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Sample records for brazilian chronically infected

  1. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

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    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

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    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  2. Chronic infections in hip arthroplasties

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    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Thomsen, Reimar W; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two-stage revisi......Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two......-stage revisions for chronic infection in hip arthroplasties....

  3. A prospective study of hepatitis B virus markers in patients with chronic HBV infection from Brazilian families of Western and Asian origin

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    F.J. Carrilho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of hepatitis B virus (HBV markers in families of HBsAg-positive patients with chronic liver disease. Serum anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs were determined by enzyme immunoassay and four subpopulations were considered: genetically related (consanguineous and non-genetically related (non-consanguineous Asian subjects and genetically related and non-genetically related Western subjects. A total of 165 and 186 relatives of Asian and Western origin were enrolled, respectively. The occurrence of HBsAg and anti-HBs antibodies was significantly higher (P < 0.0001 in family members of Asian origin (81.8% than in family members of Western origin (36.5%. HBsAg was also more frequent among brothers (79.6 vs 8.5%; P < 0.0001, children (37.9 vs 3.3%; P < 0.0001 and other family members (33.9 vs 16.7%; P < 0.0007 of Asian than Western origin, respectivelly. No difference between groups was found for anti-HBs, which was more frequently observed in fathers, spouses and other non-genetic relatives. HBV infection was significantly higher in children of Asian than Western mothers (P < 0.0004. In both ethnic groups, the mothers contributed more to their children's infection than the fathers (P < 0.0001. Furthermore, HBsAg was more frequent among consanguineous members and anti-HBs among non-consanguineous members. These results suggest the occurrence of vertical transmission of HBV among consanguineous members and probably horizontal sexual transmission among non-consanguineous members of a family cluster. Thus, the high occurrence of dissemination of HBV infection characterizes family members as a high-risk group that calls for immunoprophylaxis. Finally, the study showed a high familial aggregation rate for both ethnic groups, 18/19 (94.7% and 23/26 (88.5% of the Asian and Western origin, respectively.

  4. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

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    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  5. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

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    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  6. Chronic Hepatitis C: An Overview of Evidence on Epidemiology and Management from a Brazilian Perspective

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    Rodolfo Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C remains one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and presents a variable natural history ranging from minimal changes to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis and its complications, such as development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately, 1.45 million people are estimated to be infected by HCV in Brazil representing a major public health issue. The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis C from a Brazilian perspective. The management of chronic hepatitis C has been challenged by the use of noninvasive methods to stage liver fibrosis as an alternative to liver biopsy and the high cost of new interferon-free antiviral treatments. Moreover, the need of cost-effectiveness analysis in hepatitis C and the recent changes in treatment protocols were discussed.

  7. Occurrence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Brazilians with chronic periodontitis

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    José Roberto Cortelli; Caio Vinícius Gonçalves Roman-Torres; Davi Romeiro Aquino; Gilson Cesar Nobre Franco; Fernando Oliveira Costa; Sheila Cavalca Cortelli

    2010-01-01

    Studies have suggested that A. actinomycetemcomitans is involved in the aetiology of aggressive periodontitis as well as in chronic periodontitis. This study was aimed at elucidating the occurrence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in a Brazilian population with chronic periodontitis. A total of 555 (mean age 33.04 ± 12.45) individuals, living in two large areas of the São Paulo State, namely "Baixada Santista" and "Vale do Paraíba", and diagnosed with mild [180 (mean age 29.59 ± 10.94)], moderate ...

  8. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

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    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  9. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplant patients in a Brazilian referral center

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    T.C.A. Ferrari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection prevalence varies among different studies depending on the prevalence of HBV infection in the study population and on the sensitivity of the assay used to detect HBV DNA. We investigated the prevalence of occult HBV infection in cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation in a Brazilian referral center. Frozen liver samples from 68 adults were analyzed using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HBV DNA. The specificity of the amplified HBV sequences was confirmed by direct sequencing of the amplicons. The patient population comprised 49 (72.1% males and 19 (27.9% females with a median age of 53 years (range=18-67 years. Occult HBV infection was diagnosed in three (4.4% patients. The etiologies of the underlying chronic liver disease in these cases were alcohol abuse, HBV infection, and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Two of the patients with cryptic HBV infection also presented hepatocellular carcinoma. Markers of previous HBV infection were available in two patients with occult HBV infection and were negative in both. In conclusion, using a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay to detect HBV DNA in frozen liver tissue, we found a low prevalence of occult HBV infection in cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplant, probably due to the low prevalence of HBV infection in our population.

  10. Retrovirus infections and Brazilian wild felids

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    Filoni, C.; Catão-Dias, J L; Lutz, H.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are two retroviruses that are deadly to the domestic cat (Felis catus) and important to the conservation of the threatened wild felids worldwide. Differences in the frequencies of occurrence and the existence of varying related viruses among felid species have incited the search for understanding the relationships among hosts and viruses into individual and population levels. Felids infected can die of related diseases or co...

  11. Kobuvirus (Aichivirus B) infection in Brazilian cattle herds.

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    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies involving the detection of Aichivirus B in cattle herds worldwide, and this virus has never been diagnosed in South America. This study evaluated 222 diarrhoeic faecal samples from four Brazilian geographical regions (South, Southeast, Midwest, and North), collected between February 2010 to May 2012. To evaluate the frequency of occurrence in different types of livestock, samples from beef (n = 105) and dairy (n = 117) cattle herds were evaluated. To determine the category of animals more susceptible to infection, the sampling included samples from calves (n = 182) and adults animals (n = 40). The 216 bp fragment of the Aichivirus RdRp gene was amplified by a RT-PCR assay in 18.2 % (40/222) of the samples evaluated in both beef and dairy cattle animals. The highest (P Aichivirus B was found in calves. The nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that the Brazilian Aichivirus B strains clustered in a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree of the European and Asiatic strains. This is the first description of Aichivirus B infection in Brazilian cattle herds. PMID:24590582

  12. Impacto da Haart na prevalência de otite média crônica em crianças brasileiras infectadas pelo HIV Haart impact on prevalence of chronic otitis media in Brazilian HIV-infected children

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    Raimar Weber

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O advento de novas drogas anti-retrovirais como os inibidores de protease provocou mudanças sensíveis na morbidade e mortalidade de pacientes infectados pelo HIV. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o impacto das novas drogas anti-retrovirais (Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy - HAART na prevalência de otite média crônica em população pediátrica infectada pelo HIV. MÉTODOS: Analisamos os prontuários de 471 crianças com idade entre zero e 12 anos e 11 meses portadoras de HIV atendidas no ambulatório de AIDS de Clínica Otorrinolaringológica do HCFMUSP. As crianças foram divididas em dois grupos, de acordo com a faixa etária: 0 a 5 anos e 11 meses e 6 a 12 anos e 11 meses, e classificadas como portadoras de otite média crônica, baseadas em achados de anamnese, otoscopia, audiometria e imitanciometria. As prevalências de otite média crônica apresentadas e as contagens de linfócitos T CD4+ foram comparadas entre as crianças em uso ou não de HAART. RESULTADOS: Das 459 crianças atendidas, 65 (14,2% apresentavam otite média crônica. Observamos, nas crianças de 0 a 5 anos e 11 meses que o uso de HAART esteve associado a significante menor prevalência de otite média crônica (p = 0,02, e maior contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ (p The advent of new antiretroviral drugs such as protease inhibitors has generated sensible changes in morbity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on the prevalence of chronic otitis media in HIV-infected pediatric population. METHODS: We analyzed medical charts of 471 children aged zero to 12 years and 11 months with HIV infection from an Ambulatory of ENT and AIDS. Children were divided according to the age: 0 to 5 years and 11 months and 6 to 12 years and 11 months and classified as having chronic otitis media based on history, physical examination, audiologic and tympanometric data. Prevalence of chronic otitis media, as well as

  13. Babesia bovis infection in cattle in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon.

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    Brito, Luciana G; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Barbieri, Fábio da S; Ribeiro, Elisana S; Vendrami, Fabiano B; Souza, Gislaine C R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Regitano, Luciana C A; Falcoski, Thaís O R S; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Márcia C S

    2013-02-01

    The present study provides the first epidemiological data on infection with Babesia bovis in cattle raised in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Blood clot samples were filtered through nylon cloth before being submitted to DNA extraction. PCR and nested-PCR were applied to assess the frequency of infection with B. bovis in calves with ages from 4 to 12 months bred in 4 microregions each in the states of Rondônia and Acre. After the DNA was extracted from the samples, the infection in cattle was investigated by amplification of the "rap1" gene from B. bovis. The DNA amplification results revealed a frequency of infection with B. bovis of 95.1% (272/286) in the samples from Rondônia and 96.1% (195/203) in those from Acre. The high frequency of B. bovis infection in the animals with ages from 4 to 12 months indicates a situation of enzootic stability in the regions studied. The infection rates are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnostic techniques in other endemic regions of Brazil. PMID:23312480

  14. Hemochromatosis (HFE gene mutations in Brazilian chronic hemodialysis patients

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    F.V. Perícole

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI have reduced hemoglobin levels, mostly as a result of decreased kidney production of erythropoietin, but the relation between renal insufficiency and the magnitude of hemoglobin reduction has not been well defined. Hereditary hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The importance of the association of hemochromatosis with treatment for anemia among patients with CRI has not been well described. We analyzed the frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene in 201 Brazilian individuals with CRI undergoing hemodialysis. The analysis of the effects of HFE mutations on iron metabolism and anemia with biochemical parameters was possible in 118 patients of this study (hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, and serum iron. A C282Y heterozygous mutation was found in 7/201 (3.4% and H63D homozygous and heterozygous mutation were found in 2/201 (1.0% and 46/201 (22.9%, respectively. The allelic frequencies of the HFE mutations (0.017 for C282Y mutation and 0.124 for H63D mutation did not differ between patients with CRI and healthy controls. Regarding the biochemical parameters, no differences were observed between HFE heterozygous and mutation-negative patients, although ferritin levels were not higher among patients with the H63D mutation (P = 0.08. From what we observed in our study, C282Y/H63D HFE gene mutations are not related to degrees of anemia or iron stores in CRI patients receiving intravenous iron supplementation (P > 0.10. Nevertheless, the present data suggest that the H63D mutation may have an important function as a modulating factor of iron overload in these patients.

  15. Pivmecillinam treatment of chronic urinary tract infection.

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    Kalager, T; Bøe, E; Digranes, A; Høisaether, P; Solberg, C O

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with chronic urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam orally three times daily for 10 to 15 days. The diagnosis was confirmed by a history of cystitis or cystopyelitis four to six times annually, microscopy of urine sediment, and growth of pathogens in urine specimens obtained by suprapubic bladder puncture. Three days, three and six weeks after completion of therapy the success rates were 24/28, 20/28 and 19/28 respectively. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated. Two patients developed nausea and vomiting. Other side-effects were not observed. Pivmecillinam is a useful drug in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections. PMID:204581

  16. Eradication Strategies for Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

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    Wilson, Eleanor M P; Tang, Lydia; Kottilil, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection affects >300 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver failure and cancer. Current approaches to treatment for chronic hepatitis B involve suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with the use of nucleoside analogues. Chronic suppressive therapy rarely results in a "functional cure" or absence of detectable HBV DNA in plasma and loss of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen after cessation of therapy. The major obstacles to achieving a functional cure are the presence of covalently closed circular DNA and ineffective/exhaustive immune system. This review focuses on novel approaches to target viral life cycle and host immunity to achieve a functional cure. PMID:27190322

  17. Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes and viral load levels in Brazilian chronically infected patients in São Paulo city Distribuição dos genótipos do vírus da hepatite B e níveis de carga viral em pacientes brasileiros cronicamente infectados na cidade de São Paulo

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    Rosana Alcalde

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the serum viral load in chronically infected Hepatitis B virus (HBV patients and to investigate the distribution of HBV genotypes in São Paulo city. Quantitative HBV-DNA assays and HBV genotyping have gained importance for predicting HBV disease progression, have been employed for assessing infectivity, for treatment monitoring and for detecting the emergence of drug resistance. Twenty-nine Brazilian patients with suspected chronic hepatitis B were studied, using real time PCR for viral load determination and direct DNA sequencing for the genotyping. The serology revealed chronic HBV infection in 22 samples. The HBV-DNA was positive in 68% samples (15/22. The phylogenetic analysis disclosed that eleven patients were infected with HBV genotype A, two with genotype F and two with genotype D. Thus, the genotype A was the most prevalent in our study.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a carga viral no soro de pacientes cronicamente infectados pelo vírus da Hepatite B (HBV e investigar a distribuição de genótipos HBV na cidade de São Paulo. PCR quantitativo do HBV e genotipagem ganharam importância para a previsão de progressão da doença, empregada para avaliar a infectividade, para tratamento e acompanhamento e para detectar o aparecimento de resistência aos anti-retrovirais. Vinte e nove pacientes brasileiros com suspeita de hepatite B crônica foram estudados, utilizando PCR em tempo real para a determinação da carga viral e seqüenciamento direto para determinação do genótipo. A sorologia revelou que 22 estavam, de fato, cronicamente infectados pelo HBV. O HBV-DNA foi positivo em 68% das amostras (15/22. Em sete casos, HBV-DNA foi indetectável por PCR quantitativo. A análise filogenética mostra que onze pacientes foram infectados com hepatite B genótipo A, dois com genótipo F e dois com genótipo D. Desta forma, o genótipo A foi o mais prevalente em nosso estudo.

  18. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Mallia; Joseph Footitt; Rosa Sotero; Annette Jepson; Marco Contoli; Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo; Tatiana Kebadze; Julia Aniscenko; Gregory Oleszkiewicz; Katrina Gray; Message, Simon D.; Kazuhiro Ito; Barnes, Peter J; Adcock, Ian M.; Alberto Papi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections.

  19. Patient concerns regarding chronic hepatitis C infections.

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    Minuk, G Y; Gutkin, A; Wong, S G; Kaita, K D E

    2005-01-01

    Counselling of patients with chronic hepatitis C infections is often limited to discussions regarding how the virus is transmitted and what can be done to decrease the risk of transmission to others. The purpose of the present study was to document the principal concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C, and thereby enhance counselling strategies and content. Seventy newly diagnosed and 115 follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were initially asked in an open-ended manner (volunteered concerns) and then to prioritize from a prepared list of seven potential concerns (prioritized concerns), to identify those concerns that were of utmost importance to them. The most common volunteered concerns of newly diagnosed patients in decreasing order were: disease progression (27%), premature death (19%), infecting family members (13%), side-effects of treatment (11%) and miscellaneous others. In decreasing order, prioritized concerns included: infecting family members, development of liver cancer, infecting others, development of cirrhosis, social stigma of having liver disease, need for liver transplant and loss of employment. The principal volunteered and prioritized concerns of follow-up patients were similar to those of newly diagnosed patients. Volunteered and prioritized concerns were relatively consistent across the different genders, age groups, ethnic backgrounds, education level, marital status, employment, modes of viral acquisition and in the case of follow-up patients, duration of follow-up. These results indicate that health care providers who focus counselling efforts exclusively on viral transmission are unlikely to address other important concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:15655048

  20. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

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    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  1. Chronic bacterial infection models for BRM screening.

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    Dickneite, G; Schorlemmer, H U; Sedlacek, H H

    1984-05-01

    Models of chronic infections have been established to test the therapeutic and prophylactic potency of biological response modifiers (BRM). As an example for a BRM the immunostimulating drug Bestatin was tested. It is of dipeptide nature and was purified from culture supernatants of Streptomyces olivoreticuli. In two chronic bacterial infection models, induced by the inoculation of NRMI mice with Salmonella typhimurium or with a nephropathogenic strain of Escherichia coli, Bestatin acted prophylactically as well as therapeutically. This could be seen from the reduction of bacterial organ colonization and the inhibition of organ lesion formation. Bestatin could be shown to stimulate macrophage activity and to potentiate delayed type hypersensitivity, but not be effective on the humoral immune response. PMID:6383323

  2. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

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    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach.

  3. Establishment of Chronic Infection: Brucella's Stealth Strategy.

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    Ahmed, Waqas; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes zoonotic infection known as brucellosis which results in abortion and infertility in natural host. Humans, especially in low income countries, can acquire infection by direct contact with infected animal or by consumption of animal products and show high morbidity, severe economic losses and public health problems. However for survival, host cells develop complex immune mechanisms to defeat and battle against attacking pathogens and maintain a balance between host resistance and Brucella virulence. On the other hand as a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has evolved multiple strategies to evade immune response mechanisms to establish persistent infection and replication within host. In this review, we mainly summarize the "Stealth" strategies employed by Brucella to modulate innate and the adaptive immune systems, autophagy, apoptosis and possible role of small noncoding RNA in the establishment of chronic infection. The purpose of this review is to give an overview for recent understanding how this pathogen evades immune response mechanisms of host, which will facilitate to understanding the pathogenesis of brucellosis and the development of novel, more effective therapeutic approaches to treat brucellosis. PMID:27014640

  4. Chronic Wounds: The Persistent Infection Problem

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    Nicola Gillian Davis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds heal poorly and can have a huge impact on a sufferer’s life. They are caused by a number of factors, one of which is the presence of persistent infections. Many standard treatments are unsuccessful at destroying these infections as the bacteria form a biofilm. Biofilms encase the bacteria, preventing immune cells from destroying them. There are multiple bacterial species within a biofilm, sometimes with antibiotics resistance, and which species are present changes over time. The changing, multi-species nature of biofilms can make finding an effective antibiotic treatment difficult. Also, bacteria in biofilms genetically differ from planktonic bacteria, and are often less susceptible to antibiotics. Additionally, biofilms are thought to reduce the access of antibiotics to the bacteria within. These reasons are discussed in further detail in this review, along with some of the reasons why bacteria can prevent wound closure.

  5. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    research into bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but these diseases have now been supplemented by a new category of chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilm infections, such as pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients, chronic...... treatment depends on accurate and fast diagnosis. However, in cases where the bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often turns out to be untreatable and will develop into a chronic state. The important hallmarks of chronic biofilm-based infections are extreme resistance...... to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents, and an extreme capacity for evading the host defences. In this thesis, I will assemble the current knowledge on biofilms with an emphasis on chronic infections, guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of these infections, before relating...

  6. Distribution of biotypes and leukotoxic activity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans isolated from Brazilian patients with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetti-Jardim Jr., Elerson; Wahasugui, Thais Cristiane; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2008-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an important etiologic agent of the periodontitis and is associated with extra-oral infections. In this study, the detection of the ltxA gene as well as the ltx promoter region from leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans isolated from 50 Brazilian patients with periodontitis and 50 healthy subjects was performed. The leukotoxic activity on HL-60 cells was also evaluated. Leukotoxic activity was determined using a trypan blue exclusion method. The 530 bp d...

  7. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

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    Miranda Vivian S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012 and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32% were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each. Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%, followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%. Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population.

  8. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis. PMID:26886412

  9. Gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in captive neotropical Brazilian feline

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo; Simone Akemi Uenaka; Maitê Bette Motta; Cristina Harumi Adania; Letícia Yamasaki; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Heli...

  10. Response to treatment in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C is associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism near the interleukin-28B gene

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    Tarciana Grandi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP upstream of interleukin (IL28B was recently identified as an important predictor of the outcome of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the IL28B gene polymorphism (rs12979860 and virological response in chronic hepatitis C patients. Brazilian patients (n = 263 who were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 and were receiving PEG-IFN/RBV were genotyped. Early virological response (EVR (12 weeks, end-of-treatment response (EOTR (48 weeks, sustained virological response (SVR (72 weeks and relapse were evaluated using conventional and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. The frequency of the C allele in the population was 39%. Overall, 43% of patients experienced SVR. The IL28B CC genotype was significantly associated with higher treatment response rates and a lower relapse rate compared to the other genotypes [84% vs. 58% EVR, 92% vs. 63% EOTR, 76% vs. 38% SVR and 17% vs. 40% relapse rate in CC vs. other genotypes (CT and TT, respectively]. Thus, the IL28B genotype appears to be a strong predictor of SVR following PEG-IFN/RBV therapy in treatment-naïve Brazilian patients infected with HCV genotype 1. This study, together with similar research examining other SNPs, should help to define adequate protocols for the treatment of patients infected with HCV genotype 1, especially those with a poor prognosis.

  11. Actinomyces and Nocardia Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi; Aida Doostkam

    2011-01-01

    Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of no...

  12. Chronic hepatitis B infection in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    There are no standard guidelines to follow when apatient with chronic hepatitis B infection becomespregnant or desires pregnancy. Topics to considerinclude which patients to treat, when to start treatment,what treatment to use and when to stop treatment.Without any prophylaxis or antiviral therapy, a hepatitisB surface antigen and E antigen positive mother has upto a 90% likelihood of vertical transmission of hepatitisB virus (HBV) to child. Standard of care in the UnitedStates to prevent perinatal transmission consists ofadministration of hepatitis B immune globulin andHBV vaccination to the infant. The two strongest riskfactors of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBVinfection despite immunoprophylaxis are high maternalHBV viral load and high activity of viral replication.The goal is to prevent transmission of HBV at birthby decreasing viral load and/or decreasing activity ofthe virus. Although it is still somewhat controversial,most evidence shows that starting antivirals in thethird trimester is effective in decreasing MTCT withoutaffecting fetal development. There is a growing body ofliterature supporting the safety and efficacy of antiviraltherapies to reduce MTCT of hepatitis B. There areno formal recommendations regarding which agent tochoose. Tenofovir, lamivudine and telbivudine have allbeen proven efficacious in decreasing viral load at birthwithout known birth defects, but final decision of whichantiviral medication to use will have to be determinedby physician and patient. The antivirals may bediscontinued immediately if patient is breastfeeding, orwithin first four weeks if infant is being formula fed.

  13. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine, ...

  14. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang;

    2012-01-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated by...... importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis....

  15. A Brazilian anuran (Hylodes magalhaesi: Leptodactylidae) infected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: a conservation concern

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, L. F.; Haddad, C. F. B.; Carnaval, A. C. O. Q.; F. B. Britto

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis with anuran population declines worldwide. To date, the fungus has been found in Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe. However, it has never been reported to occur in the Atlantic forest or Brazil. Based on morphological, histological, and molecular data, we encountered evidence of B. dendrobatidis infection in a high-altitude stream-dwelling Brazilian anuran species, Hylodes magalhaesi (Leptodactylidae)....

  16. Endemic hepatitis b and c virus infection in a brazilian eastern amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo El Khouri; Quirino Cordeiro; Diogo Arantes Behling Pereira da Luz; Leandro Savoy Duarte; Mônica Elinor Alves Gama; Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection has been an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. However there are few investigations regarding the prevalence and possible risk factors for these diseases in Brazil, particularly in Amazon region, where there are some endemic focus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the city of Buriticupu, MA, located in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon region, and try to explore the risk factors for th...

  17. Phylogenetic impoverishment of plant communities following chronic human disturbances in the Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Elâine M S; Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Souza, Gustavo; Leal, Inara R

    2016-06-01

    Chronic disturbances, such as selective logging, firewood extraction and extensive grazing, may lead to the taxonomic and phylogenetic impoverishment of remaining old-growth forest communities worldwide; however, the empirical evidence on this topic is limited. We tested this hypothesis in the Caatinga vegetation--a seasonally dry tropical forest restricted to northeast Brazil. We sampled 11,653 individuals (adults, saplings, and seedlings) from 51 species in 29 plots distributed along a gradient of chronic disturbance. The gradient was assessed using a chronic disturbance index (CDI) based on five recognized indicators of chronic disturbances: proximity to urban center, houses and roads and the density of both people and livestock. We used linear models to test if mean effective number of lineages, mean phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic dispersion decreased with CDI and if such relationships differed among ontogenetic stages. As expected, the mean effective number of lineages and the mean phylogenetic distance were negatively related to CDI, and such diversity losses occurred irrespective of ontogeny. Yet the increase in phylogenetic clustering in more disturbed plots was only evident in seedlings and saplings, mostly because clades with more descendent taxa than expected by chance (e.g., Euphorbiaceae) thrived in more disturbed plots. This novel study indicates that chronic human disturbances are promoting the phylogenetic impoverishment of the irreplaceable woody flora of the Brazilian Caatinga forest. The highest impoverishment was observed in seedlings and saplings, indicating that if current chronic disturbances remain, they will result in increasingly poorer phylogenetically forests. This loss of evolutionary history will potentially limit the capacity of this ecosystem to respond to human disturbances (i.e., lower ecological resilience) and particularly their ability to adapt to rapid climatic changes in the region. PMID:27459787

  18. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  19. Invasive fungal infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriet, S.S.V.; Verweij, P.E.; Holland, S.M.; Warris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major threat for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of published invasive fungal infections in the CGD host through an extensive review of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data. In ad

  20. Chronic hepatitis E infection in lung transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Puchhammer-Stockl, Elisabeth; van der Weide, Hinke Y.; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Jaksch, Peter; Bejvl, Isabella; Niesters, Hubert G.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 has been identified in patients with autochthonous HEV infections in developed countries and is currently being recognized as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. HEV infection may lead to a chronic hepatitis in immune-compromised patients. METHODS: We studie

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk of inf...

  2. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S;

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes...

  3. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazza L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267, 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290, and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290. Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001, casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009, injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001, and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05. In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04 and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002. Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009, reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.

  4. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations. PMID:26758658

  5. HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION PROFILE IN CENTRAL BRAZILIAN HEMODIALYSIS POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELES Sheila A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B has proved to be a major health hazard in hemodialysis patients. In order to investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection profile in the hemodialysis population of Goiânia city - Central Brazil, all dialysis patients (N=282 were studied. The prevalence of any HBV marker (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc was 56.7% (95% CI: 51.1-62.7, ranging from 33.3% to 77.7% depending on dialysis unit. HBV-DNA was detected in 67.6% and 88.2% of the HBsAg-positive serum samples, in 91.3% and 100% of the HBsAg/HBeAg-positive samples, and in 18.2% and 63.6% of the HBsAg/anti-HBe-reactive sera by hybridization and PCR, respectively. The length of time on hemodialysis was significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 10% of the patients reported received hepatitis B vaccination. The findings of a high HBV infection prevalence in this population and the increased risk for HBV infection on long-term hemodialysis suggest the environmental transmission, emphasizing the urgent need to evaluate strategies of control and prevention followed in these units.

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    bacteria causing acute exacerbations. Also lung infections like pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema are more often seen in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects. With regard to extrapulmonary infections, it seems that COPD patients are not at higher risk of infection compared with subjects without......This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk of...... infection outside the lungs. With increasing severity of COPD the risk of respiratory tract infection also increases. The impairment of the innate immune system is most likely responsible for both the colonization of respiratory tract with bacteria and for an increased risk of infection with new strains of...

  7. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    L. Strazza; Azevedo, R. S.; H.B. Carvalho; E Massad

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated for variables related to HIV posit...

  8. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  9. Chronic mucus hypersecretion in COPD and death from pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1995-01-01

    The association of chronic mucus hypersecretion and mortality is a matter of debate. We wished to determine whether the relationship between chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related mortality could be explained by proneness to pulmonary infection. We...... followed 14,223 subjects of both sexes for 10-12 yrs. Cases where COPD was an underlying or contributory cause of death (n = 214) were included, and hospital records were obtained when possible (n = 101). From the presence of increased mucus, purulent mucus, fever, leucocytosis and infiltration on chest...... without chronic mucus hypersecretion. Controlling for covariates, in particular smoking habits, a Cox analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between ventilatory function and COPD-related mortality. Chronic mucus hypersecretion was found to be a significant predictor of COPD-related death with...

  10. Hepatitis D virus infection in the Western Brazilian Amazon - far from a vanishing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wornei Silva Miranda Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A decline in hepatitis D virus (HDV occurrence was described in Europe and Asia. We estimated HDV prevalence in the Brazilian Amazon following hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of HDV measured by total antibodies to HDV (anti-HD T. RESULTS: HDV prevalence was 41.9% whiting HBsAg carries and was associated with age (PR = 1.96; 95% CI 1.12-3.42; p = 0.01, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection (PR = 4.38; 95% CI 3.12-6.13; p < 0.001, and clinical hepatitis (PR =1.44; 95% CI 1.03-2.00; p = 0.03. Risk factors were related to HDV biology, clinical or demographic aspects such as underlying HBV infection, clinical hepatitis and age. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that HDV infection continues to be an important health issue in the Brazilian Amazon and that the implementation of the HBV vaccination in rural Lábrea had little or no impact on the spread of HDV. This shows that HDV has not yet disappeared from HBV hyperendemic areas and reminding that it is far from being a vanishing disease in the Amazon basin.

  11. Recurrent Granulibacter bethesdensis Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David E.; Shoffner, Adam R.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Fenster, Michael E.; Zarember, Kol A.; Stock, Frida; Ding, Li; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly R.; Wasserman, Richard L.; Welch, David F.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Sturdevant, Dan E.; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Murray, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by frequent infections, most of which are curable. Granulibacter bethesdensis is an emerging pathogen in patients with CGD that causes fever and necrotizing lymphadenitis. However, unlike typical CGD organisms, this organism can cause relapse after clinical quiescence. To better define whether infections were newly acquired or recrudesced, we use comparative bacterial genomic hybridization to characterize 11 isolates obtained from 5 patient...

  12. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms: role in chronic airway infections

    OpenAIRE

    Swords, W. Edward

    2012-01-01

    Like many pathogens inhabiting mucosal surfaces, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) forms multicellular biofilm communities both in vitro and in various infection models. In the past 15 years much has been learned about determinants of biofilm formation by this organism and potential roles in bacterial virulence, especially in the context of chronic and recurrent infections. However, this concept has not been without some degree of controversy, and in the past some have expressed doubt...

  13. Case 1: chronic infected donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Following a coronary bypass surgery, a vein donor site became infected and failed to heal despite use of antibiotics and a variety of topical treatments. Octenilin Wound Gel not only helped to promote healing, but also increased the patient's ability to tolerate dressing changes. PMID:26949845

  14. Regulatory T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N. Stoop (Jeroen Nicolaas)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide 400 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 1 million people die annually from HBV-related disease. To clear HBV, an effective immune response, in which several cell types and cytokines play a role, is important. It is known that p

  15. Raising awareness of chronic kidney disease in a Brazilian urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazza Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease have been increasing in recent years in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the results of a general chronic kidney disease awareness program applied to an urban population in a large Brazilian city. From January 2002 to January 2005 a total of 8883 individuals in the city of Curitiba (PR, Brazil were screened for hypertension, body mass index, hematuria, and proteinuria. A family history and previous medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM were also recorded. Of the 8883 individuals assessed, 56% were women, subject median age was 47 years (range: 17-93 years and more than 90% were Caucasian. Thirty percent had signs of hematuria, 6% had proteinuria, and 3% had hematuria and proteinuria. The median of mean arterial pressure values was 93 mmHg (range: 71-135 mmHg and 16% of the population screened had a history of hypertension. A significant positive family history of both hypertension or DM was present in 42% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 83.18 and 7% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 161.31 of the hypertensive group, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was significantly higher in older individuals with proteinuria. In the present study, a higher prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria was found in older individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared to the general population. These data confirm the need for public awareness of renal disease in high-risk individuals.

  16. FAS and FASL Gene Polymorphisms Are Not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection Based on a Case-Control Study in a Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FAS and FASL genes with the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods. Blood samples were collected from 116 HBV-infected patients at the Hospital of the Santa Casa de Misericordia Foundation (Belém, PA, Brazil. Seronegative individuals were used as controls. DNA samples were extracted from the leukocytes and assayed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by RFLP analysis with restriction endonucleases. Results. The frequencies of the mutant genotypes for -670FAS (GG, Ivs2nt-124FASL (GG, Ivs3nt-169FASL (ΔT/ΔT, and -844FASL (TT were higher in the HBV patients, and the FAS-1377AA genotype was more frequent in the control group; however, the differences between the allele and genotype frequencies were not statistically significant. When the HBV patient population was divided into two groups (inactive carriers and active chronic hepatitis patients, the mutant genotypes were found to be more prevalent in the active chronic hepatitis group with respect to the FAS gene polymorphisms; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The results suggest that the polymorphisms in FAS and FASL genes are not associated with HBV infection or even with the natural history of the infection in the Brazilian Amazon region.

  17. [Hepatitis A virus infection in Amerindian area in the east Brazilian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Silva, Helena Maria Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus infection represents an important problem of public health all over the world, being related to the socioeconomic and hygienic conditions of the population. In Brazilian Amazon, seroepidemiological studies in amerindians populations have been demonstrating high endemicity related to the infection. With the objective of evaluate the prevalence of the hepatitis virus A infection in xicrin village, in the municipality district of Altamira-Pará-Brazil, whose investigation was unchained by indigenous child's obit, that clinical developed in nine days with a picture icterus-hemorrhagic, without confirmation by serologic exams, 352 samples of blood were analyzed by serologic tests of the markers of the hepatitis A, B, C and D virus, for immunoenzymatic technic, that indicated a prevalence of 98% of antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, which 30.5% with recent infection, characterizing in laboratorial basis, the outbreak of infection for the virus of the hepatitis A and raising the possibility to be associated with the obit happened in the village. PMID:15586897

  18. Brazilian vaccinia virus strains show a classical orthopoxvirus in-fection course and cross-protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betania Paiva Drumond; Jonatas Santos Abraho; Zlia Ins Portela Lobato; Cludio Antonio Bonjardim; Paulo Csar Peregrino Ferreira; Erna Geessien Kroon

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:The purpose of this work was to study the infection course and cross-protection in mice after intra-dermal injection of Vaccinia virus (VACV ) strain Western Reserve and three Brazilian VACV strains:Araatuba,Muriaéand BeAn58058 isolated from cow,human and rodent,respectively.Methods:Balb /c mice were inoculated by footpad and back scarification and daily monitored regarding lesion development and weight loss.To check cross protection after intradermal VACV inoculation,mice were subsequently infected with different VACV strains and monitored to check lesion development.Serum neutralization assays were per-formed to check for the presence of antibodies against Orthopoxvirus.Results:After VACV intradermal inocu-lation the lesion development pattern was similar in mice infected with the different virus strains.By using the footpad scarification model,cross-protection among VACV strains was observed.Moreover,neutralizing anti-bodies against Orthopoxvirus were detected in sera from mice infected with all VACV strains.Conclusion:Al-though it was not possible to observe virulence differences among VACV strains isolated from cow,rodent and human using the murine model,this inoculation route showed to be an appropriated model to study lesions de-velopment since it mimics natural infections by VACV in nature.

  19. cagA positive Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian children related to chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Lobo Gatti; Roger de Lábio; Luiz Carlos da Silva; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Spencer Luiz Marques Payão

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. It colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and persists for decades if not treated. Helicobacter pylori infection affects more than half of the world's population and invariably results in chronic gastritis. The cagA gene is present in about 60 to 70% of H. pylori strains; it encodes a high-molecular-weight protein (120 to 140 kDa) and several investigators have noted a correlation between strains that possess cagA and the severit...

  20. The Role of Bacterial Biofilms in Chronic Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Danh Cong

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm is the virulence factor that is responsible for chronic infection in diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and chronic wounds. In this thesis, we examine the role of AlgX, a required protein for alginate biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa. We show that the absence of AlgX resulted in the loss of mucoidy and in silico studies demonstrated that AlgX binds alginate. Alanine mutations demonstrated that K396, T398, W400, and R406 are important for alginate binding. Alginate rescue assays confir...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide modification in Gram-negative bacteria during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488

  2. Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane M Piranda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1 was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2 was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3 was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

  3. Attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício O. Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To measure the attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics that are more likely to influence these attitudes and beliefs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 100 Brazilian physical therapists who routinely work with chronic low back pain patients. The attitudes and beliefs were measured by the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS.PT and the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS. Multivariate linear regression models were built to identify sociodemographic characteristics that could be associated with physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Mean scores on the biomedical and biopsychosocial factors of PABS.PT were 27.06 (SD 7.19 and 24.34 (SD 6.31, respectively, and the mean score on HC-PAIRS was 45.45 (SD 10.45. The score on PABS.PTbiomedical was associated with gender and years of professional experience. No variable was associated with the score on PABS.PTbiopsychosocial. The score on HC-PAIRS was significantly associated with the number of back pain patients seen by the physical therapist each month. These results indicate that male and less experienced physical therapists tend to follow a biomedical approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain patients, and that the lower the professional experience the stronger the belief in the relationship between pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian physical therapists are uncertain of the factors involved in the development and maintenance of chronic low back pain and about the relationship between pain and disability in these patients.

  4. Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy in ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi

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    Witte, M.; McNeill, G.; Crandall, C.; Case, T.; Witte, C.; Crandall, R.; Hall, J.; Williams, W.

    1988-12-01

    Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy was performed after intradermal injection of /sup 99m/technetium human serum albumin or antimony colloid in the distal hindlimbs and forelimbs of ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi. The findings were compared with control ferrets and those with surgical interruption of the iliac lymphatics. While only one infected ferret manifested chronic hindlimb lymphedema, all exhibited delayed transport of radioisotope from the hindpaw with obstruction in the groin, poor or absent visualization of central lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes, a picture similar to that following surgically induced lymphatic obstruction. In control ferrets, there was prompt visualization of peripheral lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes with sharper and more extensive channel visualization after radiolabeled albumin and more intense sustained nodal visualization after radiolabeled antimony colloid. This noninvasive technique provides a readily repeatable investigative tool adaptable to small animals to study the evolution of lymphatic filariasis and other conditions associated with lymphatic obstruction.

  5. Poliovirus mutants excreted by a chronically infected hypogammaglobulinemic patient establish persistent infections in human intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunodeficient patients whose gut is chronically infected by vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) may excrete large amounts of virus for years. To investigate how poliovirus (PV) establishes chronic infections in the gut, we tested whether it is possible to establish persistent VDPV infections in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Four type 3 VDPV mutants, representative of the viral evolution in the gut of a hypogammaglobulinemic patient over almost 2 years [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 3001], were used to infect both undifferentiated, dividing cells, and differentiated, polarized enterocytes. A VDPV mutant excreted 36 days postvaccination by the patient was lytic in both types of intestinal cell cultures, like the parental Sabin 3 (S3) strain. In contrast, three VDPVs excreted 136, 442, and 637 days postvaccination, established persistent infections both in undifferentiated cells and in enterocytes. Thus, viral determinants selected between day 36 and 136 conferred on VDPV mutants the capacity to infect intestinal cells persistently. The percentage of persistently VDPV-infected cultures was higher in enterocytes than in undifferentiated cells, implicating cellular determinants involved in the differentiation of enterocytes in persistent VDPV infections. The establishment of persistent infections in enterocytes was not due to poor replication of VDPVs in these cells, but was associated with reduced viral adsorption to the cell surface

  6. Association between Celiac Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Radha K. Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occu...

  7. Nutrition Issues in Chronic Drug Users Living With HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Kristy; Gorbach, Sherwood

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and chronic drug abuse both compromise nutritional status. For individuals with both disorders, the combined effects on wasting, the nutritional consequence that is most closely linked to mortality, appear to be synergistic. Substance abuse clinicians can improve and extend patients’ lives by recommending healthy diets; observing and assessing for food insecurity, nutritional deficits, signs of weight loss and wasting, body composition changes, and...

  8. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  9. Endothelial Dysfunction Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Barone; Maria Teresa Viggiani; Annabianca Amoruso; Serafina Schiraldi; Annapaola Zito; Fiorella Devito; Francesca Cortese; Michele Gesualdo; Natale Brunetti; Alfredo Di Leo; Pietro Scicchitano; Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient...

  10. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic

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    S.N. Slavov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil.

  11. Diagnosis and clinic-pathological findings of influenza virus infection in Brazilian pigs

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    Daniela S. Rajão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a respiratory pathogen of pigs and is associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC, along with other respiratory infectious agents. The aim of this study was to diagnose and to perform a clinic-pathological characterization of influenza virus infection in Brazilian pigs. Lung samples from 86 pigs in 37 farrow-to-finish and two farrow-to-feeder operations located in the States of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Mato Grosso were studied. Virus detection was performed by virus isolation and quantitative real time reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. Pathologic examination and immunohistochemistry (IHC were performed in 60 lung formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue fragments. Affected animals showed coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, hyperthermia, inactivity, apathy, anorexia, weight loss and growth delay, which lasted for five to 10 days. Influenza virus was isolated from 31 (36.0% lung samples and 36 (41.9% were positive for qRT-PCR. Thirty-eight (63.3% lung samples were positive by IHC and the most frequent microscopic lesion observed was inflammatory infiltrate in the alveoli, bronchiole, or bronchi wall or lumen (76.7%. These results indicate that influenza virus is circulating and causing disease in pigs in several Brazilian states.

  12. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, S.N.; Otaguiri, K.K.; Kashima, S.; Covas, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil. PMID:27143174

  13. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

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    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  14. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

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    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  15. Characterization of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in western Brazilian Amazonia

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    Flamir da Silva Victoria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with 55 patients native from western Brazilian Amazonia, who were HBV-DNA positive after seroconversion of HBeAg. It is a descriptive case study, with the patients separated into two groups: with hepatitis and without hepatitis on histological examination. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients who are chronic carriers of HBsAg. The prevalence of hepatitis was 63.64%, with a predominance of males (41.82% and a mean age of 42.5 years, occurring mostly in natives of the southeast sub-region (32.73%. Time was a variable proportional to the course of the disease and the most frequent symptoms were: dyspepsia, asthenia and loss of libido with the majority of the patients having history of prior contact with HBV or positive family history. Splenomegalia was the most frequent sign (40%. Among the tests, platelet count, serum albumin and prothrombin activity were significant in the diagnosis of hepatitis. Alpha-fetoprotein was greater in patients with hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma was detected in 3.63% of the patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Three types of HBV genotypes were diagnosed: A, D and F in the samples amplified for gene S. Genotype A (AA was observed in 54.54% of the cases with hepatitis, in contrast to other studies showing the predominance of genotype F in this region. We observed mutations in 36.36%, with a predominance of the mutations in the core promoter region (31.81%, due to the greater prevalence of genotype A in this study.

  16. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Induction due to Infection: A Patient with Infective Endocarditis and Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Fareed B; Hawkins, T Lee-Ann

    2016-01-01

    While antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is often used as a diagnostic marker for certain vasculitides, ANCA induction in the setting of infection is much less common. In the case of infective endocarditis, patients may present with multisystem disturbances resembling an autoimmune process, cases that may be rendered even trickier to diagnose in the face of a positive ANCA. Though not always straightforward, distinguishing an infective from an inflammatory process is pivotal in order to guide appropriate therapy. We describe an encounter with a 43-year-old male with chronically untreated hepatitis C virus infection who featured ANCA positivity while hospitalized with acute bacterial endocarditis. His case serves as a reminder of two of the few infections known to uncommonly generate ANCA positivity. We also summarize previously reported cases of ANCA positivity in the context of endocarditis and hepatitis C infections. PMID:27366166

  17. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacoub, Patrice; Comarmond, Cloe; Domont, Fanny; Savey, Léa; Desbois, Anne C; Saadoun, David

    2016-02-01

    During hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection, extrahepatic manifestations are frequent and polymorphous. This article reports on a large cohort of patients with HCV-related autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. The relationship between HCV infection and such immune-related diseases has been formally demonstrated by epidemiological, clinical, immunological and pathological data, and results of therapeutic trials. More recently, other nonliver-related HCV disorders have been reported, including cardiovascular (i.e. stroke, ischemic heart disease), renal, metabolic and central nervous system diseases. For these manifestations, most evidence comes from large epidemiological studies; there is a need for mechanistic studies and therapeutic trials for confirmation. Beyond the risk of developing liver complications, that is, cirrhosis and liver cancer, patients with HCV infection have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality related to nonliver diseases. HCV chronic infection should be analyzed as a systemic disease in which extrahepatic consequences increase the weight of its pathological burden. The need for effective viral eradication measures is underlined. PMID:26862398

  18. E-Learning Practices on Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI: Report of Brazilian Experience

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    Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a teaching and learning environment, on-line and free, to provide technical information with health professional team from Epidemiological Health Surveillance and Nosocomial Infection Control Groups in Brazil. The first Brazilian experience of e-learning was carried out through a partnership between the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA and Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP. The course supported by different approaches: internet, telephone, books and CD (compact disk. The course had five topics: legislation, epidemiological surveillance, investigation of outbreaks and prevention of infections, occupational risk and isolation, with 20 days each topic and 250 h. Each topic finished with an evaluation and one classroom course. The student’s number was 236, with 188 selected, 97.7% enrolled in the course and with 3% of non-approval. The students characteristics were: mean age 41.9 years, female gender majority 84.50 and 54.3% nursing, 15.9% physicians and 10.4% pharmacists. In Brazil, with difficulties to have access to knowledge opportunities, HAI’s course would be an alternative to teach about infection control.

  19. Should body mass index be adjusted for relative sitting height in cross-sectional studies of chronic diseases in Japanese-Brazilians?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The current article aimed to verify the degree of agreement in classification of nutritional status according to body mass index (BMI) and corrected body mass index (BMIc). Data were used from a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians. Statistical analysis provided prevalence rates for chronic diseases, kappa statistic, and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Some 5.9% of Japanese-Brazilians were discordant according to the BMI and BMIc classifications. The weighted kappa statistic...

  20. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection

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    Vogel Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

  1. Actinomyces and Nocardia infections in chronic granulomatous disease

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    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of nocardiosis and actinomycosis involved in a group of pediatric patients diagnosed with CGD. Materials and Methods: The clinical presentation of CGD-related infections was reviewed retrospectively from the medical records of all 12 patients with CGD. We studied respectively 12 patients between 2001 and 2008, and we analyzed two pediatric patients with CGD who acquired Nocardia and Actinomyces infections, and their clinical and microbiological characteristics were described. The material for investigations was collected from scrapings, crusts, pus from subcutaneous abscesses or exudation from sinus tracts, surgical debridement, and biopsy specimens. The microbiological diagnosis was determined by biochemical tests, histology, microscopy, and culture of clinical samples. Results: The medical records of 12 diagnosed CGD patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomycosis and one patient with nocardiosis. Patients consisted of seven males and five females with ranging ages of 3 to 18 years. Nocardiosis and actinomycosis isolated in the two patients were confirmed by histology and culture methods. Neutrophil oxidative burst were absent (NBT=0 in both patients. The most common manifestations of CGD due to fungal infections, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis were osteomyelitis (42.8%, pulmonary infections (28.6%, lymphadenopathy (14.3%, and skin involvement (14.3% during their illness. Conclusion: Nocardiosis

  2. HEPATITIS B, C AND HIV CO-INFECTIONS SEROPREVALENCE IN A NORTHEAST BRAZILIAN CENTER

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    Lara Gurgel Fernandes TAVORA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The occurrence of HIV and hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV virus associations is of great concern since co-infected patients respond poorly to antiviral treatment and usually progress to chronic and more complicated hepatic disease. In Brazil, these co-infections prevalence is not well known since published data are few and sometimes demonstrate conflicting results. Also, a significant number of co-infected individuals are HBV/HCV asymptomatic carriers, leading to under notification. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of the HBV and HCV infection in a recently diagnosed HIV population in the state of Ceará/Brazil. Methods Retrospective cohort, with >18yo patients diagnosed HIV+ from 2008-2010. First year medical attention information was collected. Results A total of 1.291 HIV+ patients were included. HBV serologies were collected in 52% (23% had previous hepatitis B, 3.7% were co-infected and HCV in 25.4% (1.5% had previous hepatitis C, 5.4% co-infection. The majority of HBV/HIV patients referred multiple sexual partners/year, 28% homosexualism and 20% bisexualism. In the HCV/HIV group 38.8% individuals had > one sexual partner/year and 22.2% used intravenous drugs. Conclusion The study reinforce the need for better training healthcare workers and providing laboratory support for a prompt hepatitis diagnosis and adequate medical management to avoid complications and decrease viral spread.

  3. High prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a Brazilian prison: identification of risk factors for infection

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    Thaís Guimarães

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes infectious hepatitis worldwide. It is transmitted mainly by blood products and sharing of intravenous paraphernalia during illicit drug use. High prevalence rates have been described among specific groups considered to be at higher risk for HCV infection, including prison inmates. The objectives of this study were: to determine the HCV seroprevalence among inmates of Casa de Detenção de São Paulo; to identify risk factors for HCV infection; and to compare the seroprevalence of HCV to other blood borne or sexually transmitted diseases. From December, 1993, to January, 1994, a total of 779 inmates were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, and past experience with illicit drugs. Blood samples were obtained from 756 inmates for serological tests. 310 (41% blood samples were positive for anti-HCV, 425 (56.2% were negative, and 21 (2.8% showed indeterminate results. In this population, we found a seroprevalence of 13.7% for HIV, 3.3% for syphilis (VDRL, and 68.1% for hepatitis B virus previous infection. Four variables were each identified as associated with a positive anti-HCV serologic test: a positive VDRL (OR = 2.63 IC 95% 1.08 to 6.36; a time of current imprisonment longer than 130 months (OR = 2.44 IC 95% 1.04 to 5.71; previous incarceration at Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.73 IC 95% 1.19 to 2.52 and; illicit drug use before admission to the Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.64 IC 95% 1.15 to 2.33. The seroprevalence of HCV antibodies among the study population was high (41%, indeed, one of the highest clusters of HCV infection recorded until now. Four variables were each shown to be associated with HCV infection. The simultaneous presence of these 4 variables is associated with an 82% probability of being anti-HCV positive. Although risk factor analysis indicates most HCV infections occur prior to inprisonment, initiation of control measures to prevent

  4. Phagocyte NADPH oxidase, chronic granulomatous disease and mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffert, Christine; Cachat, Julien; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2014-08-01

    Infection of humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains frequent and may still lead to death. After primary infection, the immune system is often able to control M. tuberculosis infection over a prolonged latency period, but a decrease in immune function (from HIV to immunosenescence) leads to active disease. Available vaccines against tuberculosis are restricted to BCG, a live vaccine with an attenuated strain of M. bovis. Immunodeficiency may not only be associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis, but also with local or disseminated BCG infection. Genetic deficiency in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2 is called chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). CGD is among the most common primary immune deficiencies. Here we review our knowledge on the importance of NOX2-derived ROS in mycobacterial infection. A literature review suggests that human CGD patient frequently have an increased susceptibility to BCG and to M. tuberculosis. In vitro studies and experiments with CGD mice are incomplete and yielded - at least in part - contradictory results. Thus, although observations in human CGD patients leave little doubt about the role of NOX2 in the control of mycobacteria, further studies will be necessary to unequivocally define and understand the role of ROS. PMID:24916152

  5. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

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    Fahad Haroon

    Full Text Available Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+ imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host.

  6. High frequency of Fredrickson's phenotypes IV and IIb in Brazilians infected by human immunodeficiency virus

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    Oliveira Helena CF

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is very prevalent in Brazil. HIV therapy has been recently associated with coronary heart disease (CHD. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for CHD that is frequently described in HIV positive patients, but very few studies have been conducted in Brazilian patients evaluating their lipid profiles. Methods In the present work, we evaluated the frequency and severity of dyslipidemia in 257 Brazilian HIV positive patients. Two hundred and thirty-eight (93% were submitted to antiretroviral therapy (224 treated with protease inhibitors plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 14 treated only with the latter, 12 naive and 7 had no records of treatment. The average time on drug treatment with antiretroviral therapy was 20 months. None of the patients was under lipid lowering drugs. Cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and free fatty acids were determined by enzymatic colorimetric methods. Lipoprotein profile was estimated by the Friedewald formula and Fredrickson's phenotyping was obtained by serum electrophoresis on agarose. Apolipoprotein B and AI and lipoprotein "a" were measured by nephelometry. Results The Fredrickson phenotypes were: type IIb (51%, IV (41%, IIa (7%. In addition one patient was type III and another type V. Thirty-three percent of all HIV+ patients presented serum cholesterol levels ≥ 200 mg/dL, 61% LDL-cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL, 65% HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dL, 46% triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL and 10% have all these parameters above the limits. Eighty-six percent of patients had cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio ≥ 3.5, 22% increased lipoprotein "a", 79% increased free fatty acids and 9% increased phospholipids. The treatment with protease inhibitors plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors increased the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in these patients when compared with naïve patients. The HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.01 and

  7. Assesment of mineral metabolism in patients with HIV-infection, chronic hepatitis с and co-infection HIV/ chronic hepatitis С

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    Yurko Е.М.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Evaluate the indicators of mineral metabolism in HIV-infected patients, patients with chronic hepatitis С and co-infection HIV/HCV. Material and Methods: The content of microelements (zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe in serum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The study involved 99 patients: with chronic hepatitis С — 32 patients, with HIV infection — 34 and co-infection of HIV/HCV — 33 patients. Results: Microelements and metal-dependent proteins metabolic disorders as a reduction of the zinc, haptoglobin contents, and an increase of copper, iron, and ceruloplasmin contents were identified in patients with chronic hepatitis С In HIV-infected patients and patients with co-infection HIV/HCV were identified reducing zinc, copper, iron, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin. in patients with co-infection HIV/HCV compared HIV-infected patients lower zinc, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin contents (p<0,001 were detected. In patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, as compared with a group of chronic hepatitis С were set lower values of all parameters (p<0,001. Conclusion: Integrated assessment of the degree of deviation from the control of the trace element content and activity metal-dependent enzymes showed that its highest significance was typical for patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, which is higher than that of HIV-infected patients in the 1,2-fold and 2,2-fold in patients with chronic hepatitis С

  8. Epidemiology of fungal infections in liver transplant recipients: a six-year study of a large Brazilian liver transplantation centre

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    Michelle Zicker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplant seems to be an effective option to prolong survival in patients with end-stage liver disease, although it still can be followed by serious complications. Invasive fungal infections (ifi are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of fungal infections in Brazilian liver transplant recipients is unknown. The aim of this observational and retrospective study was to determine the incidence and epidemiology of fungal infections in all patients who underwent liver transplantation at Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital between 2002-2007. A total of 596 liver transplants were performed in 540 patients. Overall, 77 fungal infections occurred in 68 (13% patients. Among the 77 fungal infections, there were 40 IFI that occurred in 37 patients (7%. Candida and Aspergillus species were the most common etiologic agents. Candida species accounted for 82% of all fungal infections and for 67% of all IFI, while Aspergillus species accounted for 9% of all fungal infections and for 17% of all IFI. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant Candida isolates. Invasive aspergillosis tended to occur earlier in the post-transplant period. These findings can contribute to improve antifungal prophylaxis and therapy practices in Brazilian centres.

  9. Asymptomatic infection in individuals from the municipality of Barcelos (Brazilian Amazon is not associated with the anti-Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI antibodies (Abs may reflect and mediate, at least partially, anti-disease immunity in malaria by neutralising the toxic effect of parasitic GPI. Thus, we assessed the anti-GPI Ab response in asymptomatic individuals living in an area of the Brazilian Amazon that has a high level of malaria transmission. For comparative purposes, we also investigated the Ab response to a crude extract prepared from Plasmodium falciparum, the merozoite surface protein (MSP3 antigen of P. falciparum and the MSP 1 antigen of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1-19 in these individuals and in Angolan patients with acute malaria. Our data suggest that the Ab response against P. falciparum GPI is not associated with P. falciparum asymptomatic infection in individuals who have been chronically exposed to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. However, this Ab response could be related to ongoing parasitaemia (as was previously shown in the Angolan patients. In addition, our data show that PvMSP1-19may be a good marker antigen to reflect previous exposure to Plasmodium in areas that have a high transmission rate of P. vivax.

  10. Aureobasidium pullulans infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprophytic fungi are being increasingly recognized as etiologic agents of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous infiltration by Aureobasidium pullulans, likely due to traumatic inoculation, in a neutropenic patient during chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate but was subsequently switched to itraconazole, which improved the lesion. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual fungal infections in critically ill patients such as those who are immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy. Diagnostic techniques and effective antifungal therapy have improved the prognosis of these cases.

  11. Brazilian experience in EU-CORE: daptomycin registry and treatment of serious Gram-positive infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Timerman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To collect data about non-controlled prescribing use of daptomycin and its impact among Brazilian patients with serious Gram positive bacterial infection, as well as the efficacy and safety outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional registry (August 01, 2009 to June 30, 2011 to collect data on 120 patients (44 patients in the first year and 76 patients in the second year who had received at least one dose of commercial daptomycin in Brazil for the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infection. RESULTS: Right-sided endocarditis (15.8%, complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIwound (15.0% and bacteremia-catheter-related (14.2% were the most frequent primary infections; lung (21.7% was the most common site for infection. Daptomycin was used empirically in 76 (63.3% patients, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was the most common suspected pathogen (86.1%. 82.5% of the cultures were obtained prior to or shortly after initiation of daptomycin therapy. Staphylococcus spp. - coagulase negative, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were the most frequently identified pathogens (23.8%, 23.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The most common daptomycin dose administered for bacteremia and cSSTI was 6 mg/kg (30.6% and 4 mg/kg (51.7%, respectively. The median duration of inpatient daptomycin therapy was 14 days. Most patients (57.1% did not receive daptomycin while in intensive care unit. Carbapenem (22.5% was the most commonly used antibiotic concomitantly. The patients showed clinical improvement after two days (median following the start of daptomycin therapy. The clinical success rate was 80.8% and the overall rate of treatment failure was 10.8%. The main reasons for daptomycin discontinuation were successful end of therapy (75.8%, switched therapy (11.7%, and treatment failure (4.2%. Daptomycin demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile

  12. Pathogenesis of occult chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio Aller de la Fuente; María L Gutiérrez; Javier Garcia-Samaniego; Conrado Fernández-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledó; Gregorio Castellano

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns. Occult HBV status is associated in some cases with mutant viruses undetectable by HBsAg assays; but more frequently it is due to a strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression. OBI is an entity with world-wide diffusion. The failure to detect HBsAg, despite the persistence of the viral DNA, is due in most cases to the strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression that characterizes this "occult" HBV infection; although the mechanisms responsible for suppression of HBV are not well understood. The majority of OBI cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low viremia level suppressed by a strong immune response together with histological derangements which occurred during acute or chronic HBV infection. Much evidence suggests that it can favour the progression of liver fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter; Georgsen, Jørgen; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Riisom, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Svend Erik Hove; Schouenborg, Per; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies.......It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  14. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute Burn and Chronic Surgical Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Keith H.; Jake Everett; Urvish Trivedi; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Marvin Whiteley

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in ...

  15. Effect of chronic morphine administration on circulating dendritic cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, William D; Wagner, Wendeline; Lewis, Mark G; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Rappaport, Jay; Rogers, Thomas J

    2016-06-15

    We studied the effect of chronic morphine administration on the circulating dendritic cell population dynamics associated with SIV infection using rhesus macaques. Animals were either first infected with SIV and then given chronic morphine, or visa versa. SIV infection increased the numbers of myeloid DCs (mDCs), but morphine treatment attenuated this mDC expansion. In contrast, morphine increased the numbers of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in SIV-infected animals. Finally, chronic morphine administration (no SIV) transiently increased the numbers of circulating pDCs. These results show that chronic morphine induces a significant alteration in the available circulating levels of critical antigen-presenting cells. PMID:27235346

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ling Tao; Xue-mei Li; Xue-wang Li; Jie Ma; Guang-li Ge; Li-meng Chen; Hang Li; Bao-tong Zhou; Yang Sun; Wen-ling Ye; Qi Miao

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endo-carditis.Methods The clinical features of six such patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hos-pital during the year 1990 to 2009 were analyzed. All of them were diagnosed based on Chinese Children Diagnostic Criteria for Infective Endocarditis.Results The average age of the six patients was 52.3±19.3 years old. Four were males. Vascular ac-cesses at the onset of infective endocarditis were as follows: permanent catheters in three, temporary cathe-ters in two, and arteriovenous fistula in one. Three were found with mitral valve involvement, two with aor-tic valve involvement, and one with both. Five vegetations were found by transthoraeic echocardiography, and one by transesophageal echocardiography. Four had positive blood culture results. The catheters were all removed. Four of the patients were improved by antibiotics treatment, in which two were still on hemodialy-sis in the following 14-24 months and the other two were lost to follow-up. One patient received surgery, but died of heart failure after further hemodialysis for three months. One was well on maintenance hemodi-alysis for three months after surgery.Conclusions Infective endocarditis should be suspected when hemodialysis patients suffer from long-term fever, for which prompt blood culture and transthoracic echocardiography confirmation could be performed. Transesophageal echocardiography could be considered even when transthoracic echocardiogra-phy produces negative findings. With catheters removed, full course of appropriate sensitive antibiotics and surgery if indicated could improve the outcome of chronic hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endocarditis.

  17. 77 FR 30293 - Recommendations for the Identification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... chronic infection, which places infected persons at risk for liver cirrhosis, liver cancer or...-viral therapies can clear HCV from the system (i.e., a virologic cure) and halt disease progression...

  18. DEFB1 polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection in Brazilian gynaecological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovica Segat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The human beta defensin 1 (hBD-1 antimicrobial peptide is a member of the innate immune system known to act in the first line of defence against microorganisms, including viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV. In this study, five functional polymorphisms (namely g-52G>A, g-44C>G and g-20G>A in the 5’UTR and c.*5G>A and c.*87A>G in the 3’UTR in the DEFB1 gene encoding for hBD-1 were analysed to investigate the possible involvement of these genetic variants in susceptibility to HPV infection and in the development of HPV-associated lesions in a population of Brazilian women. The DEFB1 g-52G>A and c.*5G>A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the GCAAA haplotype showed associations with HPV-negative status; in particular, the c.*5G>A SNP was significantly associated after multiple test corrections. These findings suggest a possible role for the constitutively expressed beta defensin-1 peptide as a natural defence against HPV in the genital tract mucosa.

  19. Impact of psychiatric disorders on the quality of life of brazilian HCV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Batista-Neves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the impact of psychiatric comorbidities on the health-related quality of life of HCV-infected patients. Assessment of clinical, socio-demographic and quality of life data of the patients followed up at a Hepatology unit was performed by using a standard questionnaire and the SF-36 instrument. Psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Brazilian version 5.0.0 (MINI Plus. Evaluation using the MINI plus demonstrated that 46 (51% patients did not have any psychiatric diagnosis, while 44 (49% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Among patients with a psychiatric comorbidity, 26 (59.1% had a current mental disorder, out of which 22 (84.6% had not been previously diagnosed. Patients with psychiatric disorders had lower scores in all dimensions of the SF-36 when compared to those who had no psychiatric diagnosis. Scores of physical functioning and bodily pain domains were lower for those suffering from a current psychiatric disorder when compared to those who had had a psychiatric disorder in the past. Females had lower scores of bodily pain and mental health dimensions when compared to males. Scores for mental health dimension were also lower for patients with advanced fibrosis. The presence of a psychiatric comorbidity was the variable that was most associated with the different scores in the SF-36, compared to other variables such as age, gender, aminotransferase levels, and degree of fibrosis.

  20. Polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNFA -308 G/A) is not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Trevilatto; Rui Barbosa Brito Jr; Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga; Ana Paula de Souza Pardo; Cleber Machado de Souza; Antônio Wilson Sallum; Sérgio Roberto Peres Line

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a major mediator of the immune-inflammatory response and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic periodontitis. Polymorphisms in the promoter of the TNFA gene have been associated with some types of inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TNFA (G-308A) gene and chronic periodontitis in Brazilians. Methods: One hundred and thirt...

  1. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi IV causing outbreaks of acute Chagas disease and infections by different haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes.

  3. Association of three putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristiane; Soares, Geisla Mary S; Faveri, Marcelo; Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; Lobão, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Baccelli, Gustavo Titonele; Feres, Magda

    2016-04-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Filifactor alocis and Dialister pneumosintes with the occurrence of periodontitis. Material and Methods Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP) and 10 with periodontal health (PH) were included in the study. Nine subgingival biofilm samples were collected as follows: i) PH group - from the mesial/buccal aspect of each tooth in two randomly chosen contralateral quadrants; ii) ChP group - from three sites in each of the following probing depth (PD) categories: shallow (≤3 mm), moderate (4-6 mm) and deep (≥7 mm). Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was used to analyze the samples. Results We found the three species evaluated in a higher percentage of sites and at higher levels in the group with ChP than in the PH group (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test). We also observed these differences when the samples from sites with PD≤4 mm or ≥5 mm of subjects with ChP were compared with those from subjects with PH (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test). In addition, the prevalence and levels of D. pneumosintes, and especially of F. alocis were very low in healthy subjects (0.12x105 and 0.01x105, respectively). Conclusion F. alocis and D. pneumosintes might be associated with the etiology of ChP, and their role in the onset and progression of this infection should be further investigated. The role of P. endodontalis was less evident, since this species was found in relatively high levels and prevalence in the PH group. PMID:27119767

  4. Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to antiretrovirals in chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) are estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. METHODS: Baseline was arbitrarily defined as the first...... recorded GFR; patients with two consecutive GFR determine odds ratio (OR) of CRF at baseline. ART exposure (yes/no or cumulative exposure) prior to baseline was included in multivariate models (adjusted for region...... of Europe, age, prior AIDS, CD4 cell count nadir, viral load, hypertension and use of nephrotoxic anti-infective therapy). RESULTS: Using CG, the median GFR at baseline (n = 4474) was 94.4 (interquartile range, 80.5-109.3); 158 patients (3.5%) had CRF. Patients with CRF were older (median, 61.9 versus 43...

  5. Chronic pulmonary infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, C S; Hansen, C R; Pressler, T;

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of chronic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patient are still unclear. Method All patients treated in the Copenhagen CF centre (N=278) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 were included. Each patient chronically infected with S...

  6. Screening and Early Treatment of Migrants for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Cost-Effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen, Irene K.; Toy, Mehlika; Hahne, Susan J. M.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Schalm, Solko W.; de Man, Robert A.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Early detection of chronic HBV infection through screening and treatment of eligible patients has the potential to prevent these sequelae. We assessed the cost-

  7. Restoration of Pattern Recognition Receptor Costimulation to Treat Chromoblastomycosis, a Chronic Fungal Infection of the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    da Glória Sousa, Maria; Reid, Delyth M.; Schweighoffer, Edina; Tybulewicz, Victor; Ruland, Jürgen; Langhorne, Jean; Yamasaki, Sho; Taylor, Philip R.; Almeida, Sandro R.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic skin infection caused by the fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Exploring the reasons underlying the chronic nature of F. pedrosoi infection in a murine model of chromoblastomycosis, we find that chronicity develops due to a lack of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) costimulation. F. pedrosoi was recognized primarily by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), but not by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which resulted in the defective induction of proinflammatory cytokines...

  8. Anti-Infective Potential of Marine Invertebrates and Seaweeds from the Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Steindel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain by the plaque number reduction assay (IC50. Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC50. The results were expressed as SI = CC50/IC50. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively. Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively, and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition. Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5

  9. Chronic symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction in post-tuberculosis Brazilian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Simone de Sousa Elias Nihues; Eliane Viana Mancuzo; Nara Sulmonetti; Flávia Patussi Correia Sacchi; Vanessa de Souza Viana; Eduardo Martins Netto; Silvana Spindola de Miranda; Julio Croda

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Questionnaire and spirometry were applied to post-tuberculosis indigenous and non-indigenous individuals from Dourados, Brazil, to investigate the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction.METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study in cured tuberculosis individuals as reported in the National System on Reportable Diseases (SINAN) from 2002 to 2012.RESULTS:One hundred and twenty individuals were included in the study and the prevalence of chronic re...

  10. Susceptibility to chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii does not correlate with susceptibility to acute infection in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Y.; Orellana, M A; Wong, S Y; Conley, F K; Remington, J S

    1993-01-01

    Resistance against acute and chronic infection with Taxoplasma gondii in BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice was compared. Intraperitoneal inoculation of either 20, 40, or 80 cysts of the ME49 strain resulted in mortality rates in BALB/c mice of 12% (2 of 17), 50% (6 of 12), and 75% (9 of 12), respectively, within 3 weeks after infection (acute stage). There was no mortality in the CBA/Ca mice for any of the doses. In marked contrast, CBA/Ca mice were highly sensitive to chronic infection with developing ...

  11. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute burn and chronic surgical wound infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith H Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.

  12. Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Madan, Kaushal; Kapoor, Dharmesh

    2015-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a substantial global health problem with highest prevalence observed in the sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia. India lies in the intermediate endemicity zone with prevalence ranging from 0.1% to 11.7%. The predominant route of transmission is horizontal and the most commonly occurring genotypes are A and D. The high mortality and morbidity associated with CHB constitutes significant health and economic burden in developing countries like India. Antiviral agents decrease HBV DNA load and prevent disease progression. Several regional and country expert associations have developed treatment guidelines for appropriate management of CHB; however, various factors like prevalence, disease awareness, immunization status, cost implications, availability of resources, type of transmission and emerging significance of HBV genotypes have influenced the management of CHB in a country. This article focuses on expert's recommendations on CHB management including initiation, monitoring and termination of treatment with emphasis on borderline cases. The article also throws light on the challenges to optimum management and provides preferred therapeutic approaches in Indian perspective. PMID:27608783

  13. Endothelial dysfunction correlates with liver fibrosis in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Michele; Viggiani, Maria Teresa; Amoruso, Annabianca; Schiraldi, Serafina; Zito, Annapaola; Devito, Fiorella; Cortese, Francesca; Gesualdo, Michele; Brunetti, Natale; Di Leo, Alfredo; Scicchitano, Pietro; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient liver elastometry (fibroscan) and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI)), carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) were assessed. Patients were divided into 3 tertiles according to fibroscan values. Results. Patients in the third tertile (fibroscan value >11.5 KPa) showed FMD values were significantly lower than second and first tertiles (4.7 ± 1.7% versus 7.1 ± 2.8%, p = 0.03). FMD values were inversely related to liver elastomeric values. c-IMT values were normal. The risk for endothelial dysfunction development in the third tertile (p = 0.02) was 6.9 higher than the first tertile. A fibroscan value >11.5 KPa had a positive predictive power equal to 79% for endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions. HCV advanced liver fibrosis promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial dysfunction independently of common cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26000012

  14. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Shashi; Tilahun Yaphet; Taha Odette; Alao Hawau; Kodys Karen; Catalano Donna; Szabo Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b) as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122). Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined mi...

  15. High levels of SIVmnd-1 replication in chronically infected Mandrillus sphinx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viral loads were investigated in SIVmnd-1 chronically infected mandrills and the results were compared with those previously observed in other nonpathogenic natural SIV infections. Four naturally and 11 experimentally SIVmnd-1-infected mandrills from a semi-free-ranging colony were studied during the chronic phase of infection. Four SIVmnd-1-infected wild mandrills were also included for comparison. Twelve uninfected mandrills were used as controls. Viral loads in all chronically infected mandrills ranged from 105 to 9 x 105 copies/ml and antibody titers ranged from 200 to 14,400 and 200 to 12,800 for anti-V3 and anti-gp36, respectively. There were no differences between groups of wild and captive mandrills. Both parameters were stable during the follow-up, and no clinical signs of immune suppression were observed. Chronic SIVmnd-1-infected mandrills presented slight increases in CD20+ and CD28+ /CD8+ cell counts, and a slight decrease in CD4+ /CD3+ cell counts. A slight CD4+ /CD3+ cell depletion was also observed in old uninfected controls. Similar to other nonpathogenic models of lentiviral infection, these results show a persistent high level of SIVmnd-1 replication during chronic infection of mandrills, with minimal effects on T cell subpopulations

  16. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  17. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time PCR studies of Brazilian Somalis sheep infected by gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Giotto Zaros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise normalization with reference genes is necessary, in order to obtain reliable relative expression data in response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. By using sheep from temperate regions as models, three reference genes, viz., ribosomal protein LO (RPLO, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA, were investigated in the abomasum, abomasal lymph nodes and small intestine of Brazilian Somalis sheep, either resistant or susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes infections. Real time PCR was carried out by using SYBR Green I dye, and gene stability was tested by geNorm. RPLO was an ideal reference gene, since its expression was constant across treatments, presented lower variation, and was ranked as the most stable in abomasum and lymph node tissues. On the other hand, SDHA was the most stable in the small intestine followed by RPLO and GAPDH. These findings demonstrate the importance of correctly choosing reference genes prior to relative quantification. In addition, we determined that reference genes used in sheep from temperate regions, when properly tested, can be applied in animals from tropical regions such as the Brazilian Somalis sheep.

  18. Acute-on-chronic liver failure due to bacterial infection in liver cirrhosis: causes and management

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication in patients with liver cirrhosis, and acute-on-chronic liver failure due to bacterial infection has become a serious clinical problem. There are still many problems in the research on the pathogenesis and management of bacterial infection in liver cirrhosis, such as insidious onset, difficult early diagnosis, and increased multi-drug resistant bacteria. This article reviews the research progress in the causes and management of bacterial infection i...

  19. Chronic symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction in post-tuberculosis Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Sousa Elias Nihues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Questionnaire and spirometry were applied to post-tuberculosis indigenous and non-indigenous individuals from Dourados, Brazil, to investigate the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction.METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study in cured tuberculosis individuals as reported in the National System on Reportable Diseases (SINAN from 2002 to 2012.RESULTS:One hundred and twenty individuals were included in the study and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was 45% (95% CI, 34-59%. Respiratory symptoms included cough (28%, sputum (23%, wheezing (22% and dyspnea (8%. These symptoms were associated with alcoholism, AOR: 3.1 (1.2-8.4; less than 4 years of schooling, AOR: 5.0 (1.4-17.7; and previous pulmonary diseases, AOR: 5.4 (1.7-17.3. Forty-one percent (95% CI, 29-56 had pulmonary disorders, of which the most prevalent were obstructive disorders (49%, followed by obstructive disorder with reduced forced vital capacity disorders (46% and restrictive disorders (5%. The lifestyle difference could not explain differences in chronic symptoms and/or the prevalence of pulmonary dysfunction.CONCLUSION:The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary dysfunction in post-tuberculosis patients indicates a need for further interventions to reduce social vulnerability of patients successfully treated for tuberculosis.

  20. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfstrand, Lidia; Florén, Claes-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, gut status and pathogenic agents, nutritional status and the crucial role of nutrition are reviewed. Bovine colostrum-based food can be useful for managing chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, enhancing both nutritional and immunological status. PMID:22096401

  1. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Joice; Longo, Ana V.; Gaiarsa, Marília P.; Alencar, Laura R. V.; Lambertini, Carolina; Leite, Domingos S.; Carvalho-e-Silva, Sergio P.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Martins, Marcio

    2015-01-01

    Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae). At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd); therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis) on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation. PMID:26161777

  2. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  3. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  4. The role of helicobacter pylori infection in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria (ICU) and to see if eradication of the bacterium affects the course of the urticaria. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria and 43 healthy subjects (matched for age and sex) underwent serological testing for H. pylori infection. All patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria were examined for Helicobacter pylori infection with the /sup 13/C-urea test as well as the serological testing. Gastric biopsy was obtained from 36 patients. Patients with proven Helicobacter pylori infection were given treatment for 2 weeks. Six weeks afterwards they were tested again for Helicobacter pylori infection, and their urticaria was clinically assessed. Results: There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection between : idiopathic chronic urticaria patients and healthy subjects. Helicobacter pylori was detected in 76% of patients and 69.8% of controls. Out of the 76 patients treated, only 24 showed complete remission of their urticaria after successfully eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection, the others only having some improvement in their symptoms. Conclusion: Patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria have similar high rates of H. pylori infection as healthy subjects. Bacterium eradication is associated with improvement of urticaria symptoms, suggesting a possible role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of this skin disorder. (author)

  5. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ma; Wen-Wei Yan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a significantly increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to controls or HBV-infected patients.Moreover, the incidence rate of post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) also appears to be higher among patients with HCV infection. PTDM is often associated with direct viral infection, autoimmune disorders, and immunosuppressive regimen. Activation of tumor necrosis factor-α may be the link between HCV infection and diabetes. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiologic association between HCV infection and PTDM, highlighting the most recent pathophysiologic insights into the mechanisms underlying this association.

  6. Optimal treatment with boceprevir for chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasoumy, Benjamin; Manns, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    There are 160-170 million people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection worldwide. The marketing of protease inhibitors (PIs) has been a milestone in the history of HCV therapy. In phase III studies, up to 75% of the patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) after triple therapy with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)-α, ribavirin (RBV) and boceprevir (BOC). However, triple regimens are more expensive and associated with drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and more adverse events (AEs). According to results in 'real-world' settings, safety seems to be limited, in particular in patients with advanced liver disease. To optimize efficacy while minimizing AEs as well as costs, the optimal treatment strategy must be determined for BOC. Optimizing treatment is based on patient selection, the most efficient treatment design, management of side effects and the challenge of DDIs. Therapy-associated risks, treatment urgency and chances of SVR must all be considered for patient selection. In addition, certain differences between the two approved PIs may help identify the ideal candidates for each HCV PI. Optimal treatment design is based on the results of phase II and III studies, in which different approaches have been tested including 'lead-in' and response-guided strategies. Treatment regimens and stopping rules recommended by the FDA and EMA should normally be followed. Still, there are some cases in which more personalized strategies may be more promising. Management of side effects is a major challenge and plays a crucial role in ensuring safety and adherence. PMID:23286841

  7. Bone SPECT/CT detection of a sequestrum in chronic-infected nonunion of the tibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Sequestra are dead pieces of bone most often seen in long bones affected with prior or current infection. In addition to antibiotic therapy, chronic osteomyelitis with sequestration requires surgical debridement for cure. The author presents a case of tibial fracture associated with...... chronic osteomyelitis, nonunion, and the presence of a sequestrum that was detected by bone SPECT/CT.  ...

  8. Chronic Hepatitis E Infection Resulting in Graft Failure in a Liver Transplant Tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Kiat-Hon Lim; Jason Pik-Eu Chang; Chee-Kiat Tan; Lynette Lin-Ean Oon; Boon-Huan Tan; Hoe-Nam Leong; Hui-Hui Tan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E, usually an acute hepatitis in the immunocompetent, has a chronic form described in immunocompromised hosts. We report the clinical course and outcome of an adult liver transplant recipient whose posttransplant period was complicated by chronic hepatitis E, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cellular rejection of the graft.

  9. Neospora caninum: Chronic and congenital infection in consecutive pregnancies of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuz, Monica L; Shkap, Varda; Wollkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovich, Benjamin; Savitsky, Igor; Fleiderovitz, Ludmila; Noam, Sugar; Elena, Blinder; Molad, Thea; Golenser, Jacob

    2016-03-30

    Neospora caninum, the causative agent of bovine neosporosis is the major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. The principal route of transmission is via in utero infection of the offspring. Congenitally-infected dams remain persistently infected for life and might undergo abortions in consecutive pregnancies. In the present study, the effect of N. caninum in chronic and congenital infection was examined. CD1 mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live tachyzoites of the NcIs491 isolate, while non-infected mice served as a control. There were no clinical signs of infection observed following inoculation, but high titers of specific anti- N. caninum antibodies were detected. A month after infection, when chronic-infection was established, mice were mated. Fertility, litter size and mortality rate were monitored within two generations of four consecutive pregnancies. During a nine months period of the study all females maintained high level of antibodies, while the non- infected control mice remained seronegative. There was no difference in the fertility rate of the dams, or in the litter size of infected and control mice. Mortality of offspring of the first and second generations of the infected dams was observed within the two first weeks of life. The vertical transmission was analyzed by PCR assay of offspring brains. PCR positive results were found in all 13 litters of the first generation tested during four consecutive pregnancies. The rate of vertical transmission slightly decreased in successive pregnancies being 74.2%, 59.5%, 48.1% and 40% for the first to fourth pregnancies respectively. In the second generation 21 out of 28 litters were found positive and the overall rate of vertical transmission was 28.5%. In chronically and congenitally infected dams N. caninum infection was maintained during all successive pregnancies for about 9 months. The results show that CD-1 outbred mice are a suitable model for studying chronic and congenital neosporosis

  10. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection.3H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  11. Neither Primary nor Memory Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Is Compromised in Mice with Chronic Enteric Helminth Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Wasiulla; Bhatt, Kamlesh; Gause, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Previously we had reported that Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a helminth with a lung migratory phase, affected host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through the induction of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Several helminth species do not have an obligatory lung migratory phase but establish chronic infections in the host that include potent immune downregulatory effects, in part mediated through induction of a FoxP3+ T regulatory cell (Treg) response. Treg cells exhibit duality in their functions in host defense against M. tuberculosis infection since their depletion leads to enhanced priming of T cells in the lymph nodes and attendant improved control of M. tuberculosis infection, while their presence in the lung granuloma protects against excessive inflammation. Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a strictly murine enteric nematode that induces a strong FoxP3 Treg response in the host. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether host immunity to M. tuberculosis infection would be modulated in mice with chronic H. polygyrus infection. We report that neither primary nor memory immunity conferred by Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination was affected in mice with chronic enteric helminth infection, despite a systemic increase in FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. The findings indicate that anti-M. tuberculosis immunity is not similarly affected by all helminth species and highlight the need to consider this inequality in human coinfection studies. PMID:25605766

  12. Risk of Infections in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk of...... bacteremia. Conclusions: Increased infection surveillance and unmeasured confounding factors among diabetic patients may contribute to the observed increased infection risk, yet outcomes following infection are similar or worse in diabetes patients. In conclusion, there is epidemiological evidence that...

  13. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  14. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  15. Is chronic hepatitis C virus infection a risk factor for breast cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique; Larrey; Marie-Cécile; Bozonnat; Ihab; Kain; Georges-Philippe; Pageaux; Eric; Assenat

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the prevalence of breast tumors in adult females with chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection.METHODS:Prospective,single-center study,based on female outpatients consulting in a liver unit,for 1 year.The study group included females with present and/or past history of chronic infection by HCV.Patients with spontaneous recovery were excluded.Chronic hepatitis had been proved by liver biopsy in the majority of cases and/or biological markers of inflammation and fibrosis.The control group incl...

  16. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. PMID:27264738

  17. Analysis of Vaginal Lactobacilli from Healthy and Infected Brazilian Women▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rafael C. R.; Franceschini, Sílvio A.; Patta, Maristela C.; Quintana, Silvana M.; Nunes, Álvaro C.; Moreira, João L. S.; Anukam, Kingsley C.; Reid, Gregor; De Martinis, Elaine C. P.

    2008-01-01

    Culture-dependent PCR-amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis and culture-independent (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methodologies were used to examine vaginal lactobacilli from Brazilian women who were healthy or had been diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or bacterial vaginosis. Only Lactobacillus crispatus was detected accordingly by both methods, and H2O2-producing lactobacilli were not associated with protection against VVC. PMID:18502927

  18. Shared immune and repair markers during experimental toxoplasma chronic brain infection and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Tomasik (Jakub); T.L. Schultz (Tracey L.); W. Kluge (Wolfgang); R.H. Yolken (Robert H.); S. Bahn (Sabine); V.B. Carruthers (Vern B.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic neurologic infection with Toxoplasma gondii is relatively common in humans and is one of the strongest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the exact neuropathological mechanisms linking T gondii infection and schizophrenia remain unclear. Here we utilize a mouse m

  19. Fecal bacterial microbiome diversity in chronic HIV-infected patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Yingfei; Lin, Ping; Tang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Liying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Renfan; Liu, Li; Cheng, Jun; Shao, Jiashen; Qi, Tangkai; Tang, Yan; Cai, Rentian; Guan, Liqian; Luo, Bin; Sun, Meiyan; Li, Ben; Pei, Zhiheng; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify fecal bacterial microbiome changes in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (454 pyrosequencing), and clustered into operational taxonomic units using the QIIME software. Relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were calculated. Alpha diversity was determined by Chao 1 and observed-species indices, and beta diversity was determined by double principal component analysis using the estimated phylogeny-based unweighted Unifrac distance matrices. Fecal samples of the patients with chronic HIV-infection tended to be enriched with bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes (47.20%±0.43 relative abundance) and Proteobacteria (37.21%±0.36) compared with those of the non-HIV infected controls (17.95%±0.06 and 3.81%±0.02, respectively). Members of the genus Bilophila were exclusively detected in samples of the non-HIV infected controls. Bacteroides and arabacteroides were more abundant in the chronic HIV-infected patients. Our study indicated that chronic HIV-infected patients in China have a fecal bacterial microbiome composition that is largely different from that found in non-HIV infected controls, and further study is needed to evaluate whether microbiome changes play a role in disease complications in the distal gut, including opportunistic infections. PMID:27048741

  20. Pattern recognition receptor responses in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Paludan, Søren Riis;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the expression and function of Toll like receptors (TLRs), but data on TLR function in HBV infection are mainly from adult patients. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is distinctly different in childre...

  1. Sofosbuvir and Simeprevir Treatment of a Stem Cell Transplanted Teenager With Chronic Hepatitis C Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, Björn; Priftakis, Peter; Sundin, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    There have been no previous reports on the use of interferon-free combinations in pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. An infected adolescent with severe sickle cell disease underwent stem cell transplantation and subsequent treatment with sofosbuvir and simeprevir during ongoing immunosuppression. Despite the emergence of peripheral edema as a side effect, treatment was continued with sustained antiviral response. PMID:26928522

  2. Recurrent Burkholderia Infection in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease: 11-Year Experience at a Large Referral Center

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David E.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Stock, Frida; Murray, Patrick R.; Holland, Steven M.; LiPuma, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of Burkholderia infection in persons with chronic granulomatous disease is poorly understood. We used species-specific polymerase chain reaction–based assays and genotyping analyses to identify 32 strains representing 9 Burkholderia species among 50 isolates recovered from 18 patients with chronic granulomatous disease. We found that recurrent pulmonary infection with distinct Burkholderia strains is common in chronic granulomatous disease.

  3. Current progress in the development of therapeutic vaccines for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B is still a major public health issue despite the successful prophylactic vaccination attempts. Chronicity of hepatitis B virus(HBV is mainly due to its ability to debilitate host's immune system. Therefore, major measures have been taken to stop this process and help patients with chronic hepatitis B infection recover from their illness. While satisfactory results have been achieved using preventive HBV vaccines, a reliable and effective therapeutic treatment is still in need of extensive studies. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B include direct antiviral agents and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, which are not always effective and are also costly. In addition, due to the fact that chronic HBV is responsible for debilitation of the immune system, studies have focused on developing therapeutic vaccines to help host's immune system recover and limit the infection. Several approaches including but not restricted to recombinant peptide-based, DNA-based, viral vector-based, and cell-based approaches are currently in use to develop therapeutic vaccines against the chronic form of HBV infection. In the current review, the authors will first discuss the role of the immune system in chronic hepatitis B infection and will then focus on latest advancements in therapeutic vaccination of HBV especially the clinical trials that have been carried out so far.

  4. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Gook Huh; Myoung-Don Oh; You-Sun Kim; Jong-Sung Lee; Tae-Yeob Jeong; Soo-Hyung Ryu; Jung-Hwan Lee; Jeong-Seop Moon; Yun-Kyung Kang; Myung-Shup Shim

    2008-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastro-intestinal manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Protozoa and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that can easily infect these patients.Among the NTM,Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently observed pathogen in HIV-infected patients.However,NTMs other than MAC have not been reported as a gastrointestinal pathogen as yet.We present a case of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient in whom Mycobacterium ulcerans and cryptosporidium co-infection is evidenced from colonic tissue.

  5. Chronic microsporidian infection of the nasal mucosae, sinuses and conjunctivae in HIV disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, C. J.; Clarke, A. M.; Fraser, P; Metcalfe, T; Bonsor, G; Curry, A.

    1992-01-01

    A case of chronic infection of the nasal mucosae, sinuses and conjunctivae with a microsporidian parasite in association with HIV infection and immune deficiency is reported. This microsporidian resembles both Encephalitozoon cuniculi and the newly described Encephalitozoon hellem by electron microscopy. This occurred in an adult male resident in the UK with no history of foreign travel. Although there are previous descriptions of conjunctival infections from the USA, this is the first descri...

  6. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Elfstrand, Lidia

    2010-01-01

    Lidia Elfstrand, Claes-Henrik FlorénDepartment of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patien...

  7. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  8. Changes in Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen Distinguish Acute versus Chronic Leptospira interrogans Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Chow, Emilie; Fishbein, Michael C.; Blanco, David R.; Lovett, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most geographically widespread zoonotic disease in the world. A severe pulmonary form of leptospirosis (SPFL) is being recognized with increased frequency. We have reported that human SPFL isolates of Leptospira cause acute lethal infection with prominent pulmonary hemorrhage in guinea pigs. We have found that the same SPFL strains cause asymptomatic infection and chronic renal shedding in rats, where infection is restricted to the renal tubules. To address the antigenic ...

  9. Simultaneous Chronic Invasive Fungal Infection and Tracheal Fungus Ball Mimicking Cancer in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Erdoğan; Gül, Şule; Mert, Ali; Boyacı, Hilal; Çam, Ertan; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp.) are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old patient without immunodeficiency or chronic lung disease who was diagnosed with endotracheal fungus ball and chronic fungal infection, possibly due to Aspergillus. Bronchoscopic examination showed a paralyzed right vocal cord and vegetating mass that was yellow in color, at the posterior wall of tracheal lumen. After 3 months, both the parenchymal and tracheal lesions were completely resolved. PMID:27418930

  10. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases; and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls. The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. RESULTS: GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02. Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this

  11. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in an area with intermediate prevalence of HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Javad Kaviani; Behzad Behbahani; Mohammad Jafar Mosallaii; Fatemeh Sari-Aslani; Seyed Alireza Taghavi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the possible role of occult HBV infection in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.METHODS: After exclusion of autoimmune, metabolic and viral etiologies, 104 consecutive adult patients with histologic and biochemical features of chronic hepatitis and negative HBsAg were enrolled in the study.Qualitative PCR with a sensitivity of 150 × 103 copies/L,using two primers for Pre-S and core regions was applied to measure presence of HBV DNA in serum of the patients.RESULTS: All 104 patients completed the study.Qualitative HBV DNA was positive in two patients (1.9%).CONCLUSION: Occult HBV infection has negligible role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.

  12. Risk-based assessment does not distinguish between recent and chronic HIV-1 infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Merçon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the risk factors associated with recent and chronic HIV infections among individual attending a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT site in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study, recent HIV infections were detected by the sensitive/less-sensitive test, using Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS strategy, and compared to chronic HIV infection and HIV negative individuals. Seroincidence was estimated and risk factors associated with recent and chronic infections were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Among the 7,379 individuals tested between June 2006 and April 2007, the overall prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were 7.5%; and 1.39/100 PY, respectively. In multivariate analysis, having a HIV positive steady partner was a risk factor for recent and for chronic HIV infection for MSM, heterosexual male and women. No differences in risk factors for recent and chronic infections were found between MSM and heterosexual males. Among women, chronic infected individuals were more likely than HIV negatives to be older. Recently HIV infected women were more likely than HIV negatives to be less educated; and more likely than HIV negatives and chronically infected to report having more partners. Routinely used risk-based assessment in testing centers in Brazil lack sensitivity to distinguish between recent and chronic infections, particularly among MSM and heterosexual males. Steady relationships and serosorting may be playing a key role in maintaining the HIV epidemics in Brazil.

  13. SNP rs8099917 in Gene IL28B Might Be Associated with Risk of Chronic Infection by HCV but Not with Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Souza da Silva Conde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic profile of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection relative to polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 in gene IL28B and the association of those polymorphisms with the response to treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, performed at a reference center in Brazilian Amazonia. Methods. A total of 75 individuals with chronic hepatitis C and 98 healthy individuals from both genders over 18 years old were assessed. DNA samples were collected from leukocytes and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction to genotype polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917. Results. Analysis of the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the investigated polymorphisms showed that both groups were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; polymorphism rs12979860 exhibited no significant difference between the groups. For polymorphism rs8099917, allele T was significantly less frequent (P=0.0195 among the patients (63.3% than the controls (75.5%, and the patients were 1.7 times as likely to exhibit allele G. No difference in response to treatment was associated with SNP patterns. Conclusion. The results suggest a possible association of SNP rs8099917 with higher odds of chronic HCV infection but do not indicate a putative influence of the investigated SNPs on the sustained virologic response.

  14. The art of persistence-the secrets to Burkholderia chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Eric R G; Torres, Alfredo G

    2016-08-01

    The Gram-negative proteobacteria genus Burkholderia encompasses multiple bacterial species that are pathogenic to humans and other vertebrates. Two pathogenic species of interest within this genus are Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) and the B. cepacia complex (Bcc); the former is the causative agent of melioidosis in humans and other mammals, and the latter is associated with pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. One understudied and shared characteristic of these two pathogenic groups is their ability to persist and establish chronic infection within the host. In this review, we will explore the depth of knowledge about chronic infections caused by persistent Bpm and Bcc. We examine the host risk factors and immune responses associated with more severe chronic infections. We also discuss host adaptation and phenotypes associated with persistent Burkholderia species. Lastly, we survey how other intracellular bacteria associated with chronic infections are combatted and explore possible future applications to target Burkholderia Our goal is to highlight understudied areas that should be addressed for a more thorough understanding of chronic Burkholderia infections and how to combat them. PMID:27440810

  15. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of...... analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the...... the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and...

  16. Characterising novel anti-biofilm targets for the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the cystic fibrosis lung

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    The global rise in antibiotic resistance is a significant problem facing healthcare professionals. In particular within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, bacteria can establish chronic infection and resistance to a wide array of antibiotic therapies. One of the principle pathogens associated with chronic infection in the CF lung is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa can establish chronic infection in the CF lung partly through the use of the biofilm mode of growth. This biofilm mode of growth...

  17. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a respiratory pathogen associated with the swollen head syndrome (SHS in chickens. In Brazil, live aMPV vaccines are currently used, but subtypes A and, mainly subtype B (aMPV/A and aMPV/B are still circulating. This study was conducted to characterize two Brazilian aMPV isolates (A and B subtypes of chicken origin. A challenge trial to explore the replication ability of the Brazilian subtypes A and B in chickens was performed. Subsequently, virological protection provided from an aMPV/B vaccine against the same isolates was analyzed. Upon challenge experiment, it was shown by virus isolation and real time PCR that aMPV/B could be detected longer and in higher amounts than aMPV/A. For the protection study, 18 one-day-old chicks were vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age. Using virus isolation and real time PCR, no aMPV/A was detected in the vaccinated chickens, whereas one vaccinated chicken challenged with the aMPV/B isolate was positive. The results showed that aMPV/B vaccine provided a complete heterologous virological protection, although homologous protection was not complete in one chicken. Although only one aMPV/B positive chicken was detected after homologous vaccination, replication in vaccinated animals might allow the emergence of escape mutants.

  18. Vulnerability of Brazilian municipalities to hantavirus infections based on multi-criteria decision analysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Fonseca, Lidsy Ximenes; de Araújo Vilges, Keline Medeiros; Maniglia, Fernanda Voietta Pinna; Pereira, Simone Valéria Costa; de Caldas, Eduardo Pacheco; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hantavirus infection is an emerging zoonosis transmitted by wild rodents. In Brazil, high case-fatality rates among humans infected with hantavirus are of serious concern to public health authorities. Appropriate preventive measures partly depend on reliable knowledge about the geographical distribution of this disease. Methods Incidence of hantavirus infections in Brazil (1993–2013) was analyzed. Epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic indicators were also used to classify...

  19. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal histological features of gastric ulcer patients with chronic gastritis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal histological features of gastric ulcer patients with chronic gastritis patients in different age groups and from different biopsy sites.

  20. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda; Ireri, Edmund; Amaganga, Clifford; Booth, Mark; Kariuki, H. Curtis; Mwatha, Joseph K.; Kimani, Gachuhi; Ouma, John H.; Muchiri, Eric; Dunne, David W.

    2010-01-01

    investigated in a study area where children were chronically exposed to malaria throughout while S. mansoni transmission was geographically restricted. Hepatosplenomegaly was associated with increased portal vein diameters, with enlargement of the spleen rather than the liver being more closely associated with...... hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences.......Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...

  1. Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos de Souza, Clarissa; Vigorito, Afonso Celso; Miranda, Eliana C M; Garcia, Celso; Rensi Colturato, Vergílio Antonio; Mauad, Marcos Augusto; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Cláudia; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Lermontov, Simone; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Rodrigues, Morgani; Carlos de Almeida Barros, Jose; Chiattone, Ricardo; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2016-07-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Symptom Scale is a patient-reported instrument developed and validated in English to measure the symptoms and functional impact of cGVHD. This tool has not yet been validated in a Latin American population, however. The Brazil-Seattle Chronic GVHD Consortium conducted a multicenter study at 5 Brazilian institutions to validate the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale in adults with cGVHD. Study objectives included the translation and validation of the instrument in Brazilian Portuguese and evaluation of the correlation with other quality of life (QoL) tools, including the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy with Bone Marrow Transplant subscale (FACT-BMT). Translation and validation were done according to the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons Outcome Committee guidelines. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to measure construct validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α and intraclass correlation coefficients. Between April 2011 and August 2012, 47 patients with cGVHD based on the 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria (29 males [62%], 18 females [38%]; median age, 48 years; range, 23 to 69 years) were enrolled in this study. The reliability of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale was adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.62 to 0.83). The correlations between similar domains of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, SF-36, and FACT-BMT were moderate to high. Our data indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale is valid and reliable and can be used in clinical trials of cGVHD in Brazil. PMID:27058616

  2. Effectiveness of alpha interferon (+ ribavirin in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 in a brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Beatriz Treter Gonçalves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pharmacovigilance studies aim to detect, assess, understand and prevent risks of adverse effects of medications or any other possible drug related problem. Alpha interferon is being produced by Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C at Brazilian National Health System. OBJECTIVE: To study the safety profile and effectiveness of alpha interferon in a sample of Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3, in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. METHOD: We followed a cohort of chronic hepatitis C genotypes 2 and 3 patients treated with alpha interferon plus ribavirin in a specialized outpatient clinic in southern Brazil. Adverse events were collected and classified according to severity in monthly structured interviews. To measure effectiveness, hepatitis C viral load was evaluated before, at the end and 24 weeks after the treatment. RESULTS: We followed 141 patients during the study period, of which 52.5% were female with mean age of 52 years. The most frequent adverse events were fatigue (84%, headache (79% and myalgia (75%. There were 13 treatment interruptions due to adverse events, 9 of those considered serious adverse events. Virological response at end of treatment was 54.6% and after 24 weeks 39.7%, considering all patients who started treatment. CONCLUSION: The product produced by Bio-Manguinhos has similar efficacy and adverse event and sustained virological response profiles comparable to those found in the literature. This is the first study of pharmacovigilance performed with the Brazilian product. These data will be useful for planning and management of this disease in Brazil.

  3. Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena S; Peterson, Julia; Joseph, Sarah; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24715483

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium undergoes distinct genetic adaption during chronic infections of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg, Emilie; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    type strains of S. Typhimurium 4/74 were used to establish chronic infections of 129X1/SvJ mice. Over the course of infections, S. Typhimurium bacteria were isolated from feces and from livers and spleens upon termination of the experiment. In all samples dominant clones were identified and select...... clones were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Dominant clones isolated from either systemic organs or fecal samples exhibited distinct single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One mouse appeared to have distinct adapted clones in the spleen and liver, respectively. Three mice were colonized in the...... current study genetic adaptation during experimental chronic S. Typhimurium infections of mice, an established model of chronic typhoid fever, was probed as an approach for studying the molecular mechanisms of host-adaptation during long-term host-association. Results Individually sequence-tagged wild...

  5. DISSEMINATED FUNGAL INFECTION WITH ADRENAL INVOLVEMENT: REPORT OF TWO HIV NEGATIVE BRAZILIAN PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, Graziella Hanna; LANZONI, Valéria Pereira Barbosa; Elisa Maria BEIRÃO; TIMERMAN, Artur; Melhem, Marcia Souza Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis are systemic fungal infections endemic in Brazil. Disseminated clinical forms are uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. We describe two HIV-negative patients with disseminated fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, who were diagnosed by biopsies of suprarenal lesions. Both were treated for a prolonged period with oral antifungal agents, and both showed favorable outcomes.

  6. Rare inborn errors associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Liang; Huang, Weijun;

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major global health issue. The role of rare genetic variants in CHB has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify rare allelic variants predisposing to CHB. We performed exome sequencing in 50 CHB patients who had no identifiable risk factors for CHB and 40 controls...

  7. Bile signalling promotes chronic respiratory infections and antibiotic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reen, F Jerry; Flynn, Stephanie; Woods, David F; Dunphy, Niall; Chróinín, Muireann Ní; Mullane, David; Stick, Stephen; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy, many respiratory pathogens persist in the lung, underpinning the chronic inflammation and eventual lung decline that are characteristic of respiratory disease. Recently, bile acid aspiration has emerged as a major comorbidity associated with a range of lung diseases, shaping the lung microbiome and promoting colonisation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. In order to uncover the molecular mechanism through which bile modulates the respiratory microbiome, a combination of global transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of the P. aeruginosa response to bile was undertaken. Bile responsive pathways responsible for virulence, adaptive metabolism, and redox control were identified, with macrolide and polymyxin antibiotic tolerance increased significantly in the presence of bile. Bile acids, and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in particular, elicited chronic biofilm behaviour in P. aeruginosa, while induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lung epithelial cells by CDCA was Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) dependent. Microbiome analysis of paediatric CF sputum samples demonstrated increased colonisation by P. aeruginosa and other Proteobacterial pathogens in bile aspirating compared to non-aspirating patients. Together, these data suggest that bile acid signalling is a leading trigger for the development of chronic phenotypes underlying the pathophysiology of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27432520

  8. Anticardiolipin autoantibodies in serum samples and cryoglobulins of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sthoeger, Z; Fogel, M.; Smirov, A.; Ergas, D; Lurie, Y; Bass, D.; Geltner, D.; Malnick, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been linked to extrahepatic autoimmune phenomena. In addition, a variety of autoantibodies are found in patients with HCV. The prevalence, nature, and clinical significance of anticardiolipin (aCL) autoantibodies in serum samples of patients with HCV were therefore investigated.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—A prospective study of 48 consecutive patients with chronic HCV with no evidence of previous hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or any other autoimmune...

  9. Changes in Autophagic Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Feldmann, Gérard; Mansouri, Abdellah; Grodet, Alain; Barge, Sandrine; Martinot-Peignoux, Michèle; Duces, Aurélie; Bièche, Ivan; Lebrec, Didier; Bedossa, Pierre; Paradis, Valérie; Marcellin, Patrick; Valla, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a regulated process that can be involved in the elimination of intracellular microorganisms and in antigen presentation. Some in vitro studies have shown an altered autophagic response in hepatitis C virus infected hepatocytes. The present study aimed at evaluating the autophagic process in the liver of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Fifty-six CHC patients and 47 control patients (8 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic liver disease, 18 with chronic heptatitis B vi...

  10. Virus-Like Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Vectors for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy D Reynolds; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, Nina F.; Rose, John K.; Robek, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    More than 500,000 people die each year from the liver diseases that result from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Therapeutic vaccines, which aim to elicit an immune response capable of controlling the virus, offer a potential new treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B. Recently, an evolved, high-titer vaccine platform consisting of Semliki Forest virus RNA replicons that express the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) has been described. This platform generates virus...

  11. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoads Daniel D; Cox Stephen B; Rees Eric J; Sun Yan; Wolcott Randall D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections, including wounds, as part of standard patient care. However, molecular testing is more sensitive than culturing, which results in m...

  12. Histology of chronic gastritis with and without duodenitis in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Phull, P S; Price, A. B.; Stephens, J; Rathbone, B J; Jacyna, M R

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the histological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori positive chronic gastritis in patients with and without associated duodenitis. METHODS: Gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia. Severity of gastritis and density of H pylori infection were graded according to the Sydney system. RESULTS: Of the 69 patients studied, 15 had normal histology, 22 had chronic gastritis only (77.3% H pylori positive), 21 had duodenitis (90...

  13. Gastric metaplasia and Campylobacter pylori infection of duodenum in patients with chronic renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shousha, S; Keen, C; Parkins, R A

    1989-01-01

    Duodenal biopsy specimens from 80 patients with chronic renal failure, who were undergoing haemodialysis, were examined by light microscopy for evidence of inflammation, gastric metaplasia, and Campylobacter pylori infection. Chronic duodenitis was present in 47 (59%) of patients, of whom only seven (9%) showed evidence of active inflammation. Gastric metaplasia was present in 50 (62.5%) of patients, yet Campylobacter pylori was identified in only two patients (2.5%). It is suggested that the...

  14. Childhood respiratory infection and adult chronic bronchitis in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, D J P; Osmond, Clive

    1986-01-01

    The high mortality from chronic bronchitis in England and Wales and the excess of urban over rural mortality are unexplained. On dividing England and Wales into 212 local authority areas a strong geographical relation was found between death rates from chronic bronchitis and emphysema in 1959-78 and infant mortality from bronchitis and pneumonia during 1921-5. It was concluded that this relation provided strong evidence of a direct casual link between acute lower respiratory infection in earl...

  15. The Impact of Infection on Chronic Allograft Dysfunction and Allograft Survival After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gandul, C; Mueller, N J; Pascual, M; Manuel, O

    2015-12-01

    Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are a significant cause of morbidity and reduced allograft and patient survival; however, the influence of infection on the development of chronic allograft dysfunction has not been completely delineated. Some viral infections appear to affect allograft function by both inducing direct tissue damage and immunologically related injury, including acute rejection. In particular, this has been observed for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in all SOT recipients and for BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients, for community-acquired respiratory viruses in lung transplant recipients, and for hepatitis C virus in liver transplant recipients. The impact of bacterial and fungal infections is less clear, but bacterial urinary tract infections and respiratory tract colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus spp appear to be correlated with higher rates of chronic allograft dysfunction in kidney and lung transplant recipients, respectively. Evidence supports the beneficial effects of the use of antiviral prophylaxis for CMV in improving allograft function and survival in SOT recipients. Nevertheless, there is still a need for prospective interventional trials assessing the potential effects of preventive and therapeutic strategies against bacterial and fungal infection for reducing or delaying the development of chronic allograft dysfunction. PMID:26474168

  16. [Role of HLA phenotype in the formation of chronic hepatitis C virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, A L; Baramzina, S V

    2002-01-01

    Clinical, biochemical and immunological parameters depending on HLA-phenotypic features were examined in 107 patients aged 18-78 years with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Clinical and biochemical manifestations (asthenic, pain and cytolytic syndromes, hepatomegalia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoprothrombin- and proteinemia), observed in hepatitis C, were more pronounced in patients having HLA-A30, B35, B41, Cw2, A1-B35, A9-B8. The carriers of B8 and B35 antigens were found to have inadequate immune response in HCV infection, manifested by progressive chronic process in the liver and the development of cirrhosis in patients with such specificity. PMID:12043154

  17. Differential spirochetal infectivities to vector ticks of mice chronically infected by the agent of Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, C M; L. P. LIU; Spielman, A.

    1995-01-01

    We determined whether the infectivity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to vector ticks varies with the duration of infection in laboratory mice. Thus, noninfected nymphal deer ticks were permitted to feed on two strains of early (2 months after infection) and late (8 months after infection) spirochete-infected mice. The attached ticks were removed from their hosts at specified time intervals and were thereafter examined for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence microsc...

  18. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27142134

  19. Human helminth co-infection: analysis of spatial patterns and risk factors in a Brazilian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1% and/or S. mansoni (50.3% infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by

  20. Telbivudine (Sebivo in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV chronic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world, with about 350 million people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV and about 1 million deaths annually.Hepatitis B is characterized by an acute and a chronic phase, if the subject fails to produce adequate immune response.About 5-10% of adults infected with HBV go on to develop chronic infection and become chronic carriers (CHB; moreover, the liver damage, if not stopped, continues until cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the natural history of HBV infection, the most important event is HBeAg seroconversion, characterized by loss of HBeAg (a specific antigen of the virus and development of anti-HBe antibodies (HBeAg-positive patients. If the seroconversion has occurred early (when liver damage is not already significant and is maintained, long-term prognosis is excellent. The disease can follow a more aggressive course if active viral replication persists despite anti-HBe positivity. This state, characterized by continuing viral replication, has been termed as HBeAg-negative CHB, and is the most prevalent form in Italy. At the moment, there are 4 approved antiviral drug classes, with different antiviral efficacy, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: interferons, nucleoside analogues, nucleotide analogues, and cyclopents.The primary target of the treatment is a prolonged suppression of viral replication, in order to avoid long term complications and increase survival.

  1. Differential diagnosis of infections in a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghiringhelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 65-years-old patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, receiving oxygen therapy and resistant to antibiotic therapy. He was admitted with high fever, productive cough, marked leukocytosis, and chest X-ray findings of infiltration and fluid levels within lung cysts. A differential diagnosis was essential to start an adequate treatment and avoid the rapid worsening of patients respiratory status. In patients with chronic pulmonary diseases under immunotherapy, micotic infections should be considered. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from bronchial washing fluid and we diagnosed chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA. Oral itraconazole was started and his symptoms and laboratory data markedly improved.

  2. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elfstrand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidia Elfstrand, Claes-Henrik FlorénDepartment of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, gut status and pathogenic agents, nutritional status and the crucial role of nutrition are reviewed. Bovine colostrum-based food can be useful for managing chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, enhancing both nutritional and immunological status.Keywords: HIV, diarrhea, nutrition, bovine colostrum, CD4+ 

  3. T cell immunopathogenesis and immunotherapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is caused by the host immune response and T cells play a major role in the immunopathogenesis. More importantly, T cells not only destroy hepatocytes infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV, but also control HBV replication or eradicate HBV in a noncytolytic manner. Therefore, analysis of T cell immune response during acute and chronic HBV infection is important to develop a strategy for successful viral control, which could lead to immunotherapy for terminating persistent HBV infection. There have been many attempts at immunotherapy for chronic HBV infection, and some have shown promising results. High viral load has been shown to suppress antiviral immune responses and immunoinhibitory signals have been recently elucidated, therefore, viral suppression by nucleos(tide analogs, stimulation of antiviral immune response, and suppression of the immunoinhibitory signals must be combined to achieve desirable antiviral effects.

  4. Induction of depression-related behaviors by reactivation of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Ihara, Fumiaki; Fereig, Ragab M; Nishimura, Maki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection is relevant to many psychiatric disorders, the fundamental mechanisms of its neurobiological correlation with depression are poorly understood. Here, we show that reactivation of chronic infection by an immunosuppressive regimen caused induction of depressive-like behaviors without obvious sickness symptoms. However, the depression-related behaviors in T. gondii-infected mice, specifically, reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility in the forced-swim test were observed at the reactivation stage, but not in the chronic infection. Interestingly, reactivation of T. gondii was associated with production of interferon-gamma and activation of brain indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, which converts tryptophan to kynurenine and makes it unavailable for serotonin synthesis. Furthermore, serotonin turnover to its major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, was also enhanced at the reactivation stage. Thus, enhanced tryptophan catabolic shunt and serotonin turnover may be implicated in development of depressive-like behaviors in mice with reactivated T. gondii. PMID:26554725

  5. Aureobasidium pullulans infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Rodrigues de Oliveira; Helio Moraes-Souza; Andre Luiz Maltos; Keila Cristina dos Santos; Rodrigo Juliano Molina; Cristina Hueb Barata

    2013-01-01

    Saprophytic fungi are being increasingly recognized as etiologic agents of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous infiltration by Aureobasidium pullulans, likely due to traumatic inoculation, in a neutropenic patient during chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate but was subsequently switched to itraconazole, which improved the lesion. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual fung...

  6. Immunogenetic Aspects Of Pathogenesis Of Chronic Hcv-Infection (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Khamid Karimov; Sevara Azimova; Bakhtiyor Iriskulov

    2012-01-01

    Viral hepatitis B and C is a relevant issue because of high prevalence and degree of chronicity, late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Today, protein products of numerous genes are involved in the pathogenesis of viral pathology of the liver. In this review, the authors analyzed 42 literature sources on genetic basis of susceptibility to various infectious diseases. Study of the role of immunogenetic factors is of great practical importance to develop methods for predicting outcomes of viral hep...

  7. Immune Cognition and Pathogenic Challenge: Sudden and Chronic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2002-01-01

    We continue to study the implications of IR Cohen's theory of immune cognition, in the presence of both sudden and chronic pathogenic challenge, through a mathematical model derived from the Large Deviations Program of applied probability. The analysis makes explicit the linkage between an individual's 'immunocultural condensation' and embedding social or historical structures and processes, in particular power relations between groups. We use methods adapted from the theory of ecosystem...

  8. Sampling efficiency in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic active gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nedenskov-Sørensen, P; Aase, S; Bjørneklett, A; O. Fausa; Bukholm, G

    1991-01-01

    The methods and sampling procedures used in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic active gastritis were evaluated. Five biopsy specimens for bacteriological cultivation and three specimens for histological examination were obtained endoscopically from a defined area of the gastric antral mucosae of 83 patients. An increase in the number of biopsy specimens for cultivation from one to five revealed only one more H. pylori-infected patient. H. pylori was isolated from 31 of...

  9. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T.; Shin, KwangOk; Edward B Breitschwerdt

    1999-01-01

    Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type...

  10. Urinary Tract Infection due to Paenibacillus alvei in a Chronic Kidney Disease: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Padhi, Sanghamitra; Dash, Muktikesh; Sahu, Rani; Panda, Pritilata

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacilli, the Gram positive, aerobic spore bearing bacilli are found normally in the environment. Though these organisms were not known to cause human disease, until recently; few species of this genus have been reported to cause infections in humans. We report here, a case of urinary tract infection in a 60-year-old chronic kidney disease patient due to this rare bacterium. The patient presented with complains of fever, dysuria, and flank pain. Routine and microscopic examination of urin...

  11. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  12. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    Full Text Available Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This

  13. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  14. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Shashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122. Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined miRNAs in the circulation and in peripheral monocytes of patients with chronic HCV infection to evaluate if specific miRNA expression correlated with HCV infection. Results We found that monocytes from chronic HCV infected treatment-naïve (cHCV but not treatment responder patients showed increased expression of miR-155, a positive regulator of TNFα, and had increased TNFα production compared to monocytes of normal controls. After LPS stimulation, miR-155 levels were higher in monocytes from cHCV patients compared to controls. MiR-125b, which has negative regulatory effects on inflammation, was decreased in cHCV monocytes compared to controls. Stimulation of normal monocytes with TLR4 and TLR8 ligands or HCV core, NS3 and NS5 recombinant proteins induced a robust increase in both miR-155 expression and TNFα production identifying potential mechanisms for in vivo induction of miR-155. Furthermore, we found increased serum miR-155 levels in HCV patients compared to controls. Serum miR-125b and miR-146a levels were also increased in HCV patients. Serum levels of miR-122 were elevated in cHCV patients and correlated with increased ALT and AST levels and serum miR-155 levels. Conclusion In conclusion, our novel data demonstrate that miR-155, a positive regulator of inflammation, is upregulated both in monocytes and in the serum of patients with chronic HCV infection. Our study suggests that HCV core, NS3, and NS5 proteins or TLR4 and TLR8 ligands can mediate

  15. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  16. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139. ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  17. If You Have Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all your household members see their physicians for hepatitis B testing and vaccination.  Tell your healthcare professionals that you are infected ... of being protected from HBV!  Learn more about hepatitis B so you can make the best decisions ... Action Coalition (651) 647-9009 www.immunize.org ...

  18. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection andtherapeutic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina Peta; Carlo Torti; Natasa Milic; Alfredo Focà; Ludovico Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients withchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closelyassociated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis ismore common in genotype 3 infection owing to a directcytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely tobe the result of the alterations in host metabolism;metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormonesinvolved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has beendemonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in thepathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as thedecreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrixprotein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, areassociated with liver steatosis. Various studies haveshown that steatosis is strongly correlated negativelywith adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection.The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus inducedsteatosis is still not completely understood, but therelationship between adiponectin low levels and liversteatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectinto protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulationby increasing β-oxidation of free fatty acid and thusdecreasing de novo free fatty acid production.

  19. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Montasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  20. B Cells and Platelets Harbor Prion Infectivity in the Blood of Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Candace K Mathiason; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A.; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J., II; Mason, Gary L.; Telling, Glenn C.; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) b...

  1. Sigma Factor SigB Is Crucial to Mediate Staphylococcus aureus Adaptation during Chronic Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Tuchscherr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a range of infections from acute invasive to chronic and difficult-to-treat. Infection strategies associated with persisting S. aureus infections are bacterial host cell invasion and the bacterial ability to dynamically change phenotypes from the aggressive wild-type to small colony variants (SCVs, which are adapted for intracellular long-term persistence. The underlying mechanisms of the bacterial switching and adaptation mechanisms appear to be very dynamic, but are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the role and the crosstalk of the global S. aureus regulators agr, sarA and SigB by generating single, double and triple mutants, and testing them with proteome analysis and in different in vitro and in vivo infection models. We were able to demonstrate that SigB is the crucial factor for adaptation in chronic infections. During acute infection, the bacteria require the simultaneous action of the agr and sarA loci to defend against invading immune cells by causing inflammation and cytotoxicity and to escape from phagosomes in their host cells that enable them to settle an infection at high bacterial density. To persist intracellularly the bacteria subsequently need to silence agr and sarA. Indeed agr and sarA deletion mutants expressed a much lower number of virulence factors and could persist at high numbers intracellularly. SigB plays a crucial function to promote bacterial intracellular persistence. In fact, ΔsigB-mutants did not generate SCVs and were completely cleared by the host cells within a few days. In this study we identified SigB as an essential factor that enables the bacteria to switch from the highly aggressive phenotype that settles an acute infection to a silent SCV-phenotype that allows for long-term intracellular persistence. Consequently, the SigB-operon represents a possible target to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies against chronic and therapy

  2. Late-stage diagnosis of HIV infection in Brazilian children: evidence from two national cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from two consecutive retrospective cohort samples (1983 to 1998 and 1999 to 2002 of Brazilian children with AIDS (N = 1,758 through mother-to-child-transmission. Late-stage diagnosis (CDC category C was investigated in relation to the following variables: year of birth, year of HIV diagnosis, and time periods related to changes in government treatment guidelines. Late-stage diagnosis occurred in 731 (41.6% of cases and was more prevalent in infants under 12 months of age. The rate of late-stage diagnosis decreased from 48% to 36% between the two periods studied. We also observed a reduction in the proportion of late-stage diagnoses and the time lapse between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation. A significant association was found between timely diagnosis and having been born in recent years (OR = 0.62; p = 0.009 and year of HIV diagnosis (OR = 0.72; p = 0.002/OR = 0.62; p < 0.001. Infants under the age of 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than older children (OR = 1.70; p = 0.004. Despite advances, there is a need to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs focused on improving early diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS.

  3. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated

  4. Characterization of hepatitis C virus isolates from chronically infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, Bernhard

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe function of the liver is to keep the human body in physiological equilibrium. This equilibrium is regulated by several metabolic pathways such as the production of plasma proteins and detoxification. Inflammation of the liver is known as hepatitis and as entity it has been recognized since the days of Hippocrates. The most important etiology of hepatitis is viral infection of the liver.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasl and rhll quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2001-01-01

    To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared...

  6. Giant cell arteritis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giardina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory vasculopathy that preferentially affects medium-sized and large arteries. A viral cause has been suspected but not confirmed in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. We report the case of a 81-year-old female who suffered from chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and developed giant cell temporal arteritis.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Nina; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Ciofu, Oana;

    2012-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of the chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) was investigated by cross-sectional analysis of bacterial isolates from 51 CF centers and by longitudinal analysis of serial isolates which had been collected at the CF...

  8. Therapeutic silencing of microRNA-122 in primates with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanford, Robert E; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, Elisabeth S; Petri, Andreas; Persson, Robert; Lindow, Morten; Munk, Martin E; Kauppinen, Sakari; Ørum, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The liver-expressed microRNA-122 (miR-122) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA accumulation in cultured liver cells, but its potential as a target for antiviral intervention has not been assessed. We found that treatment of chronically infected chimpanzees with a locked nucleic acid (LNA...

  9. Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greally, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant pathogen infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial colonization is usually transient and associated with non-mucoid strains, which can be eradicated if identified early. This strategy can prevent, or at least delay, chronic Pa infection, which eventually develops in the majority of patients by their late teens or early adulthood. This article discusses the management and latest treatment developments of Pa lung infection in patients with CF, with a focus on nebulized antibiotic therapy.

  10. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori does not provoke major systemic inflammation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Fröhlich, M; Boeing, H; Koenig, W

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in particular infection with virulent strains producing the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by generation of a persistent low-grade inflammatory stimulus. We...... with H. pylori was unrelated to C-reactive protein and the leukocyte count, regardless of CagA status. There was an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and serum albumin. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of an albumin level in the bottom versus the top third were 2.2 (1.5-3.1) and 2.0 (1.4-3.1) for...

  11. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  12. Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Expression in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Farid, Laila Rashid, Samya Swelam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a prototype proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated as an important pathogenic mediator in a variety of liver conditions. Some genetic polymorphisms in the human TNF-alpha promoter region, such as the G-A transitions -308 and – 238, have been shown to influence TNF-alpha expression in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.Aim of the work: The present study was to investigate the influence that the – 308 and – 238 TNF- alpha promoter polymorphisms have on the response to interferon and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.Patients and methods: One hundred forty patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, their age ranges between (20-56 years, selected from the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute were included in this study, during interferon and ribavirin therapy and thirty five healthy individuals were included to serve as controls, the patients and controls were divided into two groups the first group forty patients and fifteen controls for the detection of TNF-alpha -308, -238 genotypes polymorphisms, the second group were one hundred patients and twenty healthy controls for the detection of serum levels of TNF-α. All the patients and controls were subjected to the following history, clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography and collection of blood samples for routine laboratory investigation, CBCs and serological assay, genotyping of 308, 238 TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism and serum levels of TNF-α.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between chronic HCV patients and healthy controls as regarding TNF-alpha -238 different alleles.The frequencies of TNF-alpha gene polymorphism with A/G and G/G mutation at – 308 were significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than those in the controls. The serum level of TNF-alpha was markedly higher in the chronic HCV patients than in the healthy controls. There were

  13. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  14. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  15. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with HTLV-1 infection in a Brazilian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALLE Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 15-year-old patient infected with HTLV-1 who developed a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, as well as clinically and hematologically confirmed leukemia. The patient died 3 months after initial presentation of the disease. The rarity of the disease in this age group justifies the present report.

  16. Chytrid fungus acts as a generalist pathogen infecting species-rich amphibian families in Brazilian rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Aguilar, Anyelet; Ruano-Fajardo, Gustavo; Lambertini, Carolina; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mott, Tamí

    2015-05-11

    The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is among the main causes of declines in amphibian populations. This fungus is considered a generalist pathogen because it infects several species and spreads rapidly in the wild. To date, Bd has been detected in more than 100 anuran species in Brazil, mostly in the southern portion of the Atlantic forest. Here, we report survey data from some poorly explored regions; these data considerably extend current information on the distribution of Bd in the northern Atlantic forest region. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that Bd is a generalist pathogen in this biome. We also report the first positive record for Bd in an anuran caught in the wild in Amazonia. In total, we screened 90 individuals (from 27 species), of which 39 individuals (from 22 species) were Bd-positive. All samples collected in Bahia (2 individuals), Pernambuco (3 individuals), Pará (1 individual), and Minas Gerais (1 individual) showed positive results for Bd. We found a positive correlation between anuran richness per family and the number of infected species in the Atlantic forest, supporting previous observations that Bd lacks strong host specificity; of 38% of the anuran species in the Atlantic forest that were tested for Bd infection, 25% showed positive results. The results of our study exemplify the pandemic and widespread nature of Bd infection in amphibians. PMID:25958806

  17. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  18. Shared Immune and Repair Markers During Experimental Toxoplasma Chronic Brain Infection and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Schultz, Tracey L; Kluge, Wolfgang; Yolken, Robert H; Bahn, Sabine; Carruthers, Vern B

    2016-03-01

    Chronic neurologic infection with Toxoplasma gondii is relatively common in humans and is one of the strongest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the exact neuropathological mechanisms linking T gondii infection and schizophrenia remain unclear. Here we utilize a mouse model of chronic T gondii infection to identify protein biomarkers that are altered in serum and brain samples at 2 time points during chronic infection. Furthermore, we compare the identified biomarkers to those differing between "postmortem" brain samples from 35 schizophrenia patients and 33 healthy controls. Our findings suggest that T gondii infection causes substantial and widespread immune activation indicative of neural damage and reactive tissue repair in the animal model that partly overlaps with changes observed in the brains of schizophrenia patients. The overlapping changes include increases in C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interferon gamma (IFNγ), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Potential roles of these factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis are discussed. Identifying a defined set of markers shared within the pathophysiological landscape of these diseases could be a key step towards understanding their specific contributions to pathogenesis. PMID:26392628

  19. Therapy with bone marrow cells reduces liver alterations in mice chronically infected by Schistosoma mansoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheilla Andrade Oliveira; Bruno Solano Freitas Souza; Cada Adriana Guimar(a)es-Ferreira; Elton Sá Barreto; Siane Campos Souza; Luiz Antonio Rodrigues Freitas; Ricardo Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MCs) in the regeneration of hepatic lesions induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S.mansoni) chronic infection.METHODS: Female mice chronically infected with S.mansoni were treated with BM-MCs obtained from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by intravenous or intralobular injections. Control mice received injections of saline in similar conditions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for GFP DNA, immunofluorescence and morphometric studies were performed.RESULTS: Transplanted GFP+ cells migrated to granuloma areas and reduced the percentage of liver fibrosis. The presence of donor-derived cells was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for detection of cells bearing Y chromosome and by PCR analysis for detection of GFP DNA. The levels of TGF-β, a cytokine associated with fibrosis deposition, in liver fragments of mice submitted to therapy were reduced. The number of oval cells in liver sections of S.rnansoni-infected mice increased 3-4 fold after transplantation. A partial recovery in albumin expression, which is decreased upon infection with S.mansoni, was found in livers of infected mice after cellular therapy.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, transplanted BMCs migrate to and reduce the damage of chronic fibrotic liver lesions caused by S.mansoni.

  20. Chronic and Invasive Fungal Infections in a Family with CARD9 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Medeiros, Ana Karina; Lodewick, Evelyn; Bogaert, Delfien J A; Haerynck, Filomeen; Van Daele, Sabine; Lambrecht, Bart; Bosma, Sara; Vanderdonckt, Laure; Lortholary, Olivier; Migaud, Mélanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne; Lanternier, Fanny; Lambert, Jo; Brochez, Lieve; Dullaers, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous or invasive fungal infections are generally the result of primary or secondary immune dysfunction. Patients with autosomal recessive CARD9 mutations are also predisposed to recurrent mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections with Candida spp., dermatophytes (e.g., Trichophyton spp.) and phaeohyphomycetes (Exophiala spp., Phialophora verrucosa). We study a consanguineous family of Turkish origin in which three members present with distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections, ranging from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in one patient, treatment-resistant cutaneous dermatophytosis and deep dermatophytosis in a second patient, to CMC with Candida encephalitis and endocrinopathy in a third patient. Two patients consented to genetic testing and were found to have a previously reported homozygous R70W CARD9 mutation. Circulating IL-17 and IL-22 producing T cells were decreased as was IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion upon stimulation with Candida albicans. Patients with recurrent fungal infections in the absence of known immunodeficiencies should be analyzed for CARD9 gene mutations as the cause of fungal infection predisposition. PMID:26961233

  1. Chronic hepatitis virus infection in patients with multiple myeloma: clinical characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Teng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cytotoxic agents and steroids are used to treat lymphoid malignancies, but these compounds may exacerbate chronic viral hepatitis. For patients with multiple myeloma, the impact of preexisting hepatitis virus infection is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics and outcomes of myeloma patients with chronic hepatitis virus infection. METHODS: From 2003 to 2008, 155 myeloma patients were examined to determine their chronic hepatitis virus infection statuses using serologic tests for the hepatitis B (HBV and C viruses (HCV. Clinical parameters and outcome variables were retrieved via a medical chart review. RESULTS: The estimated prevalences of chronic HBV and HCV infections were 11.0% (n = 17 and 9.0% (n = 14, respectively. The characteristics of patients who were hepatitis virus carriers and those who were not were similar. However, carrier patients had a higher prevalence of conventional cytogenetic abnormalities (64.3% vs. 25.0%. The cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 elevation of the level of alanine transaminase, 30.0% vs. 12.0%, and hyperbilirubinemia, 20.0% vs. 1.6%, were higher in carriers as well. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, carrier patients had worse overall survival (median: 16.0 vs. 42.4 months. The prognostic value of carrier status was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis, but an age of more than 65 years old, the presence of cytogenetic abnormalities, a beta-2-microglobulin level of more than 3.5 mg/L, and a serum creatinine level of more than 2 mg/ dL were independent factors associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Myeloma patients with chronic hepatitis virus infections might be a distinct subgroup, and close monitoring of hepatic adverse events should be mandatory.

  2. PD-1 blockade in chronically HIV-1-infected humanized mice suppresses viral loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Seung

    Full Text Available An estimated 34 million people are living with HIV worldwide (UNAIDS, 2012, with the number of infected persons rising every year. Increases in HIV prevalence have resulted not only from new infections, but also from increases in the survival of HIV-infected persons produced by effective anti-retroviral therapies. Augmentation of anti-viral immune responses may be able to further increase the survival of HIV-infected persons. One strategy to augment these responses is to reinvigorate exhausted anti-HIV immune cells present in chronically infected persons. The PD-1-PD-L1 pathway has been implicated in the exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using blocking anti-PD-1 antibodies has been shown to reduce simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV loads in monkeys. We now show that PD-1 blockade can improve control of HIV replication in vivo in an animal model. BLT (Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus humanized mice chronically infected with HIV-1 were treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody over a 10-day period. The PD-1 blockade resulted in a very significant 45-fold reduction in HIV viral loads in humanized mice with high CD8(+ T cell expression of PD-1, compared to controls at 4 weeks post-treatment. The anti-PD-1 antibody treatment also resulted in a significant increase in CD8(+ T cells. PD-1 blockade did not affect T cell expression of other inhibitory receptors co-expressed with PD-1, including CD244, CD160 and LAG-3, and did not appear to affect virus-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that inhibiting PD-1 signaling can reduce HIV viral loads in vivo in the humanized BLT mouse model, suggesting that blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients already infected with the AIDS virus.

  3. Characterization of gene expression profiles to chronic infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Grønbæk, Betina Chemnitz; Brogaard, Louise;

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants. The aim of the study was to use high-throughput reverse transcriptase (RT) qPCR to describe intestinal gene expression patterns in response to different levels of Map infection with a large...... expected, leads to increased expression of local IFN-γ. Expression of IL-10 also increased as a result of Map infection, and this increase was more correlated to the amount of Map than IFN-γ, indicating a shift towards a regulatory environment as infection progress. Th17-mediated immune responses were...... suppressed at this stage. Gene expression of all other genes could not be interpreted in relation to infection status. High throughput RT qPCR can be used for exploring gene expression patterns in response to Map infection but larger study groups are needed to fully understand which are key mechanisms and...

  4. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:26055296

  5. Cytosolic caspases mediate mislocalised SOD2 depletion in an in vitro model of chronic prion infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Sinclair

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress as a contributor to neuronal death during prion infection is supported by the fact that various oxidative damage markers accumulate in the brain during the course of this disease. The normal cellular substrate of the causative agent, the prion protein, is also linked with protective functions against oxidative stress. Our previous work has found that, in chronic prion infection, an apoptotic subpopulation of cells exhibit oxidative stress and the accumulation of oxidised lipid and protein aggregates with caspase recruitment. Given the likely failure of antioxidant defence mechanisms within apoptotic prion-infected cells, we aimed to investigate the role of the crucial antioxidant pathway components, superoxide dismutases (SOD 1 and 2, in an in vitro model of chronic prion infection. Increased total SOD activity, attributable to SOD1, was found in the overall population coincident with a decrease in SOD2 protein levels. When apoptotic cells were separated from the total population, the induction of SOD activity in the infected apoptotic cells was lost, with activity reduced back to levels seen in mock-infected control cells. In addition, mitochondrial superoxide production was increased and mitochondrial numbers decreased in the infected apoptotic subpopulation. Furthermore, a pan-caspase probe colocalised with SOD2 outside of mitochondria within cytosolic aggregates in infected cells and inhibition of caspase activity was able to restore cellular levels of SOD2 in the whole unseparated infected population to those of mock-infected control cells. Our results suggest that prion propagation exacerbates an apoptotic pathway whereby mitochondrial dysfunction follows mislocalisation of SOD2 to cytosolic caspases, permitting its degradation. Eventually, cellular capacity to maintain oxidative homeostasis is overwhelmed, thus resulting in cell death.

  6. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe. PMID:26344041

  7. Evidence for Protection against Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chimpanzees by Immunization with Replicating Recombinant Vaccinia Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Jin-Won; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tricoche, Nancy; Pfahler, Wolfram; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Dreux, Marlene; Cosset, François-Loic; Folgori, Antonella; Lee, Dong-Hun; Brotman, Betsy; Prince, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of homologous HCV, the two control animals that had received only the parental VV developed chronic HCV infection. All four immunized animals resolved...

  8. Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly occurrence: a review of literature and Brazilian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Newton Sérgio; De Carvalho, Beatriz Freitas; Fugaça, Cyllian Arias; Dóris, Bruna; Biscaia, Evellyn Silverio

    2016-01-01

    In November of 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil published an announcement confirming the relationship between Zika virus and the microcephaly outbreak in the Northeast, suggesting that infected pregnant women might have transmitted the virus to their fetuses. The objectives of this study were to conduct a literature review about Zika virus infection and microcephaly, evaluate national and international epidemiological data, as well as the current recommendations for the health teams. Zika virus is an arbovirus, whose main vector is the Aedes sp. The main symptoms of the infection are maculopapular rash, fever, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Transmission of this pathogen occurs mainly by mosquito bite, but there are also reports via the placenta. Microcephaly is defined as a measure of occipto-frontal circumference being more than two standard deviations below the mean for age and gender. The presence of microcephaly demands evaluation of the patient, in order to diagnose the etiology. Health authorities issued protocols, reports and notes concerning the management of microcephaly caused by Zika virus, but there is still controversy about managing the cases. The Ministry of Health advises notifying any suspected or confirmed cases of children with microcephaly related to the pathogen, which is confirmed by a positive specific laboratory test for the virus. The first choice for imaging exam in children with this malformation is transfontanellar ultrasound. The most effective way to control this outbreak of microcephaly probably caused by this virus is to combat the vector. Since there is still uncertainty about the period of vulnerability of transmission via placenta, the use of repellents is crucial throughout pregnancy. More investigations studying the consequences of this viral infection on the body of newborns and in their development are required. PMID:27102780

  9. A Cluster of Transverse Myelitis Following Dengue Virus Infection in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Adriano Miranda; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: During the last two decades, clinical reports have begun to place increasing emphasis on the possible neurological complications related to dengue. However, reports of cases with myelitis post dengue are rare. This study describes an unprecedented cluster of transverse myelitis following a dengue virus infection. Methods: 51 possible cases of neurological complications related to dengue were identified by the epidemiological surveillance of the State of Rondônia, Brazi...

  10. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  11. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A NORTHEASTERN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUNHA, Mirella Alves; ASSUNÇÃO, Gabriela Lins Medeiros; MEDEIROS, Iara Marques; FREITAS, Marise Reis

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common problem worldwide. Its clinical characteristics and susceptibility rates of bacteria are important in determining the treatment of choice and its duration. This study assessed the frequency and susceptibility to antimicrobials of uropathogens isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State capital, northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. A total of 1,082 positive samples were evaluated; E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (60.4%). With respect to the uropathogens susceptibility rates, the resistance of enterobacteria to ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was 24.4% and 50.6%, respectively. Susceptibility was over 90% for nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins. High resistance rates of uropathogens to quinolones and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim draws attention to the choice of these drugs on empirical treatments, especially in patients with pyelonephritis. Given the increased resistance of community bacteria to antimicrobials, local knowledge of susceptibility rates of uropathogens is essential for therapeutic decision making regarding patients with urinary tract infections. PMID:26910446

  12. Mycobacterium sherrisii Lung Infection in a Brazilian Patient with Silicosis and a History of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

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    Carolina de Oliveira Abrão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM diseases became relevant with the emergence and spread of HIV and are also related to lung infection in non-HIV individuals with structural lung diseases. Mycobacterium sherrisii is a NTM first characterized in 2004. Only a few cases have been reported. The aim of this case report is to describe the first detailed case of infection with M. sherrisii in a patient with silicosis and history of pulmonary tuberculosis. A 50-year-old HIV-negative white male, previous smoker, with silicosis and a history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis developed a worsening of cough and expectoration pattern, and two sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Presumptive treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis was initiated with rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, but, at month 5 of treatment, despite correct medication intake and slight improvement of symptoms, sputum bacilloscopy remained positive. Sputum cultures were positive Mycobacterium sherrisii. Treatment regimen was altered to streptomycin (for 2 months, ethambutol, clarithromycin, rifabutin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. M. sherrisii should be considered a possible etiological agent of lung infections in patients with pneumoconiosis and history of tuberculosis.

  13. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  14. Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Vapalahti, Olli

    2015-09-01

    1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Using 9 years empirical data in a PUUV endemic area in Central Finland, we found differences between reproductive characteristics of PUUV-infected and uninfected female bank voles. 3. Young infected females had a significantly higher, and old individuals lower, likelihood of reproducing than uninfected animals during the middle of the breeding season. The implication is that PUUV infection may have long-term deleterious effects that are observed at old age, while in young individuals, the infection may enhance breeding probability by directing resources towards current breeding. 4. Moreover, PUUV infection was related with the mother's body condition. Infected mothers were in poorer condition than uninfected mothers in the early breeding season, but were in better condition than uninfected mothers during the middle of the breeding season. Offspring body condition was positively associated with mother's body condition, which, in turn, was related to the PUUV infection status of the mother. 5. Our findings indicate that chronic infection may affect the reproduction of female hosts, but the effect is dependent on the host age. The effect of chronic hantavirus infection was small and density-independent and hence unlikely to contribute to the cyclic population dynamics of the host. However, the effects on a female's reproductive output might affect the abundance of young susceptible individuals in the

  15. Dendritic cells: The warriors upfront-turned defunct in chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meenakshi; Sachdeva; Yogesh; K; Chawla; Sunil; K; Arora

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection causes tremendousmorbidity and mortality with over 170 million people infected worldwide. HCV gives rise to a sustained, chronic disease in the majority of infected individuals owing to a failure of the host immune system to clear the virus. In general, an adequate immune response is elicited by an efficient antigen presentation by dendritic cells(DCs), the cells that connect innate and adaptive immune system to generate a specific immune response against a pathogen. However, HCV seems to dysregulate the activity of DCs, making them less proficient antigen presenting cells for the optimal stimulation of virusspecific T cells, hence interfering with an optimal antiviral immune response. There are discordant reports on the functional status of DCs in chronic HCV infection(CHC), from no phenotypic or functional defects to abnormal functions of DCs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms behind the impairment of DC function are even so not completely elucidated during CHC. Understanding the mechanisms of immune dysfunction would help in devising strategies for better management of the disease at the immunological level and help to predict the prognosis of the disease in the patients receiving antiviral therapy. In this review, we have discussed the outcomes of the interaction of DCs with HCV and the mechanisms of DC impairment during HCV infection with its adverse effects on the immune response in the infected host.

  16. Chronic Schistosome Infection Leads to Modulation of Granuloma Formation and Systemic Immune Suppression

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    Steven K. Lundy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways.

  17. Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon

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    Sérgio Neto Vitaliano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin. M METHODS: The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231. IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3% and IgM by 14 (10.7% of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05; however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05 community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.

  18. [The role of chronic dental bacterial infections in the aetiopathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska, Jadwiga; Lyszczarz, Robert; Błazowska, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Chronic dental infections, even of low intensity, may cause the development of atherosclerotic changes in arteries, that lead to coronary heart disease. There are many risk factors for atherosclerosis, but the most important are endothelium function disturbances, platelets activation and oxidative changes of plasmatic lipoproteins. Among factors that can induce the epithelium lesions bacterial factor may play an important role. In consequence of the bacterial cell breakdown place the release of endotoxins takes, that lead directly to the damage of endothelial cells. Apart from this direct effect endotoxins activate the fagocytes releasing superoxide reactive radicals, that cause lesions of endothelium. Probably the most widespread chronic bacterial infections in human are the diseases of periodontium and teeth and their inflammatory complications. Oral cavity is colonized by 300-400 bacterial species. In the case of dental bacterial infections bacteriemia occurs after such procedures as tooth extraction, endodontic treatment, therapeutic and hygienic interventions on periodontal tissues. The results of many investigations show the relationship between the oral status (dental and periodontal diseases as chronic oral infections) and disorders of cardiovascular system. PMID:17474623

  19. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

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    Donadi Eduardo Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.

  20. Early diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in chronic cholestatic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Zhi Wu; Dan Chen; Lian-San Zhao; Xiao-Hui Yu; Mei Wei; Yan Zhao; Qing Fang; Qian Xu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the early diagnostic methods of bacterial and fungal infection in patients with chronic cholestatic hepatitis B.METHODS: One hundred and one adult in-patients with chronic hepatitis B were studied and divided into 3 groups:direct bilirubin (DBil)/total bilirubin (TBil)≥0.5, without bacterial and fungal infection (group A, n=38); DBil/TBil <0.5, without bacterial and fungal infection (group B, n=23);DBil/TBil≥0.5, with bacterial or fungal infection (group C,n=40). The serum biochemical index and pulse rate were analyzed.RESULTS: Level of TBil, DBil, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and DBil/ALP in group A increased compared with that in group B. The level of ALP in group C decreased compared with that in group A, whereas the level of TBil, DBil and DBil/ALP increased (ALP: 156±43, 199±68, respectively,P<0.05; TBil: 370±227, 220±206, respectively, P<0.01;DBil: 214±143, 146±136, respectively, P<0.01; DBil/ALP:1.65±1.05, 0.78±0.70, respectively, P<0.001). The level of DBil and infection affected DBil/ALP. Independent of the effect of DBil, infection caused DBil/ALP to rise (P<0.05).The pulse rate in group A decreased compared with that in group B (63.7±6.4, 77.7±11.4, respectively, P<0.001),and the pulse rate in group C increased compared with that in group A (81.2±12.2, 63.7±6.4, respectively, P<0.001).The equation (infection=0.218 pusle rate +1.064 DBil/ALP -16.361), with total accuracy of 85.5%, was obtained from stepwise logistic regression. Pulse rate (≥80/min) and DBil/ALP (≥1.0) were used to screen infection. The sensitivity was 62.5% and 64.7% respectively, and the specificity was 100% and 82.8% respectively.CONCLUSION: Bacterial and fungal infection deteriorate jaundice and increase pulse rate, decrease serum ALP and increase DBil/ALP. Pulse rate, DBil/ALP and the equation (infection=0.218 pusle rate+1.064 DBil/ALP-16.361) are helpful to early diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in patients with chronic

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in Argentina: Burden of chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge R; Estes, Chris; Gadano, Adrián C; Razavi, Homie; Villamil, Federico G; Silva, Marcelo O

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCV-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed: (1) increased sustained virologic response (SVR); and (2) increased SVR and treatment. RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liver-related deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina.

  2. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G;

    2014-01-01

    The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled......, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic...

  3. Role of chronic E. coli infection in the process of bladder cancer- an experimental study

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    El-Mosalamy Hala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in Egypt. A history of urinary tract infection can be considered as a risk factor for bladder cancer. Escherichia coli (E. coli infection is responsible for 70% of urinary tract infection. This study aimed to evaluate the role of chronic E. coli infection during bladder carcinogenesis. In order to achieve this aim, we investigated the histopathological changes in bladder tissue and measured the level of nuclear factor kappa p65 (NF-κBp65, Bcl-2 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in four groups each consisting of 25 male albino rats except of control group consisting of 20 rats. The first group was normal control group, the second group was infected with E. coli, the third group was administered nitrosamine precursor, and the forth group was infected with E. coli and administered nitrosamine precursor. Results The histopathological examination revealed that E. coli infected group was able alone to produce some histopathological changes in bladder tissue and that nitrosamine precursor plus E. coli group showed highest incidences of urinary bladder lesions than the nitrosamine precursor group. NF-κBp65, Bcl-2 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in nitrosamine precursor plus E. coli group than the other groups. Conclusion These findings suggested that urinary bladder infection by E. coli may play a major additive and synergistic role during bladder carcinogenesis.

  4. Multiple bovine papillomavirus infections associated with cutaneous papillomatosis in brazilian cattle herds

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    Marlise Pompeo Claus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous papillomatosis is a pathological condition commonly found in cattle and is characterized by the presence of benign proliferative tumors caused by bovine papillomavirus (BPV infection. While multiple infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are common in healthy and immunodeficient humans, studies with the aim of identifying mixed infections are still sporadic in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of multiple BPV infections in cattle affected by cutaneous papillomatosis. Fifteen skin warts were collected from at least two diverse anatomical regions of six bovines with papillomatosis belonging to three cattle herds from the Paraná state in Brazil. The BPV types present in the skin wart samples were determined by a PCR assay performed with the FAP primer pair for partial L1 gene amplification followed by direct sequencing or by cloning and sequencing of the inserts. Sequence analysis of the obtained amplicons allowed the identification of four characterized BPV types (BPV-1, -2, -6, and -8 and three previously described putative new BPV types (BPV/BR-UEL3, BPV/BR-UEL4, and BPV/BR-UEL5. Double infections were identified in four (A, B, D, and E of the six animals included in this study. In this work, the strategy adopted to evaluate skin warts from diverse anatomical sites of the same animal allowed the identification of multiple infections with two or three different BPV types. The analysis of four animals belonging to a single cattle herd also showed the presence of six different viral types. These results clearly suggest that both multiple papillomaviral infection and a high viral diversity can be as frequent in cattle as in human beings.A papilomatose cutânea é comumente observada nos rebanhos bovinos e caracterizada pela presença de tumores proliferativos benignos causados pela infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino (BPV. Enquanto a infecção múltipla pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV é um

  5. [Influence of chronic lead exposure on resistence to bacterial infection (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, U; Weisser, L; Wegner, A

    1980-01-01

    Suppression by lead of resistance to bacterial or viral infections has been reported by several authors. We have studied, if a decrease of resistance to bacterial infection could be evaluated at blood lead concentrations (PbB), which correspond to the upper levels of environmental or occupational lead exposure regarded as tolerable (PbB = 35 resp. 60 microgram/100 ml). NMRI mice were chronically exposed to lead by feeding with lead acetate containing diets and given a challenge with Salmonella typhimurium. No increase of susceptibility to bacterial infection could be demonstrated at PbB 100 microgram/100 g, however, an increase of lethality and a decrease of 50% survival times could be observed after bacterial infection. PMID:6999813

  6. Sustained clearance of Mansonella ozzardi infection after treatment with ivermectin in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Fontes, Gilberto; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Aranha Camargo, Juliana Souza de Almeida; Souza Vera, Luana Janaína; Parente Araújo, Marcos Paulo; Pires Parente, Maira Santiago; Mattos Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi; Barreto Crispim, Pedro di Tárique; Aranha Camargo, Luís Marcelo

    2014-06-01

    Therapy for mansonelliasis is challenging because there is no standard drug recommended for its treatment. This non-randomized study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of 0.15 mg/kg of ivermectin to reduce Mansonella ozzardi microfilaraemia in infected persons. A total of 74 patients were studied within the municipality of Lábrea, which is located in Amazonas State, Brazil. The patients were treated with ivermectin after detection of the parasite by blood examination. Significant microfilaraemia reduction was observed and its residual effect was maintained for at least 12 months. There was no significant change in the laboratory blood count, hepatic metabolites, and nitrogen-bounding compound excreta dosage values that could compromise the use of this drug, demonstrating that ivermectin has a low toxicity level. PMID:24710613

  7. The association of genetic markers and malaria infection in the Brazilian Western Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Beiguelman

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all individuals (182 belonging to an Amazonian riverine population (Portuchuelo, RO, Brazil were investigated for ascertaining data on epidemiological aspects of malaria. Thirteen genetic blood polymorphisms were investigated (ABO, MNSs, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems, haptoglobins, hemoglobins, and the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyoxalase, phosphoglucomutase, carbonic anhydrase, red cell acid phosphatase, and esterase D. The results indicated that the Duffy system is associated with susceptibility to malaria, as observed in other endemic areas. Moreover, suggestions also arose indicating that the EsD and Rh loci may be significantly associated with resistance to malaria. If statistical type II errors and sample stratification could be ruled out, hypotheses on the existence of a causal mechanism or an unknown closely linked locus involved in susceptibility to malaria infection may explain the present findings.

  8. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

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    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  9. B cells and platelets harbor prion infectivity in the blood of deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A; Dahmes, Sallie J; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Mason, Gary L; Telling, Glenn C; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A

    2010-05-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) blood infectivity is associated with the cellular versus the cell-free/plasma fraction of blood and (ii) in particular if B-cell (MAb 2-104(+)), platelet (CD41/61(+)), or CD14(+) monocyte blood cell phenotypes harbor infectious prions. All four deer transfused with the blood mononuclear cell fraction from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive by 19 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer inoculated with cell-free plasma from the same source developed prion infection. All four of the deer injected with B cells and three of four deer receiving platelets from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive in as little as 6 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer receiving blood CD14(+) monocytes developed evidence of CWD infection (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis) after 19 months of observation. Results of the Tg(CerPrP) mouse bioassays mirrored those of the native cervid host. These results indicate that CWD blood infectivity is cell associated and suggest a significant role for B cells and platelets in trafficking CWD infectivity in vivo and support earlier tissue-based studies associating putative follicular B cells with PrP(CWD). Localization of CWD infectivity with leukocyte subpopulations may aid in enhancing the sensitivity of blood-based diagnostic assays for CWD and other TSEs. PMID:20219916

  10. HLA in Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews with chronic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum Antígenos Leucocitários Humanos (HLA em Judeus Ashkenazitas Brasileiros portadores de dermatofitose crônica causada por Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sadahiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigens was analyzed in 25 non-consanguineous Brazilian Ashkenazic Jews, resident in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, suffering from chronic dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, and in 25 non-infected individuals belonging to the same ethnic group. Statistically significant values (pA freqüência dos HLA foi analisada em 25 Judeus Ashkenazitas, não consangüíneos, residentes em São Paulo, Brasil, com dermatofitose crônica causada por T. rubrum e em 25 indivíduos sadios, pertencentes ao mesmo grupo étnico dos pacientes. Observou-se valor estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 para HLA-B14 associado a resistência à dermatofitose crônica enquanto HLA-DQB1*06 (p=0,05 possivelmente relacionado a susceptibilidade. Estes achados indicam que o desenvolvimento da dermatofitose crônica pode ser influenciado por genes localizados no cromossomo 6, na região do complexo principal de histocompatibilidade.

  11. Activation of pulmonary and lymph node dendritic cells during chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Alhede, Morten; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2016-06-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients acquire chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. The chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection is characterized by bacteria growing in biofilm surrounded by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). However, the infection is not eradicated and the inflammatory response leads to gradual degradation of the lung tissue. In CF patients, a Th2-dominated adaptive immune response with a pronounced antibody response is correlated with poorer outcome. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial in bridging the innate immune system with the adaptive immune response. Once activated, the DCs deliver a set of signals to uncommitted T cells that induce development, such as expansion of regulatory T cells and polarization of Th1, Th2 or Th17 subsets. In this study, we characterized DCs in lungs and regional lymph nodes in BALB/c mice infected using intratracheal installation of P. aeruginosa embedded in seaweed alginate in the lungs. A significantly elevated concentration of DCs was detected earlier in the lungs than in the regional lymph nodes. To evaluate whether the chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection leads to activation of DCs, costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 were analyzed. During infection, the DCs showed significant elevation of CD80 and CD86 expression in both the lungs and the regional lymph nodes. Interestingly, the percentage of CD86-positive cells was significantly higher than the percentage of CD80-positive cells in the lymph nodes. In addition, cytokine production from Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated DCs was analyzed demonstrating elevated production of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. However, production of IL-12 was suppressed earlier than IL-6 and IL-10. These results support that DCs are involved in skewing of the Th1/Th2 balance in CF and may be a possible treatment target. PMID:27009697

  12. Effect of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on bone disease in postmenopausal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nanda, Kavinderjit S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data are available on the contribution of chronic HCV infection to the development of bone disease in postmenopausal women. We studied whether women who acquired HCV infection through administration of HCV genotype 1b-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin from a single source had decreased bone mineral density (BMD) or altered levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), compared with women who spontaneously resolved infection or age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: From a cohort of postmenopausal Irish women, we compared BMD, determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a panel of BTMs in 20 women chronically infected with HCV (PCR(+)), 21 women who had spontaneously resolved infection (PCR(-)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of BTMs and BMD were similar in PCR(+) and PCR(-) women and healthy age-matched controls. However, there was an increased frequency of fractures in PCR(+) (n = 6) compared with PCR(-) women (n = 0, P = .007). PCR(+) women with fractures were postmenopausal for a longer time (median, 15.5, range, 5-20 years vs 4.5, range, 1-20 years in PCR(+) women without fractures; P = .033), had lower BMD at the hip (0.79, range, 0.77-0.9 g\\/cm(2) vs 0.96, range, 0.81-1.10 g\\/cm(2); P = .007), and had a lower body mass index (23.7, range 21.2-28.5 kg\\/m(2) vs 25.6, range 22.1-36.6 kg\\/m(2); P = .035). There was no difference in liver disease severity or BTMs in PCR(+) women with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV infection did not lead to discernable metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women, but it might be a risk factor for bone fractures, so preventive measures should be introduced. To view this article\\'s video abstract, go to the AGA\\'s YouTube Channel.

  13. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations and association with cryoglobulinemia in Bulgarian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in Bulgarian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and identify the clinical and biological manifestations associated with cryoglobulinemia.METHODS: The medical records of 136 chronically infected HCV patients were reviewed to assess the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations. Association between cryoglobulin-positivity and other manifestations were identified using χ2 and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations were assessed by logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Seventy six percent (104/136) of the patients had at least one extrahepatic manifestation.Clinical manifestations included fatigue (59.6%),kidney impairment (25.0%), type 2 diabetes (22.8%),paresthesia (19.9%), arthralgia (18.4%), palpable purpura (17.6%), lymphadenopathy (16.2%), pulmonary fibrosis (15.4%), thyroid dysfunction (14.7%), Raynaud's phenomenon (11.8%), B-cell lymphoma (8.8%),sicca syndrome (6.6%), and lichen planus (5.9%).The biological manifestations included cryoglobulin production (37.5%), thrombocytopenia (31.6%), and autoantibodies: anti-nuclear (18.4%), anti-smooth muscle (16.9%), anti-neutrophil cytoplasm (13.2%) and anti-cardiolipin (8.8%). All extrahepatic manifestations showed an association with cryoglobulin-positivity, with the exception of thyroid dysfunction, sicca syndrome,and lichen planus. Risks factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations (univariate analysis) were:age ≥ 60 years, female gender, virus transmission by blood transfusions, longstanding infection (≥ 20 years), and extensive liver fibrosis. The most significant risks factors (multivariate analysis) were longstanding infection and extensive liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: We observed a high prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in patients with chronic HCV infection. Most of these manifestations were associated with impaired lymphoproliferation and cryoglobulin production

  14. Antibody V(h repertoire differences between resolving and chronically evolving hepatitis C virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Racanelli

    Full Text Available Despite the production of neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV, many patients fail to clear the virus and instead develop chronic infection and long-term complications. To understand how HCV infection perturbs the antibody repertoire and to identify molecular features of antibody genes associated with either viral clearance or chronic infection, we sequenced the V(DJ region of naïve and memory B cells of 6 persons who spontaneously resolved an HCV infection (SR, 9 patients with a newly diagnosed chronically evolving infection (CE, and 7 healthy donors. In both naïve and memory B cells, the frequency of use of particular antibody gene subfamilies and segments varied among the three clinical groups, especially between SR and CE. Compared to CE, SR antibody genes used fewer VH, D and JH gene segments in naïve B cells and fewer VH segments in memory B cells. SR and CE groups significantly differed in the frequency of use of 7 gene segments in naïve B cell clones and 3 gene segments in memory clones. The nucleotide mutation rates were similar among groups, but the pattern of replacement and silent mutations in memory B cell clones indicated greater antigen selection in SR than CE. Greater clonal evolution of SR than CE memory B cells was revealed by analysis of phylogenetic trees and CDR3 lengths. Pauciclonality of the peripheral memory B cell population is a distinguishing feature of persons who spontaneously resolved an HCV infection. This finding, previously considered characteristic only of patients with HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, suggests that the B cell clones potentially involved in clearance of the virus may also be those susceptible to abnormal expansion.

  15. Chronic Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection Mutes Immune Responses to Mycobacterial Infection Distal to the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obieglo, Katja; Feng, Xiaogang; Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Classon, Cajsa; Österblad, Markus; Helmby, Helena; Hewitson, James P; Maizels, Rick M; Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Antonio; Nylén, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Helminth infections have been suggested to impair the development and outcome of Th1 responses to vaccines and intracellular microorganisms. However, there are limited data regarding the ability of intestinal nematodes to modulate Th1 responses at sites distal to the gut. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri on Th1 responses to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We found that H. polygyrus infection localized to the gut can mute BCG-specific CD4(+) T cell priming in both the spleen and skin-draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, H. polygyrus infection reduced the magnitude of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD in the skin. Consequently, H. polygyrus-infected mice challenged with BCG had a higher mycobacterial load in the liver compared with worm-free mice. The excretory-secretory product from H. polygyrus (HES) was found to dampen IFN-γ production by mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T cells. This inhibition was dependent on the TGF-βR signaling activity of HES, suggesting that TGF-β signaling plays a role in the impaired Th1 responses observed coinfection with worms. Similar to results with mycobacteria, H. polygyrus-infected mice displayed an increase in skin parasite load upon secondary infection with Leishmania major as well as a reduction in DTH responses to Leishmania Ag. We show that a nematode confined to the gut can mute T cell responses to mycobacteria and impair control of secondary infections distal to the gut. The ability of intestinal helminths to reduce DTH responses may have clinical implications for the use of skin test-based diagnosis of microbial infections. PMID:26819205

  16. Murine Model Imitating Chronic Wound Infections for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kasimova, Kamola; Arenas, Yaxal; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Grinholc, Mariusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the age of antibiotics could come to an end, due to their widespread, and inappropriate use. Particularly for chronic wounds alternatives are being thought. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) is a potential candidate, and while approved for some indications, such as periodontitis, chronic sinusitis and other niche indications, its use in chronic wounds is not established. To further facilitate the development of APDT in chronic wounds we present an easy to use animal model exhibiting the key hallmarks of chronic wounds, based on full-thickness skin wounds paired with an optically transparent cover. The moisture-retaining wound exhibited rapid expansion of pathogen colonies up to 8 days while not jeopardizing the host survival. Use of two bioluminescent pathogens; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa permits real time monitoring of the pathogens. The murine model was employed to evaluate the performance of four different photosensitizers as mediators in Photodynamic Therapy. While all four photosensitizers, Rose Bengal, porphyrin TMPyP, New Methylene Blue, and TLD1411 demonstrated good to excellent antimicrobial efficacy in planktonic solutions at 1 to 50 μM concentrations, whereas in in vivo the growth delay was limited with 24–48 h delay in pathogen expansion for MRSA, and we noticed longer growth suppression of P. aeruginosa with TLD1411 mediated Photodynamic Therapy. The murine model will enable developing new strategies for enhancement of APDT for chronic wound infections. PMID:27555843

  17. Murine Model Imitating Chronic Wound Infections for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kasimova, Kamola; Arenas, Yaxal; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Grinholc, Mariusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the age of antibiotics could come to an end, due to their widespread, and inappropriate use. Particularly for chronic wounds alternatives are being thought. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) is a potential candidate, and while approved for some indications, such as periodontitis, chronic sinusitis and other niche indications, its use in chronic wounds is not established. To further facilitate the development of APDT in chronic wounds we present an easy to use animal model exhibiting the key hallmarks of chronic wounds, based on full-thickness skin wounds paired with an optically transparent cover. The moisture-retaining wound exhibited rapid expansion of pathogen colonies up to 8 days while not jeopardizing the host survival. Use of two bioluminescent pathogens; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa permits real time monitoring of the pathogens. The murine model was employed to evaluate the performance of four different photosensitizers as mediators in Photodynamic Therapy. While all four photosensitizers, Rose Bengal, porphyrin TMPyP, New Methylene Blue, and TLD1411 demonstrated good to excellent antimicrobial efficacy in planktonic solutions at 1 to 50 μM concentrations, whereas in in vivo the growth delay was limited with 24-48 h delay in pathogen expansion for MRSA, and we noticed longer growth suppression of P. aeruginosa with TLD1411 mediated Photodynamic Therapy. The murine model will enable developing new strategies for enhancement of APDT for chronic wound infections. PMID:27555843

  18. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection after living donor liver transplantation via blood transfusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Itoh, Shinji; Harimoto, Norifumi; Harada, Noboru; Ikegami, Toru; Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Although it occurs worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in developed countries is generally foodborne. HEV infection is subclinical in most individuals. Although fulminant liver failure may occur, progression to chronic hepatitis is rare. This study describes a 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria. His liver function was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day (POD) 22. However, his alanine aminotransferase concentration began to increase on POD 60 and HEV infection was detected on POD 81. Retrospective assessments of stored blood samples showed that this patient became positive for HEV RNA on POD 3. The liver donor was negative for anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. However, the platelet concentrate transfused into the liver recipient the day after LDLT was positive for HEV RNA. The patient remained positive for HEV infection for 10 months. Treatment with 800 mg/day ribavirin for 20 weeks reduced HEV RNA to an undetectable level. In conclusion, this report describes a patient infected with HEV through a blood transfusion after LDLT, who progressed to chronic hepatitis probably due to his immunosuppressed state and was treated well with ribavirin therapy. PMID:27059470

  19. ETHNIC AND POPULATION-SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ageeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Immunophenotype profile of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ from peripheral blood in gastric ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer has been studied in Khakassian aboriginals and migrants. Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was also evaluated. Some alterations of immunological indexes were revealed in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, as compared to healthy donors and migrants. The changes were characterized by a more intense apoptotic death of lymphocytes in the patients, when compared with numbers of apoptotic cells in control group. Probable role of apoptotic events in regulation of local and system immunity in Helicobacter pylori infection is discussed.

  20. Neutrophilic dermatosis of the dorsal hands associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Joao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophilic dermatosis of the dorsal hands, a localized form of Sweet′s syndrome, was recently described, and can be associated with several diseases including infections. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been proposed as a possible triggering factor. The authors present a case in which the clinical and laboratory workup diagnosis only revealed positive serology for hepatitis C virus. Although a cause-effect relation could not be proved, it might be advisable to include serology for this virus in the initial evaluation of patients with neutrophilic dermatosis.

  1. Successful interferon desensitization in a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Alireza Taghavi; Ahad Eshraghian

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C, even when absolutely necessary, is almost impossible when interferon cannot be administered for any reason. We report a 65-year-old patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and fibrosis, who was unable to receive interferon because of systemic hypersensitivity. The patient was desensitized successfully through gradual incremental exposure to interferon, and HCV infection was eradicated after a complete course of treatment,with no further allergic reactions. This case report that describes successful eradication of hepatitis C in a patient with advanced liver disease after desensitization to interferon revealed that desensitization may not necessarily damage the therapeutic efficacy of the drug.

  2. Boceprevir in chronic hepatitis C infection: a perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Boceprevir (Victrelis), from the oral α-ketoamide class of slow-binding reversible hepatitis C virus (HCV)-NS3 protease inhibitors, creates a new class of drugs: direct acting antivirals (DDAs). Boceprevir is highly selective against HCV serine protease. Its use is restricted to genotype 1 HCV infection and it must not be used as monotherapy. Boceprevir is given orally, rapidly absorbed, reaching plasma peak concentration within 1-2 h and is metabolized by aldo-ketoreductase and partly by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4/5. Administration with drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A4/5 could decrease or increase its plasma concentration. The optimal dosage is 800 mg three times daily; capsules should be taken with food. Boceprevir was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and is indicated in combination with peginterferon plus ribavirin for the treatment of patients with genotype 1 HCV who have not received previous treatment or whose condition has failed to respond to previous therapy. In the Serine Protease Inhibitor Therapy 2 (SPRINT-2) trial (treatment-naïve patients) and RESPOND-2 trial (patients whose condition relapsed or did not respond to previous treatment), the boceprevir-containing regimen was always more effective than standard of care (SOC). Adverse events were similar in the treatment groups, but in the boceprevir treated group, anemia was more frequent, requiring erythropoietin in nearly 40% of cases. Discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events was identical in all treated groups. As for cost effectiveness, two studies showed that boceprevir plus SOC is cost effective with regard to the lifetime incidence of liver complications, quality of life years, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The management of this therapy is more complex than before for physicians and patients. The educational role of the physician is crucial for successful therapy and counseling should be carefully given

  3. Validation of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Gesture Behavior Test for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Furtado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Brazilian version of the gesture behavior test (GBT for patients with chronic low back pain. METHODS: Translation of GBT into Portuguese was performed by a rheumatologist fluent in the language of origin (French and skilled in the validation of questionnaires. This translated version was back-translated into French by a native-speaking teacher of the language. The two translators then created a final consensual version in Portuguese. Cultural adaptation was carried out by two rheumatologists, one educated patient and the native-speaking French teacher. Thirty patients with chronic low back pain and fifteen healthcare professionals involved in the education of patients with low back pain through back schools (gold-standard were evaluated. Reproducibility was initially tested by two observers (inter-observer; the procedures were also videotaped for later evaluation by one of the observers (intra-observer. For construct validation, we compared patients' scores against the scores of the healthcare professionals. RESULTS: Modifications were made to the GBT for cultural reasons. The Spearman's correlation coefficient and the intra-class coefficient, which was employed to measure reproducibility, ranged between 0.87 and 0.99 and 0.94 to 0.99, respectively (p < 0.01. With regard to validation, the Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01 between the averages for healthcare professionals (26.60; SD 2.79 and patients (16.30; SD 6.39. There was a positive correlation between the GBT score and the score on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (r= 0.47. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the GBT proved to be a reproducible and valid instrument. In addition, according to the questionnaire results, more disabled patients exhibited more protective gesture behavior related to low-back.

  4. Controlled trial of inhaled budesonide in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchopulmonary Psuedomonas aeruginosa infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S S; Nielsen, K G;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and complicating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) lung infection was studied in a placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind single center trial. Active treatment......-trial histamine reactivity and the change in FEV1 in the first period in patients on budesonide. We conclude that inhaled glucocorticosteroids can be of short-term benefit in patients with CF and chronic P.a. infection and that those patients most likely to benefit from this treatment are patients with...... hyperreactive airways. Prolonged studies in larger number of patients are necessary to determine the long-term efficacy of this treatment....

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolutionary Adaptation and Diversification in Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Lung Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Craig; O'Brien, Siobhan; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo a characteristic evolutionary adaptation during chronic infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, including reduced production of virulence factors, transition to a biofilm-associated lifestyle, and evolution of high-level antibiotic resistance. Populations of P. aeruginosa in chronic CF lung infections typically exhibit high phenotypic diversity, including for clinically important traits such as antibiotic resistance and toxin production, and this diversity is dynamic over time, making accurate diagnosis and treatment challenging. Population genomics studies reveal extensive genetic diversity within patients, including for transmissible strains the coexistence of highly divergent lineages acquired by patient-to-patient transmission. The inherent spatial structure and spatial heterogeneity of selection in the CF lung appears to play a key role in driving P. aeruginosa diversification. PMID:26946977

  6. The microorganisms in chronically infected end-stage and non-end-stage cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke B; Thomsen, Trine R; Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper N; Nielsen, Per H; Johansen, Ulla R; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    molecular methods. Tissue and sputum samples (n = 34) from explanted lungs of five end-stage patients were examined along with routine expectorates (n = 15) from 13 patients with non-end-stage CF, representing earlier stages of chronic lung infections. Previously, using peptide nucleic acid (PNA......Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infections because of highly viscous mucus, where bacteria can form biofilms. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in the lungs of end-stage and non-end-stage patients using standard culturing techniques and......RNA gene analysis (J Clin Microbiol 2011, 49: 4352). Conversely, the non-end-stage patients were found to harbor several species by culturing. PNA FISH confirmed heterogeneous microbiota and showed that the bacteria were located in monospecies aggregates with no apparent physical interaction between the...

  7. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE...... events. Previous antiviral therapy (treatment-naive patients, relapsers, or nonresponders), patient characteristics, treatment regimen, methodological quality, and duration of follow-up were extracted. We included 72 trials with a total of 9991 enrolled patients. Treatment with ribavirin plus interferon...

  8. ETHNIC AND POPULATION-SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    E. S. Ageeva; V. M. Iptyshev; O. V. Stygasheva; N. V. Ryasantseva

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Immunophenotype profile of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+) from peripheral blood in gastric ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer has been studied in Khakassian aboriginals and migrants. Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was also evaluated. Some alterations of immunological indexes were revealed in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, as compared to healthy donors and migrants. The changes were characterized by a more intens...

  9. Gene polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase -1 in chronic periapical lesions and acute odontogenic infection

    OpenAIRE

    Evrosimovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation involved various genes. Gene polymorphisms are contributing factors in the pathogenesis of inflammation. The promontory region of some matrix metalloproteinase’s (MMP) detected polymorphisms of the DNA (those promontory regions controlled transcription of the gene). Identification of genetic factors which are of enormous meaning for establishing of different profile of patients who will develop chronic periapical lesion or acute odontogenic infection, as well as, calculation o...

  10. Blockade of Immunosuppressive Cytokines Restores NK Cell Antiviral Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitra Peppa; Lorenzo Micco; Alia Javaid; Kennedy, Patrick T.F.; Anna Schurich; Claire Dunn; Celeste Pallant; Gidon Ellis; Pooja Khanna; Geoffrey Dusheiko; Gilson, Richard J.; Mala K Maini

    2010-01-01

    NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic role, NK cells have antiviral potential in CHB. We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to...

  11. A case of unilateral optic disc swelling with chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, Naoko; Nakazawa, Toru; Shimura, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Ocular complications of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection have rarely been reported and are usually associated with systemic symptoms. We described a 17-year-old boy with unilateral optic disc swelling without any systemic symptoms at the initial onset. Antibody titers to EBV were markedly elevated. Treatment with immunosuppressants and corticosteroids dramatically relieved all his symptoms, including unilateral optic swelling and visual field abnormalities.

  12. [Novel treatments for hepatitis C virus infection in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has been accumulated showing a negative impact of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on survival in patients with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, it appears that anti-HCV positive status has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the adult general population. These reports have emphasized the need for safe and effective therapies for hepatitis C virus infection in the chronic kidney disease population. Treatment of HCV has made considerable progress with the approval of interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral drug-based combination therapies among patients with intact kidneys; but a paucity of information exists regarding chronic kidney disease patients. The first published report on the antiviral treatment of hepatitis C among patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 4-5) and HCV genotype 1 concerns the combination of grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor); excellent safety and efficacy (sustained viral response, 94.3% 115/122) have been reached. In another study, the 3-D regimen (ombitasvir/ paritaprevir/ ritonavir/ dasabuvir with or without ribavirin) has been administered to CKD (stage 4-5) patients with genotype 1 (n=20); the rate of sustained viral response was excellent (90%, 18/20) and no patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Preliminary data on the combined treatment of sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor) and simeprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor) has given a viral response of 89% (34/38), but the size of the study group (n=38 patients with end-stage renal disease) was small. Thus, the evidence in the medical literature concerning use of DAAs in CKD population is encouraging even if it has a preliminary nature. Also, several points need to be addressed regarding the use of DAAs in CKD population including their impact on survival, costs, and drug-drug interactions. PMID:27545640

  13. Chronic Infections and Management Setting in Drug Addicts of MMT Program in Pinang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors sought to identify the prevalence of blood-borne chronic infections and determine the appropriate management therapy setting among the drug addicts of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program. The purpose to identify such factor is to know the quality of health of respondents active to MMT program and possibly predict the risk reduction of relapse during the treatment. Methodology: As it was known that government of Malaysia allowed MMT on large scale at 2005, so a year retrospective with six months prospective study (from Jan 2007 to May 2008 was conducted in three methadone clinics of Pinang state, Malaysia. All the registered patients were included in the study and data was collected through special design data collection form by reviewing the medical profiles. Results: Findings showed HIV/AIDS was found in 2.3%, HCV 76.3%, HBV 3.3%, while 37.7% respondents were identified impaired liver function. The risk combination was HCV with impaired liver function identified in 39.5% respondents. None of them receives any supportive management treatment for the current chronic infectious condition. Conclusion: This study highly recommends producing necessary resources for the management treatment of Drug addicts for such chronic infection, as further delay can possibly increase the risk to transmit the infection in the society.

  14. Statin-induced chronic cholesterol depletion inhibits Leishmania donovani infection: Relevance of optimum host membrane cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Aditya; Roy, Saptarshi; Jafurulla, Md; Mandal, Chitra; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that invade and survive within host macrophages leading to leishmaniasis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly among economically weaker sections in tropical and subtropical regions. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potent disease caused by Leishmania donovani. The detailed mechanism of internalization of Leishmania is poorly understood. A basic step in the entry of Leishmania involves interaction of the parasite with the host plasma membrane. In this work, we have explored the effect of chronic metabolic cholesterol depletion using lovastatin on the entry and survival of Leishmania donovani in host macrophages. We show here that chronic cholesterol depletion of host macrophages results in reduction in the attachment of Leishmania promastigotes, along with a concomitant reduction in the intracellular amastigote load. These results assume further relevance since chronic cholesterol depletion is believed to mimic physiological cholesterol modulation. Interestingly, the reduction in the ability of Leishmania to enter host macrophages could be reversed upon metabolic replenishment of cholesterol. Importantly, enrichment of host membrane cholesterol resulted in reduction in the entry and survival of Leishmania in host macrophages. As a control, the binding of Escherichia coli to host macrophages remained invariant under these conditions, thereby implying specificity of cholesterol requirement for effective leishmanial infection. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first comprehensive demonstration that an optimum content of host membrane cholesterol is necessary for leishmanial infection. Our results assume relevance in the context of developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting cholesterol-mediated leishmanial infection. PMID:27319380

  15. Clostridium difficile Infection: A Rarity in Patients Receiving Chronic Antibiotic Treatment for Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhik; Lichtiger, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged antibiotic use is limited by several adverse effects, one of which is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of CDI in patients receiving chronic antibiotic treatment for Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients with CD for which ≥6 months of outpatient antibiotic therapy was prescribed. Data were collected regarding demographics, CD phenotype, treatment history, and CDI. The incidence of CDI in our patient population was calculated and compared with historical controls. Results 100 patients were studied—60% of men, mean age 23.9 years at CD diagnosis. Eighty-two percent had disease involving the ileum, and 33% had disease involving the colon. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 39.6 months (range, 6–217 months). The most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics were fluoroquinolones (84%), penicillins (57%), and cephalosporins (32%). Forty-nine percent of patients were treated with concomitant thiopurines, 45% with budesonide, and 41% with biologics. The overall incidence of CDI was 2%. This incidence of CDI was lower than previously reported for non-CD patients receiving chronic antibiotics for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device infections (12.5%) and orthopedic prosthesis infections (22.2%). Conclusions The incidence of CDI is rare in patients receiving chronic antibiotic treatment for CD, and it seems significantly lower than for non-CD populations reported in the literature. PMID:26650148

  16. PFGE and antibiotic susceptibility phenotype analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain chronically infecting Cystic Fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Pulcrano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of chronic lung infection and following pulmonary worsening of cystic fibrosis patients. To verify whether bacterial modifications regarding motility, mucoidy, and serum susceptibility proceeded from an adaptation to chronic infection or a replacement with a new strain, sequential P. aeruginosa isolates of known phenotype collected from 5 cystic fibrosis patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of all isolates was performed by the disc diffusion method. PFGE typing demonstrated that strains dissimilar in colony morphotype and of different antibiotic susceptibility patterns could be of the same genotype. Some patients were colonized with a rather constant P. aeruginosa flora, with strains of different phenotypes but of one genotype. Instead, some patients may be colonized by more than one genotype. Secretion of mucoid exopolysaccharide and acquisition of a new antibiotic susceptibility phenotype in these strain appear to evolve during chronic colonization in cystic fibrosis patients from specific adaptation to infection rather than from acquisition of new bacterial strains.

  17. Dissecting the dendritic cell controversy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Adam J; Ann D'Angelo, June

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic vaccines to boost endogenous T-cell immunity rely on the stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). The functionality of DCs in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a long-standing debate. Therefore, we have attempted to summarize multiple studies investigating DC function in chronic HBV patients to determine whether common observations can be drawn. We found that the frequency and function of ex vivo-tested myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs were largely intact in patients with HBV infection and similar to those of healthy donor DCs. The main exception was reduced IFN-α production by plasmacytoid DC from chronic HBV patients. This reduced IFN-α production correlated with liver inflammation in multiple studies but not with viral load, suggesting that viral antigens have little effect on DC function. The majority of the confusion about DC function arises from studies reporting the reduced function of healthy donor DCs exposed to various sources of HBV in vitro. These direct effects of viral antigens are in contrast to data from HBV-infected patients. The variations in the assays used and areas that require further investigation are also covered. PMID:25363524

  18. Chronic filarial infection provides protection against bacterial sepsis by functionally reprogramming macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Gondorf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminths immunomodulate their hosts and induce a regulatory, anti-inflammatory milieu that prevents allergies and autoimmune diseases. Helminth immunomodulation may benefit sepsis outcome by preventing exacerbated inflammation and severe pathology, but the influence on bacterial clearance remains unclear. To address this, mice were chronically infected with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis (L.s. and the outcome of acute systemic inflammation caused by i.p. Escherichia coli injection was determined. L.s. infection significantly improved E. coli-induced hypothermia, bacterial clearance and sepsis survival and correlated with reduced concentrations of associated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and a less pronounced pro-inflammatory macrophage gene expression profile. Improved sepsis outcome in L.s.-infected animals was mediated by macrophages, but independent of the alternatively activated macrophage subset. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that are present in most human pathogenic filariae, as well as L.s., signal via TLR2 and modulate macrophage function. Here, gene expression profiles of peritoneal macrophages from L.s.-infected mice revealed a downregulation of genes involved in TLR signaling, and pulsing of macrophages in vitro with L.s. extract reduced LPS-triggered activation. Subsequent transfer improved sepsis outcome in naïve mice in a Wolbachia- and TLR2-dependent manner. In vivo, phagocytosis was increased in macrophages from L.s.-infected wild type, but not TLR2-deficient animals. In association, L.s. infection neither improved bacterial clearance in TLR2-deficient animals nor ameliorated E. coli-induced hypothermia and sepsis survival. These results indicate that chronic L.s. infection has a dual beneficial effect on bacterial sepsis, reducing pro-inflammatory immune responses and improving bacterial control. Thus, helminths and their antigens may not only improve the outcome of autoimmune and allergic diseases

  19. Evaluation of diagnostic tests for Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Brazilian schoolchildren

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    Paula Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the launch of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, more than 70% of the endemic countries have implemented mass drug administration (MDA to interrupt disease transmission. The monitoring of filarial infection in sentinel populations, particularly schoolchildren, is recommended to assess the impact of MDA. A key issue is choosing the appropriate tools for these initial assessments (to define the best intervention and for monitoring transmission. Methods This study compared the pre-MDA performance of five diagnostic methods, namely, thick film test, Knott's technique, filtration, Og4C3-ELISA, and the AD12-ICT card test, in schoolchildren from Brazil. Venous and capillary blood samples were collected between 11 pm and 1 am. The microfilarial loads were analyzed with a negative binomial regression, and the prevalence and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated for all methods. The accuracies of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests were assessed against the combination of parasitological test results. Results A total of 805 schoolchildren were examined. The overall and stratified prevalence by age group and gender detected by Og4C3-ELISA and AD12-ICT were markedly higher than the prevalence estimated by the parasitological methods. The sensitivity of the AD12-ICT card and Og4C3-ELISA tests was approximately 100%, and the positive likelihood ratios were above 6. The specificity of the Og4C3-ELISA was higher than that of the AD12-ICT at different prevalence levels. Conclusions The ICT card test should be the recommended tool for monitoring school-age populations living in areas with ongoing or completed MDA.

  20. The Use of Plazmaferez in the Treatment of Chronic Placental Insufficiency in Pregnant Women with Urogenital Infection

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    Shevchenko Е.А.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to prove the use of plazmapherez in pregnant women with combination of chronic placental insufficiency and urogenital infection. Materials and Methods. There were examined 190 pregnant women with chronic active urogenital infection and chronic placental insufficiency in whom current therapy was inefficient. The diagnostics included the clinical and laboratory methods. There was used polymerase chain reaction in real time, and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results. Plasmapheresis was stated to improve significantly the blood flow in “mother–placenta–child” system by extraction of pathologic metabolites from liquid media, oxidation-reduction process activation, and hemostasis normalization. The use of plasmapheresis to treat chronic placental insufficiency in pregnant women with urogenital infection enables to increase the therapy efficiency. It leads to no allergization, and minimizes the infection negative effect on the organism of the mother and the fetus.

  1. No detection of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of chronically infected bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Picard-Hagen, N; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Jacquiet, P

    2014-06-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a chronic and debilitating disease observed in many European countries that may cause important economic losses in cattle. The recent widespread of the parasite in Europe had led the European Food Safety Authority to declare bovine besnoitiosis as a re-emerging disease in Europe. Many aspects of the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis such as the main routes of transmission are still unclear and need to be further studied. Among the different hypotheses, a sexual transmission has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of naturally infected bulls by using a highly sensitive method (real-time qPCR). Both pre-sperm and sperm fractions of 40 bulls, including seronegative (n = 11), seropositive subclinically (n = 17), and seropositive clinically (n = 12) infected animals, were collected by electroejaculation and analyzed by real-time qPCR. No B. besnoiti DNA was detected in 27 pre-sperm and 28 sperm fractions of the 40 examined bulls, suggesting that the transmission of B. besnoiti infection by the semen of chronically infected bulls is very unlikely. PMID:24802865

  2. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon: I-The infection rates of Plasmodium brasilianum in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira; Leonidas M. Deane

    1995-01-01

    The parasite that causes simian malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plasmodium brasilianum, is infective to man. In this region, where humans live within and in close proximity to the forest, it was suspected that this parasite could be the cause of a zoonosis. A study was performed in the areas surrounding two hydroelectric plants in the Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, aiming at determining the zoonotic potential of this parasite. P. brasilianum was detected in, respectively, 15.8% and 9.9% of 126 ...

  3. Positive signature-tagged mutagenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Tracking patho-adaptive mutations promoting airways chronic infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bianconi, Irene; Milani, Andrea; Cigana, Cristina; Paroni, Moira; Levesque, Roger C.; Bertoni, Giovanni; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish life-long chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Persistent lifestyle is established with P. aeruginosa patho-adaptive variants, which are clonal with the initially-acquired strains. Several reports indicated that P. aeruginosa adapts by loss-of-function mutations which enhance fitness in CF airways and sustain its clonal expansion during chronic infection. To validate this model of P. aeruginosa adap...

  4. New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillie, Martin; Zhou, Ying; El Bissati, Kamal; Dubey, Jitender; Lorenzi, Hernan; Capper, Michael; Lukens, Amanda K; Hickman, Mark; Muench, Stephen; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Weber, Christopher R; Wheeler, Kelsey; Gordon, James; Sanders, Justin; Moulton, Hong; Wang, Kai; Kim, Taek-Kyun; He, Yuqing; Santos, Tatiana; Woods, Stuart; Lee, Patty; Donkin, David; Kim, Eric; Fraczek, Laura; Lykins, Joseph; Esaa, Farida; Alibana-Clouser, Fatima; Dovgin, Sarah; Weiss, Louis; Brasseur, Gael; Wirth, Dyann; Kent, Michael; Hood, Leroy; Meunieur, Brigitte; Roberts, Craig W; Hasnain, S Samar; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Fishwick, Colin; McLeod, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the most common parasitic infection of human brain and eye, persists across lifetimes, can progressively damage sight, and is currently incurable. New, curative medicines are needed urgently. Herein, we develop novel models to facilitate drug development: EGS strain T. gondii forms cysts in vitro that induce oocysts in cats, the gold standard criterion for cysts. These cysts highly express cytochrome b. Using these models, we envisioned, and then created, novel 4-(1H)-quinolone scaffolds that target the cytochrome bc1 complex Qi site, of which, a substituted 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-4-one inhibits active infection (IC50, 30 nM) and cysts (IC50, 4 μM) in vitro, and in vivo (25 mg/kg), and drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum (IC50, toxoplasmosis, malaria, and ~2 billion persons chronically infected with encysted bradyzoites. PMID:27412848

  5. Influence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Maria Luisa Gutierrez; José Luis Lledó; Maria Luisa Casas

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of hepatitis B virus-DNA in the sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in the liver of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients with or without serological markers of previous exposure (antibodies to HBsAg and/or to HB-core antigen) defines the entity called occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses is frequent in highly endemic areas. While this co-infection increases the risk of liver disease progression, development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and also increases the rate of therapeutic failure to interferon-based treatments than either virus alone, a potentially negative effect of OBI on clinical outcomes and of therapeutic response to current antiviral regimes of patients with chronic hepatitis C remains inconclusive.

  6. Is laparoscopy an advantage in the diagnosis of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perdita Wietzke-Braun; Felix Braun; Peter Schott; Giuliano Ramadori

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and outcome of interferon treatment in HCV-infected patients.METHODS: In this retrospective study, diagnostic laparoscopy with laparoscopic liver biopsy was performed in 72 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection. The presence or absence of cirrhosis was analyzed macroscopically by laparoscopy and microscopically by liver biopsy specimens. Clinical and laboratory data and outcome of interferon-alfa treatment were compared between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients.RESULTS: Laparoscopically, cirrhosis was seen in 29.2%(21/72) and non-cirrhosis in 70.8% (51/72) of patients.Cirrhotic patients were significantly older with a significant longer duration of HCV infection than noncirrhotic patients.Laboratory parameters (AST, y-GT, y-globulin fraction) were measured significantly higher as well as significantly lower (prothrombin index, platelet count) in cirrhotic patients than in non-cirrhotic patients. Histologically, cirrhosis was confirmed in 11.1% (8/72) and non cirrhosis in 88.9% (64/72). Patients with macroscopically confirmed cirrhosis (n=21) showed histologically cirrhosis in 38.1% (8/21) and histologically noncirrhosis in 61.9% (13/21). In contrast, patients with macroscopically non-cirrhosis (n=51) showed histologically non cirrhosis in all cases (51/51). Thirty-nine of 72 patients were treated with interferon-alfa, resulting in 35.9% (14/39)patients with sustained response and 64.1% (25/39) with non response. Non-responders showed significantly more macroscopically cirrhosis than sustained responders. In contrast, there were no significant histological differences between non-responders and sustained responders.CONCLUSION: Diagnostic laparoscopy is more accurate than liver biopsy in recognizing cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. Liver biopsy is the best way to assess inflammatory grade and fibrotic stage. The invasive marker for staging, prognosis and

  7. Chronic Parasitic Infection Maintains High Frequencies of Short-Lived Ly6C+CD4+ Effector T Cells That Are Required for Protection against Re-infection

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Nathan C.; Pagán, Antonio J.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Hand, Timothy W.; Henrique Roma, Eric; Stamper, Lisa W.; Romano, Audrey; Sacks, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the ability of long-lived CD8+ memory T cells to mediate protection against systemic viral infections, the relationship between CD4+ T cell memory and acquired resistance against infectious pathogens remains poorly defined. This is especially true for T helper 1 (Th1) concomitant immunity, in which protection against reinfection coincides with a persisting primary infection. In these situations, pre-existing effector CD4 T cells generated by ongoing chronic infection, not memor...

  8. A Comparative Study of Clinicopathological Features between Chronic Cholecystitis Patients with and without Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gallbladder Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Di; Guan, Wen-bin; Wang, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei; Quan, Zhi-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. Methods Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylor...

  9. Chronic infection during placental malaria is associated with up-regulation of cycloxygenase-2

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    Niang Makhtar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM is associated with poor foetal development, but the pathophysiological processes involved are poorly understood. Cyclooxygenase (COX and lipoxygenase (LOX which convert fatty acids to prostaglandins and leukotrienes, play important roles in pregnancy and foetal development. COX-2, currently targeted by specific drugs, plays a dual role as it associates with both pre-eclampsia pathology and recovery during infection. The role of COX during PM was questioned by quantifying at delivery COX-1, COX-2, 15-LOX, and IL-10 expression in two groups of malaria infected and uninfected placenta. Methods Placental biopsies were collected at delivery for mRNA isolation and quantification, using real time PCR. Results COX-2 and IL-10 mRNAs increased mainly during chronic infections (nine- and five-times, respectively, whereas COX-1 transcripts remained constant. COX-2 over-expression was associated with a higher birth weight of the baby, but with a lower rate of haemoglobin of the mother. It was associated with a macrophage infiltration of the placenta and with a low haemozoin infiltration. In the opposite way, placental infection was associated with lower expression of 15-LOX mRNA. A high degree of haemozoin deposition correlates with low birth weight and decreased expression of COX-2. Conclusion These data provide evidence that COX-2 and IL-10 are highly induced during chronic infection of the placenta, but were not associated with preterm delivery or low birth weight. The data support the involvement of COX-2 in the recovery phase of the placental infection.

  10. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis A in an urban population-based survey: a comparison of transmission patterns in Brazilian macro-regions.

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    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the transmission pattern of hepatitis A (HA infection based on a primary dataset from the Brazilian National Hepatitis Survey in a pre-vaccination context. The national survey conducted in urban areas disclosed two epidemiological scenarios with low and intermediate HA endemicity. METHODS: A catalytic model of HA transmission was built based on a national seroprevalence survey (2005 to 2009. The seroprevalence data from 7,062 individuals aged 5-69 years from all the Brazilian macro-regions were included. We built up three models: fully homogeneous mixing model, with constant contact pattern; the highly assortative model and the highly assortative model with the additional component accounting for contacts with infected food/water. Curves of prevalence, force of infection (FOI and the number of new infections with 99% confidence intervals (CIs were compared between the intermediate (North, Northeast, Midwest and Federal District and low (South and Southeast endemicity areas. A contour plot was also constructed. RESULTS: The anti- HAV IgG seroprevalence was 68.8% (95% CI, 64.8%-72.5% and 33.7% (95% CI, 32.4%-35.1% for the intermediate and low endemicity areas, respectively, according to the field data analysis. The models showed that a higher force of infection was identified in the 10- to 19-year-old age cohort (∼9,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons in the intermediate endemicity area, whereas a higher force of infection occurred in the 15- to 29-year-old age cohort (∼6,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons for the other macro-regions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the shift of Brazil toward intermediate and low endemicity levels with the shift of the risk of infection to older age groups. These estimates of HA force of infection stratified by age and endemicity levels are useful information to characterize the pre-vaccination scenario in

  11. Antibodies against beta-lactamase can improve ceftazidime treatment of lung infection with beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rat model of chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Bagge, Niels; Høiby, Niels

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) might act as beta-lactamase inhibitors in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa, we compared in a rat model of chronic lung infection the...... efficacy of treatment with ceftazidime in beta-lactamase-immunized (group I) and non-immunized (group II) rats. Chronic lung infection was established with alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa producing high amounts of beta-lactamase in 133 Lewis rats. Prior to infection, group I (66 rats) was immunized three...... times at 2-week intervals with purified beta-lactamase in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and group II (67 rats) received IFA. Ceftazidime treatment was initiated after challenge and continued for 10 days, after which the rats were sacrificed and the lung bacteriology and pathology were analysed. Rat...

  12. Nitrous oxide production in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

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    Mette Kolpen

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major severe complication in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, where P. aeruginosa persists and grows in biofilms in the endobronchial mucus under hypoxic conditions. Numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs surround the biofilms and create local anoxia by consuming the majority of O2 for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa acquires energy for growth in anaerobic endobronchial mucus by denitrification, which can be demonstrated by production of nitrous oxide (N2O, an intermediate in the denitrification pathway. We measured N2O and O2 with electrochemical microsensors in 8 freshly expectorated sputum samples from 7 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The concentrations of NO3(- and NO2(- in sputum were estimated by the Griess reagent. We found a maximum median concentration of 41.8 µM N2O (range 1.4-157.9 µM N2O. The concentration of N2O in the sputum was higher below the oxygenated layers. In 4 samples the N2O concentration increased during the initial 6 h of measurements before decreasing for approximately 6 h. Concomitantly, the concentration of NO3(- decreased in sputum during 24 hours of incubation. We demonstrate for the first time production of N2O in clinical material from infected human airways indicating pathogenic metabolism based on denitrification. Therefore, P. aeruginosa may acquire energy for growth by denitrification in anoxic endobronchial mucus in CF patients. Such ability for anaerobic growth may be a hitherto ignored key aspect of chronic P. aeruginosa infections that can inform new strategies for treatment and prevention.

  13. Acute hepatitis C in a chronically HIV-infected patient: Evolution of different viral genomic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Flichman; Veronica Kott; Silvia Sookoian; Rodolfo Campos

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the molecular evolution of different viral genomic regions of HCV in an acute HCV infected patient chronically infected with HIV through a 42-month follow-up.METHODS: Serum samples of a chronically HIV infected patient that seroconverted to anti HCV antibodies were sequenced, from the event of superinfection through a period of 17 months and in a late sample (42nd month). Hypervariable genomic regions of HIV (V3 loop of the gp120) and HCV (HVR-1 on the E2 glycoprotein gene) were studied. In order to analyze genomic regions involved in different biological functions and with the cellular immune response, HCV core and NS5A were also chosen to be sequenced. Amplification of the different regions was done by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Confirmation of sequences was done on reamplified material. Nucleotide sequences of the different time points were aligned with CLUSTAL W 1.5, and the corresponding amino acid ones were deduced.RESULTS: Hypervariable genomic regions of both viruses (HVR1 and gp120 V3 loop) presented several nonsynonymous changes but, while in the gp120 V3 loop mutations were detected in the sample obtained right after HCV superinfection and maintained throughout, they occurred following a sequential and cumulative pattern in the HVR1. In the NS5A region of HCV, two amino acid changes were detected during the follow-up period, whereas the core region presented several amino acid replacements, once the HCV chronic infection had been established.CONCLUSION: During the HIV-HCV superinfection, each genomic region analyzed shows a different evolutionary pattem.Most of the nucleotide substitutions observed are nonsynonymous and clustered in previously described epitopes,thus suggesting an immune-driven evolutionary process.

  14. Prevalence of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vedat Goral; Hamza Ozkul; Selahattin Tekes; Dede Sit; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence and clinical effects of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV.METHODS: Fifty chronic hemodialysis patients with negative HbsAg, and positive anti-HCV were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups:HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative, based on the results of HCV-RNA PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the PCR method in both groups.RESULTS: None of the 22 HCV-RNA positive patients and 28 HCV-RNA negative patients revealed HBV-DNA in serum by PCR method. The average age was 47.2 ± 17.0 in the HCV-RNA positive group and 39.6 ± 15.6 in the HCV-RNA negative group.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not high in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV in our region. This result of our study has to be evaluated in consideration of the interaction between HBsAg positivity (8%-10%) and frequency of HBV mutants in our region.

  15. Helicobacter pylori (H.p. Infection: A possible cause of Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Abu El ­ Enin*, Abd El-Wahab Fathe** Mohamed Khedr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is one of the most frequent skin diseases with an incidence ranging from 1.2% to 23% , however its causes remains unknown in the vast majority of cases. A possible relationship between chronic urticaria and Helicobacter pylori (H.p. has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H.P. infection in patients with C.I.U. and to investigates the effectiveness of eradication therapy of (H.p. infection on this skin disease. 100 patients (40 males and 60 females with C.I.U as well as 45 apparently healthy (age, sex, matched controls were enrolled in this study underwent serological testing for H.pylori infection with the 13C ­urea test as well as by specific IgG antibodies against the H. pylori (ELISA technique. Positive patients were treated with, Omeprazole ­ Clarithromycin + Amoxicillin for 10 days. Eradication and clinical course were followed up two months after the treatment in comparison to the negative cases as a control group. The clinical evaluation and follow up were demonstrated as worse,. same, less and disappearance of flares. In our results there was significant difference in the sero prevalence of H.pylori infection between idiopathic chronic urticaria patients and healthy subjects. H.pylori was detected in 75% of patients and 20% of controls. Out of 75 patients treated , only 24 showed complete remission of their urticaria after successfully eradicating H.pylori infection ,the others only having some improvement in their symptoms. The mean lgG titer was 86.8 + 42.4 among patients group, where it was 16.+ 42.8 among the control group (p< 0.05 . After treating the positive patients with appropriate antibiotics for 10 days there are a significant decrease of H.P. specific lgG as compared to the negative cases and also bacterium eradication is associated with a remission of urticarial symptoms. as compared to the negative cases. In conclusion

  16. Detection of cross-infection associated to a Brazilian PCR-ribotype of Clostridium difficile in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassiano, Ilana T; dos Santos-Filho, Joaquim; Vital-Brazil, Juliana M; Nouér, Simone A; Souza, Claudia R C; Brazier, Jon S; Ferreira, Eliane de O; Domingues, Regina M C P

    2011-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important nosocomial enteric pathogen and is the etiological agent of pseudomembranous colites. Recently, the rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide, but in Brazil few data about this situation and the incidence of clonal types of C. difficile exist. This study aimed to isolate and characterize C. difficile strains from samples obtained of a university hospital (HUCFF) in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. CDI was identified by ELISA in 27.1% of HUCFF-in-patients enrolled in the study, and the bacterium was recovered from eight of these fecal samples. All strains, except one, presented tcdA and tcdB genes and presented neither the cdtA and cdtB genes nor any significant deletions in the tcdC gene. All strains were sensitive to metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin, and resistant to clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. PCR-ribotyping and PFGE revealed four different clonal types among the isolates. The Brazilian PCR-ribotype 133 accounted for 50% of strains isolated, and PCR-ribotype 233 strains were obtained from 25% of the in-patients. The prevalence and resurgence of the Brazilian PCR-ribotype 133 among the hospitalized patients of HUCFF was established, and cross-infection of different patients associated to the same PCR-ribotypes was detected. Our results emphasize the importance of the diagnosis and control of CDI in order to prevent the emergence of specific clones that can lead to C. difficile-associated outbreaks in Brazilian hospitals. PMID:20623188

  17. The role of depression chronicity and recurrence on neurocognitive dysfunctions in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Dermody, Nadene; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J; Teesson, Maree

    2016-02-01

    Research assessing whether major depressive disorders (MDD) impacts neurocognitive functions in HIV+ persons has yielded inconsistent results. However, none have considered the role of MDD remission, chronicity, and stability on treatment. Ninety-five HIV+ adults clinically stable on combined antiretroviral treatment completed a psychiatric interview, a depression scale, a neuropsychological, daily living, and cognitive complaints assessments at baseline and 18 months. Participants were screened for current (within 12 months of study entry) alcohol and/or substance use disorder. History of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder prior to the 12 months entry screen and MDD treatments were recorded. Participants were grouped into two psychiatric nomenclatures: (1) lifetime: no MD episode (MDE), single MDE life-event treated and fully remitted, chronic MDD treated and stable, chronic MDD treated and unstable, and baseline untreated MDE; (2) recent: last 2 years MDE (yes or no). We found that lifetime and recent psychiatric history were more strongly associated with decreased in independence in daily living and cognitive complaints than with baseline neuropsychological performance. However, lack of full remission, instability on treatment in chronic MDD, and severity of symptoms in current MDE were factors in whether MDD impacted baseline neuropsychological performance. Depressive symptoms improved at follow-up in those with baseline moderate-severe symptoms, and MDD was not associated with neurocognitive change at 18 months. A history of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder was significantly more frequent in those with treated and unstable chronic MDD but it was not associated with neuropsychological performance. MDD recurrence, chronicity profiles, and associated comorbidities are keys factors to understand any potential impact on neurocognitive abilities in HIV infection. More comprehensive consideration of these complex effects could serve at constructively

  18. Immunological changes in different patient populations with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szereday, Laszlo; Meggyes, Matyas; Halasz, Melinda; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Par, Alajos; Par, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate killer inhibitory and activating receptor expression by natural killer (NK), natural killer T-like (NKT-like) and CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with elevated and with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT). METHODS: The percentage of peripheral blood Treg cells, KIR2DL3, ILT-2, KIR3DL1, CD160, NKG2D, NKG2C expressing NK, T and NKT-like cells, cytokine production and NK cytotoxicity were determined by flow cytometry. Twenty-one patients with chronic HCV infection with elevated alanine aminotransferase, 11 HCV carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the percentage of total T, NK or NKT-like cells between study groups. Comparing the activating and inhibitory receptor expression by NK cells obtained from HCV carriers with PNALT and chronic HCV hepatitis patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase, NKG2D activating receptor expression was the only receptor showing a significant difference. NKG2D expression of NK cells was significantly lower in patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase. The expression of CD160, NKG2D and NKG2C activating receptor by CD8+ T cells were significantly lower in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis than in healthy controls and in HCV carriers with PNALT. Plasma TGF-β1 levels inversely correlated with NKG2D expression by NK cells. In vitroTGF-β1 treatment inhibited NK cells cytotoxic activity and downregulated NKG2D expression. CD8+ T cells from HCV carriers with PNALT showed significantly elevated expression of CD160, NKG2D and NKG2C activating receptors compared to chronic HCV patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase. Enhanced expression of inhibitory KIR2DL3 receptor, and decreased ILT-2 expression on NK cells were also found in chronic hepatitis C patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a complex

  19. Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian P.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Fleck, Laura E.; LaFleur, Michael D.; Isabella, Vincent M.; Coleman, K.; Leonard, Steve N.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lewis, Kim

    2013-11-21

    The current antibiotic crisis stems from two distinct phenomena-drug resistance, and drug tolerance. Resistance mechanisms such as drug efflux or modification prevent antibiotics from binding to their targets 1, allowing pathogens to grow. Antibiotic tolerance is the property of persister cells, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria 2. Antibiotics kill by corrupting targets, but these are inactive in dormant persisters, leading to tolerance. Persisters were first identified by Joseph Bigger in 1944, when he discovered a surviving sub-population of Staphylococcus following treatment with penicillin3. Persisters are largely responsible for recalcitrance of chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, and various infections associated with biofilms - endocarditis, osteomyelitis, infections of catheters and indwelling devices, and deep-seated infections of soft tissues 4. There are a number of redundant pathways involved in persister formation5,6 precluding development of drugs inhibiting their formation. The acyldepsipeptide antibiotic (ADEP 4) has been shown to activate the ClpP protease resulting in death of growing cells 7. Here we show that ADEP4 activated ClpP becomes a fairly non-specific protease and kills persister cells by degradation of over 400 intracellular targets. clpP mutants are resistant to ADEP4 7, but we find that they display increased susceptibility to killing by a range of conventional antibiotics. Combining ADEP4 with rifampicin leads to eradication of persisters, stationary and biofilm populations of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in a deep-seated murine infection. Target corruption/activation provides an approach to killing persisters and eradicating chronic infections.

  20. Patterns of hepatitis B virus infection in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: high prevalence of occult infection and low frequency of lamivudine resistant mutations

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    Michel VF Sucupira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV molecular profiles were determined for 44 patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 and had antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc, with and without other HBV serological markers. In this population, 70% of the patients were under lamivudine treatment as a component of antiretroviral therapy. HBV DNA was detected in 14 (32% patients. Eight out of 12 (67% HBsAg positive samples, 3/10 (30% anti-HBc only samples, and 3/22 (14% anti-HBs positive samples were HBV DNA positive. HBV DNA loads, measured by real time polymerase chain reaction, were much higher in the HBsAg positive patients (mean, 2.5 × 10(9 copies/ml than in the negative ones (HBV occult infection; mean, 2.7 × 10(5 copies/ml. Nine out of the 14 HBV DNA positive patients were under lamivudine treatment. Lamivudine resistant mutations in the polymerase gene were detected in only three patients, all of them belonging to the subgroup of five HBsAg positive, HBV DNA positive patients. A low mean HBV load (2.7 × 10(5 copies/ml and an absence of lamivudine resistant mutations were observed among the cases of HBV occult infection.

  1. Serious Non-AIDS Events: Therapeutic Targets of Immune Activation and Chronic Inflammation in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Denise C; Sereti, Irini

    2016-04-01

    In the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Early ART initiation has the strongest evidence for reducing SNAEs and mortality. Biomarkers of immune activation, inflammation and coagulopathy do not fully normalize despite virologic suppression and persistent immune activation is an important contributor to SNAEs. A number of strategies aimed to reduce persistent immune activation including ART intensification to reduce residual viremia; treatment of co-infections to reduce chronic antigen stimulation; the use of anti-inflammatory agents, reducing microbial translocation as well as interventions to improve immune recovery through cytokine administration and reducing lymphoid tissue fibrosis, have been investigated. To date, there is little conclusive evidence on which strategies beyond treatment of hepatitis B and C co-infections and reducing cardiovascular risk factors will result in clinical benefits in patients already on ART with viral suppression. The use of statins seems to show early promise and larger clinical trials are underway to confirm their efficacy. At this stage, clinical care of HIV-infected patients should therefore focus on early diagnosis and prompt ART initiation, treatment of active co-infections and the aggressive management of co-morbidities until further data are available. PMID:26915027

  2. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens: Evaluating Susceptibility and Infection Routes

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    Esmaeil Amiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107 in the majority of these queens after nine days. Symptomatic worker bees may transmit sufficient active CBPV particles to the queen through trophallaxis, to cause an overt infection.

  3. Debilitating Chronic Diarrhea Caused by Generalized Gastrointestinal Cytomegalovirus Infection in an Immunocompetent Adult

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    Emmanouil Telakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and transplant recipients. In contrast, CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract is rare in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of severe, protracted, and debilitating diarrhea caused by generalized CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in an elderly woman with no apparent immunosuppression. An extensive diagnostic investigation demonstrated CMV-associated disease affecting both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts (esophagus, small intestine, and colon. Such extensive simultaneous involvement of the alimentary tract in an immunocompetent patient is rare and presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The diagnosis was based on a combination of endoscopic, histopathological, serological, and polymerase chain reaction analysis findings and our patient was successfully treated with intravenous ganciclovir. Our case demonstrates that gastrointestinal CMV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe chronic diarrhea in immunocompetent patients and that antiviral treatment may be justified in this setting.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infection in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection%慢性HIV感染者的肠道寄生虫感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温少芳; 王玉光; 成军

    2011-01-01

    慢性HIV感染者易合并多种感染,其中合并肠道寄生虫感染可造成体内HIV复制增加、慢性腹泻、消瘦及营养不良而加快病情发展.此文就慢性HIV感染者合并的肠道寄生虫感染进行了综述.%Patients with chronic HIV infection may be complicated by varied infection.Intestinal parasitic infection may raise the replication of HIV,chronic diarrhea,emaciation and malnutrition,which could enhance the development of the disease.In this article,intestinal parasitic infection in patients infected with HIV are reviewed.

  5. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

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    Ranjeet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature on the relationship of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection and diabetes mellitus type 2 as its unique extrahepatic manifestation. This association was for the first time made by Allison et al. in 1994 . [1] Since then a number of observational studies have been published on the prevalence of diabetes in HCV infection and also the link between association of cirrhosis with diabetes mellitus. AIMS : To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients diagnosed to have chronic hepatitis C virus infection. To compare it with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in general population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study. Participants were the subjects attending the OPD / indoor of Sri Guru Ramdas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar. PATIENTS AND METHODS : 50 patients older than 18 years, with chronic HCV infection confirmed by ELISA, were investigated for their blood counts, LFTs, prothrombin time , serum proteins, glycosylated hemoglobin levels and abdominal ultrasonography after applying the exclusion criteria. Detailed clinical examination was done to assess for signs of encephalopathy and ascites. An equal number of age and sex matched , HCV seronegative patients with normal liver function tests were taken as controls. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was then determined among the two groups. A relationship between HCV and Diabetes mellitus type 2 was then established. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data was expressed as mean + SD. For categorical variables a chi square test was applied and p value was calculated. For the comparison of continuous data, the student t – test was used. Probability levels less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS : 50% ( 25 out of 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection were diabetic while 30% (15 out of 50 of the controls were diabetic. The difference was statistically significant ( p=0.041 . Further , of the

  6. Frequency and clinical relevance of human bocavirus infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Felix C Ringshausen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Felix C Ringshausen1, Ai-Yui M Tan1, Tobias Allander2, Irmgard Borg1, Umut Arinir1, Juliane Kronsbein1, Barbara M Hauptmeier1, Gerhard Schultze-Werninghaus1, Gernot Rohde11Clinical Research Group “Significance of viral infections in chronic respiratory diseases of children and adults,” University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine III–Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a recently discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of HBoV infection in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD.Methods: We retrospectively tested 212 COPD patients, 141 (66.5% with AE-COPD and 71 (33.5% with stable disease, of whom nasal lavage and induced sputum had been obtained for the presence of HBoV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. The specificity of positive polymerase chain reaction results was confirmed by sequencing.Results: Two hundred two of 212 patients for whom PCR results were available both for nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were eligible for data analysis. HBoV DNA was detected in three patients (1.5%. Of those, only one patient had AE-COPD. Thus, the frequency of HBoV infection demonstrated to be low in both AE-COPD (0.8% and stable COPD (2.9%. HBoV was found in two sputum and one nasal lavage sample in different patients, respectively. Sequencing revealed >99% sequence identity with the reference strain.Conclusion: HBoV detection was infrequent. Since we detected HBoV in both upper and lower respiratory tract specimens and in AE-COPD as well as stable disease, a major role of HBoV infection in adults with AE-COPD is unlikely

  7. Autoantibody production in chronic idiopathic urticaria is not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Atta A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a dermatological syndrome, characterized by raised erythematous skin lesions, that affects 20% of the general population and has been associated with autoimmunity. However, some reports have also suggested a close relationship between CIU and Helicobacter pylori infection, which is endemic in developing countries and associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of autoantibodies in sera from 23 CIU subjects infected with H. pylori and from 23 CIU subjects without this infection. The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies was determined by indirect hemagglutination assay and the presence of autoantibodies to IgE and C1INH was determined by ELISA. Antibodies to thyroid antigens were detected at low titers from 100 to 400 in three of 23 (13% CIU-infected subjects and in four of 23 (17% CIU-noninfected subjects. The titers of anti-IgE autoantibodies were similar in these CIU groups, presenting absorbances of 1.16 ± 0.09 and 1.07 ± 0.16, respectively, while a titer of 1.14 ± 0.15 was detected in the healthy control group. The concentration of anti-C1INH autoantibodies was the same in the CIU-infected and -noninfected subjects (7.28 ± 1.31 and 7.91 ± 2.45 ng/ml, respectively, and was 7.20 ± 2.25 ng/ml in the healthy control group. However, the serum levels of complexed anti-C1INH antibodies were increased in CIU-infected subjects compared to CIU-noninfected subjects and healthy controls with an absorbance of 1.51 ± 0.21 vs 1.36 ± 0.16 and 1.26 ± 0.23, respectively (P < 0.05, indicating an impaired clearance of immune complexes in CIU-infected patients. In conclusion, no correlation was observed between H. pylori infection and autoantibody production in CIU patients consistent with reports of clinical studies.

  8. Reversibility of cardiac fibrosis in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, under specific chemotherapy

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    Sonia G. Andrade

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to verify the effect of specific chemotherapy (Benznidazole or MK-346 on the inflammatory and fibrotic cardiac alterations in mice chronically infected with the strains 21 SF (Type II and Colombian (Type III of Trypanosoma cruzi. To obtain chronically infected mice, two groups of 100 Swiss mice each, were infected with either the 21 SF or the Colombian strain (2x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 and 5x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 blood forms respectively. The rate of morality in the acute phase was of 80% for both groups. Twenty surviving mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 20 with the Colombian strain were then divided in treated and untreated groups. Excluding those that died during the course of treatment, 14 mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 15 with the Colombian strain were evaluated in the present study. Chemotherapy was performed with Benznidazole (N-benzil-2-nitro-1-imidazolacetamide in the dose of 100mg/k.b.w/day, for 60 days, or with the MK-436(3(1-methyl-5 nitroimidazol-2-yl in two daily doses of 250 mg/k.b.w, for 20 days. Parasitological cure tests were performed (xenodiagnosis, haemoculture, subinovulation of the blood into newborn mice, and serological indirect immunofluorescence test. The treated and untreated mice as well as intact controls were killed at different periods after treatment and the heart were submitted to histopathological study with hematoxilineosin and picrosirius staining; ultrastructural study; collagen immunotyping, fibronectin and laminin identification by immunofluorescence tests. Results: the untreated controls either infected with 21 SF or Colombian strain, showed inflammatory and fibrotic alterations that were mild to moderate with the 21 SF strain and intense with the Colombian strain. Redpicrosirius staining showed bundles of collagen in the interstitial space and around cardiac fibers. Increased deposits of mitritial components and

  9. Nonreplicating, Cyst-Defective Type II Toxoplasma gondii Vaccine Strains Stimulate Protective Immunity against Acute and Chronic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccine strains, such as type I nonreplicating uracil auxotroph mutants, are highly effective in eliciting lifelong immunity to virulent acute infection by Toxoplasma gondii. However, it is currently unknown whether vaccine-elicited immunity can provide protection against acute infection and also prevent chronic infection. To address this problem, we developed nonreverting, nonreplicating, live attenuated uracil auxotroph vaccine strains in the type II Δku80 genetic background...

  10. Constraints on Viral Evolution during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Arising from a Common-Source Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Justin R.; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Munshaw, Supriya; Liam J. Fanning; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Ray, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time p...

  11. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Kyu Bae; Seok Joo Kang; Jin Woo Kim; Young Hwan Kim; Hook Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underw...

  12. MONITORING OF CASES WITH A CHRONIC PERSISTENT INFECTION WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI

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    Miglena Stamboliyska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with persistent forms of Helicobacter pylori (HP infection are refractory to eradication treatment. They receive unsuccessful therapies, experience frequent recurrences and re-infections. One of the main reasons for the development of persistent forms is an inadequate and insufficient treatment. The persistent forms of HP infection create conditions for the maintenance of activity and for the progression of the induced chronic gastritis. In this aspect these cases will be at a higher risk for the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is: to monitor and analyze the cases with persistent HP infection and to establish an approach for their management. Clinical material and methods: The study includes 12 patients (8 female and 4 male at a middle age of 63,7, with a persistent HP infection, who have been observed for a period of five years. Two methods for the detection of HP infection are used – one invasive and one non-invasive. Upper endoscopy with morphological examination was performed. Results: In 9/12 patients HP was unsuccessfully treated for three times, in 2 patients – four times, and in 1 patient – five times. In all patients the initial treatment consisted of a standard triple therapy (STT. In 5 of them STT was conducted twice, with the same regimen for a period of seven days. Two patients received three courses of STT. In four patients an antibiotic resistance was established by means of a cultured assessment. In three cases an HP resistance to Clarithromycine and Metronidazole was demonstrated. Significant gastro-duodenal pathology with atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplastic polyposis was found in all patients. The persistent clinical symptoms had 9 patients. Conclusion: We believe that a devised and proposed step strategy which covers early detection of infection, reliable diagnosis, adequate and successful treatment, and dispensary monitoring, contributes to the

  13. Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianli; Montes, Sergio; Larson, Douglas F; Watson, Ronald R

    2002-07-12

    Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance catheter system for pressure-volume loop analysis. Cardiac pathology was determined with histological analysis. In the uninfected mice, the load independent contractile parameters, pre-load recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved, significantly decreased by 32% and 35% in MA treated mice when compared to the saline injected mice. In retrovirus-infected mice, although there were no significant difference in Ees, PRSW, and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved due to MA treatment, they were increased 45%, 15% and 42% respectively when compared to saline treated mice. No further lowered heart function during murine AIDS may be due to the counteraction of the retroviral DCM and the MA induced myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy (thickening of the ventricular walls). This is supported by increases in the End-diastolic volume (Ved, 38%) and End-systolic volume (Ves, 84%) in the retrovirus-infected saline injected mice, the decreases of 33% and 17% in the uninfected MA-treated mice, but no significant changes in the retrovirus-infected MA treated mice when compared to uninfected saline injected mice. These data suggest that MA induced myocardial cellular changes compensate for retrovirus induced DCM. PMID:12084392

  14. Risk Factors in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Case-control Study

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    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In order to evaluate some possible risk factors for the spread of hepatitis B infection, a case-control study was undertaken.Methods: The study population consisted of subjects who came to Karaj Hepatitis Center. All subjects who met the inclusion criteria were considered as having chronic hepatitis and comprised our case group. Risk factors were evaluated using a questionnaire. Backward conditional logistic regression analysis was used.Results: The case group consisted of 500 chronic subjects, and 434 subjects with negative tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV comprised the control group. Age, male sex, marital status (being married, history of contact with hepatitis, extramarital sexual activity, IV-drug use, major surgery, experimental dentist visit and some jobs (police, barber, and driver were found to be independent risk factors of being chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (odds ratio: 0.9,2.3, 2.1, 8.9, 6.5, 5.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.3, respectively.Conclusions: It seems to be of great importance to pay more attention to certain jobs, life styles and cultural matters in Iran that predispose people to a number of risk factors so as to implement measures to control HBV spread. Despite existence of a long list of risk factors, different epidemiological studies with alternative methodologies accompanied by meta-analysis of risk factors in each separate area seems to be helpful in providing information about transmission routes and surveillance of hepatitis B infection

  15. Enterococcus faecalis subverts and invades the host urothelium in patients with chronic urinary tract infection.

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    Harry Horsley

    Full Text Available Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI are a major growing concern worldwide. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been shown to invade the urothelium during acute UTI in mice and humans, forming intracellular reservoirs that can evade antibiotics and the immune response, allowing recurrence at a later date. Other bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella enterica have also been shown to be invasive in acute UTI. However, the role of intracellular infection in chronic UTI causing more subtle lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, a particular problem in the elderly population, is poorly understood. Moreover, the species of bacteria involved remains largely unknown. A previous study of a large cohort of non-acute LUTS patients found that Enterococcus faecalis was frequently found in urine specimens. E. faecalis accounts for a significant proportion of chronic bladder infections worldwide, although the invasive lifestyle of this uropathogen has yet to be reported. Here, we wanted to explore this question in more detail. We harvested urothelial cells shed in response to inflammation and, using advanced imaging techniques, inspected them for signs of bacterial pathology and invasion. We found strong evidence of intracellular E. faecalis harboured within urothelial cells shed from the bladder of LUTS patients. Furthermore, using a culture model system, these patient-isolated strains of E. faecalis were able to invade a transitional carcinoma cell line. In contrast, we found no evidence of cellular invasion by E. coli in the patient cells or the culture model system. Our data show that E. faecalis is highly competent to invade in this context; therefore, these results have implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of chronic LUTS.

  16. Infección crónica por el VHC Chronic Hepatitis C virus infection

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    M. Iñarrairaegui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC, un porcentaje importante de pacientes no aclara el virus y desarrollan una hepatitis crónica C. Los síntomas, cuando existen, suelen ser inespecíficos. Aproximadamente un tercio de los pacientes presentan además manifestaciones extrahepáticas de la infección, debidas fundamentalmente al linfotropismo del virus C. De éstas destacan, por su clara asociación con el VHC, la crioglobulinemia mixta y la producción de autoanticuerpos (autoAc. Otras enfermedades como el linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH o la tiroiditis autoinmune no tienen una asociación claramente establecida. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes con hepatitis crónica C tienen niveles ligeros o moderadamente elevados y fluctuantes de transaminasas, hasta un tercio de los infectados pueden presentar niveles persistentemente normales de transaminasas. El diagnóstico de la infección crónica por el VHC se basa en pruebas serológicas, que detectan la presencia de anticuerpos frente al VHC, y en pruebas virológicas que detectan RNA del VHC, que confirman la existencia de infección activa. Por último, un aspecto importante en la infección crónica por el VHC, tras el diagnóstico, es establecer el estadio de fibrosis y el grado de inflamación, ya que ambas características son muy importantes para predecir la evolución natural y la necesidad de tratamiento. Hoy en día esta información sólo puede obtenerse mediante biopsia hepática, que está indicada en pacientes con infección crónica por el VHC y transaminasas elevadas. Su indicación en pacientes con transaminasas normales permanece todavía controvertida.Following acute hepatitis C virus infection (HCV, a significant percentage of patients do not clear the virus and develop a chronic hepatitis C. The symptoms, when they exist, are usually unspecific. Besides, approximately one third of the patients present extrahepatic manifestations of the infection, basically

  17. Distribution specificity of polarized populations of T helper cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Rong-long; FENG Xiao-rong; LU Qiao-sheng; LUO Kang-xian; FU Ning

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of the polarized populations of T helper cells isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: PBMCs from patients with chronic HBV infection were separated routinely, stimulated by PMA, ionomycin and monensin, and the production of IL-4, IFN-γ and TGF-β by CD4+ T cells was observed by flow cytometry(FACS). Results: The percentages of the T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-4 or TGF-β ranged from 2.3% to 18.6%, 1.1% to 8.7% and 0.7% to 7.1% respectively among CD4+ cells from non-infected individuals. The majority of CD4+ T cells in PBMCs from individuals with chronic HBV infection were Th0 cells. The proportion of Th1 cells in patients with active chronic hepatitis B was higher than that in patients at inactive stage of the disease (P<0.05), indicating a significant elevation of Thl cells with the hepatic inflammation activity. The percentage of Th2 cells in individuals with HBV infection was higher than that in controls (P<0.05),but showed no difference between different patients (P>0.05). The percentage of Th3 cells was higher in asymptomatic HBV carriers than that in patients with chronic hepatitis B and in healthy controls (P<0.05). Conclusions: Th1-type cytokines are related with hepatic inflammation activity of chronic hepatitis B, and Th2 cells may be associated with the persistence of HBV infection. Th3 cells cooperating with Th2 cells are likely to function as negative immunoregulator, and may be responsible for the immune tolerance state of chronic HBV infection.

  18. Lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum as a sequela of chronic skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Soh; Kinoshita, Masato; Miyazaki, Yuko; Kawai, Kenichiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese male patient presented with an enormously disfigured penis and scrotum. The penis was swollen and distorted rightward, and the skin was hard and lumpy. The patient had had a subdermal abscess for 6 years. The current condition was considered secondary lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum resulting from chronic skin infection. Wide excision of the affected area with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. The degloved penile shaft and scrotum were covered with skin grafts, and a satisfactory result was obtained. PMID:27432903

  19. Spread of colistin resistant non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa among chronically infected Danish cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Ciofu, Oana;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colistin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa have rarely been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: We performed a 17-year prospective study on colistin susceptibility and compared our findings with clinical variables. RESULTS: The first outbreak started in 1995 and lasted 5...... the first outbreak. Most resistant isolates belonged to two major clones that had similar genotypes in the two outbreaks. The P. aeruginosa isolates were all non-mucoid and they appeared in a group of chronically infected patients that had been admitted to the same ward for antibiotic treatment and...

  20. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm3/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm3/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune response to

  1. The seroepidemiology of the chronic infections in patients with myocardial infarction in North of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Bazzazi; Ezzat Allah Ghaemi; Mohammad Ali Ramezani

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that chronic infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) may be associated with the risk of Myocardial Infarction (MI). METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 140 citizens. Seroprevalence was assessed by ELISA tests measuring IgA and IgG antibodies to Cpn and Hp in sera. RESULTS: Among patients, %11.4 and %90.0 were seropositive for Anti-Cpn IgA and IgG respectively, and also %51.4 and %58.6 were seropositive for...

  2. High Serum Levels of TGF-β in Iranians With Chronic HBV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Nasiri Ahmadabadi, Behzad; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an important cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Objectives The main purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of TGF-β in a group of chronic HBV infected (CHB) patients as well as healthy individuals from South-East of Iran. Patients and Methods Sixty patients with CHB as well as sixty healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. ELISA technique was applied to measure the serum levels of TGF-β in both groups. Resul...

  3. Insulin resistance is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Hung; Hung; Jing-Houng; Wang; Tsung-Hui; Hu; Chien-Hung; Chen; Kuo-Chin; Chang; Yi-Hao; Yen; YuanHung; Kuo; Ming-Chao; Tsai; Chuan-Mo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the role of insulin resistance(IR) and serum adiponectin level in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) associated with chronic hepatitis C.METHODS:Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected from 165 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed HCC.Homeostasis model assessment of IR(HOMA-IR) and serum adiponectin level were investigated in 188 patients with different stages of hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection.RESULTS:Among HCC patients,type 2 diabetics(DM) was more prevalent in HCV subjec...

  4. Persistent virus infection despite chronic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation in gamma interferon-deficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Wodarz, D;

    2000-01-01

    The role of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in the permanent control of infection with a noncytopathic virus was studied by comparing immune responses in wild-type and IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gamma -/-) mice infected with a slowly invasive strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV Armstrong......). While wild-type mice rapidly cleared the infection, IFN-gamma -/- mice became chronically infected. Virus persistence in the latter mice did not reflect failure to generate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) effectors, as an unimpaired primary CTL response was observed. Furthermore, while ex vivo CTL activity...

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium undergoes distinct genetic adaption during chronic infections of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg, Emilie; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    . Typhi and serve as the reservoir for the disease. The specific mechanisms and adaptive strategies enabling S. Typhi to survive inside the host for extended periods are incompletely understood. Yet, elucidation of these processes is of major importance for improvement of therapeutic strategies. In the...... type strains of S. Typhimurium 4/74 were used to establish chronic infections of 129X1/SvJ mice. Over the course of infections, S. Typhimurium bacteria were isolated from feces and from livers and spleens upon termination of the experiment. In all samples dominant clones were identified and select...... clones were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Dominant clones isolated from either systemic organs or fecal samples exhibited distinct single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One mouse appeared to have distinct adapted clones in the spleen and liver, respectively. Three mice were colonized in the...

  6. Bacterial adaptation during chronic infection revealed by independent component analysis of transcriptomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Rau, Martin Holm; Yang, Liang; Høiby, Niels; Molin, Søren; Jelsbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bacteria employ a variety of adaptation strategies during the course of chronic infections. Understanding bacterial adaptation can facilitate the identification of novel drug targets for better treatment of infectious diseases. Transcriptome profiling is a comprehensive and high......-throughput approach for characterization of bacterial clinical isolates from infections. However, exploitation of the complex, noisy and high-dimensional transcriptomic dataset is difficult and often hindered by low statistical power. Results: In this study, we have applied two kinds of unsupervised analysis methods...... features from the transcriptomic dataset and improve clustering patterns of CF isolates. Decomposition of the transcriptomic dataset by ICA also facilitates gene identification and gene ontology enrichment. Conclusions: Our results show that P. aeruginosa employs multiple patient-specific adaption...

  7. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, L.; Haagensen, J.A.; Jelsbak, L.; Sternberg, C.; Høiby, Niels; Molin, S.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    The growth dynamics of bacterial pathogens within infected hosts are a fundamental but poorly understood feature of most infections. We have focused on the in situ distribution and growth characteristics of two prevailing and transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones that have caused chronic lung...... matrix, whereas nonmucoid variants were present mainly as dispersed cells. To obtain estimates of the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs, we used quantitative FISH to indirectly measure growth rates of bacteria in sputum samples (reflecting the in vivo lung conditions). The concentration of r......-phase subpopulation seemed to be present in sputa. This was found for both mucoid and nonmucoid variants despite their different organizations in sputum. The results suggest that the bacterial population may be confronted with selection forces that favor optimized growth activities. This scenario constitutes a new...

  8. Chronic interstitial pneumonitis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi: a histopathological and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen mongrel dogs of unknown age and naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, were obtained from the City Hall of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Four dogs were used as control. Lung samples were obtained and immediately fixed in formalin. The histopathological picture of all lung tissue sections was a chronic and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. The thickened inter-alveolar septa were characterized by the cellular exudate (mostly macrophages, lymphocytes and plasmocytes associated with collagen deposition. Morphometric analysis showed greater septal thickness in the infected animals than in controls. In fact, the morphometric study of collagen stained with ammoniac silver confirmed a larger deposition of collagen in the infected animals. The parasitologic method was carried out during the study of the lesions on the slides. However, we did not observe any correlation between the histopathologic and morphometric data and the clinical status of the animals. We conclude that the pulmonary lesions observed in all naturally infected dogs were correlated with the disease and that the morphometric method used was satisfactory for the analysis of septal thickness and of increased collagen deposition, confirming the presence of fibrosis.

  9. Tracheal diverticulum: an unusual cause of chronic cough and recurrent respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhar, Rajendra Prasad; Bunkar, Motilal; Jain, Shubhra; Ghabale, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    Tracheal diverticulum (TD) defined as a typical benign out-pouching of the tracheal wall due to structural weakness, congenital or acquired in origin, resulting in paratracheal air cysts. It is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice with only limited reports in the literature. Most cases found incidentally in the postmortem examination and located on the right side. Uncomplicated TDs are usually asymptomatic and when symptoms have occurred, they usually present with non-specific symptoms like pharyngeal discomfort, cough, dyspnea, and recurrent respiratory infection due to either the compression of adjacent organs or secondary bacterial infection. Imaging techniques like thoraco-cervical multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) and fiber-optic bronchoscopy are important diagnostic tools for this entity. Asymptomatic TDs usually require no treatment and managed conservatively while surgical excision is indicated in cases of compression of adjacent organs and recurrent infections. Here we report a case of tracheal diverticulum on the left side, which was diagnosed as part of a work-up for chronic cough and recurrent chest infection in a 40 year old female who was already on bronchodilator without any relief. Diagnosis of TD was based on findings of computed tomography, revealing small bud like projection on left para tracheal region and further confirmed by fiber-optic bronchoscopy while the barium contrast study showed no esophageal communication. She was managed conservatively and referred for surgical excision. PMID:27266290

  10. A retrospective study of the role of delta agent infection in children with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, G; Hadchouel, M; Sessa, F; Vinci, M; Craxì, A; Marzani, M D; De Giacomo, C; Alagille, D

    1985-01-01

    The prevalence of intrahepatic delta antigen and/or anti-delta antibody was retrospectively investigated in 102 children with chronic HBsAg-positive hepatitis who were seen consecutively in three medical institutions between 1974 and 1982. Delta infection markers were found in 13 patients (12.7%) who exhibited high serum titers of anti-delta antibody; intrahepatic delta antigen was detected in ten. Eleven of the 13 children had severe progressive liver disease associated in all but one with absence of hepatitis B virus replication as evaluated by analysis of serum hepatitis B virus DNA. The factors which seem to increase the risk of delta infection in children who are hepatitis B virus carriers are geographic origin, a history of exposure to blood derivatives and age. A further 37 of 102 children had chronic active hepatitis (20 patients) or cirrhosis (17 patients) without evidence of delta infection. These results indicate that delta infection occurs in children with chronic hepatitis. This possibility should be considered in investigation of children with HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease. Although the delta agent is an important cause of progressive liver disease in children who are chronic HBsAg carriers, severe liver injury and especially cirrhosis can occur without evidence of delta infection. PMID:3967866

  11. Chronic kidney disease: information on southern brazilian patients with kidney disease = Insuficiência renal crônica: conhecendo o paciente nefropata sulbrasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Haruki Yamakawa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The profile of patients undergoing haemodialysis in the dialysis unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil, is provided. A questionnaire on social and economic data and underlying diseases prior to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD identified the patients’ profile. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. Eighty-three patients, with 54.21% males, were interviewed. Age bracket ranged between 20 and 59 years in 65.06% of patients. Only 27.71% maintained jobs after the diagnosis and the start of treatment; 63.86% had an average personal income between 1 and 3 minimum wages; 63.85% did not practice any physical activity. Moreover, 53.01% belonged to the European-Brazilian white group; 20.48% to the Afro-Brazilian brown group; 19.28% to the Afro-Brazilian Negro group; 6.02% to other ethnic groups. Further, 85.54% patients reported having an underlying disease prior to the CKD, namely, 61.45% were hypertensive; 31.33% were diabetics and 20.48% had other diseases. Results show the need of a greater attention to these patients’ health care to reduce the negative impacts related to the chronic disease focused.Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar o perfil dos pacientes em tratamento hemodialítico do setor de diálise do Hospital Santa Casa de Maringá - Paraná, Brasil. Para a identificação do perfil destes pacientes foi utilizado um questionário contendo questões que abrangem dados socioeconômicos e doenças de base anteriores à Insuficiência Renal Crônica (IRC. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da instituição. Entre os 83 pacientes entrevistados, 54,21% eram do sexo masculino. A faixa etária variou de 20 a 59 anos para 65,06% dos pacientes. Somente 27,71% continuaram trabalhando após o diagnóstico e início do tratamento. A renda pessoal média ficou entre um e três salários mínimos para 63,86% dos indivíduos. A atividade física está ausente em 63

  12. Changes in autophagic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Feldmann, Gérard; Mansouri, Abdellah; Grodet, Alain; Barge, Sandrine; Martinot-Peignoux, Michèle; Duces, Aurélie; Bièche, Ivan; Lebrec, Didier; Bedossa, Pierre; Paradis, Valérie; Marcellin, Patrick; Valla, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik; Moreau, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is a regulated process that can be involved in the elimination of intracellular microorganisms and in antigen presentation. Some in vitro studies have shown an altered autophagic response in hepatitis C virus infected hepatocytes. The present study aimed at evaluating the autophagic process in the liver of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Fifty-six CHC patients and 47 control patients (8 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic liver disease, 18 with chronic heptatitis B virus infection, and 21 with no or mild liver abnormalities at histological examination) were included. Autophagy was assessed by means of electron microscopy and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 immunoblotting. Using light chain 3 immunoblotting, the form present on autophagic vesicle (light chain 3-II) was significantly higher in CHC patients than in controls (P < 0.05). Using quantitative electron microscopy analysis, the median number of autophagic vesicles observed in hepatocytes from CHC patients was sixfold higher than in overall controls (P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference between CHC patients and controls in the number of mature lysosomes with electron-dense contents arguing in favor of a lack of fusion between autophagosome and lysosome. Neither genotype nor viral load influenced the autophagy level. In conclusion, autophagy is altered in hepatocytes from CHC patients, likely due to a blockade of the last step of the autophagic process. PMID:21641393

  13. Studies on protein turnover and energy expenditure in chronically undernourished adults during stress of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic undernutrition in man leads to adaptive responses which could reduce the requirements for dietary energy and protein. It is also possible that these adaptive responses, which are economical in nature, could lead to a decreased capacity for combating stress. Undernourished people are more susceptible to infections, and during these stresses, show different patterns of protein and energy metabolism from well-nourished subjects. Animal models have clearly shown a diminished response to tissue injury, in terms of the anabolic acute phase response. It is proposed to study the effect of prior nutritional status on the degree to which an infective stress stimulates the acute phase protein synthesis by the liver. In addition, the supply of amino acids to the liver in conditions of stress could come from the breakdown of body tissue proteins, particularly muscle. It is intended to study muscle protein turnover by the use of 13C-leucine in undernourished subjects under conditions of stress. Since whole body protein turnover can be measured by two methods, using 15N-glycine and 13C-leucine, a comparison of these two methods will initially be made in chronically undernourished subjects. It is also intended to study daily energy expenditure in the subject by an isotopic method, i.e. the appearance of 13CO2 in the breath after the administration of 13C-bicarbonate. (author). 8 refs

  14. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures. PMID:17679848

  15. Chronic hepatitis C infection in a patient with bone marrow hypoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with multifarious extra-hepatic manifestations; the most described and discussed being mixed cryoglob- ulinemia which is strongly related to B-cell lympho- proliferative disorders (LPDs). We present a case of chronic HCV infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia, with minimal liver involvement. The case is a 53-year- old patient who was diagnosed as having bone marrow hypoplasia at the age of three. She received several blood transfusions to normalize her haemoglobin. At the age of 31, she was diagnosed with rheumatoid ar- thritis on account of her diffuse joint pain and inflam- mation, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF) and Raynaud's phenomenon. Twenty years later, monoclonal gam- mopathy of IgG Lambda (one year later, changed to IgM Kappa) was detected during a routine examina- tion. A bone marrow biopsy showed hypoplasia, Kappa positive B-lymphocytes and low-grade malignant lym- phoma cells. PCR of the bone marrow aspirate was not contributory. No treatment was initiated owing to her poor bone marrow function and she is under regular follow-up.

  16. [A Case of Severe Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Aplastic Anemia and Hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja In; Lee, Sung Won; Han, Nam Ik; Ro, Sang Mi; Noh, Yong Sun; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-01-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes various acute and chronic diseases. Chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) is characterized by infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms that persist for more than 6 months with high viral loads in peripheral blood and/or an unusual pattern of anti-EBV antibodies. Severe CAEBV is associated with poor prognosis with severe symptoms, an extremely high EBV-related antibody titer, and hematologic complications that often include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. However, CAEBV which led to the development of aplastic anemia (AA) has not been reported yet. A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with intermittent fever, general weakness and elevated liver enzymes. In the serologic test, EBV-related antibody titer was elevated, and real-time quantitative-PCR in peripheral blood showed viral loads exceeding 10(4) copies/μg DNA. Liver biopsy showed characteristic histopathological changes of EBV hepatitis and in situ hybridization with EBV-encoded RNA-1 was positive for EBV. Pancytopenia was detected in peripheral blood, and the bone marrow aspiration biopsy showed hypocellularity with replacement by adipocytes. AA progressed and the patient was treated with prednisolone but deceased 8 months after the diagnosis due to multiple organ failure and opportunistic infection. Herein, we report a rare case of severe CAEBV in an adult patient accompanied by AA and persistent hepatitis. PMID:26809631

  17. INFECTIOUS VIRUS-ANTIBODY COMPLEX IN THE BLOOD OF CHRONICALLY INFECTED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notkins, Abner Louis; Mahar, Suellen; Scheele, Christina; Goffman, Joel

    1966-01-01

    If viremic sera from mice chronically infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) were first treated with ether or ultraviolet light to inactivate the infectious virus, neutralizing antibody could be demonstrated. Significant amounts of antibody, however, were not detected until the mice had been infected for about 2½ months and its presence did not result in the elimination of the chronic viremia. Virus isolated from sera containing neutralizing antibody was found to be relatively resistant to neutralization by anti-LDV. Further studies revealed that the resistant virus existed in the form of an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus). The presence of such a complex was demonstrated by the fact that the virus fraction which persisted after in vivo or in vitro exposure to mouse anti-LDV was readily neutralized by goat anti-mouse sera or goat anti-mouse γ-globulin, whereas virus that had not been previously exposed to mouse anti-LDV was completely resistant to neutralization by goat anti-mouse sera. These findings suggest that (a) sensitization may play an important role in the resistance and susceptibility of a virus to neutralization by antiviral antibody, and (b) an anti-γ-globulin may prove useful in neutralizing the resistant fraction and in demonstrating otherwise undetectable antiviral antibody. PMID:5944351

  18. Coinfection with HIV-1 alleviates iron accumulation in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    Full Text Available Most chronically-infected hepatitis C virus (HCV patients have increased levels of iron in the liver. Iron overload reduces sustained responses to antiviral therapy, leading to more rapid progression to liver cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it is still unclear how HIV-1 infection affects iron status in patients chronically infected with HCV. The present study recruited 227 patients from a village in central China. These patients were either monoinfected with HCV (n = 129 or coinfected with HCV/HIV-1 (n = 98. Healthy controls (n = 84 were also recruited from the same village. Indicators of iron status, such as serum levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation (Tfs, and hepcidin, were analyzed and compared across the three groups. The results showed that serum levels of iron (p = 0.001 and ferritin (p = 0.009 and the Tfs (p = 0.002 were significantly higher in HCV-monoinfected patients than in the healthy controls; however, there were no differences in iron levels and Tfs between HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients and healthy controls. Additionally, although serum hepcidin levels in HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients were lower (p<0.001 than those in health controls, the levels in coinfected patients were higher (p = 0.025 than those in HCV-monoinfected patients. Serum iron and ferritin levels in HCV-monoinfected patients were positively correlated with serum ALT/AST. Serum transferrin levels were negatively correlated with ALT/AST levels. The levels of iron in the serum of coinfected patients with a CD4+T-cell count <500/µl were lower than those in patients with a CD4+T-cell count ≥500/µl, whereas serum hepcidin levels showed the opposite trend. Taken together, these results suggest that coinfection with HIV-1 alleviates iron accumulation caused by chronic HCV infection. Our study indicated that determining the

  19. Tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: 48-week results from Izmir Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Köse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB is to impede liver injury by suppressing viral replication.The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of tenofovir (TDF in CHB infection for 48 weeks.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 CHB patients treated by tenofovir. The patientswere divided into two groups based on their hepatitis B e antigen status (HBeAg. Those who were eligible to therapyreceived TDF 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBVDNA, and viral serological markers were checked at three-month intervals. Liver biopsy scores were determined in allpatients.Results: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 35.8 ± 17.0 years, 26 (57.8 % were male, and seven patients(15.5% were treatment-experienced by a nucleos(tide analogue before TDF. HBeAg was positive in 17 (37.8% patients.At week 48 among HBeAg positive (HBeAg + patients’ biochemical and virological response rates at month-3, -6 and-12 were 64.7%, and 100%, 70.6%, and 94.1%, and 88.2%, and 64.7%, respectively. The serological response in HBeAg+ patients was 29.4%. For HBeAg negative (HBeAg - patients; biochemical, and virological response rates were 64.3%,and 96.4% at month 3; 82.1%, and 96.4% at month 6; and 100%, and 85.7% at month 12, respectively. At week 48 bothgroups had significant virological response (p<0.001.Conclusion: Treatment in CHB with TDF leads to HBV DNA suppression without evident resistance for 48-week, and iswell tolerated. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 87-92Key words: Hepatitis B, chronic, tenofovir disoproxil

  20. Health-related quality of life of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Elegance TP

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection. Aim To evaluate the HRQOL of Chinese patients at different stages of CHB infection and to find out factors associated with HRQOL. Methods 520 Chinese adult CHB patients of whom 156 were uncomplicated, 102 had impaired liver function, 139 had cirrhosis and 123 had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were interviewed with a structured questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2, and the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ. The differences in SF-6D health preference values and SF-36v2 scores between each CHB group and Hong Kong population norms were assessed by t-test. ANOVA was used to compare the mean SF-6D health preference, SF-36v2 scores, and CLDQ scores among CHB groups. Multiple linear regressions were performed to identify determinants of HRQOL. Results CHB patients had significantly lower SF-36v2 scores than the population norm. The SF-6D values of CHB patients with uncomplicated disease, impaired liver function, HCC and cirrhosis were 0.755, 0.745, 0.720 and 0.701, respectively, all significantly lower than the population norm of 0.787. Advanced stage of CHB illness, anti-viral treatment, bilirubin level, psychological co-morbidity, younger age and female were associated with poorer HRQOL. Conclusion CHB infection had a negative impact on HRQOL. There was a progressive decrease in health preference values with CHB disease progression. The results can be used for the estimation of quality adjusted life years (QALYs for CHB patients in cost effectiveness or cost utility studies. Trial Registration http://www.hkclinicaltrials.com; HKCTR-151.

  1. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  2. Characteristics of co-infections by HCV and HBV among Brazilian patients infected by HIV-1 and/or HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1 share the routes of infection with hepatitis viruses B and C. Co-infection by these agents are a common event, but we have scarce knowledge on co-infection by two or more of these agents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and risk factors for co-infections by HBV and HCV in patients infected by HIV-1 or/and HTLV-1, in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: In a case-control study we evaluated patients followed in the AIDS and HTLV clinics of Federal University of Bahia Hospital. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were reviewed, and patients were tested for the presence of serological markers of HBV and HCV infections. HCV-infected patients were tested by PCR to evaluate the presence of viremia. RESULTS: A total of 200 HIV-1, 213 HTLV-1-infected, and 38 HIV-HTLV-co-infected individuals were included. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have had more sexual partners in the lifetime than other patients' groups. HIV-HTLV-co-infected subjects were predominantly male. Patients infected by HTLV or co-infected had a significantly higher frequency of previous syphilis or gonorrhea, while HIV infection was mainly associated with HPV infection. Co-infection was significantly associated to intravenous drug use (IVDU. HBV and/or HCV markers were more frequently found among co-infected patients. HBV markers were more frequently detected among HIV-infected patients, while HCV was clearly associated with IVDU across all groups. AgHBs was strongly associated with co-infection by HIV-HTLV (OR = 22.03, 95% CI: 2.69-469.7, as well as confirmed HCV infection (p = 0.001. Concomitant HCV and HBV infection was also associated with retroviral co-infection. Patients infected by HTLV-1 had a lower chance of detectable HCV viremia (OR = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.002-0.85. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HCV and/or HBV is frequent among patients presenting retroviral infection, but risk factors and prevalence for each

  3. [Clinical evaluation of pivmecillinam in the maintenance therapy of chronic urinary tract infection (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaya, T; Tsurusaki, T; Kusanishi, H; Okada, H; Yamamoto, H; Ahara, M; Murakami, A; Takano, N; Obata, T; Shimura, T; Iwasaki, T; Nakata, Y; Futaoka, S; Ohshima, K; Furuta, N; Murakami, T; Ohtani, I; Sugihara, Y; Yuasa, M; Mizunoya, F; Ota, S; Fujita, H; Ueha, I; Katoh, K

    1981-09-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pivmecillinam (melysin tablet, PMPC), PMPC was administered to 78 chronic UTI cases in the field of obstetrics and gynecology (posthysterectomy infection, chronic cystitis, chronic pyelonephritis and etc.). In principle, daily 400 mg of PMPC was administered for 2 weeks. (1) Overall clinical efficacy judged by doctor was evaluated in 78 cases and the result was; excellent in 17, good in 37, fair in 10, poor in 13 and unknown in 1 case with the effectiveness rate of 69.2%. (2) Overall clinical efficacy judged by 'criteria for clinical evaluation in complicated UTI' recommended by UTI study member was evaluated in 54 cases and the result was; excellent in 15, good in 20 and poor in 19 cases with the overall efficacy rate of 64.8%, the result of which was similar to that of doctor's judgement. (3) Efficacy on pyuria was evaluated in 72 cases and it was cleared in 27, decreased in 25, unchanged in 20 and unknown in 6 cases. Efficacy on bacteriuria was evaluated in 72 cases and it was eliminated in 44, decreased in 9, replaced in 8, unchanged in 8 and unknown in 9 cases. (4) Side effect, considered by doctors to be caused by PMPC administration, was noticed in 3 out of 78 cases (3.8%), all of which was mild gastrointestinal disturbance and the administration of PMPC was continued. Abnormal change of laboratory finding considered by doctors to be caused by PMPC administration was noticed in 1 out of 78 cases, which was slight elevation of GOT and GPT values. It is therefore considered that PMPC appear to be useful drug for the maintenance therapy of chronic UTI in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:6276586

  4. Interleukin-1 Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Gastritis Patients Infected with Helicobacter pylori as Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hnatyszyn, Andrzej; Wielgus, Karolina; Kaczmarek-Rys, Marta; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Mikolajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Stanczyk, Jerzy; Dziuba, Ireneusz; Mikstacki, Adam; Slomski, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicated association of the Helicobacter pylori infections with the occurrence of inflammatory conditions of the gastric mucosa and development of chronic gastritis and intestinal type of gastric cancer. IL1A and IL1B genes have been proposed as key factors in determining risk of gastritis and malignant transformation. The aim of this paper was to evaluate association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dy...

  5. Randomized pilot trial of a synbiotic dietary supplement in chronic HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunter Marco

    2012-06-01

    Synbiotic treatment for 4 weeks can successfully augment the levels of probiotic species in the gut during chronic HIV-1 infection. Associated changes in microbial translocation appear to be absent, and markers of systemic immune activation appear largely unchanged. These findings may help inform future studies aimed at testing pre- and probiotic approaches to improve gut function and mucosal immunity in chronic HIV-1 infection. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00688311

  6. Infección crónica por el VHB Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carretero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen muchos factores implicados en la patogénesis de la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB, como por ejemplo características del virus, la ingesta de etanol, la coinfección con otros virus (VHC, VIH, VHD, e intervenciones terapéuticas como el uso de fármacos citotóxicos o inmunosupresores, o agentes antivirales específicos. Las características clínicas, patológicas y serológicas de la hepatitis crónica por VHB, además, son muy heterogéneas. Se puede reconocer la infección crónica por VHB ante la persistencia del antígeno Australia (HBsAg durante más de seis meses. La presencia de HBeAg se suele asociar a la replicación viral activa y puede ser medida por la cantidad de DNA-VHB presente en el suero o bien por la expresión hepática de HBcAg. El daño hepático que se produce en la hepatitis crónica por VHB no es tanto por el efecto del virus sobre los hepatocitos sino por la reacción inmune que éste provoca en el huésped. Por ello puede verse cierta correlación inversamente proporcional entre la intensidad de la replicación viral y el grado de inflamación hepática. La presencia de hepatitis crónica activa en la biopsia inicial no se ha asociado al desarrollo de cirrosis así como tampoco el diagnóstico histológico de hepatitis crónica persistente puede asegurar que se vaya a desarrollar cirrosis en un futuro.Many factors are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (HBV, such as, for example, characteristics of the virus, ethanol intake, coinfection with other viruses (HCV, HIV, HDV, and therapeutic interventions such as the use of cytotoxic drugs or immunosuppressors, or specific antiviral agents. The clinical, pathological and serological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B virus infection are besides very heterogeneous. Chronic HBV infection can be recognised facing persistence of the Australia antigen (HBsAg for more than six months. The presence of HBeAg is

  7. Restless legs syndrome in patients on chronic hemodialysis in a Brazilian city: frequency, biochemical findings and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffredo Filho Gilberto S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF in Petrópolis, Brazil, and investigate associations between the syndrome and: demographic characteristics, biochemical variables and comorbidities. METHOD: A cross-sectional study in which we interviewed 176 patients on dialytic therapy based on criteria elaborated by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and compared data of patients with and without RLS. RESULTS: The frequency was 14.8 %. There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic and biochemical variables investigated (iron, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, calcium, phosphate. We found no association between RLS and the most common comorbidities, except for chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN (OR = 3.84, p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the studied population RLS is a common disorder, and is not associated with the investigated biochemical abnormalities. A higher frequency of RLS in subjects with CGN is a finding that needs further investigation.

  8. Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Kamphorst, Alice O; Wieland, Andreas; Araki, Koichi; Iyer, Smita S; West, Erin E.; O’Mara, Leigh; Yang, Shu; Konieczny, Bogumila T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Freeman, Gordon J; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Ahmed, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, we depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). T reg cell ablation resulted in 10–100-fold expansion of functional LCMV-specific C...

  9. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in chronically aparasitemic mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Awuoche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness and nagana are two important diseases cuased by African trypanosomes in humans and animals respectively, in tropical african countries. A number of trypanosome species are implicated in these diseases, but it is the Trypanosoma brucei group that is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. During the course of this chronic infection the parasite shows a clear tropism for organs and tissues and only sporadically appears in the blood stream. Notwithstanding this feature, tsetse flies normally get infected from chronically infected apparasitemic hosts. For some pathogens like the microfilaria, it has already shown that the saliva of the vector, black fly saliva contribute to orient the pathogen to the site of the vector bite. Chemotaxis of tsetse saliva may perhaps stimulate movement of Trypanosoma brucei parasites from tissues to the bloodstream and via the vascular to the tsetse feeding site, and could explain the relatively high infection rate of tsetse flies feeding on chronically infected animals. This review paper looks into the possible role of trypanosome-vector saliva in ensuring parasite acquisition and its application in the tsetse – trypanosome interaction at the host skin interphase.

  10. Can a chronic dental infection be considered a cause of cardiovascular disease? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Dessì, Cristina; Piras, Alessandra; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have a complex etiology determined by risk factors, which are in turn associated to a strong genetic component and to environmental factors. In the biological background for the development of CVD, low-grade chronic inflammation plays a role as a pathogenetic determinant of atherosclerosis. Dental infections have been associated with CVD. Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the supporting tissues of the tooth that can lead to teeth loss. In recent years, a number of reports have demonstrated the possible relationship between periodontal disease and CVD. Apical periodontitis, on the other hand, is the late consequence of an endodontic infection, which is caused by the persistence of coronal caries and involves the root canal system of the tooth. Most of the time, it is a chronic infection. Some studies have found a correlation between a "composite status" of oral health (eg. caries, tooth loss, periodontal disease) and CVD, but only a few of them have addressed the association between apical periodontitis and CVD. This "state of the art" paper represents the first stage of an incoming study on the relationship between chronic endodontic infection and CVD. PMID:20851474

  11. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Delvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354 frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101 and CC genotypes (rs1127354, respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101 showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475. In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295. For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women.

  12. Spontaneous hepatitis C viral clearance and hepatitis C chronic infection are associated with distinct cytokine profiles in Mexican patients

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    Nora A Fierro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms related to the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV have been primarily studied in regions where the infection is endemic. Results of prior studies have been extrapolated to populations with low endemicity, such as Mexico. Herein, we determined the cytokine profiles in serum samples from Mexican patients who spontaneously cleared HCV and patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1a. Chronic HCV-infected patients displayed increased interleukin (IL-8 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (CCL-5 secretion, whereas patients who spontaneously cleared HCV showed augmented levels of IL-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 (CCL-8, IL-13 and IL-15. Our study suggeststhat cytokine profiles may predict disease outcome during HCV infection.

  13. One-week dual therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Aparecida Mesquita; S(o)nia Letícia Silva Lorena; Jazon Romilson Souza Almeida; Ciro Garcia Montes; Fábio Guerrazzi; Luciana T Campos; José Murilo Rubiota Zeitune

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of ranitidine bismuth citrate plus clarithromycin given for 1 wk in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer.METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with peptic ulcer were randomized in two treatment groups: (1) 1-wk regimen consisting of ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.i.d. with clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. or (2) 2-wk regimen of the same treatment. Eradication of the infection was considered when both the histologic examination and the urease test were negative for the infection 3 mo after treatment.RESULTS: By intention to treat analysis, Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) was eradicated in 73% and 76% of patients, respectively treated for 1 or 2 wk (P>0.05). By per protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 80% and 83%,respectively, in patients treated for 1 or 2 wk (P>0.05). Nine patients (8.2%) reported minor side effects. CONCLUSION: One-week therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and clarithromycin is safe, well tolerated and effective for treatment of H pylori infection, andappears to be comparable to the 2-wk regimen in terms of efficacy.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors forspecific and multiple helminth infections in a remote city of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few studies have described the risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in the Amazon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a City of the State of Amazonas (Brazil to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and determine the risk factors for helminth infections. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite. The main risk factors determined were: not having a latrine for A. lumbricoides infection; being male and having earth or wood floors for hookworm infection; and being male for multiple helminth infections. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and determined some poverty-related risk factors.

  15. Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms Are Considerable Host Genetic Factors for Patients’ Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Romani; Seyed Masoud Hosseini; Seyed Reza Mohebbi; Shabnam Kazemian; Shaghayegh Derakhshani; Mahsa Khanyaghma; Pedram Azimzadeh; Afsaneh Sharifian; Mohammad Reza Zali

    2014-01-01

    Host genetic background is known as an important factor in patients’ susceptibility to infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 (IL-16) cytokine on susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients to develop chronic HBV infection. Genotyping was conducted using PCR followed by enzymatic digestion and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis. We genotyped three single nuc...

  16. Enhancement of Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis by the Role of Chronic Bacterial Infection-induced Inflammation (Imunnohistochemical and Biochemical studies)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabri MS*, Ashmawy AM**, Ibrahim MA*, Hosny RM

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacterial infections traditionally have not been considered major causes of cancer. Recently, however, bacteria have been linked to cancer by two mechanisms: induction of chronic inflammation and production of carcinogenic bacterial metabolites. The most specific example of the inflammatory mechanism of carcinogenesis is Escherichia coli infection. E. coli has been epidemiologically linked to urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder by its propensity to cause lifelong inflammat...

  17. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.

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    S Gnanakaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.

  18. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD; Yuliya S. Kondratyeva, PhD

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biol...

  19. Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in Brazilian state capitals: comments from the data of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Oliveira e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of requests for serological testing for HIV infection in patients with Tuberculosis and the prevalence of such co-infection in Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District (DF, between 2004 and 2006. Methods: It was a retrospective epidemiological survey based in the data of Brazil’s Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. The data were collected in August, 2008. In the studied period, there were notified in SINAN, 35,639 cases of Tuberculosis in 2004, 37,520 in 2005 and 34,439 in 2006, in all the 26 state capitals and the DF. The percentage of patients with known serological status and the percentage of patients with positive testing for HIV infection within the patients with Tuberculosis varied widely among the capitals and among the time periods assessed. Results: The municipalities of Rio Branco and Macapá (North region showed the worse coverage of serological testing for HIV infection, with a frequency of not screening above 86.5% in the three years of the study. The best HIV screening coverage occurred in Campo Grande (Center-West region and Curitiba (South region, with frequencies of not testing fewer than 20.5%. The frequency of Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection varied from 64.5% in Florianópolis (South region, in 2004 to 0% in Rio Branco (North region, in 2006. Conclusion: In the study, the regional disparities for HIV serological testing in patients with Tuberculosis were observed. In order to achieve the goals for HIV screening in all patients with Tuberculosis there shall be necessary some operational adjustments and a greater commitment in the implantation of public policies directed for these populations.

  20. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Suan Poo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA.

  1. NKT cells prevent chronic joint inflammation after infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupin, Emmanuel; Benhnia, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi; Kinjo, Yuki; Patsey, Rebeca; Lena, Christopher J; Haller, Matthew C; Caimano, Melissa J; Imamura, Masakazu; Wong, Chi-Huey; Crotty, Shane; Radolf, Justin D; Sellati, Timothy J; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2008-12-16

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, a multisystem inflammatory disorder that principally targets the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system. The role of T lymphocytes in the development of chronic inflammation resulting from B. burgdorferi infection has been controversial. We previously showed that natural killer T (NKT) cells with an invariant (i) TCR alpha chain (iNKT cells) recognize glycolipids from B. burgdorferi, but did not establish an in vivo role for iNKT cells in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Here, we evaluate the importance of iNKT cells for host defense against these pathogenic spirochetes by using Valpha14i NKT cell-deficient (Jalpha18(-/-)) BALB/c mice. On tick inoculation with B. burgdorferi, Jalpha18(-/-) mice exhibited more severe and prolonged arthritis as well as a reduced ability to clear spirochetes from infected tissues. Valpha14i NKT cell deficiency also resulted in increased production of antibodies directed against both B. burgdorferi protein antigens and borrelial diacylglycerols; the latter finding demonstrates that anti-glycolipid antibody production does not require cognate help from Valpha14i NKT cells. Valpha14i NKT cells in infected wild-type mice expressed surface activation markers and produced IFNgamma in vivo after infection, suggesting a participatory role for this unique population in cellular immunity. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the antigen-specific activation of Valpha14i NKT cells is important for the prevention of persistent joint inflammation and spirochete clearance, and they counter the long-standing notion that humoral rather than cellular immunity is sufficient to facilitate Lyme disease resolution. PMID:19060201

  2. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, Yee Suan; Rudd, Penny A; Gardner, Joy; Wilson, Jane A C; Larcher, Thibaut; Colle, Marie-Anne; Le, Thuy T; Nakaya, Helder I; Warrilow, David; Allcock, Richard; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Schroder, Wayne A; Khromykh, Alexander A; Lopez, José A; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA) in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells) in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection) was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA. PMID:25474568

  3. Dysfunction of peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Sheng Wang1; Li-He Xing; Ming-Xu Liu; Cnuan-Lin Zhu; Hui-Gang Liu; Hui- Fen Wang; Zhou-Yun Lei

    2001-01-01

    AIM To identify the property of dendritic cella (DCs) of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) in patlents with chronic HBV infection. METHODS Twenty patients with persistent HBV infectlon were included in this study, 10 healthy subjects being used as a control group. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of T cell-depleted populations were incubated and induced into mature dendritic cells in the RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of cytokines GMCSF, IL-4, FLt-3, TNF-α and 100 mL@ L-1 of fetal calf serum for a total of 10 - 12 days. The expressions of surface markers on DCs were evaluated using flow cytometric analysis. ELISA method was used to determine the cytokine levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 in the supernatant produced by DCs. For detection of the stimulatory capacity of DCs to T cell proliferation,mytomycin C-treated DC were incubated with allogenic T cells. RESULTS A typical morphology of mature DCs from healthy subjects and HBV-infected patients was induced in in vitro incubation, but the proliferation ability and cellular number of DCs from HBV-infected patients significantly decreased compared with healthy individuals. In particular, the expression levels of HLADR, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on DC surface from patients were also lower than that from healthy individuals (0.46 vs 0.92 for HLA-DR, 0.44 vs 0.88 for CD80 and 0.44 vs 0. 84 for CD86, P< 0.05). The stimulatory capacity and production of IL-12 of DCs from patients in allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) significantly decreased, but the production level of nitric oxide (NO) by DCa simultaneously increased compared with healthy subjects (86± 15 vs 170±22 μmoI@L 1, P<0.05). CONCLUSION The patients with chronic HBV infection have the defective function and immature phenotype of dendritic cells, which may be associated with the inability of efficient presentation of HBV antigens to host immune system for the clearance of HBV.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection in the pharynx of patients with chronic pharyngitis detected with TDT-FP and modified Giemsa stain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Ping Zhang; Zhen-Hui Peng; Ju Zhang; Xiang-Hong Zhang; Qing Yin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether there is Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) colonization in the pharynx mucous membrane of healthy people and whether chronic pharyngitis is related to H pylori infection.METHODS: Fifty cases of chronic pharyngitis refractory over three months were prospectively studied from Match 2004 to August 2004 in the otolaryngology outpatient department of the Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Template-directed dye-terminator incorporated with fluorescence polarization detection (TDI-FP) and modified Giemsa stain were used to examine pharynx mucous membrane tissue for H pylori colonization in the patients with chronic pharyngitis and the healthy people as a control group.RESULTS: In the control group, no people were detected to have H pylori in the pharynx. In contrast, in 50cases with chronic pharyngitis, 19 (38.0%) cases were H pylori positive with a TDI-FP assay and 4 (8%) cases were TDI-FP positive with Giemsa staining in the pharynx. Sixteen of the 50 pharyngitis cases had stomach ailment history, 11 cases (68.8%) of these 16 patients were determined to be H pylori positive in the pharynx with the TDI-FP assay. x2 test showed that this infection rate was remarkably higher (P= 0.0007) than that in the cases without stomach ailment history. Giemsa staining showed that 3 cases (18.8%) of the patients with stomach ailment history were infected with H pylori in the pharynx, which was remarkably higher (P =0.042) than that in the patients without stomach ailment history (1case, which was 2.9%).CONCLUSION: H pylori may not be detected in the pharynx of healthy people. Chronic pharyngitis may be related to H pylori infection. The infection rate with H pylori in the pharynx is higher in patients with stomach ailment histories than in patients without stomach ailment histories, suggesting that chronic pharyngitis may be related to stomach ailment history.

  5. Evidence of protection against clinical and chronic hepatitis B infection 20 years after infant vaccination in a high endemicity region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovorawan, Y; Chongsrisawat, V; Theamboonlers, A; Leroux-Roels, G; Kuriyakose, S; Leyssen, M; Jacquet, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) immediately after birth prevents neonatal infection by vertical transmission from HBV carrier mothers. There is an ongoing debate whether infant vaccination is sufficient to protect against infection when exposed to HBV later in life. We studied 222 Thai infants born to HBsAg -/+ and HBeAg -/+ mothers who were vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-12 months of age. A subset of 100 subjects received a booster dose at age 5 years. Blood samples collected yearly for 20 years were examined for anti-HBs antibodies and serological markers of hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc, HBsAg, and in selected cases HBeAg, anti-HBe, HBV DNA). During the 20-year follow-up, no subject acquired new chronic HBV infection or clinical hepatitis B disease. During the first decade, possible subclinical breakthrough HBV infection (anti-HBc seroconversion) was only observed in subjects born to HBsAg +/HBeAg + mothers (6/49 [12.2%]). During the second decade, breakthrough HBV infections were detected in all groups (18/140 [12.8%]). Increases in anti-HBs concentrations that were unrelated to additional HBV vaccination or infection were detected in approximately 10% of subjects in each decade. Primary infant vaccination with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine confers long-term protection against clinical disease and new chronic hepatitis B infection despite confirmed hepatitis B exposure. PMID:20384962

  6. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions

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    Tomohisa Nagano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yutaka; Momoi, Nobuo; Akaihata, Mitsuko; Nagasawa, Katsutoshi; Mitomo, Masaki; Aoyagi, Yoshimichi; Endoh, Kisei; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2015-08-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV), characterized by persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, can lead to cardiovascular complications including coronary artery aneurysm or myocarditis. Here, we present the case of an 11-year-old boy with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and junctional ectopic tachycardia associated with CAEBV. The patient did not have any major symptoms attributed to CAEBV, such as fever, lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly when the PAH developed. Mild liver dysfunction was found at the first examination, and it persisted. Two years after the PAH symptoms appeared, CAEBV was evident, based on deteriorated liver function, hepatosplenomegaly, and coronary artery aneurysms. CAEBV should be considered as a cause of secondary PAH, particularly when liver dysfunction coexists. PMID:25809637

  8. Chronic oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis accelerates atheroma formation by shifting the lipid profile.

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    Tomoki Maekawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that periodontal disease increases the risk of atherothrombotic disease. Atherosclerosis has been characterized as a chronic inflammatory response to cholesterol deposition in the arteries. Although several studies have suggested that certain periodontopathic bacteria accelerate atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, the mechanistic link between cholesterol accumulation and periodontal infection-induced inflammation is largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally infected C57BL/6 and C57BL/6.KOR-Apoe(shl (B6.Apoeshl mice with Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is a representative periodontopathic bacterium, and evaluated atherogenesis, gene expression in the aorta and liver and systemic inflammatory and lipid profiles in the blood. Furthermore, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS from P. gingivalis on cholesterol transport and the related gene expression was examined in peritoneal macrophages. Alveolar bone resorption and elevation of systemic inflammatory responses were induced in both strains. Despite early changes in the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol turnover, such as liver X receptor and ATP-binding cassette A1, serum lipid profiles did not change with short-term infection. Long-term infection was associated with a reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol but not with the development of atherosclerotic lesions in wild-type mice. In B6.Apoeshl mice, long-term infection resulted in the elevation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL and total cholesterols in addition to the reduction of HDL cholesterol. This shift in the lipid profile was concomitant with a significant increase in atherosclerotic lesions. Stimulation with P. gingivalis LPS induced the change of cholesterol transport via targeting the expression of LDL receptor-related genes and resulted in the disturbance of regulatory mechanisms of the cholesterol level in macrophages

  9. Gastric Ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus with chronic vomiting : case report

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    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. Gastric spiral bacteria (Helicobacter spp. and the very small, viviparous nematode Ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. Three sibling cheetahs at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. Their parents were both South African-born. Response to antibacterial treatment was poor. Endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and Ollulanus infection. Treatment with oxfendazole and pyrantel embonate resulted in clinical improvement; however, 1 cheetah, which died 7 months later as a result of a ruptured liver due to hepatic amyloidosis, still had Ollulanus worms present in her stomach. Ollulanus tricuspis is a significant cause of gastritis and vomiting in captive cheetahs, lions and tigers, as well as wild cougars and tigers. The parasite has not yet been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the unusual characteristics of this parasite, the literature on its life history and techniques for diagnosis is reviewed.

  10. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: mechanistic insights into chronic disturbances following enteric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Bhargava, Amol; Buret, Andre G

    2014-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a commonly encountered chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Approximately 10% of IBS patients can trace the onset of their symptoms to a previous a bout of infectious dysentery. The appearance of new IBS symptoms following an infectious event is defined as post-infectious-IBS. Indeed, with the World Health Organization estimating between 2 and 4 billion cases annually, infectious diarrheal disease represents an incredible international healthcare burden. Additionally, compounding evidence suggests many commonly encountered enteropathogens as unique triggers behind IBS symptom generation and underlying pathophysiological features. A growing body of work provides evidence supporting a role for pathogen-mediated modifications in the resident intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier integrity, effector cell functions, and innate and adaptive immune features, all proposed physiological manifestations that can underlie GI abnormalities in IBS. Enteric pathogens must employ a vast array of machinery to evade host protective immune mechanisms, and illicit successful infections. Consequently, the impact of infectious events on host physiology can be multidimensional in terms of anatomical location, functional scope, and duration. This review offers a unique discussion of the mechanisms employed by many commonly encountered enteric pathogens that cause acute disease, but may also lead to the establishment of chronic GI dysfunction compatible with IBS. PMID:24744587

  11. The role of viral infections in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Richard; Farne, Hugo; Ritchie, Andrew; Luke, Emma; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major causes of global morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical course of both asthma and COPD are punctuated by the occurrence of exacerbations, acute events characterized by increased symptoms and airflow obstruction. Exacerbations contribute most of the morbidity, mortality and excess healthcare costs associated with both asthma and COPD. COPD and asthma exacerbations are frequently associated with respiratory virus infections and this has led to an intense research focus into the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations over the past decade. Current therapies are effective in reducing chronic symptoms but are less effective in preventing exacerbations, particularly in COPD. Understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbation will lead to the development of new targeted therapies that can reduce the burden of virus-induced exacerbations. In this review we discuss current knowledge of virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and COPD with a particular focus on mechanisms, human studies, virus-bacteria interactions and therapeutic advances. PMID:26611907

  12. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Level of Serum Testosterone in Males with Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

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    Zahra Eslamirad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects human and animals. Toxoplasma parasites are isolated from different parts of animals even from semen but there are little information about the effect of toxoplasmosis on fertility in animals and humans. In present study, the effect of chronic toxoplasmosis on serum levels of testosterone in men was studied.In this case-control study, 1026 men referred to Arak Post Marriage Center were selected. Three ml of blood samples were collected and sera separated by centrifugation at room temperature. These sera were analyzed for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody. Next 365 positive sera were selected as cases and also the same number of negative sera (365 as controls. Finally the level of testosterone was analyzed for the cases and controls samples.Serological tests on the sera of 1,026 men in Arak City showed that 365 of them had anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Comparison of testosterone concentration in case and control groups showed that testosterone concentration in case group was less than control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05.The chronic toxoplasmosis could affect reproductive parameters in men.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasI and rhlI quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H; Song, Z; Givskov, Michael;

    2001-01-01

    To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared...

  14. Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms Are Considerable Host Genetic Factors for Patients’ Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

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    Sara Romani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Host genetic background is known as an important factor in patients’ susceptibility to infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 (IL-16 cytokine on susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV infected patients to develop chronic HBV infection. Genotyping was conducted using PCR followed by enzymatic digestion and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Il-16 gene (rs11556218 T>G, rs4778889 T>C, and rs4072111 C>T to test for relationship between variation at these loci and patients’ susceptibility to chronic HBV infection. Allele frequency of Il-16 gene rs4072111 and rs11556218 was significantly different between chronic HBV patients and healthy blood donors. Genotype frequency of rs4778889 polymorphism of Il-16 gene was significantly different when chronic HBV patients and HBV clearance subjects were compared. Our results showed that Il-16 gene polymorphisms are considerable host genetic factors when we chase biomarkers for prognosis of HBV infected patients.

  15. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. In this study winter worker bees were experimentally infected using three different experiments. Bees were inoculated orally or topically with CBPV to evaluate the l...

  16. A Nationwide Survey of Hepatitis E Virus Infection and Chronic Hepatitis E in Liver Transplant Recipients in Japan

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    Yuki Inagaki

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: The prevalence of HEV antibodies in liver transplant recipients was 2.9%, which is low compared with the healthy population in Japan and with organ transplant recipients in European countries; however, the present study found, for the first time, two Japanese patients with chronic HEV infection that was acquired via blood transfusion during or after liver transplantation.

  17. Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood: an unusual cause of recurrent uncommon infections in a 61-year-old man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Isman-Nelkenbaum; B. Wolach; R. Gavrieli; D. Roos; E. Sprecher; E. Bash; A. Gat; H. Sprecher; R. Ben-Ami; T. Zeeli

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that affects 1 : 250 000 of the population, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and by granuloma formation. We investigated a 61-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a relapsing skin

  18. Plasma HIV Viral Rebound following Protocol-Indicated Cessation of ART Commenced in Primary and Chronic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Ewings, Fiona M; Porter, Kholoud;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of HIV viral rebound following ART cessation has consequences for clinical outcome and onward transmission. We compared plasma viral load (pVL) rebound after stopping ART initiated in primary (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI). DESIGN: Two populations with protocol-in...

  19. Evolution and diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the paranasal sinuses of cystic fibrosis children have implications for chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Rau, Martin Holm; Johansen, Helle Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent colonizer of the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Depending on early treatment regimens, the colonization will, with high probability, develop into chronic infections sooner or later, and it is important to es...

  20. Advanced chronic kidney disease: a strong risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Chul; Seo, Min Young; Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ki Tae; Cho, Eunjung; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung; Cho, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: It has been suggested that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and is associated with increased mortality among patients infected with C. difficile. However, recent studies of the clinical impact of CKD on CDI in Asians are still insufficient. We sought to determine the relationship between CKD and CDI in a Korean population. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective case-control study. In total, 171 patients with CDI were included as cases and 342 age- and gender-matched patients without CDI were used as controls. We compared the prevalence of CKD in the study sample and identified independent risk factors that could predict the development or prognosis of CDI. Results: Independent risk factors for CDI included stage IV to V CKD not requiring dialysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.90) and end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis (OR, 3.34). Patients with more advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30) and CDI showed higher in-hospital mortality and poorer responses to the initial metronidazole therapy. Conclusions: More advanced CKD is an independent risk factor for CDI and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and poor treatment responses in CDI patients. Thus, in CKD patients, careful attention should be paid to the occurrence of CDI and its management to improve the outcome of CDI. PMID:26767866

  1. Cure of Chronic Viral Infection and Virus-Induced Type 1 Diabetes by Neutralizing Antibodies

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    Mette Ejrnaes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neutralizing antibodies is one of the most successful methods to interfere with receptor-ligand interactions in vivo. In particular blockade of soluble inflammatory mediators or their corresponding cellular receptors was proven an effective way to regulate inflammation and/or prevent its negative consequences. However, one problem that comes along with an effective neutralization of inflammatory mediators is the general systemic immunomodulatory effect. It is therefore important to design a treatment regimen in a way to strike at the right place and at the right time in order to achieve maximal effects with minimal duration of immunosuppression or hyperactivation. In this review we reflect on two examples of how short time administration of such neutralizing antibodies can block two distinct inflammatory consequences of viral infection. First, we review recent findings that blockade of IL-10/IL-10R interaction can resolve chronic viral infection and second, we reflect on how neutralization of the chemokine CXCL10 can abrogate virus-induced type 1 diabetes.

  2. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Marina; Puoti, Massimo; Camino, Nuria; Soriano, Vincent

    2003-12-15

    The management of chronic hepatitis B poses specific problems in the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection, because therapeutic approaches have to address both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV infections. Response to interferon (IFN-alpha) is lower in HBV-HIV-coinfected than in HIV-negative subjects, especially in patients in advanced stages of immunosuppression. Thus far, there are no data on the performance of the new pegylated forms of IFN-alpha in HBV- and HIV-coinfected persons. After prolonged use of lamivudine, resistance develops in the majority of HBV-HIV-coinfected patients treated with the drug. The more recently approved tenofovir has shown excellent short-term results, and data from longer follow-up studies are eagerly awaited. Several drugs with combined anti-HIV and anti-HBV activity have recently been approved (emtricitabine) or are currently under development. Preliminary results with some of them are quite promising and probably will widen the therapeutic armamentarium against hepatitis B in patients with HIV infection. PMID:14689351

  3. Evaluation of VDR gene polymorphisms in Trypanosoma cruzi infection and chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F David; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of the immune response. It acts over several immune cell types where the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed. Due to the high relevance of this signaling pathway, several studies have investigated the possible influence of genes involved in the metabolism of Vitamin D and its receptor in different human diseases. Here, we analyzed whether four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the VDR gene (rs731236, rs7975232, rs1544410 and rs2228570) are involved in the susceptibility to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and/or to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) in a Colombian endemic population for this parasite. Our results showed that the rs2228570*A allele is associated with CCC development (P = 4.46E-03, OR = 1.51). In summary, the data presented in this report suggest that variation within the VDR gene may affect the immune response against T. cruzi, increasing the probability of cardiac complications in infected individuals. PMID:27502545

  4. Treatment responses in Asians and Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth K Yan; Marianne Guirgis; Thuy Dinh; Jacob George; Anouk Dev; Alice Lee; Amany Zekry

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To conduct a multicentre retrospective review of virological response rates in Asians infected with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with combination interferon and ribavirin and then to compare their responses to that among Caucasians. METHODS:Asian patients infected with genotype 1 CHC treated at 4 Australian centres between 2001 to 2005 were identified through hospital databases.Baseline demographic characteristics,biochemical,virological and histological data and details of treatment were collected.Sustained virological responses (SVR) in this cohort were then compared to that in Caucasian subjects,matched by genotype,age,gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. RESULTS:A total of 108 Asians with genotype 1 CHC were identified.The end of treatment response (ETR) for the cohort was 79% while the SVR was 67%.Due to the relatively advanced age of the Asian cohort,only sixty-four subjects could be matched with Caucasians.The ETR among matched Asians and Caucasians was 81% and 56% respectively (P=0.003),while the SVR rates were 73% and 36% (P<0.001) respectively.This difference remained significant after adjusting for other predictive variables. CONCLUSION:Genotype 1 CHC in Asian subjects is associated with higher rates of virological response compared to that in Caucasians.

  5. Frequent detection of CXCR4-using viruses among Brazilian blood donors with HIV-1 long-standing infection and unknown clinical stage: Analysis of massive parallel sequencing data

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    Rodrigo Pessôa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of viral tropism is critically important and highly recommended to guide therapy with the CCR5 antagonist, which does not inhibit the effect of X4-tropic viruses. Here, we report the prevalence of HIV-1×4 HIV strains in 84 proviral DNA massively parallel sequencing “MPS” data from well-defined non-recently infected first-time Brazilian blood donors. The MPS data covering the entire V3 region of the env gene was extracted from our recently generated HIV-1 genomes sequenced by a paired-end protocol (Illumina. Of the 84 MPS data samples, 63 (75% were derived from donors with long-standing infection and 21 (25% were lacking stage information. HIV‐1 tropism was inferred using Geno2pheno (g2p [454] algorithm (FPR=1%, 2.5%, and 3.75%. Among the 84 data samples for which tropism was defined by g2p2.5%, 13 (15.5% participants had detectable CXCR4-using viruses in their MPS reads. Mixed infections with R5 and X4 were observed in 11.9% of the study subjects and minority X4 viruses were detected in 7 (8.3% of participants. Nine of the 63 (14.3% subjects with LS infection were predicted by g2p 2.5% to harbor proviral CXCR4-using viruses. Our findings of a high proportion of blood donors (15.5% harboring CXCR4-using viruses in PBMCs may indicate that this phenomenon is common. These findings may have implications for clinical and therapeutic aspects and may benefit individuals who plan to receive CCR5 antagonists.

  6. Polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic foot ulcer biofilm infections determined using bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP.

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    Scot E Dowd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic extremity ulcers are associated with chronic infections. Such ulcer infections are too often followed by amputation because there is little or no understanding of the ecology of such infections or how to control or eliminate this type of chronic infection. A primary impediment to the healing of chronic wounds is biofilm phenotype infections. Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common, disabling, and costly complications of diabetes. Here we seek to derive a better understanding of the polymicrobial nature of chronic diabetic extremity ulcer infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a new bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP approach we have evaluated the bacterial diversity of 40 chronic diabetic foot ulcers from different patients. The most prevalent bacterial genus associated with diabetic chronic wounds was Corynebacterium spp. Findings also show that obligate anaerobes including Bacteroides, Peptoniphilus, Fingoldia, Anaerococcus, and Peptostreptococcus spp. are ubiquitous in diabetic ulcers, comprising a significant portion of the wound biofilm communities. Other major components of the bacterial communities included commonly cultured genera such as Streptococcus, Serratia, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we highlight the patterns of population diversity observed in the samples and introduce preliminary evidence to support the concept of functional equivalent pathogroups (FEP. Here we introduce FEP as consortia of genotypically distinct bacteria that symbiotically produce a pathogenic community. According to this hypothesis, individual members of these communities when they occur alone may not cause disease but when they coaggregate or consort together into a FEP the synergistic effect provides the functional equivalence of well-known pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, giving the biofilm community the factors necessary to maintain chronic biofilm infections

  7. Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydler, Titus; Brägger, Stefanie; Handke, Martin; Hartnack, Sonja; Lewis, Fraser I; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2016-02-17

    Until recently, knowledge of the pathogenicity of Circoviridae and Anelloviridae family members was limited. Our previous discoveries provided clues toward resolving this issue based on studies of the latent nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype group members. We developed a conventional pig infection model that indicated that weaners already harbored latent PCV2 infection in the thymus, which enabled the viruses to specifically modulate the maturation of T-helper cells. This finding raised the possibility that the thymi of normal fetuses were already infected with PCV2. The present findings further substantiate our hypothesis that PCV2 masquerades as the host by infecting fetuses before they acquire immune-competence. We provide the first demonstration that all domestic pig fetuses preferentially harbor latent PCV2-infected cells in their thymi. These PCV2-infected cells are different from thymocytes and are located in the medulla of the fetal thymus. These latent PCV2-infected cells in fetuses are found at the same location and share characteristics with the infected cells observed in adolescent pigs. Moreover, fetuses also harbor these infected cells in other lymph system organs. We provide the first demonstration that the fetal thymus virus pools are minimally affected by sow vaccination, highlighting the immune-privileged character of this organ. Furthermore, we found a striking reduction in virus-infected cells in the fetal spleen and an increase in PCV2-infected cells in the fetal intestine of anti-PCV2-vaccinated mothers. These data indicate that specific immune response interactions occur between mothers and their progeny that are not dependent on the humoral immunity of the mother and cannot be attributed to the rudimentary humoral responses of the fetuses because these pig fetuses do not have any PCV2-specific antibodies. These shifts in our understanding of the PCV2-infected cell pool will lead to different avenues in the search for

  8. Regulation of global gene expression in human Loa loa infection is a function of chronicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Steel

    responsible for the different outcomes seen among filarial-infected patients with varying levels of chronicity and imply an important role for CD8(+ cells in some of the global changes seen with lifelong exposure.

  9. Vitamin D level and vitamin D receptor genetic variations contribute to HCV infection susceptibility and chronicity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengping; Yue, Ming; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Yun; Xie, Chaonan; Yu, Rongbin; Li, Jun; Wang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are involved in multiple immune-mediated disorders including chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to determine the association between plasma vitamin D level, VDR genetic polymorphisms and risk of HCV infection susceptibility and chronicity. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR gene were genotyped and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured in a Han Chinese population of 898 HCV persistent infection cases, 558 spontaneous clearance subjects and 1136 uninfected controls with high risk of HCV infection. In this case-control study, the average plasma 25(OH)D level in persistent infection patients was significantly lower than that in spontaneous clearance cases (P=0.039) and controls (P=0.005). Logistic analyses indicated that rs7975232-C, rs2239185-T and rs11574129-T alleles were significantly associated with a decreased risk of HCV infection susceptibility (all PBonferroniVDR variants (rs7975232-C, rs2239185-T and rs11574129-T) might contribute to a decreased susceptibility to HCV infection in a high-risk Chinese population. PMID:27063396

  10. Molecular profiling of early stage liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanisms of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, end-stage hepatitis (cirrhosis), and hepatocellular carcinoma have been extensively studied, but little is known of the changes in liver gene expression during the early stages of liver fibrosis associated with chronic HCV infection, that is, the transition from normal liver (NL) of uninfected patients to the first stage of liver fibrosis (F1-CH-C). To obtain insight into the molecular pathogenesis of F1-CH-C, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to study the mRNA expression of 240 selected genes in liver tissue with F1-CH-C, in comparison with NL. The expression of 54 (22.5%) of the 240 genes was significantly different between F1-CH-C and NL; 46 genes were upregulated and 8 were downregulated in F1-CH-C. The most noteworthy changes in gene expression mainly affected the transcriptional network regulated by interferons (IFNs), including both IFN-α/β-inducible genes (STAT1, STAT2, ISGF3G/IRF9, IFI27, G1P3, G1P2, OAS2, MX1) and IFN-γ-inducible genes (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11). Interesting, upregulation of IFN-α/β-inducible genes (but not IFN-γ-inducible genes) was independent of histological scores (grade and stage of fibrosis) and HCV characteristics (hepatic HCV mRNA levels and the HCV genotype), and was specific to HCV (as compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV)). Other genes dysregulated in F1-CH-C, albeit less markedly than IFN-α/β- and IFN-γ-inducible genes, were mainly involved in the activation of lymphocytes infiltrating the liver (IFNG, TNF, CXCL6, IL6, CCL8, CXCR3, CXCR4, CCR2), cell proliferation (p16/CDKN2A, MKI67, p14/ARF), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP9, ITGA2), lymphangiogenesis (XLKD1/LYVE), oxidative stress (CYP2E1), and cytoskeleton microtubule organization (STMN2/SCG10). Thus, a limited number of signaling pathways, and particularly the transcriptional network regulated by interferons, are dysregulated in the first

  11. Management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with end-stage renal disease: a review

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    Aguirre Valadez J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan Aguirre Valadez,1 Ignacio García Juárez,1 Rodolfo Rincón Pedrero,2 Aldo Torre11Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Nephrology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, mainly in those on hemodialysis (HD. The seroprevalence of HCV in developing countries ranges between 7% and 40%. Risk factors for this infection in the CKD population include the number of blood transfusions, duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, and prevalence of HCV in HD. Chronic HCV infection in patients with ESRD is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in the pre and post kidney transplant periods. The increase in mortality is directly associated with liver complications and an elevated cardiovascular risk in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. Antiviral treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with HCV, and standard interferon remains the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment of HCV in patients with CKD is complex, but achieving a sustained viral response may decrease the frequency of complications after transplantation. It appears that HCV-infected patients who remain on maintenance dialysis are at increased risk of death compared with HCV patients undergoing renal transplantation.Keywords: hepatitis C virus, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, interferon

  12. Clinical significance of peripheral blood CD4 + natural killer T cells in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Rong-long; LU Qiao-sheng; FENG Xiao-rong; LUO Kang-xian; HOU Jin-lin; FU Ning

    2001-01-01

    To understand the clinical significance of CD4+ natural killer T (NK-T) cells in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals with chronic HBV infection were separated routinely. After Induction with IL-12/IL-2 for 12 d, the proportion of CD4+NK-T cells in peripheral blood was determined by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, and the cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was tested with a 4 h 51Cr release assay. Results: After IL-12/IL-2 induction, the proportion of CD4+ NK-T cells was (18.1±4.20)%, (6.95±2.85)% and (1.50±1.30)% in the healthy control, CAH and AsC respectively. That in the peripheral blood of chronic HBV infected individuals was lower than that in the healthy control. CD8+ NK-T cells was (2.70±1.10)%, (2.20±1.40)% and (3.10±0.70)%respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity assays against Wish cells revealed that the PBLs cytotoxicity reduced in chronic HBV infected individuals (P<0.05), and that in AsC group was significantly lower in comparison with CHB and healthy control groups. The cytotoxicity of CD4+ NK-T cells against Wish cells could be abolished by treating PBLs with either anti-CD4 Ab or anti-CD56 Ab and complement, and partially depleted by anti-CD8 Ab. Conclusion:The abnormal cellular immune function of chronic HBV infected individuals may be associated with the deficiency of CD4+ NK-T cells.

  13. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon: I-The infection rates of Plasmodium brasilianum in non-human primates

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    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasite that causes simian malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plasmodium brasilianum, is infective to man. In this region, where humans live within and in close proximity to the forest, it was suspected that this parasite could be the cause of a zoonosis. A study was performed in the areas surrounding two hydroelectric plants in the Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, aiming at determining the zoonotic potential of this parasite. P. brasilianum was detected in, respectively, 15.8% and 9.9% of 126 and 252 primates belonging to seven and eight species examined from Balbina and Samuel. The highest malaria infection rates were found among the red-howler monkey Alouatta seniculus straminea (32.3%, the bearded-saki Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (50% and the spider-monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus (2[1+] from Balbina and in the squirrel-monkey Saimiri ustus (21% and the black-faced-spider-monkey Ateles paniscus chamek (28.6% from Samuel.

  14. Phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmania infection in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a natural Brazilian heritage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil--the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  15. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon. I--The infection rates of Plasmodium brasilianum in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Deane, L M

    1995-01-01

    The parasite that causes simian malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plasmodium brasilianum, is infective to man. In this region, where humans live within and in close proximity to the forest, it was suspected that this parasite could be the cause of a zoonosis. A study was performed in the areas surrounding two hydroelectric plants in the Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, aiming at determining the zoonotic potential of this parasite. P. brasilianum was detected in, respectively, 15.8% and 9.9% of 126 and 252 primates belonging to seven and eight species examined from Balbina and Samuel. The highest malaria infection rates were found among the red-howler monkey Alouatta seniculus straminea (32.3%), the bearded-saki Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (50%) and the spider-monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus (2[1+]) from Balbina and in the squirrel-monkey Saimiri ustus (21%) and the black-faced-spider-monkey Ateles paniscus chamek (28.6%) from Samuel. PMID:8544737

  16. Adipose Tissue Is a Neglected Viral Reservoir and an Inflammatory Site during Chronic HIV and SIV Infection.

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    Abderaouf Damouche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of the crucial aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are (i viral persistence in reservoirs (precluding viral eradication and (ii chronic inflammation (directly associated with all-cause morbidities in antiretroviral therapy (ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. The objective of the present study was to assess the potential involvement of adipose tissue in these two aspects. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF; the latter comprises immune cells such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages (both of which are important target cells for HIV. The inflammatory potential of adipose tissue has been extensively described in the context of obesity. During HIV infection, the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue has been revealed by the occurrence of lipodystrophies (primarily related to ART. Data on the impact of HIV on the SVF (especially in individuals not receiving ART are scarce. We first analyzed the impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in SIVmac251 infected macaques and found that both adipocytes and adipose tissue immune cells were affected. The adipocyte density was elevated, and adipose tissue immune cells presented enhanced immune activation and/or inflammatory profiles. We detected cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA in the SVF and in sorted CD4+ T cells and macrophages from adipose tissue. We demonstrated that SVF cells (including CD4+ T cells are infected in ART-controlled HIV-infected patients. Importantly, the production of HIV RNA was detected by in situ hybridization, and after the in vitro reactivation of sorted CD4+ T cells from adipose tissue. We thus identified adipose tissue as a crucial cofactor in both viral persistence and chronic immune activation/inflammation during HIV infection. These observations open up new therapeutic strategies for limiting the size of the viral reservoir and decreasing low

  17. Neutralizing antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C and correlation to liver cirrhosis and estimated duration of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jannie; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Krarup, Henrik; Bukh, Jens; Weis, Nina

    2016-10-01

    Although chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection accounts for 30% of individuals with cirrhotic livers worldwide, factors influencing disease progression are far from elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) correlated with the development of cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection, genotype 1, when adjusting for estimated duration of infection. Thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C, with either no/mild fibrosis (n = 23) or cirrhosis (n = 16), were enrolled from two university hospitals in Denmark. Duration of HCV infection was estimated based on patient information and/or anti-HCV seroconversion. Serial dilutions of purified serum/plasma derived IgGs were tested for their ability to neutralize six HCV-genotype 1 cell-culture strains. The results were expressed as the lowest IgG concentration yielding ≥50% neutralization (NAb50 -titer). A significant difference in HCV NAb50 -titers among the six genotype 1a/1b recombinants was found. In patients with cirrhosis, a tendency for higher level of NAbs was observed compared to patients with no/mild fibrosis, although not statistical significant. Stratifying the two groups revealed that being infected >25 years resulted in higher levels of NAbs in both. Furthermore, by correlating estimated duration of HCV infection to NAb50 -titers a significant result was found against two recombinants. The NAb titer does not differ significantly between HCV patients with either no/mild fibrosis or cirrhosis but show a tendency for increasing level with increased duration of infection. NAbs might contribute as a biological marker to increase the accuracy of patient based information on duration of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1791-1803, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027386

  18. Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV-1 Infection: Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment in the Brazilian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Cardoso, Claudete A. Araújo; Darmont, Mariana Q.; Dickstein, Paulo; Bastos, Francisco I.; Souza, Edvaldo; Andrade, Solange D.; Fabbro, Marcia D’All; Fonseca, Rosana; Monteiro, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Challenges to the adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among the pediatric population should be understood in the context of the trajectories of families, their interaction with healthcare services, and their access to material and symbolic goods. The present study analyzed individual, institutional and social factors that might be associated with the caregivers’ role in the treatment adherence of children and adolescents living with HIV (CALHIV). Based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires applied to 69 caregivers seen at pediatric AIDS services of five Brazilian macro-regions, we observed that adherent caregivers had better acceptance of diagnosis and treatment, were less likely to face discrimination and social isolation secondary to AIDS-related stigma and tended to believe in the efficacy of treatment, and to be more optimistic about life perspectives of CALHIV. Interventions aiming to improve adherence and to promote the health of CALHIV should take in consideration the interplay of such different factors. PMID:27338431

  19. Minocycline fails to modulate cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection or immune activation in chronic untreated HIV-1 infection: results of a pilot study

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    Fuchs Dietmar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been shown to attenuate central nervous system (CNS lentivirus infection, immune activation, and brain injury in model systems. To initiate assessment of minocycline as an adjuvant therapy in human CNS HIV infection, we conducted an open-labelled pilot study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood biomarkers of infection and immune responses in 7 viremic subjects not taking antiretroviral therapy. Results There were no discernable effects of minocycline on CSF or blood HIV-1 RNA, or biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation including: CSF and blood neopterin, CSF CCL2, CSF white blood cell count, and expression of cell-surface activation markers on CSF and blood T lymphocytes and monocytes. Conclusions This pilot study of biological responses to minocycline suggests little potential for its use as adjunctive antiviral or immunomodulating therapy in chronic untreated HIV infection.

  20. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

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    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biological analyses confirming the presence of sexually transmitted infections, pathomorphological characteristics of tissue samples from leukoplakia foci typical for different types of infectious agents. In this study, 60 women with chronic cystitis, complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections were examined. Using PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia albicans were found to be the most frequently occurring agents, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The results of culture analyses demonstrated that M. hominis and U. urealyticum were prevalent in patients with chronic urinary tract inflammatory processes, followed by Tr. vaginalis. Candida fungi show practically the same frequency of occurrence. The pathomorphological examination of the foci of leukoplakia in the urinary bladder (in 30 subjects demonstrated metaplasia of the transitional epithelium to the stratified pavement squamous epithelium with inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lamina propria in all types of infections. The intensity of the urothelial transformation and stromal inflammatory processes were determined by the type of predominant infection. Pathomorphological characteristics of the foci of leukoplakia correlate with the etiology of chronic inflammation and are relevant for etiological diagnosis and treatment.

  1. What Triggers transient AIDS in the Acute Phase of HIV Infection and chronic AIDS at the End of the Incubation Period?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kramer

    2007-01-01

    Novel dynamical models are introduced demonstrating that the T helper cell (THC) density drops in the acute infection phase of HIV infection, sometimes causing transient AIDS, and at the end of the incubation period causing chronic AIDS have a common dynamical cause. The immune system's inability to produce enough uninfected THCs to replace the infected ones it is destroying causes a drop in the THC density at any stage of HIV infection. Increases in viral infectivity, probably caused by rand...

  2. TT virus and hepatitis G virus infections in Korean blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee Juhng Jeon; Jong Hee Shin; Soon Pal Suh; Yong Chai Lim; Dong Wook Ryang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of TTV and HGV infections among blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Korea, to investigate the association of TTV and HGV infections with blood transfusion, and to assess the correlation between TTV and HGV viremia and hepatic damage.METHODS: A total of 391 serum samples were examined in this study. Samples were obtained from healthy blood donors (n= 110), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors (n=112), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive donors (n=69), patients with type B chronic liver disease (n=81), and patients with type C chronic liver disease (n= 19).TTV DNA was detected using the hemi-nested PCR. HGV RNA was tested using RT-PCR. A history of blood transfusion and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined.RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 8.2 % of healthy blood donors, 16.1% of HBsAg-positive donors, 20.3 % of antiHCV-positive donors, 21.0 % of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 21.1% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. HGV RNA was detected in 1.8 % of healthy blood donors, 1.8 % of HBsAg-positive donors, 17.4 % of anti-HCV-positive donors, 13.6% of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 10.5% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. The prevalence of TTV and HGV infections in HBV- or HCV-positive donors and patients was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors (P<0.05),except for the detection rate of HGV in HBsAg-positive donors which was the same as for healthy donors. There was a history of transfusion in 66.7% of TTV DNA-positive patients and 76.9% of HGV RNA-positive patients (P<0.05). No significant increase in serum ALT and AST was detected in the TTV- or HGV-positive donors and patients.CONCLUSION: TTV and HGV infections are more frequently found in donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV than in healthy blood donors. However, there is no significant

  3. The clinical effectiveness of pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients in Brazil: a multicentric study

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    Paulo Roberto Abrão Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in Brazil, chronic hepatitis C in patients coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is treated with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN and ribavirin (RBV. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this treatment in this particular population. The identification of the factors that predict sustained virological response (SVR under current clinical practice would enable clinicians to more accurately estimate the probability of achieving an SVR and therefore utilize the appropriate therapeutics, especially in the era of direct-acting antiviral (DAA agents.Aims: the primary aim of our study was to determine the SVR rate under current clinical practice. The secondary aims were as follows: (1 to determine the factors before and during treatment that predict SVR; and (2 to identify the causes of treatment interruption.Methods:within a cohort of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV-coinfected patients in Brazil, we performed a retrospective analysis of those individuals treated with Peg-IFN and RBV.Results:among the 382 analyzed patients, SVR was observed in 118 [30.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 26.3-35.8], which included 25.9% (75/289 of the patients with genotypes 1 and 4 and 48.2% (41/85 of those with genotypes 2 and 3. After multivariate analyses the independent positive predictors for SVR after treatment for chronic hepatitis C with PegIFN and RBV were: absence of an AIDS-defining illness (p= 0.001, HCV viral load lower than 600,000 IU/mL at the onset of treatment (p= 0.003, higher liver enzyme levels (p= 0.039 at baseline, infection with genotypes 2 or 3 (p= 0.003, and no transient treatment interruption (p= 0.001. The treatment was interrupted in 25.6% (98/382 of the patients because of adverse events (11.3%, 43/382, virologic failure (7.8%, 30/382, and dropout (6.5%, 43/382. The main adverse events were cytopenia and psychiatric disorders.Conclusions:in our Brazilian case series, the SVR rate under current

  4. Nonreplicating, cyst-defective type II Toxoplasma gondii vaccine strains stimulate protective immunity against acute and chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2015-05-01

    Live attenuated vaccine strains, such as type I nonreplicating uracil auxotroph mutants, are highly effective in eliciting lifelong immunity to virulent acute infection by Toxoplasma gondii. However, it is currently unknown whether vaccine-elicited immunity can provide protection against acute infection and also prevent chronic infection. To address this problem, we developed nonreverting, nonreplicating, live attenuated uracil auxotroph vaccine strains in the type II Δku80 genetic background by targeting the deletion of the orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) and uridine phosphorylase (UP) genes. Deletion of OMPDC induced a severe uracil auxotrophy with loss of replication, loss of virulence in mice, and loss of the ability to develop cysts and chronic infection. Vaccination of mice using type II Δku80 Δompdc mutants stimulated a fully protective CD8(+) T cell-dependent immunity that prevented acute infection by type I and type II strains of T. gondii, and this vaccination also severely reduced or prevented cyst formation after type II challenge infection. Nonreverting, nonreplicating, and non-cyst-forming Δompdc mutants provide new tools to examine protective immune responses elicited by vaccination with a live attenuated type II vaccine. PMID:25776745

  5. Minimal change disease in a patient receiving IFN-alpha therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizer, Ufuk; Beker, Can Murat; Yavuz, Izzet; Ortatatli, Mesut; Ozguven, Volka; Pahsa, Alaaddin

    2003-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with several extrahepatic syndromes. The principal types of renal disorders associated with chronic HCV infection are cryoglobulinemia or noncryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) may precipitate or exacerbate the occurrence of MPGN. Our patient was a 32-year-old man who tested positive for HCV in July 1997. The patient was treated with IFN-alpha in another medical center for 6 months because his liver biopsy showed chronic active hepatitis. In December 1998, he applied to our clinic for a follow-up examination. The level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 44 U/L, and that of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 69 U/L. HCV RNA was positive in serum, and chronic HCV infection was detected by liver biopsy. IFN-alpha therapy (5 million U/day) was administered for 6 months longer. In May 1999, the patient came to our polyclinic with edema of the feet and legs. We detected proteinuria, serum cholesterol of 269 mg/dl, AST of 50 U/L, ALT of 41 U/L, serum total protein of 3.4 g/dl, serum albumin of 1.2 g/dl, positive cryoglobulin, and urine protein of 9.84 g/day. Cryoglobulinemic MPGN was suspected and kidney biopsy was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). PMID:12639299

  6. HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION ECIPIENTS

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    MR. Ganji

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available 'Die presence anil significance of hepatitis C virus infection among patients with chronic renal failure (CRF on hemodialysis and renal transplant recipient were evaluated a pcrioil of 30 months. A total of 125 patients, comprising 25 recieving chronic hemodialysis, 47 renal transplant candidates and 5.1 renal transplant recipients, were studied with a second generation immunoassay (ELISA II. We detected HCV antibody in 13% of hemodialysis patients which is 40 folds higher than the prevalence of HCV antihotly in general population of Iran (0.3%, as expected. Fortynine (39.2% of our patients were HCV antihotly positive, 2H of them were transplanted and 21 were renal transplant candidates. We compared HCV antihotly positive (group I and HCV antibody negative (group 2 patients. Die results of this study showed a positive correlation between HCV seroconversion, CRF, duration on hemodialysis and elevated liver enzyme levels. Duration of follow-up were 29.62 ± 15.62 months and 31.25 ± 17.50 months in group I and 2 respectively (I' = NS. Duration of preoperative hemodialysis were 54.14 ± 41.18 months and 16.00 ± 10.25 months in group 1 ami 2 respectively (I1 = 0.000}. During follow-up, elevated ALT levels were present in 43.3% and 9.26% of patients in group I ami 2 respectively (I'=0.0001. Immunosuppressive drug toxicity, 1'ostopeative complications including hyperacute rejection and acute tubular necrosis were more common in group I.

  7. The role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection and the methods of inducing DCs maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Fang; Zhou, Jun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the result of an inadequate immune response towards the virus. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the most efficient professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), possess the strongest antigen presenting the effect in the body and can stimulate the initial T cell activation and proliferation. DCs of patients with chronic HBV infection are impaired, resulting in more tolerogenic rather than immunogenic responses, which may contribute to viral persistence. Recently, numerous methods have been developed to induce DCs maturation. To date, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) combined with interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) has been a classic culture combination to DCs. The recently classified type III interferon group interferon-λ (IFN-λ) displays antiviral, antitumor, and immunoregulatory activity. In our laboratory, we demonstrate that IFN-λ1 combined with rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4 can significantly increase the expression of DC surface molecules and the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. In this review, we emphasize on the role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection. Importantly, we systematic review that the latest update in the current status of knowledge on the methods of inducing DCs maturation in anti-HBV immunity. What's more, we conclude that IFN-λ1 combined with GM-CSF and IL-4 can induce DCs maturation, which could become a possibility to be applied to the autologus dendritic cell vaccine to treat chronic hepatitis B. PMID:26104380

  8. Staphylococcus aureus dynamically adapts global regulators and virulence factor expression in the course from acute to chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchscherr, Lorena; Löffler, Bettina

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of severe invasive tissue infection, e.g. osteomyelitis that can develop to chronicity and become extremely difficult to treat. Recent research revealed that S. aureus can dynamically switch to small colony variants (SCVs) that are adapted bacterial phenotypes for long-term persistence. The underlying mechanisms of the bacterial switching and adaptation process are largely dependent on an intact Sigma B regulon. As SigB is known as a transcription factor that modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, it is most likely required by the bacteria to cope with the intracellular stress conditions. Here, we demonstrate in a long-term infection model of human osteoblasts that S. aureus continuously upregulated the expression of SigB during intracellular persistence. The increased SigB expression was accompanied by upregulation of adhesins and downregulation of toxins, which are characteristics for SCV phenotypes. These data further stress the role of SigB during chronic infections that could be a novel target for preventive or therapeutic measures to avoid chronic infections. PMID:26123224

  9. Enalapril in Combination with Benznidazole Reduces Cardiac Inflammation and Creatine Kinases in Mice Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penitente, Arlete Rita; Leite, Ana Luísa Junqueira; de Paula Costa, Guilherme; Shrestha, Deena; Horta, Aline Luciano; Natali, Antônio J; Neves, Clóvis A; Talvani, Andre

    2015-11-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi triggers an inflammatory process in mammalian heart causing events such as fibrosis, changes in the architecture and functionality in this organ. Enalapril, an angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitor, is a drug prescribed to ameliorate this heart dysfunction, and appears to exert a potential role in immune system regulation. Our aim was to evaluate the chronic cardiac inflammatory parameters after therapeutic treatment with enalapril and benznidazole in C57BL/6 mice infected with the VL-10 strain of T. cruzi. After infection, animals were treated with oral doses of enalapril (25 mg/kg), benznidazole (100 mg/kg), or both during 30 days. Morphometric parameters and levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL5), IL-10, creatine kinases (CKs), and C-reactive protein were evaluated in the heart and serum at the 120th day of infection. Enalapril alone or in combination with benznidazole did not change the number of circulating parasites, but reduced cardiac leukocyte recruitment and total collagen in the cardiac tissue. Interestingly, the combination therapy (enalapril/benznidazole) also reduced the levels of chemokines, CK and CK-MB, and C-reactive proteins in chronic phase. In conclusion, during the chronic experimental T. cruzi infection, the combination therapy using enalapril plus benznidazole potentiated their immunomodulatory effects, resulting in a low production of biomarkers of cardiac lesions. PMID:26350447

  10. The treatment cascade for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baligh R Yehia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying gaps in care for people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is important to clinicians, public health officials, and federal agencies. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to provide estimates of the proportion of chronic HCV-infected persons in the United States (U.S. completing each step along a proposed HCV treatment cascade: (1 infected with chronic HCV; (2 diagnosed and aware of their infection; (3 with access to outpatient care; (4 HCV RNA confirmed; (5 liver fibrosis staged by biopsy; (6 prescribed HCV treatment; and (7 achieved sustained virologic response (SVR. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for articles published between January 2003 and July 2013. Two reviewers independently identified articles addressing each step in the cascade. Studies were excluded if they focused on specific populations, did not present original data, involved only a single site, were conducted outside of the U.S., or only included data collected prior to 2000. RESULTS: 9,581 articles were identified, 117 were retrieved for full text review, and 10 were included. Overall, 3.5 million people were estimated to have chronic HCV in the U.S. Fifty percent (95% CI 43-57% were diagnosed and aware of their infection, 43% (CI 40-47% had access to outpatient care, 27% (CI 27-28% had HCV RNA confirmed, 17% (CI 16-17% underwent liver fibrosis staging, 16% (CI 15-16% were prescribed treatment, and 9% (CI 9-10% achieved SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Continued efforts are needed to improve HCV care in the U.S. The proposed HCV treatment cascade provides a framework for evaluating the delivery of HCV care over time and within subgroups, and will be useful in monitoring the impact of new screening efforts and advances in antiviral therapy.

  11. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log10), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log10). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers

  12. A surface groove essential for viral bcl-2 function during chronic infection in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins inhibit apoptosis in cultured cells by binding BH3 domains of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members via a hydrophobic BH3 binding groove on the protein surface. We investigated the physiological importance of the BH3 binding groove of an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in mammals in vivo by analyzing a viral Bcl-2 family protein. We show that the gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68 Bcl-2 family protein (gammaHV68 v-Bcl-2, which is known to inhibit apoptosis in cultured cells, inhibits both apoptosis in primary lymphocytes and Bax toxicity in yeast. Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the gammaHV68 v-Bcl-2 structure revealed a BH3 binding groove that binds BH3 domain peptides from proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak via a molecular mechanism shared with host Bcl-2 family proteins, involving a conserved arginine in the BH3 peptide binding groove. Mutations of this conserved arginine and two adjacent amino acids to alanine (SGR to AAA within the BH3 binding groove resulted in a properly folded protein that lacked the capacity of the wild-type gammaHV68 v-Bcl-2 to bind Bax BH3 peptide and to block Bax toxicity in yeast. We tested the physiological importance of this v-Bcl-2 domain during viral infection by engineering viral mutants encoding a v-Bcl-2 containing the SGR to AAA mutation. This mutation resulted in a virus defective for both efficient reactivation of gammaHV68 from latency and efficient persistent gammaHV68 replication. These studies demonstrate an essential functional role for amino acids in the BH3 peptide binding groove of a viral Bcl-2 family member during chronic infection.

  13. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L. [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Sriranganathan, Nammalwar, E-mail: nathans@vt.edu [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log{sub 10}), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log{sub 10}). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  14. gC1qR expression in chimpanzees with resolved and chronic infection: Potential role of HCV core/gC1qR-mediated T cell suppression in the outcome of HCV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimpanzee is a unique animal model for HCV infection, in which about 50% of infections resolve spontaneously. It has been reported that the magnitude of T cell responses to HCV core in recovered chimpanzees is greater than that in chronically infected ones. However, the mechanism(s) by which the chimpanzees with resolved infection overcome core-mediated immunosuppression remains unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of HCV core on T cell responsiveness in chimpanzees with resolved and chronic HCV infection. We found that core protein strongly inhibited T cell activation and proliferation in chimpanzees with chronic infection, while this inhibition was limited in chimpanzees with resolved infection. Notably, the level of gC1qR, as well as the binding of core protein, on the surface of T cells was lower in recovered chimpanzees when compared to chimpanzees with chronic HCV infection. Intriguingly, the observed differences in gC1qR expression levels and susceptibility to core-induced suppression amongst HCV-chronically infected and recovered chimpanzees were observed prior to HCV challenge, suggesting a possible genetic determination of the outcome of infection. These findings suggest that gC1qR expression on the surface of T cells is crucial for HCV core-mediated T cell suppression and viral clearance, and that represents a novel mechanism by which a virus usurps host machinery for persistence

  15. A serum microRNA signature is associated with the immune control of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

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    Maurizia Rossana Brunetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The virus/host interplay mediates liver pathology in chronic HBV infection. MiRNAs play a pivotal role in virus/host interactions and are detected in both serum and HBsAg-particles, but studies of their dynamics during chronic infection and antiviral therapy are missing. We studied serum miRNAs during different phases of chronic HBV infection and antiviral treatment. METHODS: MiRNAs were profiled by miRCURY-LNA-Universal-RT-miRNA-PCR (Exiqon-A/S and qPCR-panels-I/II-739-miRNA-assays and single-RT-q-PCRs. Two cohorts of well-characterized HBsAg-carriers were studied (median follow-up 34-52 months: a training-panel (141 sera and HBsAg-particles (32 samples from 61 HBsAg-carriers and b validation-panel (136 sera from 84 carriers. RESULTS: Thirty-one miRNAs were differentially expressed in inactive-carriers (IC and chronic-hepatitis-B (CHB with the largest difference for miR-122-5p, miR-99a-5p and miR-192-5p (liver-specific-miRNAs, over-expressed in both sera and HBsAg-particles of CHB (ANOVA/U-test p-values: 8.3 Log10 IU/mL, ρ = -0.732, p<0.001 and HBsAg (3.40, 0.11/5.49 Log10 IU/mL, ρ = -0.883, p<0.001. At multivariate analysis HBV-DNA (p = 0.002, HBsAg (p<0.001 and infection-phase (p<0.001, but not ALT (p = 0.360 correlated with MiR-B-Index. In SVR to Peg-IFN/NUCs MiR-B-Index improved during-therapy and post-treatment reaching IC-like values (5.32, -1.65/10.91 vs 6.68, 0.54/9.53, p = 0.324 beckoning sustained HBV-immune-control earlier than HBsAg-decline. CONCLUSIONS: Serum miRNA profile change dynamically during the different phases of chronic HBV infection. We identified a miRNA signature associated with both natural-occurring and therapy-induced immune control of HBV infection. The MiR-B-Index might be a useful biomarker for the early identification of the sustained switch from CHB to inactive HBV-infection in patients treated with antivirals.

  16. Hospital surface contamination in wards occupied by patients infected with MRSA or MSSA in a Brazilian university hospital

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    K. S. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The hospital environment, especially surfaces, represents a secondary reservoir for pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The present study was carried out at the Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HC-UFU in Brazil, from January to August 2004, with the aim of qualitatively and quantitatively assessing the presence of S. aureus on surfaces touched by hands (bed rail, bedside table and door handle, on the floor and in the air, in wards where the patients were infected or not infected with this organism. Twenty-six wards with at least one infected patient and 26 wards with uninfected patients were investigated. Surfaces and air were sampled during bed making, by means of sterile 10cm2 adhesive tapes and 90mm-diameter exposed culture plates, respectively. Cultures were carried out on Egg Yolk Salt Agar, containing 7.5% NaCl and 1% egg yolk, and colonies identified by lecithinase and coagulase tests and Gram stain. About 50% of the wards were S. aureus contaminated, without significant differences between the groups (46.1% in the infected patient wards versus 53.8% in controls; the correlation between counts of the pathogen on the surfaces and in the air was 66.7%. In spite of the fact that these bacteria were frequently present in the assessed wards, the microbial density was low (less than 1 CFU/cm2. The association between environmental contamination and the epidemiology of S. aureus nosocomial infections is complex and thus further investigations are needed to reach a better understanding of this relationship. Keywords: environmental contamination; nosocomial infections; Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Raoel; van der Meer, Adriaan J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality rates. In the past few years, treatment has improved considerably by the implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). From 2014 onwards, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Regimens with various combinations of these new drugs, without the use of interferon (IFN), proved to be very effective and well tolerated, even among patients with advanced liver disease. Moreover, treatment duration could be shortened to 12 weeks in the majority of patients. The high costs of these DAAs, however, limit the availability of IFN-free therapy worldwide. Even in wealthy countries, it is deemed necessary to prioritize DAA treatment in order to limit the immediate impact on the health budget. As patients with advanced liver disease are in most need of HCV clearance, many countries decided to treat those patients first. In the current review, we focus on the currently available IFN-free treatment options for patients with cirrhosis. We discuss the virological efficacy as well as the clinical relevance of these regimens among this specific patient population. PMID:27006761

  18. Pathogenic effects of biofilm with chronic pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yan; Yiqiang Chen; Zhijun Song; Hong Wu; Jinliang Kong; Xuejun Qin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish an animal model of P.aeruginosa biofilm associated with chronic pulmonary infection and investigate the pathogenic effects of biofilm. Methods: Experiments in vitro, measuring the MICS, MBCS of ievofloxacin(LFX), ceftazidime(CAZ) in PAO579 in alginate beads and planktonic PAO579. Rats were challenged with 0.1 ml of PAO579(109CFU/ml) in alginate beads or 0.1 ml of planktonic PAO579(109CFU/ml), 3,7,14 days after challenging, bacteriological, pathological features were observed. Results: The MICS, MBCS of LFX, CAZ in PAO579 in alginate beads were higher than those in planktonic PAO579 in vitro. CFU/lung in alginate beads group was significantly higher than that in planktonic bacteria group(P = 0.002, P =0.004, P = 0.002, respectively); macroscopic lung pathology and the inflammation in alginate beads group were significantly more severe compared to those in planktonic bacteria group in vivo. Conclusion: P.aeruginosa biofilm protected bacterium from killing of antibiotics and might mediate the host immune damage in the lung tissue and made bacterium evade the host immune defense.

  19. In vivo evaluation of adeno-associated virus gene transfer in airways of mice with acute or chronic respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Melissa; Limberis, Maria P; Bell, Peter; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Haczku, Angela; Wilson, James M; Diamond, Scott L

    2014-11-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer chronic lung infection with concomitant inflammation, a setting that may reduce the efficacy of gene transfer. While gene therapy development for CF often involves viral-based vectors, little is known about gene transfer in the context of an infected airway. In this study, three mouse models were established to evaluate adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer in such an environment. Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50 was used in a chronic, nonlethal respiratory infection in C57BL/6 mice. An inoculum of ∼10(5) CFU allowed B. bronchiseptica RB50 to persist in the upper and lower respiratory tracts for at least 21 days. In this infection model, administration of an AAV vector on day 2 resulted in 2.8-fold reduction of reporter gene expression compared with that observed in uninfected controls. Postponement of AAV administration to day 14 resulted in an even greater (eightfold) reduction of reporter gene expression, when compared with uninfected controls. In another infection model, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to infect surfactant protein D (SP-D) or surfactant protein A (SP-A) knockout (KO) mice. With an inoculum of ∼10(5) CFU, infection persisted for 2 days in the nasal cavity of either mouse model. Reporter gene expression was approximately ∼2.5-fold lower compared with uninfected mice. In the SP-D KO model, postponement of AAV administration to day 9 postinfection resulted in only a two fold reduction in reporter gene expression, when compared with expression seen in uninfected controls. These results confirm that respiratory infections, both ongoing and recently resolved, decrease the efficacy of AAV-mediated gene transfer. PMID:25144316

  20. Impact of Il28b-related single nucleotide polymorphisms on liver transient elastography in chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ydreborg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recently, several genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in proximity to IL28B predict spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection as well as outcome following pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy among genotype 1 infected patients. Additionally the presence of the otherwise favorable IL28B genetic variants in the context of HCV genotype 3 infection reportedly entail more pronounced liver fibrosis and steatosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of IL28B SNP variability on liver stiffness as accessed by transient elastography. METHODS: Seven hundred and seventy-one Swedish HCV infected patients sequentially undergoing liver stiffness measurement by means of Fibroscan® in the context of a real-life trial had samples available for IL28B genotyping (rs12979860 and HCV genotyping. RESULTS: CC(rs12979860 was more common among HCV genotype 2 or 3 infected treatment-naïve patients than among those infected with genotype 1 (P<0.0001. Additionally CC(rs12979860 among HCV genotype 3 infected patients was associated with higher liver stiffness values (P = 0.004, and higher AST to platelet ratio index (APRI; p = 0.02 as compared to carriers of the T allele. Among HCV genotype 1 infected patients, CC(rs12979860 was significantly associated with higher viral load (P = 0.001, with a similar non-significant trend noted among HCV genotype 3 infected patients. CONCLUSION: This study confirms previous reports that the CC(rs12979860 SNP is associated with more pronounced liver pathology in patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 3 as compared to genotype 1, suggesting that IL28B genetic variants differently regulates the course of HCV infection across HCV genotypes.

  1. Network Signatures of IgG Immune Repertoires in Hepatitis B Associated Chronic Infection and Vaccination Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Hui; Kuan, Hui-Chung; Hsieh, T. C.; Ma, K. H.; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chao, Anne; Liu, Hong-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    The repertoire of IgG antibody responses to infection and vaccination varies depending on the characteristics of the immunogen and the ability of the host to mount a protective immune response. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are marked by persistent infection and immune tolerance to vaccination. This disease offers a unique opportunity to discover key repertoire signatures during infection and in response to vaccination. Complementarity determining region 3 of an antibody heavy chain (CDR-H3) has a major impact on the antigenic specificity of an antibody. We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the CDR-H3 sequences in paired siblings of 4 families in which only one member of each pair had chronic HBV infection. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 weeks after HBV vaccination. The analysis revealed a huge network of sequence-related CDR-H3 clones found almost exclusively among carriers. In contrast, vaccination induced significant increases of CDR-H3 cluster diversities among siblings without hepatitis B. Several vaccination-associated clone clusters were identified. Similar findings of vaccination-associated clone networks were observed in healthy adults receiving HBV boosters. These strategies can be used to identify signatures of other infectious diseases and accelerate discoveries of antibody sequences with important biomedical implications. PMID:27222149

  2. Network Signatures of IgG Immune Repertoires in Hepatitis B Associated Chronic Infection and Vaccination Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Hui; Kuan, Hui-Chung; Hsieh, T C; Ma, K H; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chao, Anne; Liu, Hong-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    The repertoire of IgG antibody responses to infection and vaccination varies depending on the characteristics of the immunogen and the ability of the host to mount a protective immune response. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are marked by persistent infection and immune tolerance to vaccination. This disease offers a unique opportunity to discover key repertoire signatures during infection and in response to vaccination. Complementarity determining region 3 of an antibody heavy chain (CDR-H3) has a major impact on the antigenic specificity of an antibody. We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the CDR-H3 sequences in paired siblings of 4 families in which only one member of each pair had chronic HBV infection. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 weeks after HBV vaccination. The analysis revealed a huge network of sequence-related CDR-H3 clones found almost exclusively among carriers. In contrast, vaccination induced significant increases of CDR-H3 cluster diversities among siblings without hepatitis B. Several vaccination-associated clone clusters were identified. Similar findings of vaccination-associated clone networks were observed in healthy adults receiving HBV boosters. These strategies can be used to identify signatures of other infectious diseases and accelerate discoveries of antibody sequences with important biomedical implications. PMID:27222149

  3. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  4. Active human Cytomegalovirus infection and Glycoprotein B genotypes in Brazilian pediatric renal or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de Campos Dieamant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective analysis of active Human Cytomegalovirus infection (HCMV was conducted on 33 pediatric renal or hematopoietic stem cell post-transplant patients. The HCMV-DNA positive samples were evaluated for the prevalence of different gB subtypes and their subsequent correlation with clinical signs. The surveillance of HCMV active infection was based on the monitoring of antigenemia (AGM and on a nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR for the detection of HCMV in the patients studied. Using restriction analysis of the gB gene sequence by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, different HCMV strains could be detected and classified in at least four HCMV genotypes. Thirty-three pediatric recipients of renal or bone marrow transplantation were monitored. Twenty out of thirty-three (60.6% patients demonstrated active HCMV infection. gB1 and gB2 genotypes were more frequent in this population. In this study, we observed that gB2 had correlation with reactivation of HCMV infection and that patients with mixture of genotypes did not show any symptoms of HCMV disease. Future studies has been made to confirm this.

  5. Prolonged remission in a child with chronic myeloid leukemia following Parvo virus B19 (B19V infection

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    A Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (B19V has been associated with a wide spectrum of clinico-pathological disorders in human beings depending upon the host immunity. The present report describes a child with chronic myeloid leukemia ( CML on hydroxyurea in haematological remission, who developed profound erythroid suppression following B19V infection requiring multiple transfusions and withdrawal of hydroxyurea. Despite being off-therapy the child remained in complete clinical and haematological remission till anti B19V antibodies appeared. This case illustrates the ability of B19V infection in suppressing neoplastic myeloid clone, a phenomenon not described earlier.

  6. Clinical utility of protein induced by vitamin K absence in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Bui Xuan; Yano, Yoshihiko; VAN, VU TUONG; Seo, Yasushi; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; TRACH, NGUYEN KHANH; Utsumi, Takako; Azuma, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a common tumor marker for the diagnosis of HCC, although not for protein induced by the absence of vitamin K or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II). The present study aimed to evaluate the role of PIVKA-II in the diagnosis of HCC in HBV-infected Vietnamese patients. A total of 166 consecutive HBV-infected Vietnamese patients were enrolled, including 41 HCC, 43 liver cirrhosis (LC), 26 chronic hepatitis (...

  7. Decreased T Follicular Regulatory Cell/T Follicular Helper Cell (TFH) in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques May Contribute to Accumulation of TFH in Chronic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ankita; Del Rio Estrada, Perla Mariana; Del Rio, Perla Maria Estrada; Tharp, Greg K; Trible, Ronald P; Amara, Rama R; Chahroudi, Ann; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Bosinger, Steven E; Silvestri, Guido

    2015-10-01

    T follicular helper cells (TFH) are critical for the development and maintenance of germinal center (GC) and humoral immune responses. During chronic HIV/SIV infection, TFH accumulate, possibly as a result of Ag persistence. The HIV/SIV-associated TFH expansion may also reflect lack of regulation by suppressive follicular regulatory CD4(+) T cells (TFR). TFR are natural regulatory T cells (TREG) that migrate into the follicle and, similar to TFH, upregulate CXCR5, Bcl-6, and PD1. In this study, we identified TFR as CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)CXCR5(+)PD1(hi)Bcl-6(+) within lymph nodes of rhesus macaques (RM) and confirmed their localization within the GC by immunohistochemistry. RNA sequencing showed that TFR exhibit a distinct transcriptional profile with shared features of both TFH and TREG, including intermediate expression of FOXP3, Bcl-6, PRDM1, IL-10, and IL-21. In healthy, SIV-uninfected RM, we observed a negative correlation between frequencies of TFR and both TFH and GC B cells, as well as levels of CD4(+) T cell proliferation. Post SIV infection, the TFR/TFH ratio was reduced with no change in the frequency of TREG or TFR within the total CD4(+) T cell pool. Finally, we examined whether higher levels of direct virus infection of TFR were responsible for their relative depletion post SIV infection. We found that TFH, TFR, and TREG sorted from SIV-infected RM harbor comparable levels of cell-associated viral DNA. Our data suggest that TFR may contribute to the regulation and proliferation of TFH and GC B cells in vivo and that a decreased TFR/TFH ratio in chronic SIV infection may lead to unchecked expansion of both TFH and GC B cells. PMID:26297764

  8. Granuloma formation and host defense in chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection requires PYCARD/ASC but not NLRP3 or caspase-1.

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    Erin McElvania Tekippe

    Full Text Available The NLR gene family mediates host immunity to various acute pathogenic stimuli, but its role in chronic infection is not known. This paper addressed the role of NLRP3 (NALP3, its adaptor protein PYCARD (ASC, and caspase-1 during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Mtb infection of macrophages in culture induced IL-1beta secretion, and this requires the inflammasome components PYCARD, caspase-1, and NLRP3. However, in vivo Mtb aerosol infection of Nlrp3(-/-, Casp-1(-/-, and WT mice showed no differences in pulmonary IL-1beta production, bacterial burden, or long-term survival. In contrast, a significant role was observed for Pycard in host protection during chronic Mtb infection, as shown by an abrupt decrease in survival of Pycard(-/- mice. Decreased survival of Pycard(-/- animals was associated with defective granuloma formation. These data demonstrate that PYCARD exerts a novel inflammasome-independent role during chronic Mtb infection by containing the bacteria in granulomas.

  9. Dual-functional Polyurea Microcapsules for Chronic Wound Care Dressings: Sustained Drug Delivery and Non-leaching Infection Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    A new design of dual-functional polyurea microcapsules was proposed for chronic wound dressings to provide both non-leaching infection control and sustained topical drug delivery functionalities. Quaternary ammonium functionalized polyurea microcapsules (MCQs) were synthesized under mild conditions through an interfacial crosslinking reaction between branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in a dimethylformamide/cyclohexane emulsion. An in-situ modification method was developed to endow non-leaching surface antimicrobial properties to MCQs via bonding antimicrobial surfactants to surface isocyanate residues on the polyurea shells. The resultant robust MCQs with both non-leaching antimicrobial properties and sustained drug releasing properties have potential applications in medical textiles, such as chronic wound dressings, for infection control and drug delivery.

  10. The effect of combined polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors on the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in a Brazilian population

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    Valdimara Corrêa Vieira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes that encode chemokines or their receptors can modulate susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and disease progression. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of polymorphisms CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5-59029A and SDF1-3'A and their role in the course of HIV infection in a Southern Brazilian population. Clinical data were obtained from 249 patients for an average period of 6.4 years and genotypes were determined by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Survival analyses were conducted for three outcomes: CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/µL, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or death. The frequency of the polymorphisms CCR5-Δ32, CCR2-64I, CCR5-59029A and SDF1-3'A were 0.024, 0.113, 0.487 and 0.207, respectively. CCR5-Δ32 was associated with a reduction in the risk for CD4+ T-cell depletion and with an increased risk for death after AIDS diagnosis. CCR2-64I was associated with a reduction in the risk for developing AIDS. SDF1-3'A was also associated with decreased risk for AIDS, but its effect was only evident when CCR2-64I was present as well. These results highlight the possibility of using these markers as indicators for the prognosis of disease progression and provide evidence for the importance of analysing the effects of gene polymorphisms in a combined fashion.

  11. Aplastic anemia associated with interferon alpha 2a in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou Savvas; Hatzis Gregorios; Vlahadami Ioanna; Voulgarelis Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is a common syndrome in patients with bone marrow failure. However, hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease that does not appear to be caused by any of the known hepatitis viruses including hepatitis C virus. In addition, to the best of our knowledge there are no reported cases of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection developing aplastic anemia associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a treatm...

  12. Lipopolysaccharide Increases Immune Activation and Alters T Cell Homeostasis in SHIVB’WHU Chronically Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wu, Run-Dong; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Tian, Ren-Rong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation plays a significant role in the disease progression of HIV. Microbial products, especially bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to immune activation. Increasing evidence indicates that T lymphocyte homeostasis disruptions are associated with immune activation. However, the mechanism by which LPS affects disruption of immune response is still not fully understood. Chronically SHIVB'WHU-infected Chinese rhesus macaques received 50 μg/kg body weight LPS in this study....

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Clinical Pharmacy Education on Infection Management Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in an Indonesian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Azizah; Sulaiman, SA. Syed; A. A. SHAFIE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the clinical and economic impacts of clinical pharmacy education (CPE) on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4 and 5 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Indonesia. Methods A quasi-experimental economic evaluation comparing CPE impact on 6-month CKD mortality was conducted on the basis of payer perspective. The experimental group (n = 63) received care by health care providers who were given CPE on drug-related probl...

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Increases Immune Activation and Alters T Cell Homeostasis in SHIVB'WHU Chronically Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Hong Zhang; Run-Dong Wu; Hong-Yi Zheng; Xiao-Liang Zhang; Ming-Xu Zhang; Ren-Rong Tian; Guang-Ming Liu; Wei Pang; Yong-Tang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation plays a significant role in the disease progression of HIV. Microbial products, especially bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contribute to immune activation. Increasing evidence indicates that T lymphocyte homeostasis disruptions are associated with immune activation. However, the mechanism by which LPS affects disruption of immune response is still not fully understood. Chronically SHIVB’WHU-infected Chinese rhesus macaques received 50 μg/kg body weight LPS in this study....

  15. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Treatment with Benznidazole among Children with Chronic Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Prado, Nilda; Segura, Elsa L.; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi could cause heart conduction disturbances. We sought to analyze electrocardiographic abnormalities among children with chronic T. cruzi infection with and without trypanocidal treatment with benznidazole. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 111 children 6–16 years of age with asymptomatic chronic T. cruzi infection who were recruited in 1991–1992 in Salta, Argentina. Most children were randomly assigned to benznidazole 5 mg/Kg/day (n = 47) or matching placebo (n = 48) for 60 days. Remaining children (n = 16) received treatment with benznidazole 5 mg/Kg/day open-label. Electrocardiograms were obtained at baseline and in 1995–1996, 1998, 2000 and 2005, and were analyzed using the Buenos Aires method. Among the 94 children with an electrocardiogram at baseline, 8 (8.5%) had electrocardiographic abnormalities, including 4 (4.7%) children with right bundle branch block. Proportion of abnormal electrocardiograms in the full population (n = 111) remained constant over time (media follow-up 8.6 years). Multivariable adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval [95%CI]) for electrocardiographic abnormalities in 1995–1996, 1998, 2000 and 2005 comparing children treated with benznidazole versus those not treated were 2.76 (0.66, 11.60), 2.33 (0.44, 12.31), 3.06 (0.48, 19.56), and 1.94 (0.33, 11.25), respectively. Among the 86 children with a normal electrocardiogram at baseline, 16 (18.6%) developed electrocardiographic abnormalities during follow-up. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for incident electrocardiographic abnormalities comparing children treated with benznidazole versus those not treated was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.25, 1.88). Conclusions/Significance Electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequent among children with chronic T. cruzi infection. Treatment with benznidazole for 60 days may not be associated with less electrocardiographic abnormalities. PMID:27158908

  16. Occurrence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in a Community-Based Cohort of Indigent Adults Living With HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Miaskowski, C; Penko, JM; D. Guzman; Mattson, JE; Bangsberg, DR; Kushel, MB

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but little is known about chronic pain in socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV-infected populations with high rates of substance abuse in the postantiretroviral era. This cross-sectional study describes the occurrence and characteristics of pain in a community-based cohort of 296 indigent PLWHA. Participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographics, substance use, depression, and pain. Cut-point analysis was used to generate cat...

  17. Alterations in Natural Killer Cell Receptor Profiles During HIV Type 1 Disease Progression Among Chronically Infected South African Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ambrose H.W.; Williams, Katie; Reddy, Sharon; Wilson, Douglas; Giddy, Janet; Alter, Galit; Ghebremichael, Musie; Carrington, Mary N; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Altfeld, Marcus; Carr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that innate immune responses by natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in restricting human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. Our aim was to characterize changes in NK cells associated with HIV-1 clade C disease progression. Here we used multiparametric flow cytometry (LSRII) to quantify phenotype and function of NK cells in a cross-sectional analysis of cryopreserved blood samples from a cohort of 41 chronically HIV-1-infected, treatment-na...

  18. Quantification of serum hepatitis C virus core protein level in patients chronically infected with different hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Orito, E; M. Mizokami; Tanaka, T.; Lau, J. Y.; Suzuki, K; Yamauchi, M.; Ohta, Y.; Hasegawa, A; Tanaka, S.; Kohara, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: A novel fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) for the detection and quantification of serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein was developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation among serum HCV core protein level, HCV RNA level, and HCV genotype in patients with chronic HCV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum HCV core protein, HCV RNA, HCV genotype were determined in 175 patients using the FEIA, branched DNA assay (Quantiplex HCV RNA ver 1.0), and serologic...

  19. Endemic hepatitis B virus infection and chronic liver disease mortality in the Republic of Palau, 1990-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tara M; Goldstein, Susan T; Kuartei, Stevenson

    2006-12-01

    In the Republic of Palau, a Pacific island nation, approximately 20% of the population is chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is at risk of developing chronic liver disease (CLD), including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To examine the consequences of HBV infection, we sought to quantify HBV-related CLD mortality in this population. The cause of death was abstracted from death certificates of all persons who died in Palau during 1990-2002. CLD deaths were categorised as cirrhosis or HCC. HBV serological status was determined by review of a hospital database. The cause of death was determined for 1,366 (85%) of 1,608 deaths. CLD was the fifth most common cause of death, accounting for 102 (7%) deaths with a known cause. Of deaths due to CLD, 55 (54%) were from cirrhosis and 47 (46%) were from HCC. Sixty-five percent of CLD decedents and 19% of non-CLD decedents were chronically infected with HBV (P<0.01). The attributable fraction of HBV-related CLD was 54% (58% for cirrhosis and 53% for HCC). CLD mortality rates were approximately twice the worldwide CLD rate. HBV-related CLD is a common cause of death in the Republic of Palau, highlighting the importance of routine infant hepatitis B vaccination, especially in countries with high endemicity. PMID:16765396

  20. Use of FDG-PET to detect a chronic odontogenic infection as a possible source of the brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Kuroshima, Takeshi; Wada, Mayumi; Satoh, Akira; Watanabe, Shiro; Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    This study describes the use of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to detect a chronic odontogenic infection as the possible origin of a brain abscess (BA). A 74-year-old man with esophageal carcinoma was referred to our department to determine the origin of a BA in his oral cavity. He had no acute odontogenic infections. The BA was drained, and bacteria of the Staphylococcus milleri group were detected. Whole body FDG-PET revealed that the only sites of definite uptake of FDG were the esophageal carcinoma and the left upper maxillary region (SUVmax: 4.5). These findings suggested that the BA may have originated from a chronic periodontal infection. Six teeth with progressive chronic periodontal disease were extracted to remove the possible source of BA. These findings excluded the possibility of direct spread of bacteria from the odontogenic infectious lesion to the intracranial cavity. After extraction, there was no relapse of BA. PMID:26497357

  1. Capillariaisis (Trichurida, Trichinellidae, Capillaria hepatica in the Brazilian Amazon: low pathogenicity, low infectivity and a novel mode of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Luana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human capillariasis caused by Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepaticum is a rare disease with no more than 40 cases registered around the world. Classically, the disease has severe symptoms that mimic acute hepatitis. Natural reservoirs of C. hepatica are urban rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus novergicus that harbor their eggs in the liver. After examining the feces of 6 riverine inhabitants (Rio Preto area, 8° 03'S and 62° 53' W to 8° 14'S and 62° 52'W of the State of Rondonia, Brazil, and identifying C. hepatica eggs in their feces, the authors decided to investigate the real dimension of these findings by looking for two positive signals. Methods Between June 1st and 15th, 2008, 246 out of 304 individuals were clinically examined. Blood samples were collected, kept under -20°C, and test by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Results The first positive signal was the presence of specific antibodies at 1:150 dilution, which indicates that the person is likely to have been exposed to eggs, most likely non-infective eggs, passing through the food chain or via contaminated food (total prevalence of 34.1%. A second more specific signal was the presence of antibodies at higher titers, thus indicating true infection. Conclusions The authors concluded that only two subjects were really infected (prevalence of 0.81%; the rest was false-positives that were sensitized after consuming non-embryonated eggs. The present study is the first one carried out in a native Amazonian population and indicates the presence of antibodies against C. hepatica in this population. The results further suggest that the transmission of the parasite occurs by the ingestion of embryonated eggs from human feces and/or carcasses of wild animals. The authors propose a novel mode of transmission, describing the disease as a low pathogenic one, and showing low infectivity.

  2. Risk and Prognosis of Bloodstream Infections among Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Skov Dalgaard

    Full Text Available Infections are common complications among patients on chronic hemodialysis. This population-based cohort study aims to estimate risk and case fatality of bloodstream infection among chronic hemodialysis patients.In this population-based cohort study we identified residents with end-stage renal disease in Central and North Jutland, Denmark who had hemodialysis as first renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis patients during 1995-2010. For each hemodialysis patient, we sampled 19 persons from the general population matched on age, gender, and municipality. Information on positive blood cultures was obtained from regional microbiology databases. All persons were observed from cohort entry until first episode of bloodstream infection, emigration, death, or end of hemodialysis treatment, whichever came first. Incidence-rates and incidence-rate ratios were computed and risk factors for bloodstream infection assessed by Poisson regression. Case fatality was compared by Cox regression.Among 1792 hemodialysis patients and 33 618 matched population controls, we identified 461 and 1126 first episodes of bloodstream infection, respectively. Incidence rates of first episode of bloodstream infection were 13.7 (95% confidence interval (CI, 12.5-15.0 per 100 person-years among hemodialysis patients and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.50-0.56 per 100 person-years among population controls. In hemodialysis patients, the most common causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (43.8% and Escherichia coli (12.6%. The 30-day case fatality was similar among hemodialysis patients and population controls 16% (95% CI, 13%-20% vs. 18% (95% CI, 15%-20%.Hemodialysis patients have extraordinary high risk of bloodstream infection while short-term case fatality following is similar to that of population controls.

  3. Risk and Prognosis of Bloodstream Infections among Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov Dalgaard, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Jespersen, Bente; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Infections are common complications among patients on chronic hemodialysis. This population-based cohort study aims to estimate risk and case fatality of bloodstream infection among chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods In this population-based cohort study we identified residents with end-stage renal disease in Central and North Jutland, Denmark who had hemodialysis as first renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis patients) during 1995–2010. For each hemodialysis patient, we sampled 19 persons from the general population matched on age, gender, and municipality. Information on positive blood cultures was obtained from regional microbiology databases. All persons were observed from cohort entry until first episode of bloodstream infection, emigration, death, or end of hemodialysis treatment, whichever came first. Incidence-rates and incidence-rate ratios were computed and risk factors for bloodstream infection assessed by Poisson regression. Case fatality was compared by Cox regression. Results Among 1792 hemodialysis patients and 33 618 matched population controls, we identified 461 and 1126 first episodes of bloodstream infection, respectively. Incidence rates of first episode of bloodstream infection were 13.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 12.5–15.0) per 100 person-years among hemodialysis patients and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.50–0.56) per 100 person-years among population controls. In hemodialysis patients, the most common causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (43.8%) and Escherichia coli (12.6%). The 30-day case fatality was similar among hemodialysis patients and population controls 16% (95% CI, 13%–20%) vs. 18% (95% CI, 15%–20%). Conclusions Hemodialysis patients have extraordinary high risk of bloodstream infection while short-term case fatality following is similar to that of population controls. PMID:25910221

  4. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  5. Chronic polyarthritis in a patient affected by sarcoidosis and chronic HCV infection. Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carcassi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that has a wide variety of clinical manifestation. Lung involvement may slowly undergo pulmonary fibrosis. Chronic sarcoid arthritis is a rare, usually non destructive arthropathy; may be a mono, oligo or polyarthritis. Knees, ankles, shoulders, wrists and small joint of the hands and feet may be involved. It can involve skin, eyes, exocrine glands such as salivary and lacrimal glands, and many other tissues. We describe the case of a 77 years old woman with a history of rhinopharyngitis with epistaxis and chronic laryngitis since youth; a dry mouth and throat, a erytematous, infiltrative skin lesion in the forehead and in the nape of the neck, a purple lesion of the left ear and nose, skin distrophy of the hands from 30 years before. She underwent an operation for a left femoral fracture with emotrasfusion 14 years ago. Then she developed a polyarthritis of the small joints of the hands (II, III and IV right DIP, I, III, e V left DIP; III and V bilateral PIP, knees, tarsi, toes and left elbow. An HCV chronic hepatitis was discovered 6 years before. She is affected by productive cough, dysphonia, dyspnea at rest, feveret, cephalea and asthenia for over 5 years. Laboratory examination revealed leukopenia, HCV hepatitis with anti HCV, HCV-RNA, transaminases elevated and cryoglobulinemia. HCV may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of rheumatic diseases, lung fibrosis and may moreover contribuite to the onset or progression of sarcoidosis; the possible pathogenesis is discussed.

  6. Association between lipid genetic and immunological status in chronically HIV-infected patients

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    Patricia Echeverría

    2014-11-01

    ; patients carrying the rare allele rs1800588 in HL had a 11% increase in CD4 T cells (p=0.043; and carriers of the rs145626 in the VLDLR gene had 10% decrease in CD4 circulating T cells (p=0.013. Conclusion: Variants in genes involved in the development of AD may also influence the immunological host–virus equilibrium in chronically HIV-infected subjects (2, 3.

  7. Hematological Adverse events and Sustained Viral Response in Children Undergoing Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Pawlowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection with interferon (IFN and ribavirin (RBV is associated with adverse events, which may affect the patient's adherence to the treatment regimen and the treatment efficacy.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the sustained viral response (SVR and interdependence between the haematological characteristics (leukocyte count, platelet count, and haemoglobin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection during treatment with IFN and RBV.Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 170 children with CHC infection who completed treatment with IFN-α and RBV. The children were divided into 2 groups: the first group (group I, n = 119 underwent a 48-week course of treatment with recombinant IFN α-2b (Intron A at a dosage of 3 MU 3 times a week subcutaneously and RBV at a dosage of 15 mg/kg per day orally, and the second group (group II, n = 51 was administered pegylated IFN (peg-IFN-α-2b (PegIntron at a dosage of 1.5 μg/kg per week subcutaneously and RBV at a dosage of 15 mg/kg per day orally for 48 weeks. The dose of IFN was not adjusted but that of ribavirin was in 2 children from group II. Hematological growth factors and erythropoietin were not used. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV RNA 24 weeks after the end of treatment (study week 72. Serum HCV RNA was determined by performing polymerase chain reaction, and the HCV genotypes and hematological parameters were evaluated. Serum HCV RNA levels were analysed by descriptive statistics. Means and standard deviations were calculated for values collected at the baseline, on the 12th and 48th weeks during treatment, and after 24 weeks of untreated follow-up (study week 72.Results: Eighty-six (50% of the 170 patients who underwent treatment achieved SVR: 62 (51% out of 119 children from group I and 24 (47% out of 51 from group II. The mean serum hemoglobin levels and leukocyte and platelet counts at

  8. Correlation between CD4, CD8 cell infiltration in gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori infection and symptoms in patients with chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ai-ping; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Zha, Qing-Lin; Ju, Da-Hong; Wu, Hao; Jia, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Cheng; Li, Shao; Hui JIAN

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the correlation between CD4, CD8 cell infiltration in gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and symptoms or the assemblage of symptoms in cases with chronic gastritis.

  9. [A case diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease after disseminated infection following BCG vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibalta, Güler; Seringeç, Murat; Öncül, Oral

    2015-07-01

    BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a widely used vaccine with the recommendation of World Health Organization to protect children against miliary tuberculosis (TB) and TB meningitis. Severe side effects related to this vaccine mostly manifest in the presence of underlying immunosuppressive disease. In this report, an infant case with unknown chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who developed disseminated BCG infection after administration of BCG vaccine, was presented. High fever, left axillary lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly have developed in a 3-month 28-day female infant, without a known health problem, following BCG vaccination. The acid-fast bacilli (ARB) was isolated from the material of excised lymph node cultivated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium, and the isolate was identified as Mycobacterium bovis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected in the axillary lymph node sample by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-tuberculous treatment included 20 mg/kg of rifampicin+10 mg/kg of isoniazid+15 mg/kg of ethambutol+30 mg/kg of streptomycin was started. The patient was then further evaluated for immunodeficiency and on the basis of the results of dihydroamine and LAD (lymphocyte adhesion defect) tests, diagnosed as autosomal recessive CGD. Based on the anamnesis, there was no known immunodeficiency history both in the case during neonatal period and her family members. Interferon-gamma therapy, which is recommended for the patients with CGD living in endemic areas, was initiated. Our patient's fever dropped at the 15th day of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and she was discharged on the 35th day and continued to receive treatment at home. The patient was followed up at outpatient clinic and had no additional complaints; her hepatosplenomegaly was back to normal at the third month. As a result, since BCG vaccine is contraindicated in CGD carriers, newborns with a family history of CGD should be immunologically examined and BCG vaccine should be

  10. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selim Aydemir; Binnaz Handan Ozdemir; Gurden Gur; Ibrahim Dogan; Ugur Yilmaz; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF).METHODS: Forty-four patients were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups with respect to their Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and CRF status. Groups were labeled as follows: 1a: normal renal function, H pylori negative (n = 12), 1b: normal renal function,H pylori positive (n = 11), 2a: CRF, H pylori negative (n = 10), 2b: CRF, H pylori positive (n = 11). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in all the patients involved in the study. During endoscopical investigation,antral biopsy specimens were taken from each patient.In order to evaluate the cell apoptosis and proliferation in gastric epithelial cells, Bax and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes (LI) were assessed with immunohistochemical staining method.RESULTS: For groups 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b, mean Bax LI was identified as 34.4±13.7, 44.1±16.5, 46.3±20.5,60.7±13.8, respectively and mean PCNA LI was identified as 36.2±17.2, 53.6±25.6, 59.5±25.6, 67.2±22,respectively. When the one-way ANOVA test was applied,statistically significant differences were detected between the groups for both Bax LI (P = 0.004 <0.01) and PCNA LI (P = 0.009 <0.01). When groups were compared further in terms of Bax LI and PCNA LI with Tukey's HSD test for multiple pairwise comparisons, statistically significant difference was observed only between groups 1a and 2b (P = 0.006 <0.01).CONCLUSION: In gastric epithelial cells, expression of both the pre-apoptotic protein Bax and the proliferation marker PCNA increase with H pylori infection. This increase is more evident in patients with uremia. These findings suggest that uremia accelerates apoptosis and proliferation in gastric epithelial cells.

  11. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan

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    Tomomi Morimoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV, and sac brood virus (SBV, previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6% in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (− strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010 may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.

  12. Chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii induces death of submucosal enteric neurons and damage in the colonic mucosa of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góis, Marcelo Biondaro; Hermes-Uliana, Catchia; Barreto Zago, Maísa Cristina; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Miranda-Neto, Marcílio Hubner; Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José de; Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales

    2016-05-01

    Intestinal epithelial secretion is coordinated by the submucosal plexus (SMP). Chemical mediators from SMP regulate the immunobiological response and direct actions against infectious agents. Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic infection with T. gondii on the morphometry of the mucosa and the submucosal enteric neurons in the proximal colon of rats. Male adult rats were distributed into a control group (n = 10) and an infected group (n = 10). Infected rats received orally 500 oocysts of T. gondii (ME-49). After 36 days, the rats were euthanized and samples of the proximal colon were processed for histology to evaluate mucosal thickness in sections. Whole mounts were stained with methylene blue and subjected to immunohistochemistry to detect vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The total number of submucosal neurons decreased by 16.20%. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons increased by 26.95%. Intraepithelial lymphocytes increased by 62.86% and sulfomucin-producing goblet cells decreased by 22.87%. Crypt depth was greater by 43.02%. It was concluded that chronic infection with T. gondii induced death and hypertrophy in the remaining submucosal enteric neurons and damage to the colonic mucosa of rats. PMID:26902605

  13. Altered energy balance and cytokine gene expression in a murine model of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, D; Girardier, L; Seydoux, J; Chang, H R; Dulloo, A G

    1997-05-01

    The temporal pattern of changes in energy balance and cytokine mRNA expression in spleen and brain were examined in a mouse model of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. During days 1-7 postinfection, food intake was unaltered, but energy expenditure was significantly increased, and this was associated with elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-5, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The hypermetabolic state persisted during subsequent anorexia, whose onset coincided with elevated IL-2, and at the end of the acute phase of cachexia, the dual anorexic and hypermetabolic states were associated with the cytokines examined: TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. In the chronic phase of the infection, the mice showed either partial weight recovery (gainers) or no weight regain (nongainers). The infected gainers, though still hypophagic, were no longer hypermetabolic, and their cytokine mRNA was no longer elevated, except for TNF-alpha and IL-10. In contrast, the infected nongainers continued to show both anoroxia and hypermetabolism, which were associated with elevations in all cytokines examined and particularly those of the TH2 profile (IL-4 and IL-5) and IL-6. Taken together, these studies reveal a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA expression underlying 1) hypermetabolism vs. anorexia, 2) acute vs. chronic cachexia, and 3) stable weight loss vs. partial weight recovery. PMID:9176193

  14. Blockade of immunosuppressive cytokines restores NK cell antiviral function in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppa, Dimitra; Micco, Lorenzo; Javaid, Alia; Kennedy, Patrick T F; Schurich, Anna; Dunn, Claire; Pallant, Celeste; Ellis, Gidon; Khanna, Pooja; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Gilson, Richard J; Maini, Mala K

    2010-01-01

    NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic role, NK cells have antiviral potential in CHB. We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to 31 healthy controls. We found that, in contrast to their upregulated TRAIL expression and maintenance of cytolytic function, NK cells had a markedly impaired capacity to produce IFN-γ in CHB. This functional dichotomy of NK cells could be recapitulated in vitro by exposure to the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, which was induced in patients with active CHB. IL-10 selectively suppressed NK cell IFN-γ production without altering cytotoxicity or death ligand expression. Potent antiviral therapy reduced TRAIL-expressing CD56(bright) NK cells, consistent with the reduction in liver inflammation it induced; however, it was not able to normalise IL-10 levels or the capacity of NK cells to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-γ. Blockade of IL-10 +/- TGF-β restored the capacity of NK cells from both the periphery and liver of patients with CHB to produce IFN-γ, thereby enhancing their non-cytolytic antiviral capacity. In conclusion, NK cells may be driven to a state of partial functional tolerance by the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in CHB. Their defective capacity to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-γ persists in patients on antiviral therapy but can be corrected in vitro by IL-10+/- TGF-β blockade. PMID:21187913

  15. Blockade of immunosuppressive cytokines restores NK cell antiviral function in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Peppa

    Full Text Available NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB, allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic role, NK cells have antiviral potential in CHB. We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to 31 healthy controls. We found that, in contrast to their upregulated TRAIL expression and maintenance of cytolytic function, NK cells had a markedly impaired capacity to produce IFN-γ in CHB. This functional dichotomy of NK cells could be recapitulated in vitro by exposure to the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, which was induced in patients with active CHB. IL-10 selectively suppressed NK cell IFN-γ production without altering cytotoxicity or death ligand expression. Potent antiviral therapy reduced TRAIL-expressing CD56(bright NK cells, consistent with the reduction in liver inflammation it induced; however, it was not able to normalise IL-10 levels or the capacity of NK cells to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-γ. Blockade of IL-10 +/- TGF-β restored the capacity of NK cells from both the periphery and liver of patients with CHB to produce IFN-γ, thereby enhancing their non-cytolytic antiviral capacity. In conclusion, NK cells may be driven to a state of partial functional tolerance by the immunosuppressive cytokine environment in CHB. Their defective capacity to produce the antiviral cytokine IFN-γ persists in patients on antiviral therapy but can be corrected in vitro by IL-10+/- TGF-β blockade.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors, and disease knowledge of chronic hepatitis B infection in Vietnamese Americans in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nghi B; Trinh, Huy N; Nguyen, Trang T; Leduc, Truong-Sinh; Bui, Christopher; Ha, Nghiem B; Wong, Carrie R; Tran, Anh Thu; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2013-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and disease knowledge of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among Vietnamese Americans in California. We also examined treatment eligibility and linkage to care among patients who tested positive for CHB. We enrolled 717 subjects from ten different hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening events in five locations from January 2009 to June 2010 in California. HBV status was determined by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody. Data were collected by a 36-question survey. A total of 99 patients (13.8 %) had positive HBsAg, especially those aged 31-40 years (23.6 %), and 177 (24.7 %) were still susceptible to HBV infection. A significant proportion of those who were HBsAg positive or still susceptible reported a history of HBV vaccination (10 and 20 %, respectively). Following adjustments for age and sex, significant predictors for HBsAg positivity were lack of healthcare coverage (OR=2.4, p=0.004), having a family history of CHB (OR=2.1, p=0.009), and prior occupational exposure (OR=3.0, p=0.007). Of those who tested positive, 13.3 % met criteria for antiviral therapy, but none had been initiated on treatment. HBV prevalence in Vietnamese Americans in California was high (13.8 %), especially in those between 31 and 40 years of age. Patient disease and treatment knowledge was poor, as were follow-up and management of those found to have CHB and/or have indication for antiviral therapy. PMID:23564428

  17. Is sustained virological response a marker of treatment efficacy in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection with no response or relapse to previous antiviral intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi S; Wilson, Edward; Koretz, Ronald L;

    2013-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs.......Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of antiviral interventions in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection use sustained virological response (SVR) as the main outcome. There is sparse information on long-term mortality from RCTs....

  18. Liver mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Denmark and Scotland - using spontaneous resolvers as the benchmark comparator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, H; Hutchinson, S J; Obel, N;

    2016-01-01

    Liver mortality among individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is common, but the relative contribution of CHC per se versus adverse health behaviours is uncertain. We explored data on spontaneous resolvers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a benchmark group, to uncover the independent...... contribution of CHC on liver mortality. Using national HCV diagnosis and mortality registers from Denmark and Scotland, we calculated the liver mortality rate (LMR) for persons diagnosed with CHC infection (LMRchronic ) and spontaneously resolved infection (LMRresolved ), according to subgroups defined by: age...... (where 0.00=not attributable at all; and 1.00=entirely attributable) of liver mortality attributable to CHC in the diagnosed population. Our cohort comprised 7005, and 21729 persons diagnosed with HCV antibodies in Denmark and Scotland, respectively. The mean follow up duration was 6.3-6.9 years. The TAF...

  19. Clonal expansions of CD8+ T cells with IL-10 secreting capacity occur during chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Cyktor

    Full Text Available The exact role of CD8(+ T cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection has been heavily debated, yet it is generally accepted that CD8(+ T cells contribute to protection against Mtb. In this study, however, we show that the Mtb-susceptible CBA/J mouse strain accumulates large numbers of CD8(+ T cells in the lung as infection progresses, and that these cells display a dysfunctional and immunosuppressive phenotype (PD-1(+, Tim-3(+, CD122(+. CD8(+ T cell expansions from the lungs of Mtb-infected CBA/J mice were also capable of secreting the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10, although in vivo CD8(+ T cell depletion did not significantly alter Mtb burden. Further analysis revealed that pulmonary CD8(+ T cells from Mtb-infected CBA/J mice were clonally expanded, preferentially expressing T cell receptor (TcR Vβ chain 8 (8.2, 8.3 or Vβ 14. Although Vβ8(+ CD8(+ T cells were responsible for the majority of IL-10 production, in vivo depletion of Vβ8(+ did not significantly change the outcome of Mtb infection, which we hypothesize was a consequence of their dual IL-10/IFN-γ secreting profiles. Our data demonstrate that IL-10-secreting CD8(+ T cells can arise during chronic Mtb infection, although the significance of this T cell population in tuberculosis pathogenesis remains unclear.

  20. Gut immune dysfunction through impaired innate pattern recognition receptor expression and gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic SIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, T W; Gaulke, C A; Santos Rocha, C; Sankaran-Walters, S; Hirao, L A; Raffatellu, M; Jiang, G; Bäumler, A J; Goulart, L R; Dandekar, S

    2016-05-01

    HIV targets the gut mucosa early in infection, causing immune and epithelial barrier dysfunction and disease progression. However, gut mucosal sensing and innate immune signaling through mucosal pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) during HIV infection and disease progression are not well defined. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we found a robust increase in PRRs and inflammatory cytokine gene expression during the acute SIV infection in both peripheral blood and gut mucosa, coinciding with viral replication. PRR expression remained elevated in peripheral blood following the transition to chronic SIV infection. In contrast, massive dampening of PRR expression was detected in the gut mucosa, despite the presence of detectable viral loads. Exceptionally, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR8 was downmodulated and diverged from expression patterns for most other TLRs in the gut. Decreased mucosal PRR expression was associated with increased abundance of several pathogenic bacterial taxa, including Pasteurellaceae members, Aggregatibacter and Actinobacillus, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Early antiretroviral therapy led to viral suppression but only partial maintenance of gut PRRs and cytokine gene expression. In summary, SIV infection dampens mucosal innate immunity through PRR dysregulation and may promote immune activation, gut microbiota changes, and ineffective viral clearance. PMID:26376368

  1. Association of early age at establishment of chronic hepatitis B infection with persistent viral replication, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shimakawa

    Full Text Available Age at infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is a known risk factor for chronic HBV infection. However, in addition, there is some evidence that early age at infection further increases the risk of primary liver cancer beyond its association with increased risk of chronic infection. This systematic review of observational studies assesses the association between age at initiation of chronic HBV infection and liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and their predictors including indicators of ongoing viral replication and hepatic damage. The review includes birth order and maternal HBV serology as proxies for age at infection. Electronic searches in two English-language (Medline and Embase, until Jan 2012 and two Chinese-language (CNKI and SinoMed, until Sep 2012 databases without language restriction and manual search through reference lists identified 7,077 papers, of which 19 studies of 21 outcomes (8 primary liver cancer, 1 liver cirrhosis, 10 viral replication and 2 liver inflammation are included. One study directly examined the age at infection in a longitudinal cohort, 12 assessed maternal sero-status and 6 investigated birth order. The direction of associations in all studies was in accordance with our hypothesis that earlier age at infection is associated with worse outcomes in addition to its effect of increasing the probability of chronic HBV infection. This has implications for the control of hepatitis B.

  2. Gene expression profiling in gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chronic superficial gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Min Yang

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection reprograms host gene expression and influences various cellular processes, which have been investigated by cDNA microarray using in vitro culture cells and in vivo gastric biopsies from patients of the Chronic Abdominal Complaint. To further explore the effects of H. pylori infection on host gene expression, we have collected the gastric antral mucosa samples from 6 untreated patients with gastroscopic and pathologic confirmation of chronic superficial gastritis. Among them three patients were infected by H. pylori and the other three patients were not. These samples were analyzed by a microarray chip which contains 14,112 cloned cDNAs, and microarray data were analyzed via BRB ArrayTools software and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA website. The results showed 34 genes of 38 differentially expressed genes regulated by H. pylori infection had been annotated. The annotated genes were involved in protein metabolism, inflammatory and immunological reaction, signal transduction, gene transcription, trace element metabolism, and so on. The 82% of these genes (28/34 were categorized in three molecular interaction networks involved in gene expression, cancer progress, antigen presentation and inflammatory response. The expression data of the array hybridization was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, these data indicated that H. pylori infection could alter cellular gene expression processes, escape host defense mechanism, increase inflammatory and immune responses, activate NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, disturb metal ion homeostasis, and induce carcinogenesis. All of these might help to explain H. pylori pathogenic mechanism and the gastroduodenal pathogenesis induced by H. pylori infection.

  3. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  4. Psychometrics of the chronic liver disease questionnaire for Southern Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elegance Ting Pui Lam; Cindy Lo Kuen Lam; Ching Lung Lai; Man Fung Yuen; Daniel Yee Tak Fong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To test the psychometric properties of a Chinese [(Hong Kong) HK] translation of the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ).METHODS: A Chinese (HK) translation of the CLDQ was developed by iterative translation and cognitive debriefing. It was then administered to 72 uncomplicated and 78 complicated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Hong Kong together with a structured questionnaire on service utilization, and the Chinese (HK) SF36Health Survey Version 2 (SF36v2).RESULTS: Scaling success was ≥ 80% for all but three items. A new factor assessing sleep was found and items of two (Fatigue and Systemic Symptoms) subscales tended to load on the same factor. Internal consistency and testretestreliabilities ranged from 0.580.90fordifferent subscales. Construct validity was confirmed by the expected correlations between the SF36v2 Health Survey and CLDQ scores. Mean scores of CLDQ were significantly lower in complicated compared with uncomplicated CHB, supporting sensitivity in detecting differences between groups.CONCLUSION: The Chinese (HK) CLDQ is valid,reliable and sensitive for patients with CHB. Some modifications to the scaling structure might further improve its psychometric properties.

  5. Wide variation in estimates of global prevalence and burden of chronic hepatitis B and C infection cited in published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, S K; Easterbrook, P J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the extent of heterogeneity in global estimates of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) cited in the published literature, we undertook a systematic review of the published literature. We identified articles from 2010 to 2014 that had cited global estimates for at least one of ten indicators [prevalence and numbers infected with HBV, HCV, HIV-HBV or HIV-HCV co-infection, and mortality (number of deaths annually) for HBV and HCV]. Overall, 488 articles were retrieved: 239 articles cited a HBV-related global estimate [prevalence (n = 12), number infected (n = 193) and number of annual deaths (n = 82)]; 280 articles had HCV-related global estimates [prevalence (n = 86), number infected (n = 203) and number of annual deaths (n = 31)]; 31 had estimates on both HBV and HCV; 54 had HIV-HBV co-infection estimates [prevalence (n = 42) and number co-infected (n = 12)]; and 68 had estimates for HIV-HCV co-infection [prevalence (n = 40) and number co-infected (n = 28)]. There was considerable heterogeneity in the estimates cited and also a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Although 40% of 488 articles cited WHO as the source of the estimate, many of these were from outdated or secondary sources. Our findings highlight the importance of clear and consistent communication from WHO and other global health agencies on current consensus estimates of hepatitis B and C burden and prevalence, the need for standardisation in their citation, and for regular updates. PMID:27028545

  6. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of chemokine CXCL10 G-210A and the chronicity and severity of HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming LIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP in the promoter of chemokine CXCL10 G-201A,and explore the relationship between the SNP and the chronicity and severity of hepatitis B virus(HBV infection.Methods Blood samples were collected from 792 patients with HBV infection,including 200 with acute hepatitis B(AHB,200 with mild/moderate chronic hepatitis B(CHB-M,192 with severe chronic hepatitis B(CHB-S and 200 with acute liver failure of chronic hepatitis(ACLF,and 300 healthy people were enrolled as normal control(NC.DNA were extracted and subjected to PCR amplification of fragment containing C-1596 site that links with G-201 variation,followed by restriction fragment length polymerase(RFLP analysis.Simultaneously,400 samples were randomly extracted from various groups for direct sequencing of G-201 variation.The consistency of SNP typing results of the two methods was analyzed.Results Variation rates of G-201A were 17.77% for AHB group,25.26% for CHB-M group,26.59% for CHB-S group,21.28% for ACLF group,and 13.82% for NC group.The overall P value obtained from the general χ2 test among the 5 groups was 0.0037.The correlation test(P=0.0015 demonstrated that the variation rate was related to different disease status,and the linear trend test(P=0.0029,Z=-2.9748 indicated an increasing trend of variation rate with the disease progression.Paired comparison showed that the differences in variation rate between CHB-M and NC(P=0.0024,CHB-S and NC(P=0.0007,ACLF and NC(P=0.0428,as well as CHB-S and CHB(P=0.0488 were statistically significant.Direct PCR sequencing showed 98.68% identity with the results from PCR-RFLP.Kappa test(U=58.425,P < 0.05 indicated that the consistency of the two assays met the statistical requirements.Conclusion The G-201A variation in CXCL10 promoter is related to chronicity of HBV infection,and the relations between the variation and the severity of HBV infection remains to be further clarified.

  7. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Dos Santos Costa, Jackeliny; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; de Campos Pacheco, Richard; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. PMID:26782931

  8. Anti-CD4 abrogates rejection and reestablishes long-term tolerance to syngeneic newborn hearts grafted in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of autoimmunity in the genesis of chronic Chagas' heart pathology is not clear. In the present study, we show that: (a) BALB/c mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi reject syngeneic newborn hearts; (b) in vivo treatment with anti-CD4 but not anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) abrogates rejection; (c) CD4+ T cells from chronically infected mice proliferate in vitro to syngeneic myocardium antigens and induce heart graft destruction when injected in situ; (d) anti...

  9. Evidence for the presence of an autoimmune component to the chronic muscle wasting disease characteristic of calves infected with Aarcocystis cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with Sarcocystis spp. often resolves in a progressive decline in muscle integrity. The underlying cause for this has remained undetermined. Previously, we described the presence of proinflammatory muscle protein nitration (PMPN) in calves (ScI) chronically infected with Sarcocystis cruzi. ...

  10. Ex vivo transcriptional profiling reveals a common set of genes important for the adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to chronically infected host sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielecki, P.; Komor, U.; Bielecka, A.; Müsken, M.; Puchalka, J.; Pletz, M.W.; Ballmann, M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Weiss, S.; Häussler, S.

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major nosocomial pathogen causing both devastating acute and chronic persistent infections. During the course of an infection, P.¿ aeruginosa rapidly adapts to the specific conditions within the host. In the present study, we aimed at the ident

  11. Impact and cost-effectiveness of culture for diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected Brazilian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Dowdy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently represents the closest "gold standard" for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB, but operational data are scant on the impact and cost-effectiveness of TB culture for human immunodeficiency (HIV- infected individuals in resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded costs, laboratory results, and dates of initiating TB therapy in a centralized TB culture program for HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, constructing a decision-analysis model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of TB culture from the perspective of a public-sector TB control program. Of 217 TB suspects presenting between January 2006 and March 2008, 33 (15% had culture-confirmed active tuberculosis; 23 (70% were smear-negative. Among smear-negative, culture-positive patients, 6 (26% began TB therapy before culture results were available, 11 (48% began TB therapy after culture result availability, and 6 (26% did not begin TB therapy within 180 days of presentation. The cost per negative culture was US$17.52 (solid media-$23.50 (liquid media. Per 1,000 TB suspects and compared with smear alone, TB culture with solid media would avert an estimated eight TB deaths (95% simulation interval [SI]: 4, 15 and 37 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs (95% SI: 13, 76, at a cost of $36 (95% SI: $25, $50 per TB suspect or $962 (95% SI: $469, $2642 per DALY averted. Replacing solid media with automated liquid culture would avert one further death (95% SI: -1, 4 and eight DALYs (95% SI: -4, 23 at $2751 per DALY (95% SI: $680, dominated. The cost-effectiveness of TB culture was more sensitive to characteristics of the existing TB diagnostic system than to the accuracy or cost of TB culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TB culture is potentially effective and cost-effective for HIV-positive patients in resource-constrained settings. Reliable transmission of culture results to patients and integration

  12. Frequency of Hepatitis B and C Co-Infection in Chronic Liver Disease Patients in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooffreh-Ada, M; Okpokam, D C; Okaormhe, Z A; Nna, V U

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (HCV) virus are becoming a significant causative factors in the aetiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) worldwide. However, the information on the frequency of HBsAg and HCV virus co-infection in CLD is sparsely reported in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the frequency of HBsAg and HCV co-infection in CLD. One hundred and eleven subjects aged 19 - 76 years, comprising of 76 CLD patients and 35 apparently healthy subjects without CLD were tested for both HBsAg and HCV virus antibodies using ELISA test kits. Out of the 111 subjects recruited for this study, 76 (68.5%) were CLD patients tested positive for HBsAg and 35 (31.5%) tested negative for HBsAg and served as control. Out of the 76 CLD patients that tested positive for HBsAg, 34 (44.7%) of them also tested positive for HCV, thus, having co-infection with HBV. Incidence of co-infection was highest in those aged 36 - 45 years, and greater in males than females. Among the control group, 4 (11.4%) of the subjects (3 males and 1 female) tested positive for HCV, while 31 (88.6%) subjects (20 males and 11 females) tested negative. This work has shown that the co-infection with HBV and HCV among chronic liver disease patients and the incidence of HCV is high in our locality. Also, some of the supposed apparently healthy subjects in this study tested positive for HCV, hence the need for improving the awareness of this virus. It is therefore necessary to give immunization and test for HBsAg and HCV in both rural and urban areas. PMID:27574763

  13. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  14. Cutting Edge: B Cell-Intrinsic T-bet Expression Is Required To Control Chronic Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Burton E; Staupe, Ryan P; Odorizzi, Pamela M; Palko, Olesya; Tomov, Vesselin T; Mahan, Alison E; Gunn, Bronwyn; Chen, Diana; Paley, Michael A; Alter, Galit; Reiner, Steven L; Lauer, Georg M; Teijaro, John R; Wherry, E John

    2016-08-15

    The role of Ab and B cells in preventing infection is established. In contrast, the role of B cell responses in containing chronic infections remains poorly understood. IgG2a (IgG1 in humans) can prevent acute infections, and T-bet promotes IgG2a isotype switching. However, whether IgG2a and B cell-expressed T-bet influence the host-pathogen balance during persisting infections is unclear. We demonstrate that B cell-specific loss of T-bet prevents control of persisting viral infection. T-bet in B cells controlled IgG2a production, as well as mucosal localization, proliferation, glycosylation, and a broad transcriptional program. T-bet controlled a broad antiviral program in addition to IgG2a because T-bet in B cells was important, even in the presence of virus-specific IgG2a. Our data support a model in which T-bet is a universal controller of antiviral immunity across multiple immune lineages. PMID:27430722

  15. Aplastic anemia associated with interferon alpha 2a in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannou Savvas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is a common syndrome in patients with bone marrow failure. However, hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease that does not appear to be caused by any of the known hepatitis viruses including hepatitis C virus. In addition, to the best of our knowledge there are no reported cases of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection developing aplastic anemia associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a treatment. Case presentation We report the case of a 46-year-old Greek man who developed severe aplastic anemia during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. He presented with generalized purpura and bruising, as well as pallor of the skin and mucous membranes. His blood tests showed pancytopenia. He underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after completing two courses of immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin A. Conclusions The combination of a specific environmental precipitant represented by the hepatitis C virus infection, an altered metabolic detoxification pathway due to treatment with pegylated interferon alpha 2a and a facilitating genetic background such as polymorphism in metabolic detoxification pathways and specific human leukocyte antigen genes possibly conspired synergistically in the development of aplastic anemia in this patient. Our case clearly shows that the causative role of pegylated interferon alpha 2a in the development of aplastic anemia must not be ignored.

  16. Predictors of CNS injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the setting of chronic HIV infection and CART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harezlak, J; Cohen, R; Gongvatana, A; Taylor, M; Buchthal, S; Schifitto, G; Zhong, J; Daar, E S; Alger, J R; Brown, M; Singer, E J; Campbell, T B; McMahon, D; So, Y T; Yiannoutsos, C T; Navia, B A

    2014-06-01

    The reasons for persistent brain dysfunction in chronically HIV-infected persons on stable combined antiretroviral therapies (CART) remain unclear. Host and viral factors along with their interactions were examined in 260 HIV-infected subjects who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Metabolite concentrations (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and Glx/Cr) were measured in the basal ganglia, the frontal white matter, and gray matter, and the best predictive models were selected using a bootstrap-enhanced Akaike information criterion (AIC). Depending on the metabolite and brain region, age, race, HIV RNA concentration, ADC stage, duration of HIV infection, nadir CD4, and/or their interactions were predictive of metabolite concentrations, particularly the basal ganglia NAA/Cr and the mid-frontal NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr, whereas current CD4 and the CPE index rarely or did not predict these changes. These results show for the first time that host and viral factors related to both current and past HIV status contribute to persisting cerebral metabolite abnormalities and provide a framework for further understanding neurological injury in the setting of chronic and stable disease. PMID:24696364

  17. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN NEVER-SMOKING MALE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND ITS RELATION TO LUNG FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Minov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a recent epidemiologic and serologic evidence for relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. In order to assess the relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD and its impact on lung function we performed a cross-sectional study including 84 never-smoking male patients with COPD and an equal number of never-smoking males without chronic respiratory disease matched to the COPD patients by age. Evaluation of the study subjects included evaluation of H. pylori serological status, baseline and post-bronchodilator spirometry. We found significantly higher H. pylori seropositivity in COPD patients than in controls (76.2 Vs 34.5%, p = 0.041. The prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity did not differ significantly between patients with mild, moderate and severe COPD. Borderline significance was registered for the difference of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 mean value between seropositive and seronegative COPD patients (56.4 vs. 59.2, p = 0.063. The mean degree of FEV1 reversibility did not differ significantly between seropositive and seronegative COPD patients. Our findings indicate that in cross-sectional analysis there is higher prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity in COPD than in non-COPD patients, as well as that H. pylori infection has not significant impact on lung function in COPD patients.

  18. Epidemiological characterization and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region

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    Theonys Diógenes Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.

  19. Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection

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    Erica S. Lovelace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART, there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function.

  20. The PD-1/PD-L1 (B7-H1 Pathway in Chronic Infection-Induced Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Exhaustion

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    Kimberly A. Hofmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs play a pivotal role in the control of infection. Activated CTLs, however, often lose effector function during chronic infection. PD-1 receptor and its ligand PD-L1 of the B7/CD28 family function as a T cell coinhibitory pathway and are emerging as major regulators converting effector CTLs into exhausted CTLs during chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and other pathogens capable of establishing chronic infections. Importantly, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is able to restore functional capabilities to exhausted CTLs and early clinical trials have shown promise. Further research will reveal how chronic infection induces upregulation of PD-1 on CTLs and PD-L1 on antigen-presenting cells and other tissue cells and how the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction promotes CTLs exhaustion, which is crucial for developing effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against chronic infections.

  1. Loss of IL-17-producing CD8 T cells during late chronic stage of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Pragati; Kwa, Suefen; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-01-15

    Progressive disease caused by pathogenic SIV/HIV infections is marked by systemic hyperimmune activation, immune dysregulation, and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells in lymphoid and gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. IL-17 is important for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections at mucosa and for maintenance of mucosal barrier. Although IL-17-secreting CD4 (Th17) and CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been reported, very little is known about the latter subset for any infectious disease. In this study, we characterized the anatomical distribution, phenotype, and functional quality of Tc17 and Th17 cells in healthy (SIV-) and SIV+ rhesus macaques. In healthy macaques, Tc17 and Th17 cells were present in all lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues studied with predominance in small intestine. About 50% of these cells coexpressed TNF-α and IL-2. Notably, ∼50% of Tc17 cells also expressed the co-inhibitory molecule CTLA-4, and only a minority (<20%) expressed granzyme B suggesting that these cells possess more of a regulatory than cytotoxic phenotype. After SIV infection, unlike Th17 cells, Tc17 cells were not depleted during the acute phase of infection. However, the frequency of Tc17 cells in SIV-infected macaques with AIDS was lower compared with that in healthy macaques demonstrating the loss of these cells during end-stage disease. Antiretroviral therapy partially restored the frequency of Tc17 and Th17 cells in the colorectal mucosa. Depletion of Tc17 cells was not observed in colorectal mucosa of chronically infected SIV+ sooty mangabeys. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for Tc17 cells in regulating disease progression during pathogenic SIV infection. PMID:21148794

  2. Epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte GV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gleison V Duarte,1 Larissa Porto-Silva,2 Maria de Fátima Paim de Oliveira1 1Dermatology Department, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, 2Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA, Brazil Abstract: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated systemic disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, is associated with comorbidities, and has a negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. The prevalence of psoriasis varies among different ethnic groups, but this topic has not been studied in Brazil to date. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiology and treatment of psoriasis from a Brazilian perspective. We focused on studies that involved Brazilian subjects. The prevalence of psoriasis in Brazil is estimated to be 2.5%, but no population study has been performed previously. Environmental factors, such as tropical climate, in association with genetic factors, such as miscegenation, may exert a beneficial impact on the course and frequency of psoriasis in Brazil. A number of studies have advanced our understanding of the cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and oral comorbidities that are associated with psoriasis. Concerns about biological therapy, such as endemic leprosy, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV, and tuberculosis infections, are discussed. The nonavailability of treatment options for psoriasis in the public health system contradicts the Brazilian Society of Dermatology guidelines, stimulating the judicialization of access to medicines in psoriasis care. Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, comorbidities, health services accessibility, health care disparities, insurance, health care costs

  3. CXCL9 Is Important for Recruiting Immune T Cells into the Brain and Inducing an Accumulation of the T Cells to the Areas of Tachyzoite Proliferation to Prevent Reactivation of Chronic Cerebral Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, Eri; Sa, Qila; Brogli, Morgan; Kudo, Tomoya; Wang, Xisheng; Dubey, Jitender P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    T cells are required to maintain the latency of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii in the brain. Here, we examined the role of non–glutamic acid-leucine-arginine CXC chemokine CXCL9 for T-cell recruitment to prevent reactivation of infection with T. gondii. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were infected and treated with sulfadiazine to establish a chronic infection. Immune T cells from infected wild-type mice were transferred into the SCID mice in combination with treatment w...

  4. Overlooked Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease after Leptospiral Infection: A Population-Based Survey and Epidemiological Cohort Evidence.

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    Huang-Yu Yang

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis. Chronic human infection and asymptomatic colonization have been reported. However, renal involvement in those with leptospira chronic exposure remains undetermined.In 2007, a multistage sampling survey for chronic kidney disease (CKD was conducted in a southern county of Taiwan, an area with a high prevalence of dialysis. Additionally, an independent cohort of 88 participants from a leptospira-endemic town was followed for two years after a flooding in 2009. Risks of CKD, stages of CKD, associated risk factors as well as kidney injury markers were compared among adults with anti-leptospira antibody as defined by titers of microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Of 3045 survey participants, the individuals with previous leptospira exposure disclosed a lower level of eGFR (98.3 ± 0.4 vs 100.8 ± 0.6 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.001 and a higher percentage of CKD, particularly at stage 3a-5 (14.4% vs 8.5%, than those without leptospira exposure. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated the association of leptospiral infection and lower eGFR (95% CI -4.15 to -1.93, P < 0.001. In a leptospiral endemic town, subjects with a MAT titer ≥ 400 showed a decreased eGFR and higher urinary kidney injury molecule-1 creatinine ratio (KIM1/Cr level as compared with those having lower titers of MAT (P < 0.05. Furthermore, two participants with persistently high MAT titers had positive urine leptospira DNA and deteriorating renal function.Our data are the first to show that chronic human exposure of leptospirosis is associated significantly with prevalence and severity of CKD and may lead to deterioration of renal function. This study also shed light on the search of underlying factors in areas experiencing CKD of unknown aetiology (CKDu such as Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

  5. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatic B viral Infection using magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients with chronic HBV infection who were suspected of having focal or diffuse liver diseases (n = 195) and living donor candidates (n = 166) underwent MRE as part of the routine liver MRI examination. We measured liver stiffness (LS) values on quantitative shear stiffness maps. The technical success rate of MRE was then determined. Liver cell necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis were assessed using histopathologic examinations as the reference. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated in order to predict the liver fibrosis stage. The technical success rate of MRE was 92.5% (334/361). The causes of technical failure were poor wave propagation (n = 12), severe respiratory motion (n = 3), or the presence of iron deposits in the liver (n = 12). The mean LS values, as measured by MRE, increased significantly along with an increase in the fibrosis stage (r = 0.901, p < 0.001); however, the mean LS values did not increase significantly along with the degree of necroinflammatory activity. The cutoff values of LS for ≥ F1, ≥ F2, ≥ F3, and F4 were 2.45 kPa, 2.69 kPa, 3.0 kPa, and 3.94 kPa, respectively, and with Az values of 0.987-0.988. MRE has a high technical success rate and excellent diagnostic accuracy for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  6. Normocaloric low cholesterol diet modulates Th17/Treg balance in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

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    Roberta Maggio

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is associated with hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, including immunological disorders. Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC is often characterized by cholesterol and lipid metabolism alterations, leading to hepatic steatosis. Cholesterol metabolism, in fact, is crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent works described that a higher dietary cholesterol intake is associated with the progression of HCV-related liver disease. CHC patients have increased levels of T helper 17 (Th17-cells, a lymphocytic population involved in the pathogenesis of liver inflammation and autoimmune hepatitis. The balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg cells is crucial for chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17-cell differentiation is deeply influenced by the activation LXRs, nuclear receptors modulating cholesterol homeostasis. Moreover, HCV may affect these nuclear receptors, and cholesterol metabolism, through both direct and indirect mechanisms. On these bases, we hypothesized that modulation of cholesterol levels through Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet (NLCD may represent an innovative strategy to reduce the progression of HCV infection, through the modulation of peripheral Th17/Treg balance. To this end, we performed a pilot study to investigate whether a Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet may be able to modulate Th17/Treg balance in patients affected by chronic HCV infection. After 30 days of NLCD CHC patients showed a significant reduction in Th17 cells frequency, which correlated with strong reduction of IL-17 and IL-22 serum levels. At the same time, we appreciated an increase in the percentage of Treg cells, thus improving Treg/Th17 balance. Moreover, we observed an increased expression of LXRs and their target genes: SREBP-1c and ABCA-1. In conclusion, NLCD finely regulates Th17/Treg balance, improving immune system response in CHC patients. This study could pave the way for new treatments of CHC patients, suggesting that

  7. Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet Modulates Th17/Treg Balance in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Roberta; Viscomi, Carmela; Andreozzi, Paola; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Barbaro, Barbara; Gori, Manuele; Vullo, Vincenzo; Balsano, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, including immunological disorders. Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) is often characterized by cholesterol and lipid metabolism alterations, leading to hepatic steatosis. Cholesterol metabolism, in fact, is crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent works described that a higher dietary cholesterol intake is associated with the progression of HCV-related liver disease. CHC patients have increased levels of T helper 17 (Th17)-cells, a lymphocytic population involved in the pathogenesis of liver inflammation and autoimmune hepatitis. The balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17-cell differentiation is deeply influenced by the activation LXRs, nuclear receptors modulating cholesterol homeostasis. Moreover, HCV may affect these nuclear receptors, and cholesterol metabolism, through both direct and indirect mechanisms. On these bases, we hypothesized that modulation of cholesterol levels through Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet (NLCD) may represent an innovative strategy to reduce the progression of HCV infection, through the modulation of peripheral Th17/Treg balance. To this end, we performed a pilot study to investigate whether a Normocaloric Low Cholesterol Diet may be able to modulate Th17/Treg balance in patients affected by chronic HCV infection. After 30 days of NLCD CHC patients showed a significant reduction in Th17 cells frequency, which correlated with strong reduction of IL-17 and IL-22 serum levels. At the same time, we appreciated an increase in the percentage of Treg cells, thus improving Treg/Th17balance. Moreover, we observed an increased expression of LXRs and their target genes: SREBP-1c and ABCA-1. In conclusion, NLCD finely regulates Th17/Treg balance, improving immune system response in CHC patients. This study could pave the way for new treatments of CHC patients, suggesting that change in

  8. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatic B viral Infection using magnetic resonance elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Shin, Cheong Il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Bun [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients with chronic HBV infection who were suspected of having focal or diffuse liver diseases (n = 195) and living donor candidates (n = 166) underwent MRE as part of the routine liver MRI examination. We measured liver stiffness (LS) values on quantitative shear stiffness maps. The technical success rate of MRE was then determined. Liver cell necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis were assessed using histopathologic examinations as the reference. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) were calculated in order to predict the liver fibrosis stage. The technical success rate of MRE was 92.5% (334/361). The causes of technical failure were poor wave propagation (n = 12), severe respiratory motion (n = 3), or the presence of iron deposits in the liver (n = 12). The mean LS values, as measured by MRE, increased significantly along with an increase in the fibrosis stage (r = 0.901, p < 0.001); however, the mean LS values did not increase significantly along with the degree of necroinflammatory activity. The cutoff values of LS for ≥ F1, ≥ F2, ≥ F3, and F4 were 2.45 kPa, 2.69 kPa, 3.0 kPa, and 3.94 kPa, respectively, and with Az values of 0.987-0.988. MRE has a high technical success rate and excellent diagnostic accuracy for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection.

  9. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

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    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  10. Co-occurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and autoimmune hepatitis in a young Senegalese girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Comparcola, Donatella; Vento, Sandro

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old Senegalese girl with co-occurring wild-type (HBeAg-positive) chronic hepatitis B and antinuclear antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis. Her HLA haplotype was A1, B8, DRB1*04, DQB1*02. Steriod and lamivudine therapy led to biochemical remission, and reactivation occurred when the patient stopped steroids. Persistent HBV infection due to wild-type virus (likely acquired vertically or early in life, as the mother was HBsAg positive) may have acted as a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis in this young girl. PMID:16825914

  11. Simple Sequence Repeats Together with Mismatch Repair Deficiency Can Bias Mutagenic Pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Chronic Lung Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro J Moyano; Sofía Feliziani; Julio A Di Rienzo; Smania, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and undergoes a process of genetic adaptation based on mutagenesis. We evaluated the role of mononucleotide G:C and A:T simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in this adaptive process. An in silico survey of the genome sequences of 7 P. aeruginosa strains showed that mononucleotide G:C SSRs but not A:T SSRs were greatly under-represented in coding regions, suggesting a strong coun...

  12. Development of skewed functionality of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic CD8(+ T cells from primary to early chronic phase of HIV infection.

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    Wanhai Wang

    Full Text Available In recent years, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection has been rapidly increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM. However, it remains unknown how the host immune system responds to the infection in this population. We assessed the quantity of HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses by using Elispot assay and their functionalities by measuring 5 CD8(+ T-cell evaluations (IL-2, MIP-1β, CD107a, TNF-α, IFN-γ with flow cytometry assays among 18 primarily and 37 early chronically HIV-infected MSM. Our results demonstrated that subjects at early chronic phase developed HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses with higher magnitudes and more diversified functionalities in comparison with those at primary infection. However, populations with IL-2(+ CD107a(+ or in combination with other functionality failed to develop in parallel. The multifunctional but not monofunctional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells were associated with higher CD4(+ T -cell counts and lower viral loads. These data revealed that prolonged infection from primary to early chronic infection could selectively increase the functionalities of HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells in HIV-infected MSM population, the failure to develop IL-2 and cytotoxic functionalities in parallel may explain why the increased HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells were unable to enhance the containment of HIV-1 replication at the early chronic stage.

  13. High prevalence of chronic hepatitis D virus infection in Eastern Turkey: urbanization of the disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Suvak, Burak; Gonullu, Hayriye; Gonullu, Edip; Gultepe, Bilge; Aydın, İbrahim; Batur, Abdüssamet; Karadas, Sevdegul; Olmez, Şehmus

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection play an increasingly important role in liver diseases. The main objective of this study was to investigate the socio-epidemiological, laboratory and radiological aspects of both HBV and HDV infection near the Iranian border of Turkey. Material and methods The study included 3352 patients with HBV and HDV infection. Socioepidemiological, laboratory and radiological aspects of the study subjects were retrospectively...

  14. Chronic infections & coronary artery disease with special reference to Chalmydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavati, S.; U. Gupta; Agarwal, H.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Studies on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in India have shown about 10-20 per cent of cases with no obvious risk factors, raising a suspicion of infections as a cause. There is a paucity of data on this possible role of infections. This study was, therefore, undertaken to find out the association between infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae and other organisms and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Patients with CAD were selected in group I (acute myocardial infa...

  15. Chronic plasma cell endometritis in hysterectomy specimens of HIV-infected women: a retrospective analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr-Layton, J A; Stamm, C. A.; Peterson, L. S.; McGregor, J A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and troublesome problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We sought to evaluate endometrial pathology among HIV-infected women requiring hysterectomy to explore if endometritis may be common among these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of uterine pathology specimens obtained from HIV-infected and control patients requiring hysterectomy in two urban hospitals between 1988 and 1997 matched for age, surg...

  16. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  17. Comparative proteomics analysis of chronic atrophic gastritis: changes of protein expression in chronic atrophic gastritis without Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1, which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12, which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05. In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05. This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules.

  18. Comparative proteomics analysis of chronic atrophic gastritis: changes of protein expression in chronic atrophic gastritis with out Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years) were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12), which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules

  19. Comparative proteomics analysis of chronic atrophic gastritis: changes of protein expression in chronic atrophic gastritis with out Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Yanhong; Wu, Kai; Li, Dan [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The 309 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-02

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years) were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12), which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules.

  20. Hepatitis C virus viremia increases the incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Lundgren, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined.......Several studies have reported on an association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody status and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the role of HCV viremia and genotype are not well defined....