the UK goal of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions with 60% by the year 2050 relative to the 1990 emissions. Considering likely development of the transportation sector and industry over the period, i.e. a continued demand growth and dependency on fossil fuels and electricity, the analysis shows that this implies CO{sub 2} emission reductions of up to 90% by 2050 for the electricity sector. Emphasis is put on limitations imposed by the present system, described by a detailed database of existing power plants, together with meeting targets on renewable electricity generation (RES) including assumptions on gas acting as backup technology for intermittent RES. In particular, it is investigated to what extent new fossil fuelled and nuclear power is required to meet the year 2050 demand as specified by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP). In addition, the number of sites required for centralized electricity generation (large power plants) is compared with the present number of sites. A simulation model was developed for the analysis. The model applies the UK national targets on RES, taken from Renewable Obligation (RO) for 2010 and 2020 and potentials given by RCEP for 2050, and assumed technical lifetimes of the power plants of the existing system and thus, links this system with targets for the years 2010, 2020 and 2050. The results illustrate the problem with lock-in effects due to long capital stock turnover times, which can either lead to political difficulty meeting targets in established policy or costly early retirement of power plants (stranded assets) to comply with emission goals prescribed in Kyoto targets or the 60% emission reduction goal. Assuming typical technical lifetimes of the power plants it can be concluded that the present electricity generation system continues to play a significant role for several decades generating about 50% of projected

  14. Achieving 60% CO{sub 2} reductions within the UK energy system - implications for the electricity generation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odenberger, M.; Johnsson, F. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2007-04-15

    This paper explores how investment in the UK electricity generation sector can contribute to the UK goal of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions with 60% by the year 2050 relative to the 1990 emissions. Considering likely development of the transportation sector and industry over the period, i.e. a continued demand growth and dependency on fossil fuels and electricity, the analysis shows that this implies CO{sub 2} emission reductions of up to 90% by 2050 for the electricity sector. Emphasis is put on limitations imposed by the present system, described by a detailed database of existing power plants, together with meeting targets on renewable electricity generation (RES) including assumptions on gas acting as backup technology for intermittent RES. In particular, it is investigated to what extent new fossil fuelled and nuclear power is required to meet the year 2050 demand as specified by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (RCEP). In addition, the number of sites required for centralized electricity generation (large power plants) is compared with the present number of sites. A simulation model was developed for the analysis. The model applies the UK national targets on RES, taken from Renewable Obligation (RO) for 2010 and 2020 and potentials given by RCEP for 2050, and assumed technical lifetimes of the power plants of the existing system and thus, links this system with targets for the years 2010, 2020 and 2050. The results illustrate the problem with lock-in effects due to long capital stock turnover times, which can either lead to political difficulty meeting targets in established policy or costly early retirement of power plants (stranded assets) to comply with emission goals prescribed in Kyoto targets or the 60% emission reduction goal. Assuming typical technical lifetimes of the power plants it can be concluded that the present electricity generation system continues to play a significant role for several decades generating about 50% of projected

  15. A model of the resources integrated planning for the rural electrification in the new Brazilian electric scenery; Um modelo do planejamento integrado de recursos para a energizacao rural no novo cenario eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: pazzini@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The change to competitive atmosphere for the Brazilian electric sector is simultaneous to the social and economic changes in the rural zone: the agricultural traditional activities are expanding and new business are appearing, such as restaurants and fish-pay, as 'the new rural Brazilian'. Because that, the electrification of rural areas needs real and dynamic alternatives, that facilitate the access to energy, to meet the basic needs and for productivity. This paper presents a model of Integrated Resources Planning, based on the identification of the real demand of the interested ones and of the sources of existent resources for its attendance. The importance of the participation of several segments of the State, of private companies, of the stake holders, of the whole society is analyzed. It is founded that the alternative is viable and it stands out the role of the State regulator agents in the induction of mechanisms that turn more attractive the rural zone for investments. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic systems connected to electric power like distributed generators: the recent situation at the PVPS-IEA and at the Brazilian scenario; Sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede eletrica como geradores distribuidos: a situacao recente no PVPS-IEA e no cenario brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglia, Renato Brito; Oliveira, Sergio Henrique Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], email: renato.quaglia@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    In this paper it is considered the use of Distributed Generation (GD) as a further option to centralized generation of electricity and treats its photovoltaic systems connected to power network (SFCR's) technology as an option in this interesting 'new' model to plan the expansion of the brazilian electrical energy matrix, mainly in urban centres. For this reason, it was necessary to mention the main characteristics of this technology as distributed generators, and the profile of his generation when connected in homes and commercial buildings. Moreover, it presents the benefits that these systems can offer the electricity sector, society and the economy. In the study of Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS), specifically the situation of this technology in Germany, realized that the creation of mechanisms of financial incentives provided to implement some of the main barriers associated with the integration of photovoltaic systems as distributed generators. In assessing the Brazilian context, there was the incipient photovoltaic market in the country, even taking some systems already installed, note that the vast majority are intended for studies of Research and Development. There is also the exploitation of photovoltaic systems connected to the network for use in homes, businesses or industries, probably because of the lack of incentive programs for SFCR's. Although there is a programme of incentives to Alternative Sources of Electricity - Proinfa, it does not consider the SFCR's in its guidelines for qualification, only the wind systems, small hydroelectric plants and systems powered by biomass. Point is, therefore, the need for the creation of an energy policy that encourages the Brazilian market photovoltaic, more precisely a policy of offering incentives conditions of maturity of this technology when connected to the network - technical standards, decrease costs, creation of hand of specialized work, installation of manufacturers

  17. Financial Measures for Electric Vehicles:Supporting the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Mobility Sector in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bickert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV are able to support the transition of sectors towards sustainability. The operation of these vehicles with renewable energies saves local and global emissions. Furthermore, fluctuating renewable energies can be integrated in existing energy systems by using electric vehicles for grid services. Thus, implementation of advantages requires market establishment of electric vehicles. The article provides a review on potentials of market development by comparing and studying costs of electric and conventional vehicles as well as effects of financial measures on costs of EV. These cost comparisons are based on market data and predictions of cost developments for private consumers in Germany. Costs are analysed by an economic model of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO, aiming to display financial proportionality between vehicles in different years of acquisition (2010 to 2030. In a further step, external financial measures are analysed and integrated in the cost model as one possibility to enhance and secure the market introduction. Findings demonstrate that higher costs of acquisition of electric vehicles cannot be compensated by lower costs of operation. While mobility costs of conventionally vehicles stay constant or even increase during the considered years, mobility costs of electric vehicles significantly decrease especially in the upcoming years. In all cases mobility costs of electric vehicles exceed costs of conventional vehicles, but differences are reduced from 19€ct in 2010 to 3€ct in 2030. Cost decreases of the battery have high influence on the increasing financial comparability of EV. Concerning financial measures especially a differentiation of energy prices and a compensation of grid services can help to decrease total costs of EV and to manage a shift from fossil energy resources to electricity in the mobility sector. The existing tax exemption for EV compensates only a little fraction (about 6% of the cost

  18. Regulation of the electricity sector in Russia: regional aspects (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Yudashkina; Sergey Pobochy

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of interests of regional energy companies, consumers and governors on electricity regulation policy in Russian regions. We use panel data on electricity tariffs and electricity consumption in 77 regions during 1998-2003. We find evidence that governors tended to "freeze" the tariffs during governor elections, and that energy-intensive enterprises prefer buying electricity at the federal wholesale market to bargaining over lower tariffs with regional regulators. We co...

  19. The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F; Foley, A M; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of possible uses of climate policy instruments for the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector in a non-equilibrium economic and technology innovation-diffusion perspective. Emissions reductions occur through changes in technology and energy consumption; in this context, investment decision-making opportunities occur periodically, which energy policy can incentivise in order to transform energy systems and meet reductions targets. Energy markets are driven by innovation, dynamic costs and technology diffusion; yet, the incumbent systems optimisation methodology in energy modelling does not address these aspects nor the effectiveness of policy onto decision-making since the dynamics modelled take their source from the top-down `social-planner' assumption. This leads to an underestimation of strong technology lock-ins in cost-optimal scenarios of technology. Our approach explores the global diffusion of low carbon technology in connection to a highly disaggregated sector...

  20. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  1. Implications of Meeting California’s Greenhouse Gas Emission Goals in the Electricity Sector in 2050 and at the same time generating the Electricity needed by the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    The State of California has promulgated strict greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction requirements in Assembly Bill 32 (AB32). AB32 states that by 2020 California GHG emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels, which is 427 MMt-CO2e/yr. The State has also passed Executive Order EO S-3-05, signed by Gov. Schwarzenegger that looks further into the future of GHG reduction goals in California. This executive order states that GHG emissions will be reduced to 20 % of 1990 levels by 2050, or to 85 MMt-CO2 e/yr. While not a legal regulatory requirement, meeting this stricter goal with much larger GHG emission reductions and at the same time providing for California’s electricity needs, would be a huge challenge. This poster examines potential issues that could arise should the State pursue compliance with this executive order. In this poster two GHG emission trajectories for California are developed. The trajectories are projected GHG emissions by sector from present to 2050. One trajectory shows the business-as-usual scenario, while the second trajectory attains the desired GHG emission rates that would be in compliance with EO S-3-05. While projections for all sectors are made, the focus of the poster is on the electrical energy sector. Today’s electrical energy portfolio is examined, and the associated GHG emissions from this sector are calculated from carbon emission factors. An important finding is that the emission factors for renewable sources of energy, while small, are not exactly zero, so that as the use of renewable energy sources grow, so do the CO2 emissions. As will be shown in the poster, these emissions are not trivial when compared to the goals of EO S-3-05. Then a 2050 energy portfolio for California is developed. Such a portfolio is not unique, and the strategy behind the particular portfolio developed is presented. Once the portfolio has been developed, issues associated with its attainment are identified and discussed. An example is the need for

  2. Strategic Behavior in Liberalized Electricity Sectors: Game Theoretical Formal Modeling in Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oruç, S.

    2014-01-01

    The electricity infrastructure, like many other networked infrastructures, is an indispensable and integral part of developed economies. The economic growth, quality of life and general well-being of modern societies all depend on the smooth, reliable and efficient operation of electricity system. O

  3. Reducing electric sector CO{sub 2} emissions under competition: Facilitating technology development and turnover on both sides of the meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, S.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviews the technological and institutional factors involved in achieving long-term reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the electric sector. A case study of the New England electric sector is used to illustrate factors associated with energy infrastructure turnover and technology development and use. Opportunities for joint implementation of CO{sub 2} reductions are identified, as well as strategies which leverage CO{sub 2} emissions reductions to achieve reductions in other emissions, and to facilitate cost and environmental risk mitigation. Impacts of environmental performance constraints on the electric industry are also identified and analyzed. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Standard Scenarios and this associated report, which are now in their second year, present an examination of some of the key aspects of the change occurring, or anticipated to occur, in the power sector over the next several decades. The Standard Scenarios consist of 18 power sector scenarios which have been projected using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) long-term capacity expansion model and the dGen rooftop PV diffusion model. The purpose of the Standard Scenarios and this associated report is to provide context, discussion, and data to inform stakeholder decision-making regarding the future direction of U.S. power sector. As an extension to this report, the Standard Scenario outputs are presented in a downloadable format online using the Standard Scenarios' Results Viewer at http://en.openei.org/apps/reeds/. This report reflects high-level conclusions and analysis, whereas the Standard Scenarios' Results Viewer includes the scenario results that can be used for more in-depth analysis.

  5. NON-TECHNICAL LOSSES, ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATIVE METHODOLOGY IN THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR OF NIGERIA: THE CASE OF CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Ngozi Obafemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s challenge in electricity consumption in Nigeria is on how to use electricity wisely. Nigeria electricity sector is facing abnormal power supply situation, as demand outstrips supply, culminating in electricity supply-cum–demand imbalance. This owes to inefficiency and non technical losses which contributes to incessant power outages resulting in heavy economic losses and poor performance of the economy. This study investigates and identifies non-technical losses in the electricity sector occasioned by illegitimate activities. The methodology is a combination of quantitative and qualitative sample survey. The data set is a simple random sampling of households using electricity, and the number of units chosen was based on statistical power analysis. The result shows that energy wastage is from poor lighting attitudes, and choice of appliances. Implementation of efficient lighting attitudes is encouraged. Findings from the study if replicated will serve as a model for energy efficiency and methodology for the Nigeria Economy.

  6. Implantation of hydroelectric power plants and the environmental licensing: the importance of the articulation among the electrical and environment sectors in Brazil; A implantacao de usinas hidreletricas e o processo de licenciamento ambiental: a importancia da articulacao entre os setores eletrico e de meio ambiente no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facuri, Micheline Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Hydroelectric power plants stand for the main generation source in Brazil. The basis of the national generator park installed capacity is the exploration of hydraulic potency when the Brazilian energetic die is observed. The atmosphere that the Brazilian electric sector is found now asks for new generator units. In this sense, it would decrease energy offer deficit risk, which collaborates to the electric energy offer expansion effort. This research aims to join and to comment on a group of data and information regarding to the process of implantation of hydroelectric power plants already bid. It includes up to date data on hydroelectric power plants bid since 1996. This data describe the main implications found in the enterprises that are late in their schedules. It shows that the greater the environmental management instruments incorporation in hydroelectric projects planning process, the greater the possibility of new hydraulic generation enterprises with better quality of environmental studies implantation. In this way, it makes even better the process of environmental licensing that could occur in a more adequate deadline. As a result, 28 - out of 54 - enterprises bid are found with environmental problems, which represent 43.30% of bestowed potency. It is possible to infer, thus, that there is a need of more interaction between the electric and the environmental sectors. After analyzing the results, it is concluded that the generation enterprises environmental licensing has been worrying the electric sector agents. This happens due to the need of refinement on environmental studies or due to the need of bureaucracy to get licenses - mainly regarding to judicial actions and environmental issues. Finally, the adequate identification of environmental licensing drags allows a more efficient process to hydroelectric power plants implantation, which generates more consistent and faster results. (author)

  7. The Green Stamp in Power Supply Contracts - A proposal for the Brazilian Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrocio, Joao Paulo

    2010-09-15

    The insertion of a certification mechanism for discriminatory energy supply contracts aiming to make it possible to contract exclusively clean and renewable energy is presented. With the increasing interest for sustainability and carbon emissions reduction, there's a growing demand for clean energy reflected in people's choices for cleaner products. Electricity in a power grid, however, is result of a set of sources or plants, and its operation or dispatch. A proposal for clean energy contracts is presented, providing the market and the clients with the ability to choose to buy exclusively renewable energy through the grid.

  8. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  9. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has bee

  10. The Impact of CO2 Emission Contraints on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. electric power sector’s reliance on water makes it vulnerable to increased water temperature and drought resulting from climate change. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumpti...

  11. Charging of the Electric Vehicles in Private Sector: Technical and Economic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grackova, L.; Oleinikova, I.; Klavs, G.

    2014-12-01

    The economic aspect considered in the work is related to the charging of an electric vehicle (EV) at a single private house when this is done every day. To perform the relevant cost estimation it was necessary to determine: the average annual electricity consumption under the condition of everyday charging an EV and the average electricity consumption off the mains for covering a distance of 100 km by an EV and the time in hours for its charging. Comparison is made for the day-time intervals from which it is possible to choose the preferable for proper loading the electric line and the most beneficial for the consumer. Under analysis are two EV connection scenarios for 100 individual households from which 10%, 20% and 30% have EVs, with 8-h duration of each charging at the current of 13A. The authors consider the consumption and electric energy payment packages which - with planned opening of the electric energy market on January 1, 2015 - will offer the clients the enterprises rendering services on the electric energy sale. Šajā rakstā tiek analizēts vidējais diennakts elektroenerģijas patēriņš un diennakts slodzes grafiki privātmājās apstākļos, kad privātmājas īpašnieki lādē elektroautomobili katru dienu vidējam brauciena attālumam 100 km. Elektroautomobiļa uzlādes režīmi tiek analizēti, ņemot vērā patēriņa elektriskās slodzes grafika kvalitāti raksturojošos rādītājus un patērētāja ekonomiskos ieguvumus. Lai novērtētu ekonomiski stimulētu patērētāju elektroautomobiļa uzlādes laika izvēles ietekmi uz diennakts elektriskās slodzes aizpildījuma koeficientu, tika izveidoti un analizēti 2 scenāriji, kas apraksta 100 privātmāju ar dažādu elektroautomobiļu piederības īpatsvaru divas atšķirīgas automobiļu uzlādes gadījumus.

  12. Risks, disputes and interests: the scenery of the trust and distrust on the Renewable Resources and Environment Brazilian Institute (IBAMA); Riscos, disputas e interesses: o cenario da (des)confianca no Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre Cosme Jose; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mals: alexandrecjj@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is detach the confidence in the IBAMA by means of the polarization of the immerse interests to the brazilian electric sector and the demands post materialists referring to the populations reached for barrages. We will finish presenting scene on trust and distrust of some actors (electric, non governmental organizations, researches, industry) on the IBAMA institution. (author)

  13. The unitization process in the oil and gas Brazilian sector: regulations analysis; A regulacao no processo de unitizacao na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Silva, Moises E. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Bone, Rosemarie B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the withdraw of 41 blocks of the 9th Round of Auctions by ANP rose questions about the possible unitization of oil fields, particularly on the pre-salt areas and the likelihood of future litigation from licensees against the Brazilian Government on the issue. Based on the international experience from Nigeria and East Timor/Australia, we propose improvements to the Brazilian law on the issue (Law 9478/97, article 27). We conclude that a clear and specific regulation on the unitization issue should be passed, so to protect investors and the non-renewable resources at stake (oil and gas). (author)

  14. Smart Grids and their Applicability for the Development of the Electricity Sector for Colombia in the year 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, J.; Aceros, C.

    2016-07-01

    Smart Grids are a technology that can be used to implement a sustainable energy scheme of a country. Therefore, this paper proposes the development of a prospective analysis of Smart Grids as a tool to ensure energetic security in Colombia in 2050. Using LEAP software, a base scenario for Colombian energy demand has developed according to current policies, with a time horizon from 2012 to 2050. The energy analysis is based on three scenarios, taking into account the impact of cogeneration in the residential and industrial sector using renewable energy and the power quality indicators. The results show that the implementation of Smart Grids generate energy savings and increasing the coverage of the national electricity system, ensuring energetic security of the country by 2050.

  15. The sector restructuring and the consequences on the planning and the marketing studies of the electric power distributors; A reestruturacao setorial e os reflexos sobre o planejamento e os estudos de mercado das distribuidoras de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudo, Eduardo

    2001-05-15

    After the restructuring of the Brazilian power sector during the 1990's a new set of rules and players (regulators, traders, etc.) was introduced. This situation resulted in significantly impacting the distribution companies in terms of market risks and commercial opportunities. Electric power market assessments that provide fundamental information to the system and tariff planning groups can also be used to support the distribution companies in analyzing various questions within the new rules that have been created. These questions include such items as: how much energy should be contracted in the future in the wholesale market?; how much opportunity is available in offering commercial services to the customer?. This work describes the main changes that have occurred due to the restructuring, such as: the privatization process, a wholesale market implementation, rules for energy trading, and planning and regulatory process. The main challenges for distribution companies as a result of these changes are identified, especially focusing on energy trading in retail and wholesale markets. The process of electric power market assessments is presented and describing the accepted methodology used for demand forecasting for distribution companies. Information required by distribution companies in order to deal with the market challenges are specified - e.g. energy trading, market risks and customer relationship. It is concluded there is a need to obtain detailed information about consumers and to develop market forecast for specific time frame. It must take into consideration all the issues around the retail market - the study needs to analyze the basic factors that impact customer consumption. In order to improve the electric market assessment, it has been useful to apply specific models. After reviewing the existing tools for electric power market assessments (analysis and forecast), it has been found that the models that combined methods of end use analysis with

  16. Electricity Generation and the Present Challenges in the Nigerian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambo, Abubakar Sani; Garba, Bashiru; Zarma, Ismaila Haliru; Gaji, Muhammed Musa

    2010-09-15

    Adequate power supply is an unavoidable prerequisite to any nation's development, and electricity generation, transmission and distribution are capital-intensive requiring huge resources for both funds and capacity. In Nigeria where funds are available and has an estimated of 176 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves, giving the country one of the top ten natural gas endowments in Africa. Natural gas is a natural occurring gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons gases found in underground reservoirs. It consists mainly of methane (70% - 95%). With small percentage of ethane, butane and other heavier hydrocarbons with some impurities such as water vapour, etc.

  17. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector in 2050?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2017-01-01

    , reducing the investments in backup capacity. Whether the hydrogen scenario (H2S) is more costly to implement than the EV scenario (EVS) mainly depends on the technological development—especially the improvement on the efficiency of the conversion from electricity to H2 and the cost of the hydrogen fuel...... cell vehicle. Therefore, the major drivers of a successful H2S are a high efficient flexible H2 production in 2050 and lower vehicle costs, which increase the stability of the power grid, compared to the EVS. Hence, from a socioeconomic view point, the technological path in innovation to achieve fossil...

  18. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  19. Analysis of International Policies In The Solar Electricity Sector: Lessons for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Gambhir, Ashwin; Phadke, Amol

    2011-08-10

    Although solar costs are dropping rapidly, solar power is still more expensive than conventional and other renewable energy options. The solar sector still needs continuing government policy support. These policies are driven by objectives that go beyond the goal of achieving grid parity. The need to achieve multiple objectives and ensure sufficient political support for solar power makes it diffi cult for policy makers to design the optimal solar power policy. The dynamic and uncertain nature of the solar industry, combined with the constraints offered by broader economic, political and social conditions further complicates the task of policy making. This report presents an analysis of solar promotion policies in seven countries - Germany, Spain, the United States, Japan, China, Taiwan, and India - in terms of their outlook, objectives, policy mechanisms and outcomes. The report presents key insights, primarily in qualitative terms, and recommendations for two distinct audiences. The first audience consists of global policy makers who are exploring various mechanisms to increase the penetration of solar power in markets to mitigate climate change. The second audience consists of key Indian policy makers who are developing a long-term implementation plan under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and various state initiatives.

  20. Home electrical equipment: saturation and impact in the energy consumption electric in the urban and rural residential sector of Mexico; Equipamiento electrodomestico: saturacion e impacto en el consumo de energia electric en el sector residencial urbano y rural de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, J. A.; Morillon Galvez, D.

    2008-07-01

    A study develops in the form in as the principal electrical appliances television, air conditioning, plate, frigid, washing machine and heating they have penetrated in the mexican hearts, discriminating between urban and rural hearths, this study realizes in the period from 1996 to 2006, in addition to showing the evolution of the consumption of electrical energy of each of them. (Author)

  1. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  2. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  3. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rai, Neha [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reber, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muzammil, Maliha [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmood, Tasfiq [International Center for Climate Change and Development, Baridhara (Bangladesh); Kaur, Nanki [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Tesfaye, Lidya [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Mamuye, Simret [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Knuckles, James [Univ. of London (England). Cass Business School; Morris, Ellen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Been, Merijn [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Steinbach, Dave [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Acharya, Sunil [Digo Bikas Inst. (Nepal); Chhetri, Raju Pandit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhushal, Ramesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  4. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions behaviour in electric sector during 1990-1999; Comportamiento de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector electrico durante 1990-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, Ileana; Perez Martin, David [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas, Nucleares y Ambientales, La Habana (Cuba). E-mail: davidp@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    The electricity contributes to development and enhances the life level of population. Nevertheless, it generation is one of the major contributors to Greenhouse Gas emissions over the world. In Cuba 94% of electricity is generated based on fossil fuel. During first part of last decade the economic crisis forced the reduction of electricity generation and increased the participation of domestic crude oil in electricity generation. Paper characterizes the electricity generation during 1990-1999 and the fuel mix used. The methodology for emissions calculations is presented and the environment implications of domestic crude oil utilization are shown. Conclusions and recommendations are offered. (author)

  6. Strategies adopted by the sugarcane sector in the generation of surplus electricity; Estrategias adotadas pelo setor sucroalcooleiro na geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Zilmar Jose de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de [Fundacao Getulio Vargas (FGV-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Considering the necessity to expand the installed national capacity of generation, as well as, to diversify it, the article investigated definitive aspects of the Institutional Environment where the electric energy commercialization by the sugarcane sector is inserted. Positive points in proposal of governmental energy policy for incentive this activity had been observed, as well as, the necessity of its improvement. (author)

  7. Environmental evaluation in the electric sector expansion planing: an strategic approach; Avaliacao ambiental no planejamento da expansao do setor eletrico: uma abordagem estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: silviah@cepel.br; Medeiros, Alexandre [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lacorte, Ana; Aquino, Luiz C.S.; Farah, Pedro; Menezes, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a resume of the methodology developed for the Socio Environmental Studies Committee - CTSA - of the CCPE, aiming the incorporation of the environment dimension in the expansion indicative planning of the electric sector. The first results of the partial application to the 2001-2010 planning cycle are also presented.

  8. The distributed generation in Mexico: Which are the new perspectives associated to the institutional reforms of the electrical sector?; La generacion distribuida en Mexico: Cuales son las nuevas perspectivas asociadas a las reformas institucionales del sector electrico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Menanteau, Philippe [Departamento de Economia y Politica de la Energia, Universidad Pierre Mendes France (France)

    2004-06-15

    Historically, the electrical systems were constituted from local networks of small scale that were added together progressively to benefit from the effects of a more abundant demand and of the economies of scale in generation, that authorize the large interconnected systems. This logic at the moment seems to show certain limits, the factors that influence these technologies can vary greatly from one country to another, but nevertheless it is found in different degrees certain constants such as the search for a greater reliability in the electrical supply, the putting into work prevention policies of climatic change or the reforms of the electrical sector. In this work the influence of these factors was examined insisting particularly on the consequences of the opening of the electrical sector, departing from an analysis of the international experience in a first time and later examining the case of Mexico in the context of the present energy situation and the debate of the energy reform. The distributed generation: a new vector of technological opportunities in the electrical sector, the barriers for the diffusion of the distributed generation: the lessons of the international experience, the institutional problematic of the distributed generation within the effective legal framework of Mexico. [Spanish] Historicamente, los sistemas electricos se constituyeron a partir de redes locales de pequena escala que se fueron agregando progresivamente para beneficiarse de los efectos de una demanda mas abundante y de las economias de escala en generacion que autorizan los grandes sistemas interconectados. Esta logica parece actualmente mostrar ciertos limites, los factores que influyen sobre estas tecnologias pueden variar grandemente de un pais al otro, pero se encuentra, sin embargo, a grados diferentes ciertas constantes tales como la busqueda de una confiabilidad mas grande en el aprovisionamiento electrico, la puesta en obra de politicas de prevencion de cambio

  9. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  10. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Akiyama, Shu-ichi [Kushiro Public University of Economics, 4-1-1 Ashino, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study. (author)

  11. The Investment Environment for Renewable Energy Development in Lithuania: The Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčiuvienė Saulė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii does national administrative procedure put a disproportional burden on renewable energy investors or on certain group of investors? The assessment of the investment environment includes a large number of criteria, but we analyze three of them: the stability of long term strategy; the attractiveness of promotionmeasures; and the simplicity and transparency of administrative procedure. Two further criteria are investigated: the stability of targets in renewable energy and the stability of promotional measures. The greatest uncertainty for investors occurs because of constantly changing support schemes of renewable energy sources-schemes that are not harmonized among the member States. At the national level the main driver in the development of small generators is the feed-in tariff. However, the high feed-in tariff does not always guarantee the smooth development of small scale generators of renewable energy.

  12. Regulation of the natural gas distribution sector: a comparison of Brazilian and Colombian industries; Regulacao do setor de distribuicao de gas natural: uma comparacao dos casos brasileiro e colombiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Mariana Peralva; Ferraro, Marcelo Colomer [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Bolivia oil industry nationalization in 2006 and the high price of oil on the international market called the public and government attention to the problems of the natural gas industry regulation in Brazil. Recently, the establishment of a specific law for the natural gas industry had been debated in academic circles and in government institutions. In Brazil, the absence of an integrated energy policy and the absence of a homogeneous regulatory framework interfere with natural gas industry development, especially in distribution. Thus, the objective of the work will be contrast the Colombia distribution natural gas regulatory structure sector to the Brazilian natural gas regulatory framework. The comparison of the Brazilian regulatory framework and the Colombian natural gas regulation shows that the existence of different kinds of concession contracts in distribution is one of the explanations for the different levels of investment in Brazil. The contract with exclusive right to explore the distribution service in geographic territories also contributes to explain the low coverage rate of public distribution companies. Thus, the rapid expansion of the natural gas distribution network in Colombia after the regulatory reforms shows the importance of the establishment of a regulatory structure to push private investment. The Colombian case can be considered a good model for other countries in South America, especially to the natural gas distribution regulation. (author)

  13. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report.

  14. Evolución del mercado de la información electrónica: desde los orígenes hasta el auge del sector infomediario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hípola, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is much talk about the so-called infomediary sector. This sector of the digital content industry has grown thanks to recent legal texts regulating the re-use of a portion of the information generated by the public sector. If we look at the list of firms in this sector, we see that many come from what has been known for decades as the electronic information industry. This paper describes the origin and development of this industry, both globally and within the Spanish context. It analyzes the processes and organizations that have helped to lay the foundations of this infomediary sector. When conducting this study we discovered very different trajectories and dynamics depending on which geographical areas are analyzed.En la actualidad se habla de la existencia del denominado sector infomediario, un segmento de la industria de los contenidos digitales cuyo crecimiento ha sido propiciado por los recientes textos legales que regulan la reutilización de una parte de la información generada por el sector público. Si se analiza el listado de empresas que componen este sector se observa que muchas de ellas proceden de lo que se ha conocido desde hace décadas con el nombre de industria de la información electrónica. En este artículo se analiza el nacimiento y desarrollo de esa industria, tanto a escala mundial como dentro del contexto español, para evaluar cuáles han sido los procesos y organizaciones que han servido para facilitar que se pongan las bases del llamado sector infomediario. Al realizar dicho estudio se observan trayectorias y dinámicas muy diferentes según cuál sea el ámbito geográfico que se considere.

  15. SCENARIOS FOR MEETING CALIFORNIA'S 2050 CLIMATE GOALS California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume I: Non-Electricity Sectors and Overall Scenario Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey; Donovan, Sally; Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of long-term energy system scenarios for California consistent with the State meeting its 2050 climate goal, including detailed analysis and assessment of electricity system build-out, operation, and costs across the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Four key elements are found to be critical for the State to achieve its 2050 goal of 80 percent greenhouse (GHG) reductions from the 1990 level: aggressive energy efficiency; clean electricity; widespread electrification of passenger vehicles, building heating, and industry heating; and large-scale production of low-carbon footprint biofuels to largely replace petroleum-based liquid fuels. The approach taken here is that technically achievable energy efficiency measures are assumed to be achieved by 2050 and aggregated with the other key elements mentioned above to estimate resultant emissions in 2050. The energy and non-energy sectors are each assumed to have the objective of meeting an 80 percent reduction from their respective 1990 GHG levels for the purposes of analysis. A different partitioning of energy and non-energy sector GHG greenhouse reductions is allowed if emission reductions in one sector are more economic or technically achievable than in the other. Similarly, within the energy or non-energy sectors, greater or less than 80 percent reduction from 1990 is allowed for sub-sectors within the energy or non-energy sectors as long as the overall target is achieved. Overall emissions for the key economy-wide scenarios are considered in this report. All scenarios are compliant or nearly compliant with the 2050 goal. This finding suggests that multiple technical pathways exist to achieve the target with aggressive policy support and continued technology development of largely existing technologies.

  16. The importance of reservoir regularization in the Brazilian electric system; A importancia dos reservatorios de regularizacao no sistema eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ronaldo Antonio de; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Livino, Angela; Moretz-Shon-David, Pedro Americo [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], emails: ronaldo.souza@epe.gov.br, amaro.pereira@epe.gov.br, angela.livino@epe.gov.br, pedro.david@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a quantification of benefits due to reservoirs for the Brazilian power system in terms of system regularization and also in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction because of the avoided thermal generation. The results have shown losses in firm energy for the power system, requiring other sources for power generation, which represent negatives impacts in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  17. Cancellations Between Two-Loop Contributions to the Electron Electric Dipole Moment with a CP-Violating Higgs Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ligong; Liu, Tao; Shu, Jing

    2015-07-10

    We present a class of cancellation conditions for suppressing the total contributions of Barr-Zee diagrams to the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). Such a cancellation is of particular significance after the new eEDM upper limit was released by the ACME Collaboration, which strongly constrains the allowed magnitude of CP violation in Higgs couplings and hence the feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). Explicitly, if both the CP-odd Higgs-photon-photon (Z boson) and the CP-odd Higgs-electron-positron couplings are turned on, a cancellation may occur either between the contributions of a CP-mixing Higgs boson, with the other Higgs bosons being decoupled, or between the contributions of CP-even and CP-odd Higgs bosons. With a cancellation, large CP violation in the Higgs sector is still allowed, yielding successful EWBG. The reopened parameter regions would be probed by future neutron, mercury EDM measurements, and direct measurements of Higgs CP properties at the Large Hadron Collider Run II and future colliders.

  18. Climate model emulation in an integrated assessment framework: a case study for mitigation policies in the electricity sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A. M.; Holden, P. B.; Edwards, N. R.; Mercure, J.-F.; Salas, P.; Pollitt, H.; Chewpreecha, U.

    2016-02-01

    We present a carbon-cycle-climate modelling framework using model emulation, designed for integrated assessment modelling, which introduces a new emulator of the carbon cycle (GENIEem). We demonstrate that GENIEem successfully reproduces the CO2 concentrations of the Representative Concentration Pathways when forced with the corresponding CO2 emissions and non-CO2 forcing. To demonstrate its application as part of the integrated assessment framework, we use GENIEem along with an emulator of the climate (PLASIM-ENTSem) to evaluate global CO2 concentration levels and spatial temperature and precipitation response patterns resulting from CO2 emission scenarios. These scenarios are modelled using a macroeconometric model (E3MG) coupled to a model of technology substitution dynamics (FTT), and represent different emissions reduction policies applied solely in the electricity sector, without mitigation in the rest of the economy. The effect of cascading uncertainty is apparent, but despite uncertainties, it is clear that in all scenarios, global mean temperatures in excess of 2 °C above pre-industrial levels are projected by the end of the century. Our approach also highlights the regional temperature and precipitation patterns associated with the global mean temperature change occurring in these scenarios, enabling more robust impacts modelling and emphasizing the necessity of focusing on spatial patterns in addition to global mean temperature change.

  19. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  20. The past, present, and future of the U.S. electric power sector: Examining regulatory changes using multivariate time series approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kyle Edwin

    The U.S. energy sector has undergone continuous change in the regulatory, technological, and market environments. These developments show no signs of slowing. Accordingly, it is imperative that energy market regulators and participants develop a strong comprehension of market dynamics and the potential implications of their actions. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the past, present, and future of U.S. energy market dynamics and interactions with policy. Advancements in multivariate time series analysis are employed in three related studies of the electric power sector. Overall, results suggest that regulatory changes have had and will continue to have important implications for the electric power sector. The sector, however, has exhibited adaptability to past regulatory changes and is projected to remain resilient in the future. Tests for constancy of the long run parameters in a vector error correction model are applied to determine whether relationships among coal inventories in the electric power sector, input prices, output prices, and opportunity costs have remained constant over the past 38 years. Two periods of instability are found, the first following railroad deregulation in the U.S. and the second corresponding to a number of major regulatory changes in the electric power and natural gas sectors. Relationships among Renewable Energy Credit prices, electricity prices, and natural gas prices are estimated using a vector error correction model. Results suggest that Renewable Energy Credit prices do not completely behave as previously theorized in the literature. Potential reasons for the divergence between theory and empirical evidence are the relative immaturity of current markets and continuous institutional intervention. Potential impacts of future CO2 emissions reductions under the Clean Power Plan on economic and energy sector activity are estimated. Conditional forecasts based on an outlined path for CO2 emissions are

  1. The economic cost in the electricity sector in Japan, Post-Fukushima; El costo economico en el sector electrico en Japon, Post-Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega, G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rio Rodano No. 14, 06500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Del Valle, E., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07300 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Of the 30 countries that use nuclear energy, Japan was the third country with greater number of nuclear reactors and installed capacity; there were 54 nuclear reactors with an installed capacity of 46,343 MW, and the participation of the nuclear energy in the electricity generation of the country was of 33% in 2010. The Fukushima accident of March 11, 2011 due to natural forces not foreseen and with a very low occurrence probability with characteristics outside the design base, provoked questioning of the safety measures of the others 51 nuclear reactors that operated in Japan. This situation causes that the mentioned 51 nuclear reactors remain without generating electric power until to ensure its safety operation before the new risk conditions. Particularly, the Japanese electric system had combined cycle plants based on gas which were used of way load pick and backup that before this new situation, they must operate as base load sources. For Japan, the nuclear energy was a base load source reliable and economic since Japan does not possess enough own resources for its electricity generation. The market of the natural gas in Japan is at present one of the most expensive worldwide so that impacts negatively in the electricity generation cost. This work analyzes the measures taken to cover the loss of nuclear electricity generation, basically by means of the use of the combined cycle plants based on natural gas, and the impact that these measures had in the costs of electricity generation of the Japanese electric system. The obtained results in this analysis show that the national electricity generation cost was increased and collaterally the quantity of greenhouse gases emissions of the country also increased. (Author)

  2. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  3. Potential reduction of CO2 emissions and low carbon scenario for the Brazilian industrial sector for 2030; Potencial de reducao de emissoes de Co2 e cenario de baixo carbono para o setor industrial brasileiro para 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], email: mauricio.henriques@int.gov.br; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], email: roberto@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This study discusses the potential for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use by the Brazilian industrial sector in a low-carbon scenario over a horizon until 2030. It evaluates the main mitigation measures, the quantities of this gas avoided and the respective abatement costs. In relation to a benchmark scenario projected for 2030, the reduction of CO2 emissions estimated here can reach 40% by adopting energy efficiency measures, materials recycling, cogeneration, shifting from fossil fuels to renewable or less carbon content sources, and eliminating the use of biomass from deforestation. The set of measures studied here would bring cumulative emissions reductions of nearly 1.5 billion tCO2 over a period of 20 years (2010-2030). This would require huge investments, but the majority of them would have significant economic return and negative abatement costs. However, in the cases there would be low economic attractiveness and higher abatement costs, thus requiring more effective incentives and a collective effort, from both the public and private sectors. (author)

  4. Innovation in the strategies of Internationalization of Brazilian Multinationals: Evaluation of the Cultural National Dimensions: A Study Case of the Meat Processing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rovai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches the evolution of Brazilian multinational companies, from the perspective of the development of Latin-American multinational companies, with respect to the process of globalization. With this article, we looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Dunning Model to confirm if this typology is adequate for the characterization of internationalization strategies. We also explored the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede. While doing this, we analyzed which model measures the strategic alignment and is more orientated in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labor not qualified (resource seeking, advantages; (ii location and synergies of market (market seeking, investments; (iii search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location, investments; and (iv type of strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of strategic capacities. We also summarize the referential system that makes possible the development of future inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States, and also the financial strategies of these enterprises. Keywords: Strategic innovation; Brazilian multinationals; foreign investment; globalization; Latin American multinationals and multinationals from emerging countries

  5. Organizational model of the nuclear sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/CGRC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Brazilian Constitution prohibits private investment in many activities of the Nuclear Industry. Right now, it is in progress a constitutional amendment that allows private companies to build and operate nuclear power plants of its own. This work rescues the historical reasons that led the Congress of 1988 to choose the State owned model for this sector. In addition, the arguments that are used to propose the present changes are repeated here. As indicated in INAC 2015 website, 'sustainable development is supported by three pillars: social, economic and environmental'. Thus, the organizational model to be adopted for the Nuclear Sector must meet these requirements. The official objectives of the energy sector, as set out in the law 9,478, are remembered. New objectives, better established, and also adapted to the electrical subsector, are shown. Besides the use of these objectives to choose the sources and related technologies for the electric generation, they also can be used as evaluation criteria to help in the decision process of the organizational model for the Nuclear Sector. Acting in this way, it is ensured that social, economic and environmental requirements are being attended. Finally, if the developed evaluation criteria are applied, the impacts of each organizational model can be analyzed and preliminary conclusion and recommendation can be made. (author)

  6. Increasing self-consumption of photovoltaic electricity by storing energy in electric vehicle using smart grid technology in the residential sector. A model for simulating different smart grid programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, M. van der; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a model has been developed which intends to simulate the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV)-power by storing energy in electric vehicle (EV) using smart grid technology in the residential sector. Three different possible smart grid control algorithms for a micro-grid con

  7. Product-Service System Design Approach for the Base of the Pyramid Markets: Practical Evidence from the Energy Sector in the Brazilian Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Costa Junior, J.; Diehl, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In Emerging Markets, the product-service system (PSS) design approach may represent a promising solution as a socially and environmentally sound path to economic development. In addition, the energy sector has a major role for the social-economic development and is central to poverty alleviation. Th

  8. A reforma sanitária brasileira e o Sistema Único de Saúde: dialogando com hipóteses concorrentes The Brazilian Health Sector Reform and the Unified Health System: talking to competing hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairnilson Silva Paim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Passados 20 anos da 8ª. Conferência Nacional de Saúde e três décadas da fundação do Centro Brasileiro de Estudos de Saúde, justifica-se uma análise sobre o projeto, processo e perspectivas da Reforma Sanitária Brasileira. Desse modo, o objetivo da presente investigação é analisar a emergência e o desenvolvimento de uma Reforma Sanitária numa formação social capitalista, seus fundamentos e características, discutindo os desafios da práxis. Partindo de quatro tipos de práxis e de mudanças em sociedades - reforma parcial, reforma geral, movimentos políticos revolucionários e revolução social total - defende-se a tese segundo a qual a Reforma Sanitária Brasileira, como fenômeno social e histórico, constitui uma reforma social. O estudo tem como hipótese que a Reforma Sanitária Brasileira, embora proposta como práxis de reforma geral e teorizada para alcançar a revolução do modo de vida, apresentaria como desfecho uma reforma parcial - setorial e institucional. Realizou-se um estudo de caso, a partir de pesquisa documental, em duas conjunturas, tendo como componente descritivo o ciclo idéia-proposta-projeto-movimento-processo e, como componente explanatório, a análise do desenvolvimento da sociedade brasileira, recorrendo ao referencial "gramsciano", particularmente às categorias de revolução passiva e transformismo. Procura-se discutir a relevância do elemento jacobino no caso de uma Reforma Democrática da Saúde, cuja radicalização da democracia contribuiria para a alteração da correlação de forças, desequilibrando o binômio conservação-mudança em benefício do segundo termo e conferindo um caráter mais progressista para a revolução passiva.Twenty years after the accomplishment of the Eighth National Health Conference and three decades after the foundation of The Brazilian Center for Health Studies, it is justified an analysis on the project, process and perspectives of Brazilian Health Sector

  9. Factores determinantes de la localización del sector eléctrico-electrónico en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Jacinto Flores Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio identificó los factores determinantes de la localización del sector eléctrico-electrónico en México, bajo la premisa de que elegir la mejor localización le permite a las empresas ser más competitivas. Para ello se calcularon 16 variables a partir de la información oficial disponible, asimismo, se emplearon los métodos de análisis de componentes principales y regresión lineal para el procesamiento de los datos. En general, la mano de obra ofrece la mayor capacidad explicativa para la localización del sector eléctrico-electrónico en México. En contraste, los servicios especializados no afectan significativamente la elección del lugar.

  10. Fuel and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potentials by Appropriate Fuel Switching and Technology Improvement in the Canadian Electricity Generation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Zabihian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years, Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions and their potential effects on global climate change have been a worldwide concern. According to International Energy Agency (IEA, power generation contributes more than half of the global GHG emissions. Approach: Purpose of this study is to examine GHG emission reduction potentials in the Canadian electricity generation sector through fuel switching and adoption of advanced power generation systems. To achieve this objective, eight different scenarios were introduced. In the first scenario, existing power stations’ fuel was switched to natural gas. Existing power plants were replaced by Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, hybrid SOFC and SOFC-IGCC hybrid power stations in scenario numbers 2 to 6, respectively. In last two scenarios, CO2 capture systems were installed in the existing power plants and in the second scenario, respectively. Results: The results showed that Canada’s GHG emissions can be reduced by 33, 59, 20, 64, 69, 29, 86 and 94% based on the first to eighth scenarios, respectively. On the other hand, the second scenario is the most practical and its technology has already matured and is available. In this scenario by replacing existing power plants by NGCC power plants, Canada can fulfill more than 25% of its 238,000 kt year-1 commitment of GHG emission reduction to the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, the GHG emission reduction potentials for each province and Canada as a whole were presented and compared. Based on the results, Alberta, Ontario and Saskatchewan are the biggest producers of GHG in Canada by emitting 49, 21 and 14% of Canada’s GHG emissions, respectively. Therefore, they have higher potential to reduce GHG emissions. The comparison of the results for different provinces revealed that based on efficiency of electricity generation and consumed fuel distribution; specific scenario

  11. Considering the Role of Natural Gas in the Deep Decarbonization of the U.S. Electricity Sector. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series: Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beppler, Ross [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Natural gas generation in the U.S. electricity sector has grown substantially in recent years, while the sector's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have generally declined. This relationship highlights the concept of natural gas as a potential enabler of a transition to a lower-carbon future. This work considers that concept by using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Renewable Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. ReEDS is a long-term capacity expansion model of the U.S. electricity sector. We examine the role of natural gas within the ReEDS modeling framework as increasingly strict carbon emission targets are imposed on the electricity sector. In addition to various natural gas price futures, we also consider scenarios that emphasize a low-carbon technology in order to better understand the role of natural gas if that low-carbon technology shows particular promise. Specifically, we consider scenarios with high amounts of energy efficiency (EE), low nuclear power costs, low renewable energy (RE) costs, and low carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs. Within these scenarios we find that requiring the electricity sector to lower CO2 emissions over time increases near-to-mid-term (through 2030) natural gas generation (see Figure 1 - left). The long-term (2050) role of natural gas generation in the electricity sector is dependent on the level of CO2 emission reduction required. Moderate reductions in long-term CO2 emissions have relatively little impact on long-term natural gas generation, while more stringent CO2 emission limits lower long-term natural gas generation (see Figure 1 - right). More stringent carbon targets also impact other generating technologies, with the scenarios considered here seeing significant decreases in coal generation, and new capacity of nuclear and renewable energy technologies over time. Figure 1 also demonstrates the role of natural gas in the context of scenarios where a specific low-carbon technology is advantaged. In

  12. Herramienta para el manejo adecuado de residuos eléctricos y electrónicos en una empresa del sector agroindustrial

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán Villa, Rodrigo Andrés; Rivera Sánchez, Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría Administración de Empresas). Universidad Icesi, 2010 Este trabajo proporcionará a las personas que tengan que ver con el manejo de residuos eléctricos y electrónicos en una empresa del sector industrial, una herramienta práctica y fácil de aplicar que pueda servir como una guía para facilitar la disposición adecuada de residuos eléctricos y electrónicos. Se pretende que la propuesta aquí planteada, sea un buen complemento a los sistemas de gestión actuales de las empresas, ...

  13. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  14. Bids in Brazilian E and P oil and gas sector: evaluation, challenges and alternative models; Modelo de licitacoes de blocos: evolucao, desafios e alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Renato S.B. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (CEFET-RN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia. Nucleo de Estudos de Tecnologia, Gestao e Logistica; Fernandes, Elton [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (TGL/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia. Nucleo de Estudos de Tecnologia, Gestao e Logistica; Alonso, Paulo S.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); SERMAT Montagens e Instalacoes Industriais Ltda, Itaquaquecetuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents results of a survey, that among other subject matter approaches the model of farewell adopted by the National Agency of Oil Gas and Biofuels - ANP in Brazil. It is an analysis and discussion of evolution of the scenario of exploration and production of hydrocarbons in this country. In addition, it analyzes issues such as competition about farewell rounds and the reconfiguration of the upstream segment. The study is based on the methodology of the study-compared cases with focus in Brazilian and OCS-GOM-EUA auction models.The results of the study suggest that the model of granting the ANP produced: degree of concentration of business moderate to high, balancing of the reserves / production and strengthen the competitive capacity of PETROBRAS and considerable insertion of new entrants in the production chain, while political factors, Economic, social and technological developments have significantly affected the performance of rounds. Facing the new scenario of international prices, discoveries of large reserves and geopolitical issues the findings point to the need to consider possible exemptions to the model and suggests alternatives. (author)

  15. Luz, leis e livre-concorrência: conflitos em torno das concessões de energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX Light, laws and liberalism: conflicts in the São Paulo's electric light sector during the beninning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o processo de introdução da energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX. A Proclamação da República marcou o início da modernização das empresas de serviços urbanos, com a introdução da eletricidade. Foi neste contexto que dois grupos iniciaram uma intensa batalha no setor elétrico paulista: o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE - conhecido também como Docas de Santos - e o canadense Light. A falta de uma legislação federal para o setor de energia elétrica legou às Câmaras Municipais o poder concedente para os serviços de eletricidade, garantindo que as relações políticas entre vereadores e empresários tivessem decisivo papel na instalação de tais serviços. Assim, o artigo descreve o processo de introdução da eletricidade em São Paulo mediante os debates sobre a regulamentação dos serviços públicos, desvendando os critérios políticos ou ideológicos que levaram a conformação de tais leis.This paper discusses the introduction of electric power in the city of São Paulo during the beginning of the 20th century. The Brazilian Republic Proclamation (1889 established the beginning of the public services companies' modernization, which through the enterprises fusion and the arrival of foreign capital allowed the electric power introduction in the main Brazilian cities. Two rival groups started a competition in the São Paulo's electric sector: the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE - so called as Docas de Santos - and the Canadian company Light. The inexistence of a federal legislation to electric power services had transformed municipal decisions in deterministic guidelines for utility bids, making municipal lobbying a key instrument in utility concessions. Hence, this paper issues describe the electric power introduction in the city through the debates about the utilities' rules, analyzing the political or

  16. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  17. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  18. Analysis of the scenarios with the participation of nuclear energy in the Mexican electric sector using the Decades program; Analisis de escenarios con la participacion de la energia nuclear en el sector electrico mexicano utilizando el programa DECADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa P, E.; Trejo G, M.G.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: edithsosa@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    At the moment the energetic planning demands a technical, economic and environmental analysis of the different options of electric generation to be able to find the best solution of supply and energy readiness, already that it is indispensable for the development of the productive activities and to assure the competitiveness of the economy of a country. The expansion analyses of the Mexican Electric Sector its are carried out daily in the Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE) with some programs, among them Decades. However, up to where we have information only there is been considering a type of reactor like candidate being that exist several options that show promising characteristics for what its should be considered in the analyses. With this work its got rich the Decades database of the nuclear power stations that can be used as candidates to consider in the variable system of the expansion studies. Its have been carried out some comparative analysis between two types of nuclear centrals that at the moment offer in the market, specifically the AP600 type PWR reactor of 600 M We and the one BWR with capacity of 1300 M We. Later on it is sought to analyze two or three scenarios of the system of electric generation in Mexico to a term of twenty or twenty-five years. (Author)

  19. Brazilian monitoring system of hydropower dams; Monitoramento hidrologico de reservatorios hidreletricos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Alexandre Cernach; Silva, Jose Jorge da; Rodrigues, Mauro Silvio; Moreira, Rodrigo de Matos; Coimbra, Roberto Moreira; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos de [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Estudos e Informacoes Hidrologicas]. E-mail: cernach@aneel.gov.br; jorgej@aneel.gov.br; maurol@aneel.gov.br; rodrigom@aneel.gov.br; rcoimbra@aneel.gov.br; mfreitas@aneel.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    The Brazilian energetic sector goes by a deep restructuring process, reaching all the involved agents. Thus, the Federal Government, in December 26, 1996, instituted the National Agency of Electric Energy - ANEEL, through the Law nr. 9.427, to establish the regulation of the production, transmission, distribution and commercialization of electric energy service, and to guarantee electric services. To obtain consistent data in operation of the reservoirs that subsidize the decision related to the inspection activities, regulation and mediation and to guarantee the hydrologic information associated to hydroelectric enterprises, ANEEL published in December 4, 1998, the Resolution ANEEL nr. 396 in order to establish the conditions for implementation, maintenance and operation of hydrological stations. This paper shows the beginning of the implementation of the Brazilian Monitoring System of Hydropower Dams. (author)

  20. State and electric sector in Brazil: of the code of water to years crisis 80 - 1934-1984; Estado e setor eletrico no Brasil: do codigo de aguas a crise dos anos 80 - 1934-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Jose Luiz

    1989-07-01

    This study aims at the analysis of the institutional development of brazilian power sector since the 1934 - Code of Water up to the crisis in the 80's. The work focuses on the evolution of State and power sector relation. During the period, early foreign capital prominence in the sector gave place to the public companies dominance. The work is divided in three chapters. Chapter one accounts for the 1930-45 period by identifying the conditions for power sector institutional reordination which came through the Code of Water, the main legal instrument in the sector's history. Both the controversy about its implementation and the energy shortages which in the late 30's drove the federal government away from the principles stated at the Code are analysed. Chapter two focuses on the ripening of the conception of federal economic planning in the post war period when the heavy pattern of industrialization required and justified power sector nationalization in a process developed along the 50's. Besides, the main features of this state action are identified such as the absence of a holding enterprise and the correlated autonomy of the diverse public companies. Chapter three covers the 1960-70 period in which state expansion in the power sector was remarkable. Since the federal holding - ELETROBRAS - constitution in 62, central planning and controlling of its companies began to cover all the national territory. Changes in the financing pattern and the late 70's crisis exerted strong impacts upon power sector path and generated deep conflicts between the sector itself and the central government and inside the proper sector. The general conclusion stresses at the Code of Water as a powerful instrument for state intervention and at the nature of state presence in a sector which lacks a general holding and suffers from its planning structure fragility. Thus, the financial and institutional impasses in the 80's. (author)

  1. The potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from energy use in the Brazilian industrial sector; Potencial de reducao de emissao de gases de efeito estufa pelo uso de energia no setor industrial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques Junior, Mauricio Francisco

    2010-05-15

    This study seeks to quantify the reductions that can be achieved in CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fuels by Brazilian industries in a long-term low-carbon scenario. We model two horizons, for 2030 and 2050, and also for each sector quantify the abatement costs and other economic parameters and the main technological options applicable, namely: enhanced energy efficiency; replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources or ones with a smaller carbon footprint; elimination of the use of biomass from deforestation; and cogeneration. In the low-carbon scenario for 2030, a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of some 40% can be achieved that year, or approximately 1.5 billion tCO{sub 2} over the period from 2010 to 2030. These reductions would require substantial investments, but in most cases they would be economically attractive, with low or negative abatement costs. For 2050, we modeled a more aggressive scenario, through faster implementation of some specific measures and introduction of new technologies. Despite the possibility of favorable economic results, companies have been reluctant to adopt several of the mitigation measures examined. We discuss some policies, including granting incentives, to overcome the barriers and difficulties to wider adoption of mitigation measures. (author)

  2. Impact of energy efficiency and alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: scenarios 2005-2050; Impacto da eficiencia energetica e das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: cenarios 2005-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco A.; Gimenes, Andre L.V.; Fujii, Ricardo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Furtado, Marcelo [Greenpeace Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Part of a worldwide initiative championed by Greenpeace International and EREC - European Renewable Energy Council, a partnership between Greenpeace Brazil and GEPEA/USP were established for producing two national alternative energy scenarios, as a blueprint for how to meet forthcoming Brazilian energy needs in a sustainable way. Such scenarios, one reflecting the views of GEPEA/USP and another the perceptions by Greenpeace, were both based on a reference scenario strongly drawing from the 'Plano Decenal 2006-2015' and the 'Plano Nacional de Energia 2030', both by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. From the alternative scenarios one may see that is feasible to satisfy the increasing Brazilian demand through the integrated deployment of alternative resources, Natural Gas fueled thermal power plants and energy conservation measures. To develop the Brazilian electricity energy base in such terms, however, is mandatory to conduct further debate on energy planning issues, conservation measures and alternatives resources concerns included. (author)

  3. Mapeamento conceitual da visão de sustentabilidade de diferentes atores do setor florestal brasileiro Concept mapping for the Brazilian forestry sector´s vision of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Maria Brandi Nardelli

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A opção por uma estratégia que conduza a mudanças efetivas no setor florestal requer o estabelecimento de uma visão compartilhada de sustentabilidade, que contribua para a consolidação de instituições e que oriente as respostas empresariais. Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar quais seriam os elementos que compõem a visão de sustentabilidade para o setor, a partir da opinião de diversos atores sociais que participam de seu campo organizacional. Aplicou-se a técnica de Mapeamento Conceitual, utilizando o programa CONCEPT SYSTEM versão 1.75 para processamento dos dados. As declarações geradas foram agrupadas em seis temas, que abrangeram elementos do manejo florestal ambientalmente adequado, socialmente justo e economicamente viável. Para compor a visão de sustentabilidade do setor florestal brasileiro, os participantes consideraram mais importantes os grupos de conceitos "Floresta e Sociedade" e "Conservação Ambiental". As respostas foram comparadas por segmento e considerou-se o nível de importância aplicado aos elementos da visão de sustentabilidade como um reflexo das regras, dos padrões e dos valores cognitivos dos representantes dos interesses econômicos, sociais e ambientais.Opting for a strategy that produces effective changes in the Brazilian forestry sector requires establishing a shared vision of sustainability which will contribute to consolidating institutions that guide corporate responses. The objective of this study was to identify elements which compose the vision of sustainability for the sector, based on the opinions of several social participants of organizational field. The technique of concept mapping was applied using the CONCEPT SYSTEM program (version 1.75 to process data. The statements generated were grouped into six major themes covering elements of forest management considered environmentally adequate, socially just and economically viable. In composing the vision of

  4. The development of the first set of Brazilian reference materials for the petroleum sector; O desenvolvimento dos primeiros materiais de referencia nacionais para o setor de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Agrupamento de Materiais de Referencia

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum sector uses a number of standardized tests to characterize raw materials and products. The development of in-company programs for assurance of measurement quality, the increasing need to demonstrate proficiency by means of certification schemes or by widely accepted metrological practices, have been promoting a more intensive use of certified reference materials, in calibration as well as in validation of measurement methods and also in order to show the qualification of the laboratories. In this paper it is presented the preparation, performed by IPT's Reference Materials Group, of the first set of reference materials specially developed considering the needs of the petroleum community. Briefly, are presented the identification of the demands from the users, selection of matrices, homogeneity tests and stability studies, and the certification of the new reference materials, which are four diesel fuel oils with certified sulfur contents and one material with flash point certified by TAG and Pensky-Martens methods. It is presented a summary of the certification process, performed by means of a combined effort of several professionals that are now working at laboratories of research institutions, refineries and other industries, universities, fuel monitoring facilities and in National Petroleum Agency. (author)

  5. Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

  6. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  7. A relação entre o desempenho ambiental e o desempenho financeiro : estudo empírico para as empresas do sector electrónico

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Matemática Económica e Financeira O objectivo principal deste estudo é averiguar se existe uma relação entre o desempenho ambiental das empresas e o seu desempenho financeiro. Para isso, usamos uma amostra de dezassete empresas do sector electrónico, para o período compreendido entre 2002 e 2009. Como medida de desempenho ambiental foi utilizado um ranking construído pela associação ambientalista Greenpeace, que utiliza critérios como a eliminação ...

  8. Factores determinantes de la localización del sector eléctrico-electrónico en México

    OpenAIRE

    Adán Jacinto Flores Flores; Maritza Álvarez Herrera; Francisco García Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Este estudio identificó los factores determinantes de la localización del sector eléctrico-electrónico en México, bajo la premisa de que elegir la mejor localización le permite a las empresas ser más competitivas. Para ello se calcularon 16 variables a partir de la información oficial disponible, asimismo, se emplearon los métodos de análisis de componentes principales y regresión lineal para el procesamiento de los datos. En general, la mano de obra ofrece la mayor capacidad explicativa para...

  9. Electric vehicle technology : moving to commercial reality : lessons learned from a U.S. government agency's initiatives with the private sector in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.K. [USAID, New Delhi (India); Schweitzer, S. [USAID, Washington, DC (United States); Vincent, D. [Nexant/A Bechtel Consulting Co., Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a growing concern in India. Acceleration and deceleration of inefficient vehicles and increasingly congested roadways generate exhaust gases, which results in hospital admissions and deaths from urban air pollution. However, India has a vehicle manufacturing industry that strives to determine the feasibility of alternative transport technologies. It represents an ideal area in which to introduce alternative vehicles, since the driving distances are relatively short, the disposable income is increasing, and its population is more conscious of urban air pollution. The stimulation of many partnerships with the private sector towards the creation of an electric vehicle market is the stated aim of the USAID's mission in India, in conjunction with the Global Environmental Center in Washington, D.C. Having gained useful experience from a similar effort in Thailand where they introduced a 3-wheeled electric vehicle (EV), the efforts in India cover a broader spectrum with targeted multi-prong EV demonstration programs involving scooters, autorickshaws, and automobiles. It is expected that by the end of 2000, the first electric automobiles will roll off the assembly line in India, as well as prototypes of electric scooters and autorickshaws on the streets of Delhi and Agra. Electric vehicles in India represent a relatively benign option for the consumer toward the goal of mitigating urban air pollution and its debilitating effects. tabs., figs.

  10. Políticas para a inovação no Brasil: efeitos sobre os setores de energia elétrica e de bens de informática Policies for innovation in Brazil: effects on the electric power sector and IT goods sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique M. Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina como políticas públicas afetam o comportamento das empresas com relação à inovação. Através do método de pesquisa de estudos de caso, o trabalho identifica como as empresas, em dois setores industriais no Brasil, têm respondido aos esforços governamentais para estimular sua capacitação tecnológica. São comparadas empresas do setor de energia elétrica do Brasil e do setor de informática do polo industrial de Manaus. De forma geral, os resultados indicam que as políticas de inovação têm contribuído para aumentar o interesse das empresas por inovação. No entanto, esse interesse tem se mostrado maior por parte das empresas cujo controle de capital é estatal e/ou estrangeiro, do que pelas empresas de controle de capital privado nacional. Isso é particularmente relevante, pois as empresas de capital privado nacional atuam em mercados pouco regulamentados, em que o nível de competição é crescente. O limitado interesse dessas empresas por inovação reforça a ideia de que políticas de inovação não podem englobar apenas ações voltadas para o lado da oferta, nem podem ser dissociadas de políticas voltadas para o fortalecimento do ambiente institucional.This article examines how public policies to foster innovation affect companies' behavior. Based on the case study research method, the article identifies how firms operating in the Brazilian electric power and IT sectors of the Manaus industrial district have responded to public efforts to stimulate technological innovation in both sectors. In general, the results suggest that these policies have increased private interest for innovation. However, this interest is greater among state controlled and multinational corporations than among domestic private companies. This finding is particularly relevant because domestic companies operate in deregulated markets with increasing competitive pressures. The limited interest of domestic companies for

  11. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  12. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  13. Diretrizes e modelo conceitual de custos para o setor público a partir da experiência no governo federal do Brasil Guidelines and conceptual model of costs for the public sector based on the Brazilian federal government's experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o Sistema de Informação de Custos do Governo Federal, descrevendo o modelo e suas principais características, desde o conceito até a finalidade e os grupos de usuários, explorando a correspondência entre os conceitos de contabilidade governamental e de custos. O artigo demonstra o relacionamento entre as políticas públicas, recursos, atividades e objetos de custo. Para tanto, remete aos conceitos de sistema de acumulação e método de custeio de custos no setor público, correlacionando-os aos sistemas de informação governamentais. O artigo também apresenta o modelo téorico-conceitual, as diretrizes que sustentaram a sua concepção e a descrição do seu processo de implantação que ainda está em curso. O artigo finalmente olha para o futuro, depois de vencida a etapa de implantação do sistema, e exorta os leitores a se inserirem no debate sobre mensuração de custos. A importância do SIC é enfatizada como elemento de melhoria da qualidade do gasto no setor públicoThis article presents the Cost Information System (CIS of the Brazilian federal government. It describes the taxonomic model and its main features, from its concepts to its purposes and user groups, and explores the correlation between the concepts of governmental accounting and cost accounting. It demonstrates the relationship between public policies, fund management, activities and cost objects. To this end, it uses the concepts of accumulation system, costing method and costs in the public sector, as well as government information systems. The article also presents the theoretic conceptual model and the guidelines of the design, and describes the implementation process, which is still ongoing. It finally looks into the future after the development stage of the CIS, and urges its readers to dive into the debate about measuring costs. The importance of CIS to improve the quality of spending in the public sector is highlighted

  14. Método para análise de benefícios em cadeias de suprimento: um estudo de caso A method to analyze benefits in supply chain benefits: a case study un the brazilian dairy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cezar Leandro Scramim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um método para realizar análises quantitativas de desempenho de configurações operacionais alternativas, em cadeias de suprimentos empresariais. Este método propõe integrar, em um único framework de análise, os conceitos advindos da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos e de sistemas de custeios gerenciais. O trabalho propõe a operacionalização do método por meio da utilização dos conhecimentos advindos da abordagem conhecida como system dynamics (SD. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso junto a uma Cooperativa de Laticínios do interior do Estado de São Paulo, no qual modelos de simulação foram construídos, baseados na análise prévia dos elementos do sistema. Deste modo, tornou-se possível examinar as relações de causalidade por meio da construção de cenários alternativos e controle sistemático das variáveis pesquisadas. Do exame dos cenários alternativos e do desempenho do sistema frente aos "distúrbios" aos quais as variáveis são submetidas, natureza do processo de simulação, pôde-se ganhar um maior aprendizado sobre o sistema em estudo.This paper proposes an analytical method, based on a framework that integrates the concepts of Supply Chain Management and Cost Management Systems, to study and restructure Brazilian agricultural supply chains. Using systemic reasoning and the system dynamics (SD approach, the proposed method was applied to Brazil's dairy sector to quantitatively analyze the performance of organizational and technical configurations of the sector's economic agents. A network of companies in Brazil's dairy supply chain was defined in terms of an SD model, which indicated that the impact of actions on the agents' production costs can be forecasted before such actions are taken, conferring greater consistency on the study. The network consisted of four representative groups of rural producers and a dairy company. Input data were based on a network

  15. The regulation of the commercial losses of the electric sector; A regulacao dos processos de perdas comerciais do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penteado Junior, Aderbal de Arruda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia (CSPE)]. E-mail: apenteado@sp.gov.br; Ramalho, Edna Lopes; Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia (CSPE)]. E-mail: elramalho@terra.com.br; mtandrade@sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    The technical and commercial losses of electricity supplier can be classified in accordance with the origin in: losses associated to the electric power transport by the network, named technical losses; non technical losses defined as as the difference among the total losses and the technical losses associated to the commercial management of the concessionaire. The commercial losses occurs through the clandestine connections of the consumer unit to the electric system of the concessionaire; frauds, which means the manipulation of the measurement equipment, resulting in registers less then the effectively consumed.

  16. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post-conflict countries. The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made.

  17. Field of applications of electrical engineering in the military sector; Place du genie electrique dans l'armement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiet, M. [DGA, Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-03-01

    The present article shows that, in opposition to public opinion, the electrical engineering is a very wide field, in constant evolution. Due to progress in concepts, materials and modelling, it now reaches such performance, operating conditions and operational safeties, that it can compete with the more conventional solutions based on hydraulics, pneumatics or mechanics, used in military systems. Far from being a simple element, designed to generate energy or to move a load, the electrical engineering should be considered as a whole technology at a system level. One of the best examples of this view is probably the All Electric Ship. This article insists on the capacity of french universities and industries, which may be used by the Defense to drive actions to fulfill its needs, those being often far from the civilian one's. At last, the present article highlights more remote forecasts, and the place of the electrical engineering in future weapons systems and vehicles. (author)

  18. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  19. Challenges for implementation of bioenergy in the Brazilian energy matrix and biomass gasification process for the production of electrical power; Desafios da bioenergia para sua implementacao na matriz energetica brasileira e o processo de gaseificacao da biomassa para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiroa, E.O.; Moutinho-Junior, D.A.A.; Silva, J.D. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The gasification is the conversion of any solid or liquid fuel in fuel gas through the process of the partial oxidation at a high temperature. The gasification process of course occurs in four distinct physicochemical stages with different temperatures of reaction, as drying of the biomass, pyrolysis, reduction and combustion. The reorganization of the Brazilian electric sector foresees technological innovations in the system of electric generation for the country. The process of gasification integrated in a combined cycle (cycle of Brayton and cycle of Rankine) characterizes an innovative technology. It is with noting that this technology is still in improvement, it shows an excellent perspective of commercial viability and efficiency significantly higher than conventional technology. This work presents a study of the gases generated in the zone of combustion and its behavior in the zone of 'freeboard' of a gasifier of fluidized stream bed. For this study, we made the use of one hybrid technique (half-analytical) that is the transformed one of Fourier. (author)

  20. Generation potential of electric power surplus with the biogas produced from anaerobic bio digestion of vinasse in Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry; Potencial de geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica com o biogas produzido a partir da biodigestao da vinhaca na industria sucro-alcooleira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamonica, Helcio Martins [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the electric power potential of the Brazilian sugarcane industry using the biogas produced by vinasse biodigestion in internal combustion engine driven generators. The electric power surplus based on crop 2004/05 ethanol production data is 9,292 TJ/year (2.6 TWh/year), 0.75% of the total electric power consumption in Brazil during the year of 2003. In spite of its considerable potential the determined minimum selling price for its produced energy of R$ 89.98/GJ (R$ 323.92/MWh) is expensive for present Brazilian electric power market price. (author)

  1. Electric Vehicle Charging and the California Power Sector: Evaluating the Effect of Location and Time on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohnen, Julia Meagher

    This thesis explores the implications of the increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in California through its effect on the operation of the state's electric grid. The well-to-wheels emissions associated with driving an electric vehicle depend on the resource mix of the electricity grid used to charge the battery. We present a new least-cost dispatch model, EDGE-NET, for the California electricity grid consisting of interconnected sub-regions that encompass the six largest state utilities that can be used to evaluate the impact of growing electric vehicle demand on existing power grid infrastructure system and energy resources. This model considers spatiality and temporal dynamics of energy demand and supply when determining the regional impacts of additional charging profiles on the current electricity network. Model simulation runs for one year show generation and transmission congestion to be reasonable similar to historical data. Model simulation results show that average emissions and system costs associated with electricity generation vary significantly by time of day, season, and location. Marginal cost and emissions also exhibit seasonal and diurnal differences, but show less spatial variation. Sensitivity of demand analysis shows that the relative changes to average emissions and system costs respond asymmetrically to increases and decreases in electricity demand. These results depend on grid mix at the time and the marginal power plant type. In minimizing total system cost, the model will choose to dispatch the lowest-cost resource to meet additional vehicle demand, regardless of location, as long as transmission capacity is available. Location of electric vehicle charging has a small effect on the marginal greenhouse gas emissions associated with additional generation, due to electricity losses in the transmission grid. We use a geographically explicit, charging assessment model for California to develop and compare the effects of two charging

  2. Electric drives in the vehicle sector. Textbook and manual. 2. enl. ed.; Elektrische Antriebe in der Fahrzeugtechnik. Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiel, Gerhard [FH Dortmund (Germany). Fahrzeugtechnik

    2009-07-01

    The text book under consideration reports on the fundamentals of power generation, energy conversion, induction engine a well as their application in drive systems such as hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. First of all, current and future energy sources for power train drives are presented and compared with one another. Subsequently, electro-chemical energy stores and energy converters such as fuel cell or double-layer condensers are considered. These energy storages and energy converters are used in electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Additionally, the transformer and the central topic of interest 'Electrical Engines' are considered. Not only standard machines (direct current motor, asynchronous motor, synchronous motor, linear motor) will be described but also engines which are applied in future passenger car drives and railway drives (reluctance motor, transverse flow engine, BLDC engine). Drive systems are presented by the example of an electric locomotive and a magnetic levitation transport system (superconducting MAGLEV).

  3. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  4. The capacity payment as an option for the expansion of the electrical sector at Brazil; Pagamento por capacidade, uma opcao para a expansao do setor eletrico no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Francisco David Moya [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: framo@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a study related to the alternative to apply the 'capacity payment' like an option for the expansion in the electrical sector in Brazil. It deals with the theoretical description about the definitions. Also the current models implemented around the world and a proposal that could be the best choice to develop in Brazil is shown. Most of the electric power systems in the world takes into account remuneration for the capacity for different purposes, where the main aim is to support the generation asset. The 'capacity payment' allocates annual benefits of the generators since they could receive compensation by the initial investment. Given the importance in the use of the renewed energies in the generation of electric energy, this paper analyze the 'capacity payment' as an alternative pay of these technologies, to make its investments more sustainable. The international experience shows that the implantation of the 'payment for capacity' has much discord among the different types of calculate methodology. The implantation of this pay in Brazil needs an extensive analysis in the search of the best option. This work presents one of the best models as well as some of the principles in the methodology to make analysis of its development and implantation. (author)

  5. A review of water use in the U.S. electric power sector: insights from systems-level perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoelectric power production comprised 41% of total freshwater withdrawals in the U.S., surpassing even agriculture. This review highlights scenarios of the electric sector’s future demands for water, including scenarios that limit both CO2 and water availability. A number o...

  6. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions reduction strategy and effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but unce...

  7. Financing structure for the hydroelectric sector: the Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP case; Estrutura de financiamento do setor hidreletrico: o caso da CESP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Thomaz Garcez

    1987-12-31

    The objective of this dissertation is to study the financial resources made use by Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo - CESP - for its implantation and later expansion, during the period of 1967 to 1980. The motivation in developing this subject originated of CESP`s importance in the Brazilian electric power sector. The dissertation is divided into three chapters. The first chapter describes the power sector in the state of Sao Paulo before CESP`s creation and after its consolidation. The second chapter studies some matter that shows the importance of company in the Brazilian power sector. In the third chapter, we study the performance of own resources and the third resources in CESP`s financing. At the end of the study the most important conclusion is that the own resources, more than third resources, were the prime motive liable in CESP`s financing during the period. (author) 102 refs., 23 figs.

  8. The economics of energy conservation in developing countries: A case study for the electrical sector in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Williams, Robert H.

    1985-11-01

    A wide range of high efficiency, energy-using technologies have become commercially available in recent years, in North America, Western Europe, and Japan. Contrary to the widely held view that these technologies are relevant mainly to the rich, already-industrialized countries, we show that from an economic perspective, energy efficiency improvements often make as much or even more sense for capital-poor, developing countries. We illustrate the relevance to developing countries of more energy-efficient end-use technology, with an analysis of the economics of energy-efficient refrigerators and light bulbs in the context of the electrical system of Brazil, from both the consumer's perspective and that of society. We show that the required extra investments in energy efficiency generate attractive returns in electricity savings for the consumer. Moreover, for the country as a whole, investments in energy efficiency can lead to net savings of scarce capital resources, by reducing the need for new electrical generating capacity. Because electricity in Brazil is largely based on low-cost hydro-electric power, showing the importance of energy efficiency improvements in this situation is an ``acid-test'' for the relevance of energy efficiency to developing countries more generally. Capturing the economic benefits of energy efficiency improvements probably requires that utilities be transformed from being energy supply companies into companies that market energy services, by facilitating investments on the ``customer's side of the meter'' as well as in new supplies. Some utilities in industrialized countries are already beginning to shift their activities in this direction. An even more active utility role may be desirable in developing countries, because there most of the population is poor, and the poor tend to be far more first-cost sensitive, and thus resistant to making investments in energy efficiency improvement, than higher income consumers.

  9. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  10. Social and Environmental Disclosure: An Analysis of Social Balance of Electricity Sector Companies in the South and Northeast Regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchiara Aparecida Maçambanni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the social responsibility indicators of the Instituto Brasileiro de Análises Sociais e Econômicas (IBASE model, this paper identifies the social and environmental disclosure level of electricity distribution companies in Brazilian market. The method chosen was the descriptive research to obtain results in a qualitative approach for the problem. The technical procedure used was documentary research. Data was collected over the social balance sheet released by several companies’ websites between 2009 and 2010. In the Northeast region, the companies Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA, Companhia Energética de Pernambuco (CELPE and Companhia Energética do Rio Grande do Norte (COSERN had the highest levels of social disclosure. COELBA, for example, obtained the maximum score according to the score methodology proposed by the paper. Coming from the South area, the best ranked was Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL, from Paraná state, which disclosed 99% of the information analyzed in this study. Average level of disclosure of companies by region remained practically stable between the years 2009 and 2010. In general, companies located in the Northeast region evidenced a higher percentage of social and environmental information compared to companies of South region.

  11. APPLICATION OF PARAMETRIC AND NON-PARAMETRIC BENCHMARKING METHODS IN COST EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the aplication of parametric and non-parametric benchmarking methods in measuring cost efficiency of Slovak and Czech electricity distribution companies. We compare the relative cost efficiency of Slovak and Czech distribution companies using two benchmarking methods: the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA as the parametric approach. The first part of analysis was based on DEA models. Traditional cross-section CCR and BCC model were modified to cost efficiency estimation. In further analysis we focus on two versions of stochastic frontier cost functioin using panel data: MLE model and GLS model. These models have been applied to an unbalanced panel of 11 (Slovakia 3 and Czech Republic 8 regional electricity distribution utilities over a period from 2000 to 2004. The differences in estimated scores, parameters and ranking of utilities were analyzed. We observed significant differences between parametric methods and DEA approach.

  12. Adaptation of rural electricity cooperatives in the State of Parana to the scenario of the electric sector; Adaptacao das cooperativas de eletrificacao rural do estado do Parana ao cenario do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos], Email: celsooli@fzea.usp.br; Halmenan, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Reisdoerfer, Eli Carlos; Massochin, Amauri [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], Email: cristhalmeman@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Rural Electrification Cooperatives (REC) has already played a fundamental role in rural electrification process. Bearing in mind changes in legislation towards specific laws that tend to facilitate energy distribution and trade relations, REC has increased there potential to contribute even more to above mentioned process. The present work intended to assess how REC settled in Parana State have adapted themselves to the privatised electrical business scenario as well as to new legal requirements and the presence of great national and international corporations disputing the energy market. Such new electrical market model favors huge changes to the electrification cooperatives, with the possibility of transforming cooperatives into public service energy with governmental permission. Moreover, it also represents a giant challenge for their insertion and continuity in such new scenario, in as much as the REC classification process as public service companies for electric energy distribution has been carried out for years, added to the scarcity of investments on state cooperatives, therefore restricting electric energy supply to residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  13. CO 2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO 2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Coussy Paula; Raynal Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Carbon capture technology (and associated storage), applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of captu...

  14. Leaf litter input and electrical conductivity may change density of Phylloicus sp. (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae in a Brazilian savannah stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Figueiredo Marques Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shredders are generally not abundant in tropical streams, and there is considerable evidence suggesting that the food supply drives this pattern in headwaters. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of variation in the availability of food resources, over one year, on the density of Phylloicus sp. (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae, which is one of the main shredders in Neotropical headwaters. Methods We measured the relative importance of organic matter in terms of vertical input (VI and benthic standing stock (BS on Phylloicus sp. density from October 2012 to September 2013 in a preserved third order stream in the Cerrado savannah biome, Federal District, Brazil. Results Leaves were abundant (monthly biomass of 24.2 g.m–2 ±23.1 SD in VI and 46.1 g.m–2 ±76.7 SD in BS, increasing at the end of dry season (August to October and comprised the most abundant fraction in VI and BS (~ 70%. Phylloicus sp. had a low density throughout the year (2.4 ind.m–2 ±4.9 SD and its peak (13.7 ind.m–2 ±17.1 SD in October was associated with greater leaf biomass in VI and high electrical conductivity in the stream. The well-defined peak of Phylloicus sp. density in October suggests interplay between the increase in Phylloicus density and the leaf litter that enters the stream at the end of the dry season. Electrical conductivity was also higher in October, reflecting an increase in nutrient concentrations in the water during this period. Conclusions The availability of leaf litter may be a determinant factor for the seasonal variation in Phylloicus sp. density in tropical streams, suggesting a bottom-up effect. Changes in the supply of allochthonous resources to the stream can lead to modification in populations of shredders, such as Phylloicus sp., and anthropogenic influences on the riparian vegetation can affect ecological processes of great importance to streams.

  15. Research on Key Point of the Design of Plateau Power Supply Car Electrical Control Sector%高原电源车电气控制部分设计要点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱逸天; 孙默圆; 陈熙霖

    2015-01-01

    高原环境由于其特殊性,使装备电气控制部分的电气特性受到了影响,本文针对这个问题结合有关资料总结了高原电源车的电气设计要点。%Because of the particularity of plateau environment, the electrical control sector of plateau power supply car is under the influence. To address this problem, this paper summarize the key point of the design of plateau power supply car electrical control sector combine with related material.

  16. Electricity consumers under the state and the private sector: comparing the price performance of the French and UK electricity industries 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percebois, Jacques [Univ. de Montpellier 1, CREDEN, Montpelier, 34 (France); Wright, Philip [Sheffield Univ., Management School, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2001-12-01

    Particularly because a preoccupation with process has tended to dominate the debate about electricity privatisation and liberalisation, this paper focuses on price outcomes by comparing the relative price performance of the French and UK electricity industries between 1990 and 2000. The main conclusion is that in 1990 the state-owned French electricity industry was performing better for most consumers than the state-owned UK industry, and a decade later it was still doing so with respect to the privately-owned UK industry. While this conclusion could be qualified by saying that, heavily prompted or assisted by the Regulator, the UK privately-owned industry has shown itself capable of achieving faster reductions in prices to close the gap between itself and the French, this achievement has been concentrated in the industrial market and even there the very significant gains were mainly restricted to the very largest consumers. In the context of the European Union the UK is shown to have performed relatively poorly for the smallest domestic consumers and, while both countries did much better in the rankings of industrial prices, they were still a long way behind the top performers. (Author)

  17. The participation of the sectors of electric energy consumption in a rural electrification cooperative; A participacao dos setores de consumo de energia eletrica em uma cooperativa de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Cristiane Aparecida Pelegrin [Instituicao Toledo de Ensino (ITE), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Contabeis], e-mail: cristiane.higuchi@itelefonica.com.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Ielo, Frederico G. de Paula F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This work had the objective of to evaluate the behavior of the electrical energy distribution in a Rural Electrification Cooperative, placed inside the State of Sao Paulo, embracing the region of the county of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema. Were appraised the electric energy distribution data of the Rural Electrification Cooperative of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema - CERIPA, during the years of 2000, 2001 and 2002. Was evaluated the sale of energy evolution, clearance evolution, general load factor and the electrical distribution for consumer type. The found results allowed to end that the Rural electrification Cooperative, show a good electric energy distribution in residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  18. The challenge of energy poverty. Brazilian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini Pereira, Marcio [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordenation of Post-Graduate Programs in Engineering of The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, CEP: 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vasconcelos Freitas, Marcos Aurelio; Silva, Neilton Fidelis da [International Virtual Institute of Global Change - IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. (author)

  19. The carbon credit market at the electric sector; O mercado de creditos de carbono no setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayllas, T.E.C.; Ramos, D.S.; Arnez, R.L.V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: tesoroelena@pea.usp.br; dorel.ramos@poli.usp.br; ricleon@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate the carbon market development regarding important issues such as the sale and purchase negotiations' state of the art in both the international and regional markets. Despite the uncertainties, the carbon market became a reality and is assuming increasing importance as a response to the emissions reduction of the greenhouse gases. At present, the carbon market trading is motivating to international entities, governments and corporations to adopt actions that could contribute to the reduction and commercialization of the greenhouse gases. The contribution of the electric industry to the production of the main greenhouse gases is also an aspect analyzed herein. (author)

  20. Intentions to introduce electric vehicles in the commercial sector: A model based on the theory of planned behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruber, Johannes; Reinthaler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Light and heavy duty commercial vehicles are a cause of concern in urban areas because of their cumulative stress on the system in terms of air pollution, congestion, and noise. This cumulative stress is expected to increase with the expected growth in commercial vehicle movements. While electric...... fleets. The framework is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and it is modelled with a structural equation model with latent variables. The model is estimated on the basis of 1443 responses from a large-scale survey in Austria, Denmark, and Germany. The results establish a linkage between...

  1. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A Labor Market Analysis of the Electricity Sector for 2030 using the National Energy with Weather System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, L.; Clack, C.; Marquis, M.; Paine, J.; Picciano, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an analysis that utilized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models to estimate the temporary and permanent jobs, earnings, and state sales tax revenues that would be created by various scenarios of the National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator. This simulator was created by a collaboration between the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado and the Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL NOAA). The NEWS simulator used three years of high-resolution (13-km, hourly) weather and power data to select the most cost-efficient, resource-maximizing, and complementary locations for wind, solar photovoltaic, and natural gas power plants along with high-voltage direct-current transmission, thereby providing the cheapest possible electricity grid that facilitates the incorporation of large amounts of wind and solar PV. We applied various assumptions to ensure that we produced conservative estimates, while keeping costs in line with those of the NEWS simulator. Our analysis shows that under the lowest carbon-emitting scenario of the NEWS carried out (80% reduction in CO2 compared with 1990 levels), almost ten million new jobs could be created by 2030. Of those jobs, over 400,000 would be permanently supporting the operations of the power plants. That particular scenario would also add over 500 billion to the paychecks of American workers and 75 billion to state tax revenues by 2030. All of this is achieved with average electricity costs of 10.7¢/kWh, because the electric system relies less heavily on fuel and more on jobs constructing, operating, and maintaining infrastructure. We use the current presentation to describe the methods used to reach these findings and examine some potential impacts of our estimates on public policy. Although we are able to identify some systematic problems with the JEDI model, we find that these problems

  3. CO2 Capture Rate Sensitivity Versus Purchase of CO2 Quotas. Optimizing Investment Choice for Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture technology (and associated storage, applied to power plants, reduces atmospheric CO2 emissions. This article demonstrates that, in the particular case of the deployment phase of CO2 capture technology during which CO2 quota price may be low, capturing less than 90% of total CO2 emissions from power plants can be economically attractive. Indeed, for an electric power company capture technology is interesting, only if the discounted marginal cost of capture is lower than the discounted marginal cost of purchased quotas. When CO2 price is low, it is interesting to have flexibility and reduce the overall capture rate of the site, by stopping the capture system of one of the combustion trains if the site has multiple ones, or by adopting less than 90% CO2 capture rate.

  4. The Brazilian experience of incentive of renewable sources expansion by means of electric power auctions; A experiencia brasileira de incentivo a expansao das fontes renovaveis por meio de leiloes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Alexandre Guedes [Camara de Comercializacao de Energia Eletrica (CCEE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Brazilian experience to encourage renewable sources of power generation through the auctions into the Regulated Environment of Contracting. These auctions are subdivided into auctions of existing plants, new plants, alternative sources and structural plants. In this process we observe the structure of the mechanism for contracting new projects of renewable sources without neglecting the low tariffs issues. Thus, the auctions of electricity in Brazil is an alternative to be considered in an attempt to group market mechanisms, low tariffs and incentives to renewable sources of generation. (author)

  5. Electricity economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Systematically analyzing for the first time the production output from electricity consumption for enterprises, sectors, and industries, this study uses the function of EAI (electricity as input), and includes national E-GDP figures for more than 20 countries.

  6. Natural monopolies regulation: the electric power transmission tariffs case; Regulacao dos monopolios naturais: o caso das tarifas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ricardo Henrique dos; Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Sauer, Ildo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: rosana2@uol.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy transmission tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.

  7. Energetic sustainability of the electric sector: towards a model of support for planning and decision making; Sustentabilidade energetica do setor eletrico: em direcao a um modelo de apoio ao planejamento e a tomada de decisao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Fernando Vieira; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino; Guimaraes, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to present in the form still preliminary a proposal of a computational model of support to the planning and decision-making process to investors, planners and regulators of the electric sector so that be possible to make sure the supply of electricity with sustainability and low economics and social impacts. The support to the decision-making process depends of interactions of economical, social, technological and environmental aspects that here are exposed by the use of dynamics models for ecosystems services: MIMES (Multi-scale Integrated Model of the Earth's System) and Simile. The quantitative models are important so that the planners can adopt effectively the concept of sustainability in public politics. The activity of modeling of sustainability for the electrical sector requires an interdisciplinary vision to adapt the different involved concepts and, so, to structure the model in the better way. (author)

  8. Efeitos multiplicadores da economia florestal brasileira Multiplier effects of the Brazilian forestry economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Renato Valverde

    2003-06-01

    contributing for the generation of these indicators, when one extra monetary unit is spent by the final consumers demanding for products of this particular sector. The results showed that forestry is one of the Brazilian economic sectors presenting the greatest multiplying effects for the social-economic indicators. It surpassed other sectors such as the automobilistic electric and electronic, machinery and equipment and chemicals and petroleum industries.

  9. Energetic efficiency in the consumption sectors in Brazil; Eficiencia energetica nos setores de consumo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Jeferson B. [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Achao, Carla L.; Garcia, Agenor G.; Martins, Jose M.D.; Oliveira, Ricardo G. de; Queiroz, Renato P.

    2008-07-01

    The present paper aims to assess long run energy savings for Brazil in the long term, according to economic scenarios established in Energy National Plan 2030 (PNE 2030). Methodological issues are presented as well as the basic assumptions for each scenario/end use consumption and related energy/electricity savings. In 2030, Brazilian industrial and transportation sectors still account for the large share of total energy savings (more than 80% in 2030). At the end of this paper, key points are analyzed in order to improve energy saving estimates. (author)

  10. The World Trade Organization and the new opportunities in the international market for Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; A Organizacao Mundial do Comercio e as novas oportunidades do mercado internacional para o setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Marili Arruda [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro, Mogi Guacu SP (Brazil); Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This main objective of this work is to present the obstacles to the Brazilian participation in the international ethanol and sugar market, specially in the European Union. Therefore it is emphasized the main reasons which conduct Brazil to discuss in the International Trade Organization the production quota system impositions and the heavy subsidy exportation used in the European Union. In despite of improving the negotiation arguments, it has been felt at the most recent International Trade Organization meeting that the Brazilian interests has got to confront international barriers to punish the Brazilian sugar with an high tax importation as in the European Union. Due to those difficulties, the possibility of opening a larger ethanol market, mainly in those countries which wish to reduce pollution emission, mixing anhydrous alcohol to gasoline appeared as a good alternative. Actually the European Community members have strategic reasons to maintain the sugar production subsidies. Brazil and most of the European Community members have been discussing an agreement to reduce the subsidies. The Brazilian victory on the appeal made in the International Trade Organization, on August the 4th; against the subsidies to the sugar conceded by EU, provoked rejection of many. (author)

  11. Alternatives for hydrogen production in Brazilian regions aiming the generation of distributed electric energy; Alternativas para a producao de hidrogenio nas regioes brasileiras visando a geracao de energia eletrica distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2009-07-01

    In this work possible sources of hydrogen production for the generation of electric energy in a distributed way, with the fuel cell use, had been selected and studied. Three renewable sources (biomass, photovoltaic and wind) have been studied for energy generation in Brazil. For the establishment of numerical values, the main regional agricultural cultures and the amount of biomass in various brazilian states had been evaluated, in the form of waste, capable to be used for future hydrogen production. It was also investigated and evaluated the numerical capacity of hydrogen production from wind and photovoltaic resources for each region in Brazil, considering the electrolytic process. Based on the results, it is possible to demonstrate the potentialities of Brazil for electric energy generation in a planned distributed way, with fossil fuel substitution, and consequently, decreasing the environmental impacts. (author)

  12. Decision making under uncertainty and risk by climate change impacts for electric power sectors%电力部门面对气候变迁之风险管理与决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京明; 郑郁儒

    2012-01-01

    气候变迁已成为全球不可抵挡的趋势,各国政府亦将如何应对气候变迁列为施政重点工作之一,如何做好气候变迁下调适准备是其当务之急.本研究的目的即在提供电力部门一个良好调适准备的可能决策方法程序,供电力部门之相关决策者参考.研究的方法采用公司治理下风险与不确定性下之决策管理架构,将之适用于电力部门如何面对气候变化的各项可能冲击,以及如何评估电力部门面对气候变迁自我的脆弱度,同时也提供一套如何导出最佳调适政策的组合措施之方法程序.最后,研究的结论指出完善的调适所须遵行的属性与特质,以及调适所面对的障碍,期盼能提供电力部门一个较好的调适决策之程序,并能协助完成未来所需之各项调适策略.%Rising global temperature has been accompanied by changes in weather and climate.Under the global trend of climate change,governments around the world have already initiated policy making process for national climate adaptation.The implementation of adaptation action plans is currently one of the top priorities in governmental tasks against climate change impacts.The electric power sector plays the key role of energy supply in the energy industry.How to cope with the possible impacts of climate change and prepare appropriate adaptation is a necessary and exigent task for electric power sectors.The study aims to provide a decision making process of how to derive the optimal decisions for adaptation policy under the risk and uncertainty of the climate change.We adopted the framework of decision making under risk and uncertainty for enterprises to the electric power sectors.Impacts of weather and climate change on electric power sectors are analyzed;and the method to assess the vulnerability of electric power sectors to the climate change is provided.How to use available information to derive optimal adaptation polices for electric power sector

  13. Financial Reporting: Reflection On Transparency In The Third Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Moreira Campos; Rafael de Lacerda Moreira; Rodrigo Simonassi Scalzer

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the accountability of Brazilian Third Sector Organizations to their stakeholders, since these organizations are not an end in themselves, and they play an important role in solving problems that affect all Brazilians, especially social inequality, violence, hunger and degradation of natural resources. The interaction between the Third Sector Organizations and external users of the accounting information generated by them, allows them to have a feedback on the impacts of ...

  14. Review of Sector and Regional Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets. Focus on Natural Gas. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series. Number 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey; Medlock III, Kenneth B.; Boyd, William C.

    2015-10-15

    This study explores dynamics related to natural gas use at the national, sectoral, and regional levels, with an emphasis on the power sector. It relies on a data set from SNL Financial to analyze recent trends in the U.S. power sector at the regional level. The research aims to provide decision and policy makers with objective and credible information, data, and analysis that informs their discussions of a rapidly changing energy system landscape. This study also summarizes regional changes in natural gas demand within the power sector. The transition from coal to natural gas is occurring rapidly along the entire eastern portion of the country, but is relatively stagnant in the central and western regions. This uneven shift is occurring due to differences in fuel price costs, renewable energy targets, infrastructure constraints, historical approach to regulation, and other factors across states.

  15. Forecasts for the electric energy supply in the Brazilian South-Southeast market 1990-2000; Perspectivas para o atendimento de mercado de energia eletrica Sul-Sudeste, 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Mazzon, Joao Gilberto [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1990-05-01

    In opposite to the recent expectations, the systematic delays in the operational start of the constructions of new electric power generation units in south and southeast regions of Brazil, caused by financial restrictions, will not lead to energy rationalization. This fact reached out from the low expansion rates of the consumer sector in this regions of Brazil. This paper also shows the demand factors of this market and forecast the future electric energy market for these regions until the years 2000. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Natural monopolies regulation: the electric power distribution tariffs case; Regulacao dos monopolios naturais: o caso das tarifas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillo, Vicente Andreu; Sauer, Ildo Luis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: illsauer@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy distribution tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.

  17. The limited worldwide opening of the electric power sector: from States pre-eminence to the relative comeback of the Centre; La mondialisation limitee du secteur electrique: de la preeminence des Etats au retour relatif du Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2002-07-01

    There are at least two reasons for undertaking a study of the political economy of India's electrical sector. Given that it is placed under the joint responsibility of the Centre and the States, its evolution reflects the relations between these two levels of the Indian federal system. Besides, the recent implementation of guidelines which have found favour with a large number of foreign countries could camouflage a subtle relationship with globalization which, in the case of India, is determined largely by the power equations within the country. Indeed, the reform path chosen integrates two elements: the argument that reforms have become necessary on account of the inefficiency of public sector organisations whose modes of functioning are inherited from the Indian bureaucratic system; secondly, there are political and economic forces who demand reforms as an essential element of their political strategy. In particular, contrary to the classical view in India that with liberalization there has been an emancipation of the States with regard to the Centre and the creation of expanding markets for foreign investments, the 'globalization' of the electricity sector, understood here as the opening up to the foreign private sector, could in reality be equated to a relative strengthening of the Centre vis-a-vis the States. It could also turn out to be to the advantage of some very local components, such as consumers' associations, whether rural or of local communities. (author)

  18. Top-down/bottom-up description of electricity sector for Switzerland using the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R. A

    2006-06-15

    Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)

  19. Consumers free of electric power. A practical vision; Consumidores livres de energia eletrica. Uma visao pratica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florezi, Guilherme

    2009-07-01

    In the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector, since the changes in the institutional model beginning in 1993, electrical sector agents entered into a highly competitive market, particularly in the case of the consumers which have had the possibility to choose their supplier of electricity in accordance with rules and restrictions that have been modified over the years. The consumer that fits this profile, was named free consumer whom in accordance with the rules and restrictions dictated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL), will have the option of electrical energy delivery through other companies, instead of the company that holds granting of the area where the consumer in question is physically located. The other costumers, that could not be qualified as free, remain captive, unable to choose for their supply from outside the area where the original grant is located. The studies presented here are an important starting point for research on free energy consumers and their behavior in order to provide subsidies to the readers to get a better understanding of the history of the Brazilian energy sector and the free market, with emphasis on free consumers, to thereby enable their potential bases for a possible study of migration to the free market . (author)

  20. The reform of the Indian power sector: administrations for sale. Transforming the state electricity boards into enterprises; La reforme du secteur electrique de l'Inde: administrations a vendre. Transformer les state electricity boards en entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J

    2001-10-01

    The present thesis is about the reforms in the electricity sector in India, and more specifically about those in the State Electricity Boards (SEBs), organisations responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity at the level of each of the States of India. The thesis is interested in practical questions of industrial economy such as: what is the impact of de-integration on the functioning of the SEBs?, impact of the creation of regulatory committees?, of privatisation?. Going beyond the critical analysis of the proposed reforms, the thesis also puts forward certain practical propositions as regards the way of reforming the SEBs. The thesis is divided in two parts (of four chapters each). The first part analyses and characterizes the functioning of a SEB. It presents practical description of the organisational characteristics, but also of their linking to the decision making mechanisms at work. On the theoretical plane, it settles the debate on the validity of the analytical concept of soft budget constraint for a SEB, and specifies the modalities of an analysis in terms of property rights, as well as the pertinence of several concepts derived from that of cost. The second part deals with the ongoing reforms and those to be implemented. It defines the concept of enterprising and proposes a critical discussion of the ongoing reforms, in the light of the normative criterion of enterprisation. It distinguishes conceptually and in the practical analysis, the 'structural' reforms (corporatisation, de-integration, and setting up of regulatory commissions) on the one hand and the questions of privatisation on the other. It proposes a model explaining the 'trade off' between public enterprisation and rapid privatisation. The first chapter situates the SEBs in the Indian power sector, shows the limit of the analyses in terms of lack of funds or political interference. Chapter 2 makes a critical presentation of the various tools

  1. The supply expansion of electricity in Brazilian urban centers through connected photovoltaic systems' network; A expansao da oferta de energia eletrica nos centros urbanos brasileiros por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to outline perspectives on the electricity production through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS), in Brazil, and its insertion on a large scale in the energy matrix, as a supplementary power generation source. The GCPS bring several benefits to the Electrical Sector and the environment by producing energy cleanly and quietly in the places of consumption, avoiding the construction of large power plants and avoiding additional costs with transmission and distribution. In general, these systems can be integrated into the buildings architecture, taking advantage of the rooftop of pre-existing buildings. But, although it has high solar potential, Brazil had been installed a capacity of only 161.32 kWp GCPS until December 2009, a value considered negligible compared, for instance, with 4.5 GWp installed in Europe alone in 2008. This study shows that the cost of generation from a GCPS is still high, reaching to 2.4 times higher than the average residential tariff practiced in Brazil, which turns the technology impracticable commercially. But it shows a trend of equalization between these two values in the next decade for various locations, which will certainly make the GCPS to be considered as an alternative for expanding the energy supply. But for the lack of appropriate technical criteria do not affect the spread of this technology in the future, it is necessary a correct regulation of this activity by the staff of the Electrical Sector. (author)

  2. Strategic planning and controlling model for electricity distribution concessionaires in Brazil; Modelo de planejamento estrategico e de controle de gestao para as empresas distribuidoras de energia eletrica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margueron, Marcus Vinicius Lourenco

    2008-02-15

    Corporate strategies of agents operating in the electric power sector must be constantly aligned with current regulatory structure. This thesis presents an innovative study, which allows the definition of strategies for distributors located in the partially deregulated Brazilian electric power sector, in which the coexistence of regulation and competition results in business environments where competitive threats and cooperation opportunities must be very well managed. It concludes that the best competitive strategy for Brazilian distributors should be cost leadership aiming at encouraging fidelity of the three complementary agents able to freely circulate between both different environments of electric power contracting in Brazil - regulated contracting environment and free contracting environment. These three complementary agents are potentially free consumers, power producers and technology companies. (author)

  3. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  4. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  5. Activity based costing for regulated services. Experiences, fundamental guidance and possible application to network activity in the electric power sector; Aktivitetsbasert kalkulasjon for regulerte tjenester. Erfaringer, prinsipielle retningslinjer og mulig anvendelse for nettvirksomhet i kraftsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Bjoernenak, Trond; Johnsen, Thore

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses the application of norm cost models to income regulation of distribution networks in the electric power sector. It deals in particular with the possibility of using activity based costing (ABC), but also discusses more general use of structural cost models in income regulation. The report presents experiences with the ABC method in various regulated service industries. For income regulation in the network activities, the relevance of ABC based systems is primarily related to activities conducted by the number of customers. Analyses of costs in the sector show large variations in these costs, which may indicate a potential for this type of regulation model. Finally the report discusses the handling of capital costs in the regulation model, which is important for any regulation regime.

  6. Taking advantage of natural gas for the energy and fuel supply for the Brazilian energy intensive industries: aluminium, siderurgy and chemical products; O aproveitamento do gas natural para o suprimento de energia e combustivel para as industrias energointensivas brasileiras: aluminio, siderurgia e produtos quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Jose Fernando Leme [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: romero@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work intend to analyse natural gas success in the energy generation for siderurgy industry, aluminium and basic organic chemical products. There is a necessity to inform economy-policy and the energy policy relationship, showing the Brazilian State actuation in the economic development mechanism and electric energy supply. Cast iron and iron, metals and no-irons are considered as electric intensives and energy intensives industry activities. These are sectors that produce merchandises for exportation and spend many quantities of electrical energy for each produced physical unity of law aggregate economic value. (author)

  7. Custos operacionais eficientes das distribuidoras de energia elétrica: um estudo comparativo dos modelos DEA e SFA The cost efficiency of the Brazilian electricity distribution utilities: a comparative study with DEA and SFA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Pereira de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta medidas de eficiência para 40 distribuidoras de energia elétrica que operam no setor elétrico brasileiro. As medidas foram obtidas por modelos de análise envoltória de dados (DEA e modelos de fronteira estocástica (SFA, duas técnicas que podem mitigar a assimetria de informação e aprimorar a habilidade do agente regulador comparar os desempenhos das distribuidoras, requisitos fundamentais em esquemas de regulação incentivada. As duas abordagens são apresentadas e os resultados obtidos pelos diferentes modelos são comparados.This paper shows the efficiency measurements of 40 Brazilian electricity distribution companies. The efficiency scores are obtained using the data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA models, techniques that can reduce the information asymmetry and improve the regulator skills to compare the performance of the electricity companies, which are fundamental aspects of regulatory regimes. The two approaches are described, and the main results obtained from the different models are compared.

  8. The Variability and Intermittency of Wind and Solar Power Can Be Overcome Without Storage By Using the National Energy With Weather System (NEWS) Simulator To Design A National US Electric (and Energy) Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Wilczak, J. M.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Picciano, P.; Paine, J.; Terry, L.; Marquis, M.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The Cooperative Institute for the Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado collaborated with the Earth Systems Research Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to construct a mathematical optimization of a reduced form of the US electric sector. Care was taken to retain salient features of the electric sector, while allowing for detailed weather and power data to be incorporated for wind and solar energies. The National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator was created. With the NEWS simulator tests can be performed that are unique and insightful. The simulator can maintain the status quo and build out a system following costs or imposed targets for carbon dioxide emission reductions. It can find the least cost electric sector for each state, or find a national power system that incorporates vast amounts of variable generation. In the current presentation, we will focus on one of the most unique aspects of the NEWS simulator; the ability to specify a specific amount of wind and/or solar each hour for a three-year historical period for the least total cost. The simulator can find where to place wind and solar to reduce variability (ramping requirements for back-up generators). The amount of variable generation each hour is very different to an RPS type standard because the generators need to work in concert for long periods of time. The results indicate that for very similar costs the amount of back-up generation (natural gas or storage) can be reduced significantly.

  9. The reform of the Indian power sector: administrations for sale. Transforming the state electricity boards into enterprises; La reforme du secteur electrique de l'Inde: administrations a vendre. Transformer les state electricity boards en entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J

    2001-10-01

    The present thesis is about the reforms in the electricity sector in India, and more specifically about those in the State Electricity Boards (SEBs), organisations responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity at the level of each of the States of India. The thesis is interested in practical questions of industrial economy such as: what is the impact of de-integration on the functioning of the SEBs?, impact of the creation of regulatory committees?, of privatisation?. Going beyond the critical analysis of the proposed reforms, the thesis also puts forward certain practical propositions as regards the way of reforming the SEBs. The thesis is divided in two parts (of four chapters each). The first part analyses and characterizes the functioning of a SEB. It presents practical description of the organisational characteristics, but also of their linking to the decision making mechanisms at work. On the theoretical plane, it settles the debate on the validity of the analytical concept of soft budget constraint for a SEB, and specifies the modalities of an analysis in terms of property rights, as well as the pertinence of several concepts derived from that of cost. The second part deals with the ongoing reforms and those to be implemented. It defines the concept of enterprising and proposes a critical discussion of the ongoing reforms, in the light of the normative criterion of enterprisation. It distinguishes conceptually and in the practical analysis, the 'structural' reforms (corporatisation, de-integration, and setting up of regulatory commissions) on the one hand and the questions of privatisation on the other. It proposes a model explaining the 'trade off' between public enterprisation and rapid privatisation. The first chapter situates the SEBs in the Indian power sector, shows the limit of the analyses in terms of lack of funds or political interference. Chapter 2 makes a critical presentation of the various tools

  10. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  11. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices and 19.77% (market prices of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68% was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%, despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  12. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  13. Implementation of the robustness analysis methodology for decenal planning in the expansion of electric sector; Aplicacao da metodologia de analise de robustez ao planejamento decenal de expansao do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata de Azevedo Moreira da

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to develop an application from one of the techniques of 'soft' operational research, the Robustness Analysis, to the problem of decision making under uncertainty, as part of the planning of the electricity expansion planning process in Brazil. Initially are shown desirable characteristics of a methodology that will complement the traditional methods used in determining the expansion of the sector. Departing from the Decenal Plan for Power Expansion (2007/2016), an analysis of the different trends that can occur during the planning process is presented, so as to facilitate the visualization of the consequences of uncertainties that may change the schedule of the planned expansion and also help the interaction between actors working in the expansion planning of electricity generation. (author)

  14. Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Much of the literature on industry evolution has found firm dynamics to be an important source of sector-level productivity growth. In this paper, we ask whether the delineation of entry and exit firms matters in assessing the impact of firm turnover. Using detailed firm level data from Vietnam......-level determinants of firm exit and switching, which need to be carefully considered in the search for effective policy...

  15. Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Much of the literature on industry evolution has found firm dynamics to be an important source of sector-level productivity growth. In this paper, we ask whether the delineation of entry and exit firms matters in assessing the impact of firm turnover. Using detailed firm level data from Vietnam, ......-level determinants of firm exit and switching, which need to be carefully considered in the search for effective policy...

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1999: 1983 to 1998 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1983 to 1998 period. It is divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; energy data relating to brazilian states; and appendices - installed capacity, world data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balance.

  17. Building up energy efficiency: an analysis of the relationship between energy efficiency building codes and electricity consumption in the U.S. residential sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Matthew John

    The effects of climate change caused by the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) are a growing concern for state governments in the United States. The majority of state governments have attempted to mitigate GHG emissions through energy efficiency programs to combat the rising demand for electricity. In order to manage the increasing demand for electricity, states have adopted International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) for new residential buildings to offset the demand for energy. This paper studies the relationship between state level residential building codes and electricity consumption rates. Using state-level panel data, I construct a database of state residential building code adoptions and energy use from 2000-2010 to measure the relationship between state regulation and residential electricity consumption using an OLS Fixed Effects model. My most conclusive findings suggest that there is a negative association between specific code adoption and electricity consumption, but only in states with low rates of new residential construction. I find that the adoption of the 2006 IECC building code in states with low rates of new residential construction is associated with a 1.7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents. I also find that the adoption of an up-to-date building code is associated with a .7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents in states with low rates of new residential construction.

  18. Sectoral Innovation Watch Space and Aeronautics Sectors. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The space and aeronautics sectors are high-technology sectors and belong to the most innovative sectors in Europe1. Analysis of CIS4 data shows that the space and aeronautics sectors continue to be very innovative. 85% of the firms is engaged in intramural R&D. Total R&D expenditures are between 21%

  19. Influence of institutional structure in the planning methodology of the electric sector; Influencia da estrutura institucional na metodologia de planejamento do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozowski Filho, Marciano; Silva, Edson Luiz da [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LABPLAN; Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This technical report intends to present a new conceptual structure for planning considering the growing participation of great and medium capacity investment projects. In such structure, the expansion planning issue can be formulated and resolved in different hierarchical levels, since the most basic one, which is an isolated area, through the higher level, which represents the interconnected system, passing for an intermediate level, which may correspond, for instance, to an enterprise or even an enterprise sector 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Igarapava`s consortium: a new alternative for the electric sector; Consorcio de Igarapava: uma nova alternativa para o setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Neto, Raimundo de Paula; Dias, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Costa, Ricardo Barbi; Ramos, Osvaldo Costa; Brandao, Jorge Luiz de Carvalho; Braz, Arthur Jose Fernandes; Teixeira, Jose Cleber [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the conceptual basis and the implementation model of the operative agreement between CEMIG, an electric power utility of Minas Gerais State - Southeast Brazil, and a consortium of consumers, which aims at the implementation of the Igarapava hydroelectric power plant. The work also analyses and recommends the adoption of such privatization model for the new electric power generation undertakings 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  2. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  3. Residential Rooftop Solar and the Utilities Death Spiral. A system dynamics analysis of the effects of rooftop solar diffusion on the electricity rates and CO2 emissions of the U.S. electricity supply sector

    OpenAIRE

    Meehan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    U.S. electric utilities are concerned by the recent exponential growth in rooftop solar installations among their customers. They fear that if their customers continue to adopt such self generation technologies and buy less electricity from the utility, then the utility will no longer make enough sales to achieve cost recovery' from these customers. Utilities argue that, in order to compensate for this, they will have to increase their electricity rates, and that these rate rises will in turn...

  4. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  5. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  6. Hydro, thermal and photovoltaic power plants: A comparison between electric power generation, environmental impacts and CO2 emissions in the Brazilian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana D’ Angela Mariano, Francielle Rocha Santos, Gabriel Wolanski Brito, Jair Urbanetz Junior, Eloy Fassi Casagrande Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of sustainability is present in electricity generation. The sources should be renewable, and production should respect the environment and all forms of life. Being the main energy sources in Brazil, hydroelectric and thermal power plants have drawbacks when considering environmental impacts. In contrast, the use of photovoltaic energy is a sustainable alternative, pollution-free in its operating phase and with significantly less impact in its construction phase. The purpose of this article is to make a relation between the electricity generated by the hydroelectric Itaipu plant, the thermoelectric complex Jorge Lacerda, the Eletronuclear plant, and the analysis of a photovoltaic plant proposal for these three scenarios. The relation between the production of electricity in Itaipu, Jorge Lacerda, and Eletronuclear power plants, and the projected energy production of a photovoltaic plant for each scenario was obtained through calculations according to the area of each plant, generating a comparison between the installed power of the referred plants, and the estimated installed capacity for the projected photovoltaic plant. The environmental impacts were assessed for the different scenarios, and CO2 emissions were quantified. The calculated results show that the installed power of the projected photovoltaic plant was significantly higher than the installed power of the existing plants. The photovoltaic plant’s capacity factor, for the proposed study, was of 15%, and the projected annual photovoltaic energy for the respective areas presented significantly higher values, of approximately 330,180.40 TWh in comparison to Itaipu plant, while in comparison to Jorge Lacerda plant, for instance, it was of approximately 428,229.23 TWh, whereas to Eletronuclear it was 0.0288 TWh. The results of this study show that photovoltaic plants with equivalent areas of Itaipu and Jorge Lacerda power plants, could generate higher annual energy

  7. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fenhann, J.; Gorham, R.; Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  8. Gestão de processos, indicadores analíticos e impactos sobre o desempenho competitivo em grandes e médias empresas brasileiras dos setores da indústria e de serviços Process management, analytical indicators, and impacts on competitive performance at large and midsized brazilian companies in the industry and services sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bronzo Ladeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo compila os principais achados de uma pesquisa cujo objetivo foi o de investigar a natureza dos relacionamentos entre os construtos de orientação para processos de negócio (business process orientation - BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho competitivo de uma amostra de 368 empresas brasileiras, de grande e médio portes, atuantes em diferentes setores da indústria e de operações de serviços no âmbito da economia brasileira. Por meio de um survey, a pesquisa envolveu o teste de hipóteses e uso de técnicas de estatística bivariada e multivariada. Foram realizados testes para se mensurar a consistência interna das escalas do instrumento de pesquisa, bem como para se avaliar a composição estrutural do modelo, por meio da modelagem de equações estruturais. As escalas e o modelo foram validados. Os resultados apontam a importância estratégica dos fatores de BPO e de indicadores analíticos como preditores do desempenho competitivo das empresas. Por meio da equação estrutural do modelo, esses fatores preditores foram capazes de explicar 66,3% das variações do desempenho das empresas da amostra, sendo igualmente significativos os efeitos diretos (coeficientes de caminho verificados entre os construtos da BPO, indicadores analíticos e desempenho.This article compiles the main findings of a study that aimed to investigate the nature of the relationships between business process orientation (BPO constructs, analytical indicators, and competitive performance from a sample of 368 large and midsized Brazilian companies that are present in different sectors of industry and services operations within the Brazilian economy. By means of a survey, this research involved the use of hypothesis testing and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Tests were carried out to measure the internal consistency of the research tool scales as well as to assess the model structure using structural equation modeling. Both the

  9. Feasibility study on data collection in the electricity sector for the household goods, home entertainment, office, communications and industrial areas; Machbarkeitsstudie Datenerhebung im Elektrizitaetsbereich, Bereiche Hausgeraete, Unterhaltungselektronik, Buero- und Kommunikationsgeraete, Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland); Schaltegger, B. [Meyer und Schaltegger AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baumgartner, W. [Basics AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    To improve the data situation, and as a management instrument, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy wants to create a quantitative overview of the consumption of electrical energy. In a feasibility study carried out for this purpose, the current data situation was investigated and it showed in which range of applications and at what cost detailed information could be gathered. The investigation is part of a comprehensive study concerning the opportunities for improvement of the electrical energy statistics. In principle, the entire electrical energy consumption of Switzerland will be covered. This report embraces the household equipment, entertainment electronic equipment, office and communications equipment and the industrial consumer groups. In various sectors, survey and calculation models can be supplied that provide data of a high quality. It can be shown that a massive improvement in the data situation, compared to the current situation, can be achieved at a moderate cost. In the case of household equipment, entertainment electronic equipment, office and communications equipment, good quality data can be ascertained with a bottom-up estimate. Various empirical studies, as well as the linking of this data, are necessary for this. Because of the complexity and diversity of equipment in the industrial consumer group, other methodological estimates will be proposed. (author)

  10. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...... in the Brazilian seafaring labor market, it is relevant to research the interaction between various factors that can provide insights regarding the nature of this distinct labor sector. This paper explores the economic indicators that can possibly influence the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market...... covering the demand and supply sides, as well as the evolution of the wage level. This is an exercise of analyzing a sector-specific labor market in order to explore potential areas where adjustments might be necessary to address an imbalance. The econometric methodology of this research using multivariate...

  11. The 8th Brazilian Workshop on Building Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto ANDERY

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 8th Brazilian Workshop on Building Design Management In conjuntion with: Design Management in the Architectural Engineering and Construction Sector CIB W096 Architectural Management & CIB TG49 Architectural Engineering University of São Paulo, Brazil, 4-8 November 2008

  12. Status on the Zeus lightning network in Brazil and its application to the electrical sector of COELCE - the Energy Company from Ceara state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Rodriguez, Carlos Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: morales@model.iag.usp.br; Sales, Francisco; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), CE (Brazil)], E-mail: fsales@uece.br; Camara, Keyla Sampaio [Companhia de Energetica do Estado do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: keyla@coelce.com.br, fgmpinheiro@uece.br; Anagnostou, Emmanouil E. [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: manos@engr.uconn.edu

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the deployment and new perspectives of the ZEUS VLF long range lightning monitoring network that has been established in Brazil after the support of the Research and Development Program of the 'Companhia Energetica do Ceara-(COELCE)'. The ZEUS network measures radio noise emitted by lightning that propagates through the ionosphere-earth surface waveguide up to thousands of kilometers. Two new VLF antennas have been installed in Fortaleza (Ceara) and Cachoeira Paulista (Sao Paulo) Brazil in the first semester of 2006 and were integrated with the 4 sensor installed in Africa and one in the Caribbean. Based on this new configuration, ZEUS is continuing measuring lightning discharges over South and North America, the Atlantic Ocean and Africa. Preliminary validation analysis using the data from the Brazilian Lightning Detection Network (RINDAT), National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) of USA, and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were employed to retrieve the location accuracy during the period of August through November of 2006. The location accuracy is based on coincident timing matches been the sferics measurements observed by ZEUS against the measurements of RINDAT, NLDN and LIS. Based on this new ZEUS configuration, the preliminary validation shows that ZEUS has location accuracy between 10-50 km over Brazil, 5-25 km in Africa, 70-100 km over the southern USA, and 5-25 km in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements from August through November of 2006 show that the main lightning activity is located in the Western Amazon, Western and Central Africa, Central America, Colombia, Florida and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the lightning maps derived with LIS for the same time period. Finally, since ZEUS is been employed by COELCE, some lightning and thunderstorm products are been developed to help the improvement of their system over the states of Ceara, for example: lightning

  13. A $70/tCO2 greenhouse gas mitigation backstop for China’s industrial and electric power sectors: insights from a comprehensive CCS cost curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Li, Xiaochun; Wei, Ning

    2012-08-27

    As one of the world's fastest growing economies with abundant coal reserves, China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have doubled in the last decade and are expected to continue growing for the foreseeable future. While the Central Government has been promoting development and growth of cleaner and more efficient energy systems, efforts to reduce carbon emissions from the heavily coal-based economy may require continued and increased development and deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies. This paper presents the first detailed, national-scale assessment of CCS potential across the diverse geographic, geologic, and industrial landscape of China, through the lens of an integrated CCS cost curve. It summarizes the development of a cost curve representing the full chain of components necessary for the capture and geologic storage of CO2 from China's power generation and industrial sectors. Individual component cost estimates are described, along with the optimized source-sink matching of over 1,600 large stationary CO2 sources and 2300 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity within 90 major deep geologic onshore sedimentary sub-basins, to develop a cost curve incorporating CO2 capture, compression, transport, and storage. Results suggest that CCS can provide an important greenhouse gas mitigation option for most regions and industrial sectors in China, able to store more than 80% of emissions from these large CO2 sources (2900 million tons of CO2 annually) at costs less than $70/tCO2 for perhaps a century or more.

  14. The California crisis and the new orientation of the American electric power sector reformulation; A crise da California e os novos rumos da reforma do setor eletrico americano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uller, Victor Cohen

    2007-07-01

    The importance represented by the California state to the reformulation normative was due to the pioneer spirit in the USA, in the form of institutional the institutional design for her electric power market and, the unexpected results in 2000. Not any consumer at all could expect become a reality in that state: total price uncontrol, games of capacity retention and centennial distributors on state of insolvency.

  15. The evolution of the planning of the electric sector in Brazil: concepts and criticisms; A evolucao do planejamento do setor eletrico no Brasil: conceitos e criticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao

    2008-07-01

    The present article, through a biographical research looks for to present and to discuss the evolutionary process of the national electric section planning in last years, mainly with respect to the new concerns with the incorporation of the social and environment subjects. In that sense, the article intends to fill out a gap referring to the lack of national literature that approaches this theme in a systematic way. (author)

  16. High-resolution temperature fields to evaluate the response of Italian electricity demand to meteorological variables: an example of climate service for the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Simone; Apadula, Francesco; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The dependence of Italian daily electricity demand on cooling degree-days, heating degree-days and solar radiation is investigated by means of a regression model applied to 12 consecutive 2-year intervals in the 1990-2013 period. The cooling and heating degree-days records used in the model are obtained by (i) estimating, by means of a network of 92 synoptic stations and high-resolution gridded temperature climatologies, a daily effective temperature record for all urbanised grid points of a high-resolution grid covering Italy; (ii) using these records to calculate corresponding grid point degree-days records; and (iii) averaging them to get national degree-days records representative of urban areas. The solar radiation record is obtained with the same averaging approach, with grid point solar radiation estimated from the corresponding daily temperature range. The model is based on deterministic components related to the weekly cyclical pattern of demand and to long-term demand changes and on weather-sensitive components related to cooling degree-days, heating degree-days and solar radiation. It establishes a strong contribution of cooling degree-days to the Italian electricity demand, with values peaking in summer months of the latest years up to 211 GWh day-1 (i.e. about 23 % of the corresponding average Italian electricity demand). This contribution shows a strong positive trend in the period considered here: the coefficient of the cooling degree-days term in the regression models increases from the first 2-year period (1990-1991) to the last one (2012-2013) by a factor 3.5, which is much greater than the increase of the Italian total electricity demand.

  17. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  18. Evaluation of some aspects of the competitive model of the electric sector of 1993-2003 and its impact on the risk of energy deficit; Avaliacao de alguns dos aspectos do modelo competitivo eletrico de 1993-2003 e seus impactos quanto ao risco de deficit de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Ana Maria [Companhia de Distribuicao de Gas de Santa Catarina - SCGAS, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Kaehler, Jose Wagner Maciel [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    We search with this article to identify and to analyze some of the aspects of the competitive model of the electric sector in the last decade, as well as its impacts so that the possibility of risk of energy deficit was an imminent fact. Particularly, we evaluate under three aspects: the long transition of the state model for the private one; some regulations risks of the model; joint absence, in the conception and also in the implantation of the reforms of the electric sector, oil and gas that ahead of the stagnation of the agents that resulted in the black out of 2001. (author)

  19. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  20. Pricing of contract options for electric power; Precificacao de contrato de opcoes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Leticia; Gunn, Laura Keiko; Correia, Paulo B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The reorganization of the electric sector has improved the opportunity of energy trade through contracts, which have to be considered on the risk evaluation for generating companies. Different types of contracts have been used in electric energy commercialization. This work develops a model for option contract pricing. The classic model of options pricing used in the financial market is based in Black- Scholes. Due to the inherent feature of the Brazilian electrical system, with a strong predominance of hydroelectricity, the seasonal swing of the electricity price is the main source of contractual risk. So, the Black-Scholes model very is not adjusted. To deal with the uncertainties, this work uses an approach based on analysis of scenarios and binomial trees. Case studies are analyzed with binomial tree to calculate the price of the option contract. (author)

  1. Decomposition analysis of the variations in household electricity consumption in Brazil; Analise de decomposicao das variacoes no consumo de energia eletrica no setor residencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla da Costa Lopes

    2009-09-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this thesis, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The results obtained in a preliminary analysis point out, in a general way, that the observed variables in electricity consumption in the Brazilian residential sector are, mainly, the product of the increase in the number of consumers and the changes in the specific consumption of electricity in households. In a further analysis, carried out when the structure is given through consumers participation in consumption categories (Low Income and Conventional) taken from an overall point of view, although the intensity and activity effects may be considered the main explaining factors in consumption variation, the structure effect stands out in the period immediately after the 2001 rationing, as a reflect of the changes in the inclusion criteria in the Low Income category, specifically in the Northeast. (author)

  2. Public lighting system. Service characteristic and responsibilities. Questions between electric utilities and the public power; Iluminacao publica. Caracteristicas e responsabilidades do servico. Questoes entre os concessionarios e o poder publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral de Almeida [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo Comercial e de Tarifas; Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to present technical, commercial and social characteristics of public lightning systems considering the Brazilian electric power restructuring.

  3. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Supporting paper: The evolution of the electricity sector and renewable sources in Italy: opportunities and problems for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaderi, Luigi [IEEE Fellow (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This document serves as a supporting paper. Sections include: features of Italian energy and electricity; the evolution of liberalisation; support mechanism for renewables; connection to wind farm transmission network; wind source integration into power system; and, final comments.

  4. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, C.-C., E-mail: cctsao3@ucmerced.edu [School of engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Campbell, J.E., E-mail: ecampbell3@ucmerced.edu [School of engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Chen, Yihsu, E-mail: yihsu.chen@ucmerced.edu [School of engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); School of social sciences, humanities, and art, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO{sub 2} C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: > Lowering the CO{sub 2} C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. > Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. > The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  5. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  6. Effects of interest and exchange rate policies on Brazilian exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Sonaglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In heterodox literature, the industrial sector is considered strategic for economic development. Consequently, reducing the contribution of this sector in the production of the country before it has reached the stage of economic maturity, affects the productive dynamics and slow technical progress. The appreciation of the real exchange rate is seen as one of the factors responsible for the reduction of the external competitiveness of Brazilian manufactures, and this exchange rate valuation may be occurring due to the differences between domestic and international interest rates. Given this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of changes in the monetary and exchange rate policy and in the composition of the total exports on the performance of the Brazilian economy using a structuralist model. The results reinforce the importance of the manufacturing sector to economic growth, especially in a competitive exchange rate environment.

  7. Loss reduction in industrial motor systems: the structure of the Brazilian program structure focusing the autosustainability (optimization of industrial motor systems); Reducao de perdas em sistemas motrizes industriais: a estrutura do programa brasileiro com foco na autosustentabilidade (otimizacao de sistemas motrizes industriais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vanda Alves dos; Soares, George Alves; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Ferreira, Carlos Aparecido; Oliveira, Humberto Luiz de; Motta, Braulio Romano; Silva, Humberto Reis Braga da [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Desenvolvimento de Projetos Especiais. Div. de Projetos Setoriais de Eficiencia Energetica]. E-mails: vandaas@eletrobras.com; georgesoares@eletrobras.com; carlosaparecido@eletrobras.com; humberto.oliveira@eletrobras.com; brauliorm@eletrobras.com; hhbraga@eletrobras.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the achievements and goals of the Industrial Motor System Optimization Project as developed by the PROCEL INDUSTRIA -Brazilian Energy Efficiency Industrial Program, within the scope of PROCEL - National Program for Electric Power Conservation, carried out ELETROBRAS since 1985. Its main objective is to minimize losses in the motor driven systems already installed in the Brazilian industry. In order to implement this program, ELETROBRAS is continuous making agreements with the state industry federations aiming to develop mechanisms and to manage energy efficiency implementation projects looking forward its self supporting. PROCEL INDUSTRIA aims to reduce the waste of electric energy in the industrial sector, to increase the industries competition, by reducing their costs and to contribute to the preservation and cleanness of environment. (author)

  8. Metrology considerations in a fast emerging new energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    The wind energy sector is emerging on the global energy scene as a fast new energy sector. In 2002 the globally installed wind energy capacity passed 32GW, corresponding to 0,4% of worlds electricity supply. The last five years the sector increased in installed capacity by 33% per year. A leading...

  9. What will happen to the consumption of electricity and energy in the building sector in 5 to 15 year perspective; Vad haender med el- och energianvaendningen i bebyggelsen i ett 5 till 15-aarsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Carl [Global to Local Sweden AB (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The future use of energy and electricity in the building sector is uncertain on a 5 to 15 year perspective. Energy for heating purposes seems to decrease due to sharper building code for new houses. The development in the existing stock of building seems much more unclear. The EU has ambitions and proposes initiatives' and regulations etc. that may influence the future energy use in the building sector. In order to highlight the issue, not the least with respect to the implication for the energy and electric Utilities, Elforsk has launched a number of studies and this study is a part of the effort. More than 20 interviews have been conducted, mainly on phone with key stakeholders such as government officials and other public bodies, real estate managers, researchers, contractors, architects/consultants, representatives of local organisations in the area etc. A standardized questionnaire with focus on five mayor themes i.e. heating of buildings, targets and means of regulation, the role of electricity, the role of the Utilities and finally the customer perspective on energy has been used. In the report, the outcome of the interviews, are presented as well as a copy of each interview (presented anonymously). The market share of district heating and similar systems is expected to increase not the least in more densely populated areas. Heat pumps and renewable sources are seen as a compliment phasing out direct electric heating and use of oil. Energy use per m{sup 2} will decrease which very likely lead t consumption. However, new heating technology/systems may increase the use of electricity (indirect use or supplement for peak building code can lead to a better climate shield and increased energy efficiency). Increased cooling of buildings on the other hand may lead to more use of electricity. A consequence or more energy efficient buildings will be lower cost, less impact on the environment/climate and a safer and secure energy supply. However, increased energy

  10. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  11. Renewable energy act. How did the framework conditions in the amendment 2012 change? Direct marketing of electric power and modifications in the biogas sector; Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz. Wie haben sich die Rahmenbedingungen in der Novelle 2012 geaendert? Strom-Direktvermarktungen und Veraenderungen in der Biogasbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, Bernd-Ruediger

    2013-06-01

    On 1 January 2012, the EEG 2012 and some other legal texts became effective. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the changing framework conditions in the amendment 2012. In particular, the direct marketing of electric power and the modifications in the biogas sector are considered.

  12. The financial feasible electric energy conservation potential in brazilian public and commercial buildings - retrofit demonstrations; O potencial de conservacao de energia eletrica financeiramente viavel em edificios publicos e comerciais do Brasil: demonstracoes de retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomardon, Louise Land B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lamberts, Roberto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Thome, Mabele [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PROCEL

    1998-12-31

    In order to help the development of energy efficiency building standard in Brazil, to demonstrate state of art technologies and to encourage the use of hourly energy simulation tools, the National Energy Conservation Program (PROCEL) has started the 6 Cities Project. The project is being developed in six cities around the country. For this project a standard methodology was developed and applied. The methodology consists of a survey in the local utilities to establish the highest energy consumers in the commercial and public sector. A data-base is being created with information on energy consumption intensity and demand intensity in 15 buildings in each city. The data-base was designed to help the standards development. Among those buildings, in each city, two were selected, one is a public building and the other a private building, for a detailed energy audit. The audit data was used to calibrate a DOE2 simulation model. Simulations were performed and state of art technologies for energy efficiency are being tested and will be implemented. An after retrofit monitoring program is planed. In this paper the results of the first buildings will be showed, whose results point for reductions of electricity consumption, financially viable, between 25% and 35%. (author) 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.; e-mail: louise at ppe.ufrj.br; lamberts at ecv.ufsc.br

  13. The Indian power sector - Role of appellate tribunal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans; Sharma, Deepak

    2010-09-15

    India's electricity-supply industry mainly owned and operated by the public sector has been facing endemic energy and peaking shortages with huge commercial losses. Power sector reforms initiated in 1990s culminated with enactment of The Electricity Act, 2003 is briefly discussed here. Appellate Tribunal for Electricity - a unique feature of the Act - constituted to redress grievances of stakeholders has set ground rules for the power sector having harmonizing effect on the various power sector issues and have reduced the element of uncertainty which was prevalent hitherto fore as revealed by the several case studies this paper presents.

  14. Financial Reporting: Reflection On Transparency In The Third Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreira Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the accountability of Brazilian Third Sector Organizations to their stakeholders, since these organizations are not an end in themselves, and they play an important role in solving problems that affect all Brazilians, especially social inequality, violence, hunger and degradation of natural resources. The interaction between the Third Sector Organizations and external users of the accounting information generated by them, allows them to have a feedback on the impacts of the decisions taken by them and the operations they perform daily. In this study the Third Sector Organizations are considered providers of accounting information for the stakeholders. Thus, by means of an explanatory study with analytical and reflective approach, this research seeks to explain the use of Financial Statements and complementary Accounting Reports in the practice of accountability by Brazilian Third Sector Organizations to the external user. In this perspective, as contributions of this study is expected to: (i identification of the financial statements and supplementary reports published by Third Sector Organizations affiliated with the Group of Institutes, Foundations and Enterprises – GIFE, and (ii demonstrate the relationship between the degree of disclosure of these Organizations and the amount of funds raised by them during the period of the research.

  15. What will happen to the consumption of electricity and energy in the building sector in 5 to 15 year perspective; Vad haender med el- och energianvaendningen i bebyggelsen i ett 5 till 15-aarsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Carl [Global to Local Sweden AB (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The future use of energy and electricity in the building sector is uncertain on a 5 to 15 year perspective. Energy for heating purposes seems to decrease due to sharper building code for new houses. The development in the existing stock of building seems much more unclear. The EU has ambitions and proposes initiatives' and regulations etc. that may influence the future energy use in the building sector. In order to highlight the issue, not the least with respect to the implication for the energy and electric Utilities, Elforsk has launched a number of studies and this study is a part of the effort. More than 20 interviews have been conducted, mainly on phone with key stakeholders such as government officials and other public bodies, real estate managers, researchers, contractors, architects/consultants, representatives of local organisations in the area etc. A standardized questionnaire with focus on five mayor themes i.e. heating of buildings, targets and means of regulation, the role of electricity, the role of the Utilities and finally the customer perspective on energy has been used. In the report, the outcome of the interviews, are presented as well as a copy of each interview (presented anonymously). The market share of district heating and similar systems is expected to increase not the least in more densely populated areas. Heat pumps and renewable sources are seen as a compliment phasing out direct electric heating and use of oil. Energy use per m{sup 2} will decrease which very likely lead t consumption. However, new heating technology/systems may increase the use of electricity (indirect use or supplement for peak building code can lead to a better climate shield and increased energy efficiency). Increased cooling of buildings on the other hand may lead to more use of electricity. A consequence or more energy efficient buildings will be lower cost, less impact on the environment/climate and a safer and secure energy supply. However, increased energy

  16. Gestão do desenvolvimento de produto em empresas de pequeno e médio porte do setor de máquinas e implementos agrícolas do Estado de SP Product development process management in small and medium-sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Toledo

    2010-01-01

    The product development process (PDP, if well-structured and managed, can become a business process that directly influences the companies' competitiveness increase. The PDP in Brazilian SMEs in the agricultural machinery and implement industry Sector (AMI is little known since most publications on product development focuses on the reality of large and multinational companies, which have a quite different structure from SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and analyze the management maturity profiles of the product development process in small and medium sized Brazilian companies in the agricultural machinery and implement industry sector located in the state of São Paulo. Therefore, the addressed actions of PDP improvements in those companies can be undertaken. A survey research was conducted in 40 companies. An in loco interview was applied to the respective individual in-charge of PDP by means of a structured questionnaire. For the data analysis, descriptive statistics and the multivariate cluster analysis techniques were used. The findings indicated that the SMEs in AMIs of the state of Sao Paulo present a heterogeneous structure with respect to PDP management. Three groups of companies were identified in the sample with different maturity PDP profiles: Group I (20% of companies in the sample, Group II (50% of the sample, and Group III (30% of the sample. Differences in the management of PDP were observed, especially among companies of Group I (smallest level of PDP maturity and Group III (highest level of PDP maturity. However, despite the differences in PDP management presented in the groups of companies, according to the literature on PDP management, all groups are in the basic (initial maturity level of PDP. The identification of the maturity level, in which these companies are, can help the determination of activities that link the internal actions to improve the PDP of these companies and the proposal of specific public policies that encourage the

  17. The attitude of foreign consumers towards Brazilian products: an investigation of the footwear sector in Brazil Atitude de consumidores estrangeiros com relação a produtos brasileiros: uma investigação do setor calçadista no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian footwear and leather supply chain is important for the economy not only because of the exports generated but also for the ability to create jobs as well. A review of these exports was made together with a report of empirical research conducted with undergraduate university students in Holland to determine their evaluation and impressions of Brazilian footwear. Since the attitude of these consumers was largely negative, a recommendation was made that marketing professionals from these companies should endeavor to improve this poor attitude in order to increase the sales potential of Brazilian footwear.

  18. Mechanisms of energetic efficiency in the transportation sector: environmental impacts and reflections in final energy consumption: PNE 2030; Mecanismos de eficiencia energetica no setor de transportes: impactos ambientais e os reflexos no consumo final de energia: PNE 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: mauro_berni@nipeunicamp.org.br; Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Perez, Andrea Juliana Ortiz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia. Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Bernardes, Cyro Barbosa [MCPAR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an energy efficiency mechanisms analysis in the Brazilian transport sector. Significant energy savings can be made in this sector and rely on urgent widespread implementation of mechanisms. The experience of the developed countries serves as base for the critical evaluation of the Brazilian situation, considering the current technological period, the investments and initiatives to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  19. Co-generation and thermometrical power generation feasibility and perspectives for the sugar-alcohol sector; Viabilidade e perspectivas da cogeracao e da geracao termoeletrica junto ao setor sucro-alcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva

    1994-11-01

    This work deals with cogeneration and independent power production and, more specifically, with the feasibility and perspectives of these technologies in the Brazilian sugar-cane industry. In the first part of thesis, cogeneration and independent power production are assessed as decentralised power generation options. Some aspects of these technologies are identified, as the conditions in which they have developed in recent years, world-wide, and how they have been dealt with in the institutional structural changes under way in the public owned electric power sector in several countries. In the second part, the Brazilian sector and the sugar-cane industry are evaluated. The organisational structure of the electric power sector, the reasons of its institutional and financial crises and some structural changes proposals are discussed. In the other hand, the sugar-cane industry is studied according to the following aspects: its expansion in recent years, the concentration of the production, the alcohol production costs and why some degree of production diversification in this industrial branch is desirable. Several technological alternatives that allow a large scale electricity production in the sugar and alcohol sector are examined in the final part of this thesis. A simulation procedure was specially developed in this thesis and applied to a typical sugar and alcohol plant. With the help of this simulation procedure, technical and economic evaluations were carried out and the best alternatives are identified. Finally, their potential was calculated for the sugar-cane industry in the State of Sao Paulo, considering the possible expansion of the sugar and alcohol production and the mills that are amore appropriate to respond for this increase. The large scale electric power generation from sugar-cane by-products is an option that can bring about some advantages for the public owned electric power sector, as well for the sugar-cane one. As a matter of fact, looking

  20. A estratégia de marcas próprias influencia a gestão da cadeia de suprimentos? Insights para o setor atacadista brasileiro Do own brand strategies influence the supply chain management? Insights from the Brazilian wholesaling sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luiz Piato

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A evolução do setor atacadista nos últimos anos possibilitou que estratégias mercadológicas influenciassem significativamente suas funções empresariais tradicionais da cadeia de suprimentos. Percebe-se, na literatura, forte relação entre a estratégia de marcas próprias e as atividades da gestão de suprimentos (em especial, compras, uma vez que o desenvolvimento de marcas próprias transforma o atacadista em comprador criterioso que procura selecionar e avaliar os fornecedores (fonte de suprimento, para obter o melhor desempenho dos produtos que carregam sua marca. Nesse sentido, o principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar o impacto da estratégia de marcas próprias do atacado na atividade de gestão de suprimentos (compras, apresentando e discutindo especificamente o processo de seleção e avaliação dos fornecedores (fabricantes. A partir de um estudo multicaso com três atacadistas e duas indústrias fornecedoras, foi possível demonstrar as principais características do processo de seleção e avaliação dos fornecedores de marcas próprias.The evolution of the wholesaling sector in the past few years has made possible that some traditional corporate functions of the supply chain were significantly influenced by its marketing strategies. The literature shows a deep relation between own brand strategies and the activities of supply management. It happens because the development of own brands makes the wholesaler a very careful buyer that aims at selecting and evaluating the suppliers in order to obtain the best performance of the own brand products. In this way, the main objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of the supply management in the own brand strategy in wholesalers, analysing the procedures and criteria used by wholesalers to select and evaluate own brand suppliers. From a multicase study with three wholesalers and two suppliers, all Brazilian companies, it is possible to demonstrate the main

  1. Práticas de Disclosure Voluntário das Empresas do Setor Elétrico: Uma Análise a Partir do Modelo de Murcia = Voluntary disclosure practices of electricity sector companies: an analysis through murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lucimar da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo identificar as principais práticas de disclosure voluntário das empresas do setor elétrico, listadas na BM&FBOVESPA, e criar um ranking de maiores níveis de divulgação voluntária entre estas empresas. Neste intuito, elaborou-se uma métrica composta por 6 (seis categorias e 39 (trinta e nove subcategorias: ambiente de negócios (8, atividade operacional (7, aspectos estratégicos (8, informações financeiras (5, índices financeiros (4 e governança corporativa (7. Utilizando a técnica de análise de conteúdo, a pesquisa foi realizada a partir das Demonstrações Financeiras Padronizadas (DFP, do exercício findo em 2010 das empresas do setor elétrico, listadas na BM&FBOVESPA. A amostra totalizou as 66 empresas (100% do segmento econômico Utilidade Pública / Energia Elétrica. Contudo, apenas 65 companhias puderam ser analisadas, devido à ausência de publicação das informações até a data de término da pesquisa. As empresas, que compõem o ranking das melhores práticas de disclosure voluntário, são: Copel; Cemig; Cemig Distribuição e Eletrobrás. As informações com maior nível de evidenciação são: principais mercados de atuação (62, principais acionistas (61 e identificação dos riscos do negócio (59. Os itens menos divulgados foram: indicadores de liquidez (5, projeções (6, perspectivas de novos mercados que a empresa pretende atuar (6 e discussão da concorrência (7. Na análise dos dados ficou evidente a grande variabilidade quanto ao nível de disclosure voluntário das empresas do setor elétrico. Algumas empresas evidenciam um número significativo de informações, enquanto outras se atentaram apenas em cumprir o que é exigido por lei e divulgam poucas informações de forma voluntária.This research aims at identifying the main practices of voluntary disclosure of electricity sector companies listed at BM&FBOVESPA, and create a ranking of higher levels of voluntary

  2. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  3. The impacts of the generation of biomass power plants in the Brazilian hydrothermal dispatch and its influence on the formation of prices of electric power in Brazil; Os impactos da geracao de usinas a biomassa no despacho hidrotermico brasileiro e sua influencia na formacao do preco da energia eletrica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz Eduardo S.; Ribeiro, Paulo [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: luizeduardo_jf@yahoo.com.br, pfribeiro@ieee.org; Tardin, Thiago V. [Engenho Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: thiago@engenho.com

    2009-07-01

    The positive and negative impacts of the electric energy generation from biomass of sugar in the Brazilian energy matrix are presented, as well as in the hydrothermal dispatch. Studies on the impacts of the generation sources using sugar cane bagasse in the operational planning and in the composition of the electric energy price are done. Computational implementations using optimized methods, as the stochastic dual dynamic programing, are done, to support the decision making and to compare the obtained results. It is, also presented the commercialization rules for energy in the Free Contracting Environment and in the Regulated Contracting Environment related to the alternative sources of energy, as well as the mechanisms of encouraged energy auction (reserve auction) and the rules for commercialization of energy applied to encouraged sources.

  4. Electricity market USA: From monopoly to competition. Liberalization of the US American electricity sector expected to be completed by 2003; Strommarkt USA: vom Monopol zum Wettbewerb. In den USA soll bis zum Jahr 2003 die Liberalisierung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft abgeschlossen sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, E. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The contribution summarizes the road to liberalization of the electricity market in California, which gained full effect much later than scheduled, on 1 April 1998, and now will serve as a model for market restructurization and liberalization in 21 federal states of North America. The required legislation currently is under debate by the American Congress, and it is expected that the process will be completed bu the year 2003. (orig./CB) [German] So wie dargestellt wird, trat der jaehrlich 20 Mrd. Dollar umfassende kalifornische Strommarkt erst zum 1. April 1998 voll in den Wettbewerb ein. Kalifornien eroeffnete damit einen Reigen energiewirtschaftlicher Strukturreformen, die in weiteren 21 Bundesstaaten umgesetzt werden. Gleichfalls werden im amerikanischen Kongress Gesetze diskutiert, durch die bis zum Jahr 2003 bundesweit der Wettbewerb im Strommarkt eingefuehrt sein soll. (orig./RHM)

  5. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  6. Sector 7-8 powered up

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    1. Frédéric Gicquel from the Cryogenics for Accelerators Group (AT/ACR) and Anupama Kulkarni from the Magnets and Electrical Systems Group (AT/MEL) at the CERN Control Centre during the powering-up of Sector 7-8. 2. Frédérick Bordry, leader of the Power Converter Group (AB/PO), and Roberto Saban, responsible for coordinating the LHC commissioning (TS/HDO), celebrate the end of the first powering-up of an entire LHC sector: Sector 7-8.

  7. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  8. Policy instruments force climate protection by increasing the energy efficiency of electric appliances and electrical systems in private households and the commercial and small-scale sector; Politikinstrumente zur Effizienzsteigerung von Elektrogeraeten und -anlagen in Privathaushalten, Bueros und im Kleinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik; Griessmann, Benjamin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The implementation of new, more market-oriented instruments represents an additional starting point for future developments. This path was started on in the EU in 2005 with the CO{sub 2} emission trade. The price signals that could be expected for end customers in households and trade from this alone would most likely be too low to be a sufficient motivation for exhausting the electricity efficiency potential. At this point, we must again point out that only rarely are there economic hindrances to the complete use of potential, but rather a lack of information and organization leads to increased transaction costs in the implementation. This must be corrected by accompanying efficiency instruments and programs. However, implementing these programs does not (yet) represent an economic alternative to the efficiency measures in their own systems for the industry and power company involved in the emission trade due to such transaction costs. Otherwise there would be initiatives in the meantime for this type of privately organized program, as these have been suggested in this report as tasks for a national electricity fund. Therefore, the instrument of the EU emission trade must be supplemented in the foreseeable future with the instruments presented here. There is not much evidence as to how much a comparable implementation of tradable energy efficiency certificates (often referred to as ''white certificates'') is a suitable start for concluding efficiency potential at the level of the very inhomogeneous group of end consumers. We still see a need for research before such an instrument can be recommended as a guide for Germany or even Europe. The questions still to be clarified include, among other things, the ability of standardizing the assignment rules as well as the amount of the transaction costs to be expected, even in dependency on the market level at which the trade is started (end consumer, energy service provider, electronic equipment

  9. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  10. Are public officials really less satisfied than private sector workers?A comparative study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to compare the public and private sectors with regard to satisfaction at work. We conducted a survey with 670 professionals from both sectors in Brazil. The results of variance analysis confirm previous researches indicating that public officials are less satisfied with their work than private sector workers. However, this result does not repeat when we evaluate the satisfaction dimensions. For instance, public officials reported being more satisfied than private sector workers with regard to social environment and work stability. Unexpectedly, the results suggest that there is no difference between these sectors when we analyze the satisfaction with supervision. Therefore, this article is relevant for Brazilian managers, by offering an empirical research on the distinction between public and private. The article also discusses the theoretical implications, since Brazilian findings do not completely support the international literature.

  11. The importance of the property total cost on the formulation of the policy for acquisition of the government enterprises from the energy sector; A importancia do custo total de propriedade na formulacao da politica de aquisicao das empresas estatais do setor de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Andre Cristiano Silva; Ignacio, Anibal Alberto Vilcapoma; Fernandes, Elton; Sampaio, Lea Maria Dantas; Araujo, Renato Samuel Barbosa de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Tecnologia, Gestao e Logistica; Cardoso, Flavio Correa; Moreira, Pedro de Souza; Silva, Sergio Vargas da [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Aquisicoes de Materiais

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses the approach to total cost of the property (TCP) as an instrument for the formulation of policies for acquisitions of the Brazilian electric sector enterprises. Also the article discusses legal aspects which rules the acquisition processes such as the Law 8666/93, the Decree 2745/98 and the Law Sarbanes and Oxley which regulates the enterprises which stocks in the US stock exchanges. This article points out in the direction to alternatives and perspectives for the formulation of a new policy of acquisition not priorizing the less buying price, but also the life cycle of the product, viewing the reduction of the total costs of the enterprises assets, as the high investments are forecasted for the electric sector.

  12. The Internationalization of Brazilian Design Firms: What do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Senra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the internationalization process of Brazilian brand design firms. The following research question inspired the study: What are the characteristics of the internationalization of these firms? The study, of a technical nature, is based on secondary sources, complemented by personal interviews with specialists. The results show that the design sector in Brazil is still very fragmented, and that internationalization of design firms is incipient. 

  13. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...

  14. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  15. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  16. Business venture-analysis case study relating to the manufacture of gas turbines for the generation of utility electric power. Volume II. Private sector and public sector venture studies. Final report. [Use of coal gasifier with combined gas and steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, W.R.

    1978-05-05

    Increasing national attention is being directed toward the search for clean, efficient, and reliable energy-conversion systems, capable of using abundant indigenous fuels such as coal, for generation of utility electric power. A prime candidate in this area is the combined gas and steam (COGAS) system employing a high-temperature gas turbine with a steam-turbine bottoming cycle, fed by a coal gasifier. This program demonstrates the use of a logical and consistent venture-analysis methodology which could also be applied to investigate other high-technology, energy-conversion systems that have yet to reach a state of commercialization but which are of significant interest to the U.S. Government. The venture analysis was performed by using a computer to model the development, production, sales, and in-service development phases of programs necessary to introduce new gas turbines in COGAS systems. The simulations were produced in terms of estimated cash flows, rates of returns, and risks which a manufacturer would experience. Similar simulations were used to estimate public-sector benefits resulting from the lower cost of power and improved environment gained from the use of COGAS systems rather than conventional systems. The study shows that substantial social benefits could be realized and private investment would be made by the gas-turbine manufacturers if an infusion of external funds were made during key portions of the gas-turbine development program. It is shown that there is substantial precedent for such public assistance to make possible economic and environmental benefits that otherwise would not be possible. 42 references.

  17. Private Sector Development: Sector Strategy (2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Strategy provides a roadmap for the IDB Group intended to strategically focus its private sector development activities. Its objective is to deepen and complement the essential role of the private sector in promoting economic growth and generating income by creating jobs that contribute to sustained poverty reduction. The IDB Group can support governments in providing public goods, regulating markets, promoting positive externalities, overcoming market failures, and building consensus on...

  18. Discussion on China's Power Sector Reforms and Where to Next?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the reform history of China's Power sector, and evaluates its reform conversion process with a focus of deregulated electricity market based on the literatures and other European countries’ experience. Furthermore, the current China's electricity industry is investigated by using...... the SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). The research results show that, after a series of reform actions, China's Power sector has shifted from an absolute monopoly to a relative monopoly. This paper conducts four strategic recommendations for the acceleration of China......'s power sector reform and the stability of its electricity market in a deregulated environment....

  19. The required interactions among institutions involved with Research and Development in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X.; Medeiros, J.C.; Szechtman, M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the form which CEPEL (Brazilian Federal Research Center in Electric Energy) works for the Brazilian electric system, the interaction with associates, especially with ELETROBRAS (the Federal holding company in Brazil), the modern way of CEPEL operation and interactions with clients, the partnership in Research and Development, the CEPEL philosophy of transferring technology to its clients, and the cost-benefit analysis of Research and Development activities. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An Territorial Analysis Of The Industrial Sector Of Tableware Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roberto Alves Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic industry of tableware is characterized by the production of products such as dinner sets, tea and coffee, and decorative products. This sector has a great importance to the Brazilian economy (responsible for more than 20 thousand jobs. Thus this paper aims to conduct a brief analysis of the key characteristics of the sector which has been struggling against the highly competitive with large corporations and with other countries leading many Brazilian companies to bankruptcy. The methodology is based on the reading of books, theses and articles, written by authors such as Raffestin (1994, Coutinho and Ferraz (1994, Presnell (2006, Belingeri (2005 and others. The analyzes were collected in organs like IBGE, CNAE, ALICEWEB and RAIS.

  1. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  2. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  3. Sectoral Integration of Urban Service Sectors of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abenezer Wakuma Kitila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The urban areas of the developing countries are not only faced with problems of poorly developed physical infrastructure, but they are also suffering from destruction of utility lines. The study explores the integration of urban service sectors of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. The objective has accentuated around stating of the planning approach, challenges in implementation, and effects of poor coordination. It was delimited to four urban sectors namely water supply, telecommunication, transportation and electricity. The findings of the study highlighted that cross sectoral planning approach has not yet adopted and implemented among the urban service sectors of the city due to administrative/political, economic and social factors. Because of this it has been frequently observed that destruction and disruption of utility lines caused by those sectors. The major factors that have contributed to the less likely performance level of the urban sectors are weak institutional arrangements, lack of budget and monitoring by the concerned parties, poor coordination among the sectors in all phases of urban management stages. The study, above all, recommends cross-sectoral planning approach to be adopted and exercised by the urban sectors to plan, organize, implement, monitor and re-plan jointly to minimize costs, energy and time in maintaining infrastructural lines.

  4. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  5. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  6. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    With the purpose of avoiding the installation of new transmission lines, some researches have proposed the installation of SIFLETCA devices. Therefore in this thesis, different models in steady state of diverse SIFLETCA devices are described, such as: compensator variable series (VSC), static compensator of VArs (SCV), transformer phase shifter (TPS), transformer with changer under load (TWCL) and the universal controller of power flows (UCPF). In addition, it is developed in this thesis the equations used in the Jacobean of the method Newton-Raphson, to solve power flows including SIFLETCA devices. The different applications that are obtained when installing a device, such as prevention of flows in ring, electronic barrier, increment in the transmission capacity and specification of the power flow in transmission lines. On the other hand in the thesis, an analysis of sensitivities of a power system in steady state is developed. Also the control parameters are proposed in the thesis for which the sensitivities are calculated. Also, a performance index is used to measure the degree of congestion of an electrical system. In calculating the sensitivities the obtained results of the power flows are utilized. Four electrical networks are used to find where each SIFLETCA device must be located to reduce the congestion in the system. Also, the method developed in the thesis is compared with a method of sensitivities that uses DC flows, for validation and to show the advantages of using the Newton method in power flows. [Spanish] Con el fin de evitar instalar nuevas lineas de transmision, algunos investigadores han propuesto la instalacion de los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Por lo tanto en esta tesis, se describe diferentes modelos en estado estacionario de diversos dispositivos SIFLETCA, siendo: compensador serie variable (CSV), compensador estatico de VArs (CEV), transformador desfasador (TD), transformador con cambiador bajo carga (TTC) y el controlador universal de flujos

  7. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  8. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Aalbers; V. Shestalova; V. Kocsis

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison t

  9. Overview of alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: incentive policies, the current market and future prospects; Panorama das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: politicas de incentivo, mercado atual e perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative (IEI), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian power matrix is among the cleanest in the world due to the large share of hydroelectric generation. In recent years, several efforts have been concentrated in an attempt to diversify the matrix from the insertion of other renewable alternatives sources. The aim of this study is to analyze the state of generation through biomass, wind and small hydropower sources, covered by specific auctions and the Proinfa, and solar energy (photovoltaic and thermal high temperature) in Brazil, besides trends development of these generation sources. (author)

  10. Commitment to Emissions Restrictions of Major Consumers of Electricity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Casarejos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global concerns about climate change that stem from the alarming and unprecedented growth of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, this study discusses the use of energy by large consumers of electricity in Brazil in the perspective of sustainable development, energy resources, and regulatory policies. It evaluates the commitment to emissions restrictions among the major customers of an electricity utility company that serves 4.1 million consumers (68% of the population and 66% of the gross internal product for the second-highest economically developed Brazilian state. The evaluation is based on proposed metrics and indicators. By considering the Brazilian commitment to a policy of sustainable development, this study reviews the primary international agreements and recommendations that have been developed to mitigate and adapt to climate change and sustainability. A survey was developed for participating organizations classified by economic sector to assess their awareness to 18 issues that reflect international guidelines on emission constraints. Based on total energy consumption, the survey discusses the worrying level of GHG emissions (tCO2eq that is associated with the generation of electricity by customers of the largest utility company. In spite of 90% of the organizations having considered sustainability as a business opportunity and a competitive differential that enables niche markets, the results of this study demonstrated low commitment to the desired emissions restrictions.

  11. Energy acquisition in Brazilian captive market: incentives and risks of regulation; Aquisicao de energia no mercado cativo brasileiro: incentivos e riscos da regulacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Monica; Mello, Marina Figueira de; Souza, Reinaldo Castro [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The new regulatory framework in Brazilian electricity sector implemented several changes in the way energy is traded. Energy required by all captive consumers is now centrally purchased by the regulator. Distributors are only responsible for demand estimation in their concession areas. In case estimations prove wrong, distributors are punished differently for under or overestimations. Underestimations are punished harder. In this paper we simulate energy purchasing costs for a hypothetical utility in which random percentages of the forecasted demand are used. We also develop a resampling scheme for the PLD (settlement price), which is used to calculate penalties incurred by utilities. We conclude that, despite a very sophisticated regulatory framework, the system is fragile because changes in the inputs of the NEWAVE software (used to calculate the marginal cost of operations, which directly affects the PLD) yield very different punishment fees for a given (fixed) acquisition strategy.

  12. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles.

  13. An Analysis of the Sources of Earnings Variation among Brazilian Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabos, Marcelo, Psacharopoulos, George

    1991-01-01

    Uses 1980 Brazilian census data to analyze sources of earnings variations, emphasizing the role of education, labor segmentation, geographic location, and sector of economic activity. Results indicate a sizable rate of return to investment in education across labor market segments, especially among rural and self-employed workers. Internal…

  14. The relationship between the industry of natural gas and the sector of electric power: perspectives for the united development of such segments in Bahia; Estudo da industria do gas natural e sua relacao com o setor eletrico na Bahia: perspectivas para uma integracao sinergica entre tais segmentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, Daniel O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Georges S. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Curso de Especializacao em Engenharia do Gas Natural

    2005-07-01

    The industry of natural gas is finding great inter-relationship with the electric power section due to aspects technical, economical and institutional. In Brazil, this world tendency is increasing quickly, above all, starting from the crisis of energy lived by the Country in 2001. In spite of, in spite of being the third producing largest and consume-pain in Brazil, Bahia now is deficient in natural gas, committing the thermal-electricity generation due to lack of this energy one as well as, of the deficiency in the transport and distribution infrastructure. Besides, Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest population without access the electric power. This motivates reflections concerning the potentialities of the natural gas to lessen this situation. Therefore, this work has an objective to evaluate the structures of the industry of the natural gas and the electric section in Bahia and the relationship among these segments. Initially, it tries to present the reasons that it is taking the development of the electric power generation in consonance with the industry of the gas. Soon afterwards, it comes a retrospective abbreviation of the electric power generation in Brazil and in Bahia, emphasizing the recent tendency of use of the natural gas for the thermal-electricity generation. In the following point, it talks about the reservations and production of natural gas and he/she comes the structure of commercialization of gas from the production/importation to the distribution in Brazil and in Bahia. To proceed, the investment plans are evaluated for the enlargement of the production, transport and distribution of natural gas and electricity in Bahia. Finally, the article is concluded being discussed the difficulties and perspectives of increase and integration of the segments of natural gas and electric power in Bahia, tends in view the institutional aspects, technique and economical of a model that influences the use of the natural gas and contribute to the

  15. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  16. Korea : Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Since the financial crisis in 1997-98, Korea has made major progress in financial, and corporate sector reform - the supervisory and regulatory regime for the financial sector has been substantially strengthened, and recent reforms helped achieve a high degree of observance of international standards, and codes. Moreover, significant consolidation in the banking system took place, with ban...

  17. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  18. BNDES CONTRIBUTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOGISTIC SECTOR FOR THE 2014 WORLD CUP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Estender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics have stimulated competition for investments in the infrastructure for the transportation of passengers, and they have demanded the integration of all modals of the Brazilian transport sector. Why is the transportation sector considered fundamental for the economy success and for mega-events as the World Cup and the Olympics? Objective: Capacity of the country in attracting investments, modernization of all transportation hubs and for the logistics. For reorganization of urban and inter-urban mobility, the country counts with one principal player, the BNDES (Brazilian Development Bank. For the comprehensive time period between the years of 2010-2016, it has an investment perspective in logistics that can practically come close to the R$ 130 Billion (Brazilian Real, of this sum 43% comes from funds of the BNDES, 37% comes from the private sector and approximately 20% from public agencies. Dividing by transportation modals and applied in consolidated projects, sea port sector requirements will take roughly R$ 15 Billion (14% of the total sum; the railroad sector will have approximately the equivalent of R$ 56 Billion (52% of the total sum; the air transport project (TAV will take 31 billion (29% and the road sector with about 36 billion (34%. In summary, the direct participation of the BNDES in projects that integrate planning and actions of the public agencies for the resolution of the structural problems in urban centers is a determining factor for the growth of the country.

  19. The vertical division of competences in EU-law. A treatise on the evolution of the community competence in the energy sector as well as the regulation of public service obligations and universal service in the internal electricity market.; Vertikaalinen toimivallanjako EU-oikeudessa. Tutkimus yhteisoen toimivallan kehittymisestae energia-alalla sekae julkisen palvelun velvoitteiden ja yleispalvelun saeaentelystae saehkoen sisaemarkkinoilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Purokoski, A.

    2009-07-01

    policy in the EC Treaty. Notwithstanding this, the Community has been active in this sector since the late 1960's. In most cases the Community's initiative to legislate in the energy sector has been due to wide-ranging developments or events within the Community or worldwide which are not only specific to energy policy, such as the oil crises, the general idea of the internal market, and the development of the Community environmental policy. The scope of application of the Community legislation in the internal market for electricity and gas has become rather extensive, covering currently the opening up of the national markets, the consumers' right to choose their supplier of electricity or gas, the regulation of the national regulatory authorities, and the measures to unbundle the production, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity and gas. There also exists Community legislation on environmental questions in the energy sector, but at this stage, this legislation still leaves a rather wide margin of manoeuvre for the Member States. A new proposal for legislation on green electricity would change this situation by setting legally binding targets for the Member States concerning their share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. Currently the requirements of Community law are less strict in respect of security of energy supply. Taking into consideration the ambiguity of the notion of public service and the fact that its utilisation varies considerably between the national legislations of the Member States, the usage of such a notion in Community law involves risks of misunderstanding and differing interpretations in different Member States. Essentially the Community legislator has left the Member States wide discretion to define their national public service obligations. However, in Directive 2003/54/EC on the internal market for electricity the Community legislator has somewhat limited this discretion. This solution is well

  20. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  1. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  2. [Healthcare value chain: a model for the Brazilian healthcare system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Malik, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    This article presents a model of the healthcare value chain which consists of a schematic representation of the Brazilian healthcare system. The proposed model is adapted for the Brazilian reality and has the scope and flexibility for use in academic activities and analysis of the healthcare sector in Brazil. It places emphasis on three components: the main activities of the value chain, grouped in vertical and horizontal links; the mission of each link and the main value chain flows. The proposed model consists of six vertical and three horizontal links, amounting to nine. These are: knowledge development; supply of products and technologies; healthcare services; financial intermediation; healthcare financing; healthcare consumption; regulation; distribution of healthcare products; and complementary and support services. Four flows can be used to analyze the value chain: knowledge and innovation; products and services; financial; and information.

  3. Demography, vulnerabilities and right to health to Brazilian prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases. The prison becomes the object of differentiated intervention by public bodies linked to the executive and the judiciary - it is worth remarking that the data show the high level of inequalities and health vulnerabilities among the prison population, whose needs involve a set of cross-sector of transverse public policies actions towards penal execution.

  4. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  5. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento del sector servicios en detrimento del sector primario, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y la progresiva incorporación de la mujer a dicho mercado son los cambios más destacados del sector productivo español en los últimos 25 años. Las mujeres en España presentan tasas de desempleo, trabajo temporal y a tiempo parcial mucho mayores que los hombres. Además, las condiciones de acceso al mercado de trabajo y las condiciones en las que éste se desempeña están también muy relacionadas con la clase social. Las mujeres cubren la escasez de servicios públicos destinados al cuidado de las criaturas pequeñas y de las personas mayores o dependientes, y realizan una labor de cuidadoras informales sin reconocimiento social, lo cual les impide el acceso a un puesto de trabajo o su mantenimiento y limita de forma decisiva las posibilidades de desarrollo y progreso profesional. Todo ello indica una clara diferencia con respecto a los hombres en cuanto a la frecuencia de contratos temporales y de tiempo parcial, así como en la segregación laboral, tanto horizontal como vertical. Estos aspectos de segregación son más evidentes en las mujeres de clases sociales menos privilegiadas, en las que se concentran las peores condiciones de acceso al mercado laboral y de trabajo. En España es imprescindible llevar a cabo políticas que ofrezcan servicios que permitan compatibilizar la vida laboral y familiar en condiciones de mayor equidad, tanto en razón de género como de clase social.In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work

  6. Electricity information 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2011 preliminary data. An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2010 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. A greater focus is given to the 34 OECD countries with more detailed information covering production, installed capacity, input energy

  7. The influence of the reactive energy in the electric power sector planning and the need of consolidation of the hourly period for evaluation of the power factor of the loads; A influencia da energia eletrica reativa no planejamento do setor eletrico e a necessidade de consolidacao do periodo horario para avaliacao do fator de potencia das cargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira

    1993-07-01

    Among expectations of optimization of electric power systems and the national electric rating laws, there is the important factors of consumption and transmission of reactive energy which concerns the objectives of electric sector. Related to it, the DNAEE, ELETROBRAS and the concessionaires have been developing studies in order to optimize the electric system performance, and consequently the investments of concessionaires and consumers, reducing costs imposed to society due to the form of consumption and/or compensation of reactive loads. This work shows the evolution and consolidation of tariff studies and electric performance of the system, indicating the ways which attend the expectations os all segments of the society through a small adaptation of present regulations an rules related to reactive energy, making possible the system growing in supply by the minimum cost. The main objective of this work is to reinforce the real necessity of to remain intact all the new regulation of power factor, that has been consolidated by the DNAEE's document number 085/92 and your revaluation document number 613/93, including the interval of hourly integration for reactive energy at the determinate date and show the damages for the society caused by the postponement of this condition, that has been considerate in the document number 613/93, from April 1994 until April 1996, however keeping in 1994 the introduction of the new power factor reference of 0.92. (author)

  8. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  9. Tanzania - Water Sector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  10. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  11. Evaluation of short wave therapy equipment based on brazilian standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Regina Gruber; Pedro Miguel Gewehr

    2006-01-01

    Short Wave Diathermy (SWD) equipment is used in physiotherapy and applied therapeutically using radio frequency (RF) radiation of 27.12 MHz. This article presents the results of a survey related to SWD, showing data about the equipment, conditions of use, visual inspection and analysis of accompanying documents, having as reference the requirements of the Brazilian standards NBR IEC 601-1 and NBR IEC 601-2-3. Electrical safety tests were also carried out for the equipment and the installation...

  12. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  13. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  14. Brazilian energy balance 1996: 1980 to 1995 period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the 1980 to 1995 period. It`s divided into nine chapters, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy import and export; transformation centers balances; energy sources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances 1 fig., 68 graphs., 145 tabs.