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Sample records for brazilian araucaria angustifolia

  1. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Márcia O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  2. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia

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    Neroni,Rafaela de Fátima; Cardoso,Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirm...

  3. Influence of Extrusion Cooking on In Vitro Digestibility, Physical and Sensory Properties of Brazilian Pine Seeds Flour (Araucaria Angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff Zortéa-Guidolin, Manoela Estefânea; Piler de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei; Bueno de Godoy, Rossana Catie; Mottin Demiate, Ivo; Paula Scheer, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Brazilian pine seeds (pinhão) are gluten-free products derived from Araucaria angustifolia. The commercialization of these seeds is essentially associated with a low level of industrialization. In this context, extrusion cooking is a potential alternative for preparing extrudates of pinhão as a food product, which can be easily digested and is ready for human consumption. Brazilian pine seeds flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following a central composite rotatable design. Three factors (independent parameters) were considered: moisture content (14 to 22 g/100 g), screw speed (100 to 250 rpm), and temperature in the 3rd heating zone (120 to 200 °C). The structural characteristics, in vitro digestibility and sensory acceptance were also evaluated. The resistant starch contents is almost reduced to zero after extrusion cooking while the slowly digestible starch content is increased. An increase in moisture positively affected the hardness and the luminosity (L * ), although it negatively affected the volumetric expansion index, crispness, and color parameters (a * , b * , and ΔE). The experimental conditions of this study allowed the production of expanded extrudates from Brazilian pine seeds with good expansion, texture properties, and acceptance qualities. Thus, extrusion cooking was found to be a potential method for the industrialization of Brazilian pine seeds as a food product. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Inferring population trends of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matrix population models may generate important information to prevent undesirable outcomes for endangered species. This is the case for Araucaria angustifolia, a Critically Endangered conifer, with little knowledge regarding its life history and trends in development over time. This study sought to investigate life-history ...

  5. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  6. Immunoanalysis of dehydrins in Araucaria angustifolia embryos.

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    Farias-Soares, Francine Lunardi; Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Steiner, Neusa; Maldonado, Sara; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dehydrin content of mature Araucaria angustifolia embryos, a species of endangered and economically important conifers, native to southern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and eastern Paraguay. The A. angustifolia seeds have been categorized as recalcitrant. Dehydrins were studied by western blot analysis and in situ immunolocalization microscopy using antibodies raised against the K segment, a highly conserved lysine-rich 15-amino acid sequence extensively used to recognize proteins immunologically related to the dehydrin family. Western blot analysis of the heat-stable protein fraction, as estimated by 15 % SDS-PAGE, revealed three main bands of approximately 20-, 26-, and 29-kDa; when 17.5 % SDS-PAGE was used, each band resolved into two other bands. Two thermosensitive dehydrin bands of around 16 and 35 kDa were common to the axis and cotyledons, and another thermosensitive band, with molecular mass of approximately 10 kDa, was present in the cotyledons only. Following alkaline phosphatase (AP) treatment, a gel mobility shift was detected for each one of the four main bands that can be due to phosphorylation. Dehydrins were detected in all axis and cotyledon tissues using in situ immunolocalization microscopy. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were immunolocalized in the nuclei, protein bodies, and microbodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were found to be associated with chromatin. We concluded that the gel mobility shift for the four main bands (probably due to phosphorylation), the presence of thermosensitive bands, and the specific localizations in nuclei and protein bodies provide key starting points to understand the function of dehydrins in the embryo cells of this species.

  7. Chemical and biochemical properties of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Ktze. forest soils in the state of São Paulo

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    Fernanda de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia, commonly named Araucaria, is a Brazilian native species that is intensively exploited due to its timber quality. Therefore, Araucaria is on the list of species threatened by extinction. Despite the importance of soil for forest production, little is known about the soil properties of the highly fragmented Araucaria forests. This study was designed to investigate the use of chemical and biological properties as indicators of conservation and anthropogenic disturbance of Araucaria forests in different sampling periods. The research was carried out in two State parks of São Paulo: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto do Ribeira and Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão. The biochemical properties carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass (MB-C and MB-N, basal respiration (BR, the metabolic quotient (qCO2 and the following enzyme activities: β-glucosidase, urease, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA were evaluated. The sampling period (dry or rainy season influenced the results of mainly MB-C, MB-N, BR, and qCO2. The chemical and biochemical properties, except K content, were sensitive indicators of differences in the conservation and anthropogenic disturbance stages of Araucaria forests. Although these forests differ in biochemical and chemical properties, they are efficient in energy use and conservation, which is shown by their low qCO2, suggesting an advanced stage of succession.

  8. Somatic Embryogenesis in Parana Pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Santos André Luis Wendt dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were induced from dominant and non-dominant zygotic embryos excised from immature seeds proceeding from three different genotypes and five harvest dates. Zygotic embryos were inoculated in inductive culture medium LP and BM supplemented with or without plant growth regulators 2,4-D (5 µM, BA (2 µM and Kin (2 µM. The genotype of the mother tree and the developmental explant stage affected the induction frequency. In the maintenance phase, embryogenic cultures were maintained at continuous repetitive cell cycles every 20 days in semi-solid or liquid medium. In the maturation phase the culture medium was supplemented with different types and levels of growth regulators, osmotic agents, carbohydrates and derived. Embryogenic cultures inoculated in culture medium supplemented with PEG 3350 (6 and 9%, maltose (6 and 9%, plus BA and Kin (1 µM each resulted in the progression of somatic embryos to globular and torpedo developmental stages.

  9. Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in Araucaria angustifolia Ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas em Araucaria angustifolia

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    Rafaela de Fátima Neroni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an environmentally threatened tree and the whole biota of the Araucaria Forest should be investigated with the aim of its preservation. Diazotrophic bacteria are extremely important for the maintenance of ecosystems, but they have never been studied in Araucaria Forests. In this study, diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from Araucaria roots and soil, when grown in semi-specific, semi-solid media. The diazotrophic character of some recovered isolates could be confirmed using the acetylene reduction assay. According to their 16S rRNA sequences, most of these isolates belong to the genus Burkholderia.Araucaria angustifolia é uma espécie arbórea ameaçada de extinção e toda a comunidade viva das Florestas de Araucária deve ser estudada com a finalidade de sua preservação. Bactérias diazotróficas apresentam grande importância para a manutenção de ecossistemas, mas sua ocorrência nunca foi pesquisada em araucária. Neste estudo foi demonstrada a associação de bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio com A. angustifolia. Amostras de solo e raízes de araucária apresentaram a ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas, quando inoculadas em meios semi-sólidos semi-específícos. O caráter diazotrófico de alguns isolados recuperados foi confirmado através da análise de redução do acetileno. De acordo com a análise das seqüências do 16S rRNA, estes isolados são na sua maioria pertencentes ao gênero Burkholderia.

  10. Soil fertility affects elemental distribution in needles of the conifer Araucaria angustifolia: A microanalytical study

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    Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer species found in South American subtropical forests that comprises less than 3% of the native vegetation. Thus, little is known concerning the accumulation of nutritional elements in its needles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energ...

  11. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  12. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2011-01-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  13. Microenxertia e sua caracterização morfológica em Araucaria angustifolia Micrografting morphological characterization in Araucaria angustifolia

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    Justina Inês Anselmini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a melhor técnica para microenxertia em Araucaria angustifolia. Para isto, foram realizadas auto-enxertias em plantas germinadas in vitro, com 2, 6 e 12 meses de idade. Foram testados dois locais de enxertia no porta-enxerto: caule e hipocótilo, e dois tipos de enxertia: garfagem de topo com e sem fenda. A maior porcentagem de microenxertos com fenda aberta ocorreu nas microenxertias realizadas no hipocótilo. As maiores porcentagens de microenxertos sobreviventes foram obtidas nas microenxertias realizadas no caule, e o tipo de enxertia mais eficiente foi a garfagem de topo sem fenda. A presença de calo aparente foi resultado da interação dos três fatores testados, com maior presença de calo nas enxertias realizadas no hipocótilo. O crescimento dos microenxertos indicou o restabelecimento das conexões vasculares. O maior crescimento dos microenxertos foi obtido nas enxertias realizadas no caule em porta-enxertos de 6 meses com a garfagem de topo. As metodologias testadas permitem concluir que o processo de microenxertia em Araucaria angustifolia é eficiente e factível, podendo ser utilizado para a produção de mudas microenxertadas.The objeticve of this research was to determine a more efficient way of micrografting in vitro Araucaria angustifolia plants. Autografting was performed onto 2, 6- and 12- month- old in vitro germinated plants. Two different graft types (saddle with or without slit were perfomed on two different plant parts (stem or hypocotyl. Higher percentage of open slit micrografts was observed when micrografting was performed onto hypocotyls. Higher percentage of surviving micrografts was obtained when micrografting was perfomed on stem; the saddle without slit technique was the most efficient. Callus formation resulted from the combination of the three tested factors. However, more visible calluses were present in micrograftings perfomed on hypocotyls. Growth of the

  14. Biology and life table of Dirphia araucariae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: A herbivore of potentially high impact on Araucaria angustifolia

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    Mauricio M. Zenker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-history and biology of Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908, including its life fertility table, are here described. Moths were reared in the laboratory under controlled conditions on their host plant, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze - Araucariaceae. We describe several life-history traits of the species, namely: developmental period, survival rate, growth rate, fertility, fecundity, sex ratio, cephalic capsule width, and pupal weight. Mean duration of life stages were: egg = 26.78 days; larva = 61.78 days; prepupa = 6.85 days; pupa = 62.46 days; adult = 8.37 days. We found statistically significant differences between sexes for adult, larval and pupal stage duration; larval stage was longer in females while pupal stage was longer in males. The survival rate of each life stage was: egg = 96.18%; larva = 95.38%; prepupa = 83.87%; pupa = 100%. The larvae developed through six instars and the mean growth rate was 1.418. The width of male and female cephalic capsules were different in last three instars, even though the total mean width between sexes was not different. Pupal mean weight ranged from 2.40 g to 4.79 g, with females being heavier than males. Fertility ranged from 66.78% to 100%, and the total fecundity was 358.45 eggs/female, including both laid eggs and eggs held in the abdomen. The sex ratio was 0.50 ± 0.05. The estimated biotic potential was 48731.08 specimens/female/year. We found the following values for the fertility life table: (Ro = 117.21 females; (T = 162.75 days; (r m = 0.21; (l = 1.23. Considering the biological parameters evaluated in this study, we conclude that D. araucariae is not able to cause primary damage in A. angustifolia forests, although further studies are needed to understand the reasons for occasional population outbreaks.

  15. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

    2011-09-01

    This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status.

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  17. Potencial dos biflavonóides de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze como antioxidantes e fotoprotetores

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Fumiko Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    A Araucaria angustifolia é uma conífera endêmica das regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil sendo considerada uma espécie em extinção devido ao extenso extrativismo madeireiro. Atualmente, existem inúmeros projetos visando o reflorestamento e o uso sustentável deste pinheiro. Em vista destes pontos, o estudo das propriedades dos componentes das folhas com o intuito da utilização destes com fins comerciais tornou-se de extrema importância. As suas folhas foram submetidas à extração com solventes e fo...

  18. Seed crop size variation in the dominant South American conifer Araucaria angustifolia

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    Souza, Alexandre F.; Uarte de Matos, Daniele; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Martinez, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variation in seed crop size of the long-lived pioneer conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in subtropical South America. We evaluated the expectations that: 1) A. angustifolia presents highly variable seed production (mast seeding behavior); 2) A. angustifolia has endogenous cycles of reproduction of two or three years; 3) There is a tendency for a high seed production year to be followed by an unusually low production year; 4) populations show synchrony in seed production at a geographical scale; 5) seed crop size is influenced by distinct climatic factors occurring during "key" reproductive stages and 6) as an expression of plant productivity, seed crop size should depend on integrated resource availability during the reproductive cycle. We obtained data from two distinct sources: 1) seed harvesting records from a private forest (14 years), and 2) commercial data from 22 municipalities in the Rio Grande do Sul State. Expectations 1, 2, 3 and 5 were not met, while expectations 4 and 6 were supported by the data. A. angustifolia showed environmentally triggered, continuous, moderately fluctuating, and regionally synchronous reproduction. Seed set seems to track variations in resource abundance as well as respond continuously to improved opportunities for successful regeneration.

  19. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. WOOD FOR THREE STRATUM PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL

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    Rafael Beltrame

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of physical and mechanical properties of wood is essential for industrial use both in construction and the manufacture of furniture. Thus, the study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of the Araucaria angustifolia wood in terms of three strata phytosociological. For this, 15 trees were felled, five belonging to the upper stratum, the middle stratum five and five for the lower strata. The trees were deployed for the preparation of specimens used for mechanical testing. In the mechanical characterization of the species assays were performed for impact resistance, static bending, compression axial and perpendicular to the fibers. As for the characterization of physical properties, determined the apparent specific gravity at 12% relative humidity for each extract. The results did not show significant differences in the tests of impact resistance and static bending to the strata phytosociological. As for the apparent specific gravity, compression axial and perpendicular there was a change in the values of propertiesbetween the strata phytosociological, is generally butter in the middle and upper strata. Therefore the physical and mechanical properties tend to present higher values these two strata. The data analysis allowed of Araucaria angustifolia wood has moderate mechanical strength when compared with other species studies.

  20. DIOECY EFFECT ON GROWTH OF PLANTED Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O. Kuntze TREES

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    Afonso Figueiredo Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dioecy on the growth in diameter at breast height (DBH, individual basal area, total height and individual volume of planted Araucaria angustifolia trees. The data came from 60 trees (30 male trees and 30 female trees sampled from a 30-year-old plantation in Paraná State. Complete stem analysis was used to recover historical tree growth. The Chapman-Richards model was fitted in order to represent the growth and yield of the dendrometric variables for female and male Araucaria trees. Weighted non-linear least squared method was used in the fitting process and the inverse variance was used as weight to solve the problem of heteroscedasticity. The test to verify the equality of parameters and the identity of non-linear regression models proposed by Regazzi (2003 was used to test the influence of dioecy on growth. Dioecy significantly influenced the growth of Araucaria, and female trees have higher growth in diameter, individual basal area and individual volume, while male trees showed better height development. The asymptotic coefficient of the Chapman-Richards model showed that male trees have a higher asymptotic height than female trees.

  1. Biodiversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Araucaria angustifolia forest Biodiversidade e distribuição de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Milene Moreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. is an endangered Brazilian coniferous tree that has been almost exterminated in the native areas because of uncontrolled wood exploitation. This tree has been shown to be highly dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and, therefore, AMF may be essential for forest sustainability and biological diversity. Root colonization, density and diversity of AMF spores were assessed in two Araucaria forest stands at the State Park of Alto Ribeira (PETAR, at two sampling dates: May and October. A comparison was made between a mature native stand composed of Araucaria trees mixed into a variety of tropical trees and shrubs, without any sign of anthropogenic interference (FN and an Araucaria stand planted in 1987 (R, which has been used as a pasture. Assessments included percent root colonization, AMF spore numbers and species richness, Simpson's dominance index (Is, and Shannon's diversity index (H. Mycorrhizal root colonization did not differ between ecosystems in May. In October, however, the native stand (FN presented a higher colonization than the planted forest (R, and the root colonization was more intense than in May. When considering both sampling periods and forests, 27 species of AM fungi, with higher numbers of spores in FN than in R were found. Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA indicated Shannon's diversity index as the ecological attribute that contributed the most to distinguish between forest ecosystems, with higher value of H in FN in relation to R. CDA showed to be a useful tool for the study of ecological attributes.O pinheiro brasileiro, Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze é uma espécie arbórea ameaçada de extinção, quase exterminada pela exploração descontrolada de madeira. Essa espécie demonstra alta dependência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, de grande importância para a estabilidade do ecossistema e manutenção da biodiversidade. Avaliou-se a coloniza

  2. Establishment of post-harvest early-developmental categories for viability maintenance of Araucaria angustifolia seeds

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    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia seeds are recalcitrant, and their metabolism remains high during storage. This research aimed to describe the initiation of germination in A. angustifolia seeds during storage in order to standardize the assessment of physiological quality and to promote seed conservation. Seeds were collected from two populations and stored for 270 days in the natural laboratory environment and cold chamber. Seeds were classified according to four early developmental stages: I - mature seeds; II - seeds with elongation along the embryonic axis; III - beginning of root protrusion; IV - advanced germination stage, with seedling shoots. After categorization, physical and physiological quality was assessed. In freshly collected seeds, only category I was observed. At 270 days, approximately 40% of seeds were in category III in laboratory conditions, while the maintenance in a cold chamber delayed germinative metabolism. Viability tests showed that seeds in categories III and IV were more susceptible to damage caused by storage. In conclusion, the percentage of viable A. angustifolia seeds depends on the development stage after collection. Seeds that have reached early developmental category III should be prioritized for propagation, while those remaining in categories I and II should be longer stored with periodic assessment for reduction in physiological quality.

  3. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2000-01-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial 14 C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. 14 C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of Δ 14 C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout 14 C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11 S , 49 deg 58 O ). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its 14 C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the Δ 14 C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO 2 mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  4. HEIGHT GROWTH OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. ON THREE NATURAL SITES, AT REGION OF CANELA - RS

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    Luciano Weber Scheeren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its principal objectives the study of dominant height growth considering its age in three natural sites, and the determination of natural sites classification efficacy for the Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. in a planting stand in Canela, RS. For height and age data adjustment, determined through stem analysis, it was used the RICHARDS (1959 non-linear mathematics model, with two and three coefficients, resulting the three coefficient model as the most efficient to data adjustment of twelve dominant tree sampled on three natural sites in study. Seven groups of dominant trees with different trends growth were obtained, indicating that the natural sites classification did not detect with accuracy the effects of environmental  variables on height growth of Araucaria angustifolia.

  5. Isolation, selection and characterization of root-associated growth promoting bacteria in Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2012-01-20

    Araucaria angustifolia, a unique species of this genus that occurs naturally in Brazil, has a high socio-economic and environmental value and is critically endangered of extinction, since it has been submitted to intense predatory exploitation during the last century. Root-associated bacteria from A. angustifolia were isolated, selected and characterized for their biotechnological potential of growth promotion and biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. Ninety-seven strains were isolated and subjected to chemical tests. All isolates presented at least one positive feature, characterizing them as potential PGPR. Eighteen isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 27 were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate, 21 isolates were presumable diazotrophs, with pellicle formation in nitrogen-free culture medium, 83 were phosphatases producers, 37 were positive for siderophores and 45 endospore-forming isolates were antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogen of conifers. We also observed the presence of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial mechanisms of action. Analyzing the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of these isolates, it was possible to characterize the most effective isolates as belonging to Bacillaceae (9 isolates), Enterobacteriaceae (11) and Pseudomonadaceae (1). As far as we know, this is the first study to include the species Ewingella americana as a PGPR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of gene flow in shaping genetic structures of the subtropical conifer species Araucaria angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefenon, V M; Gailing, O; Finkeldey, R

    2008-05-01

    The morphological features of pollen and seed of Araucaria angustifolia have led to the proposal of limited gene dispersal for this species. We used nuclear microsatellite and AFLP markers to assess patterns of genetic variation in six natural populations at the intra- and inter-population level, and related our findings to gene dispersal in this species. Estimates of both fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) and migration rate suggest relatively short-distance gene dispersal. However, gene dispersal differed among populations, and effects of more efficient dispersal within population were observed in at least one stand. In addition, even though some seed dispersal may be aggregated in this principally barochorous species, reasonable secondary seed dispersal, presumably facilitated by animals, and overlap of seed shadows within populations is suggested. Overall, no correlation was observed between levels of SGS and inbreeding, density or age structure, except that a higher level of SGS was revealed for the population with a higher number of juvenile individuals. A low estimate for the number of migrants per generation between two neighbouring populations implies limited gene flow. We expect that stepping-stone pollen flow may have contributed to low genetic differentiation among populations observed in a previous survey. Thus, strategies for maintenance of gene flow among remnant populations should be considered in order to avoid degrading effects of population fragmentation on the evolution of A. angustifolia.

  7. Early harvest increases post-harvest physiological quality of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Marília; Medeiros Coelho, Cileide Maria

    2016-06-01

    Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer native to Brazil and is an endangered species. Since this species seeds have a short period of viability, its vulnerability is higher. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of A. angustifolia seeds during the development and post-storage periods. For this, cones of A. angustifolia were collected from a natural population in Curitibanos, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in March, April, May and June 2012. The collected seeds were classified into developmental stages of cotyledonary, I, II and III according to the month of collection; a total of 10 cones were collected for each stage. Seeds were stored in a refrigerator for 60 and 120 days, and were submitted to a chamber germination test (25 °C-photoperiod 12 h). Additionally, seeds were tested for moisture content (105 °C for 24 hours), tetrazolium (0.1 % for 1 hour) and vigor (electric conductivity [75 mL distilled water at 25 °C], germination speed index, and shoot and root length). Our results showed that during seed development, moisture content decreased from the cotyledonary stage (66.54 %) to stage III (49.69 %), and vigor increased in the last stage. During storage, moisture content at cotyledonary stage and stage I was stable. On the other hand, stored seeds exhibited a decrease in moisture content after 120 days at stages II and III. Physiological quality at the cotyledonary stage resulted in an increased germination rate of 86 % and 93 % after 60 and 120 days of storage, respectively; unlike stages II and III exhibited a decrease in seed viability and vigor after storage. Electrical conductivity was higher for fresh seeds at the cotyledonary stage, than for those stored for 60 and 120 days. However, in other stages, released leachate content after 120 days of storage, increased with the advance of the collection period. Germination speed index and shoot and root lengths after storage were highest for seeds at the cotyledonary stage and stage I

  8. Redox imbalance mediates entomotoxic effects of the conifer Araucaria angustifolia in Anticarsia gemmatalis velvetbean caterpillar

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    Cátia dos Santos Branco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the most important pests of soybean crops in tropical America. By feeding on leaves, significant defoliation occurs resulting in reduced photosynthetic capacity required for plants’ maintenance and growth, which subsequently can lead to crop losses and reduced agricultural productivity. Many studies have sought to look for compounds that have insecticidal effects. One class of compounds is phenolics, which are produced by plants and have been found to influence the behavior and development of defoliators, representing an important alternative approach to many synthetic insecticides. Particularly, Araucaria angustifolia is a plant rich in polyphenols, which are compounds able to alter cellular dynamics through modulating redox status. In this study, A. angustifolia extract (AAE was added to the artificial diet of A. gemmatalis. The results demonstrated that AAE was able to reduce larval viability by inducing morphological changes and a delay in the insect’s development. In addition, AAE was found to induce oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, as well as increased nitric oxide levels in A. gemmatalis larvae. AAE treatments also decreased the antioxidant defense systems, leading to a redox imbalance. The reduction in viability in A. gemmatalis was positively correlated with oxidative markers, suggesting that redox imbalance can lead to larvae’s death. These results suggest that AAE possess insecticidal potential through the mechanisms of action of altering cellular redox state. Though further studies are required to confirm this, our study nevertheless contributes to a better understanding of AAE’s mechanisms of action as potential biopesticides in pest management, opening new perspectives on the development of compounds with insecticidal action.

  9. Axial variation of basic density of Araucaria angustifolia wood in different diameter classes

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    Rômulo Trevisan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the wood characteristics is of fundamental importance for the correct use of this raw material and, among its properties, the basic density is a major, being reference in the quality of this material. This study aimed to evaluate the axial variation of basic density of the wood of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze in different diameter classes. For this, three trees were selected in six diameter classes, called class 1 (20-30cm, class 2 (30.1-40cm, class 3 (40.1-50cm, class 4 (50.1-60cm, class 5 (60.1-70cm and class 6 (70.1-80cm. From each individual sampled was withdrawn a disc at 0.1m (base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the height of the first live branch and in the diameter at 1.30m from the ground (DBH, which were used for determining basic density. The weighted average basic density was equal to 0.422g cm-3 and, regardless of the diameter class analyzed, this property decreased in the axial direction. Diameter induced variation of basic density, but has not been verified a positive or negative systematic tendency in relation to the sampled interval.

  10. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  11. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

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    Dilmar Baretta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent. The present study was set up to evaluate the abundance and diversity of soil spider families in natural and reforested Araucaria forests, impacted or not by fire, and to identify the most efficient method to collect these organisms. The study was conducted in four areas: native forest with predominance of Araucaria (NF; Araucaria reforestation (R; Araucaria reforestation submitted to an accidental fire (RF; and native grass pasture with native Araucaria and submitted to an intense accidental fire (NPF. Considering both sampling methods (Monolith and Pitfall traps, 20 spider families were identified. The pitfall trap method was more effective as it captured 19 out of the 20 recorded families, while the Monolith method extracted only ten spider families. Spider family abundance and Shannon's diversity index (H were affected by the employed collection method; the values for these attributes were always higher for the NF and lower for the NPF. Correspondence analysis (CA showed a spatial separation among spider familiy assemblages from the different studied areas. It is suggested that changes in the abundance of soil spider families in Araucaria forests are mainly caused by recurrent human intervention over the last few years.As florestas com Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze estão ameaçadas de extinção no Brasil, e são praticamente inexistentes as informações sobre a diversidade de famílias de aranhas de solo associadas nestes ambientes. O estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar, em florestas com araucária naturais e reflorestadas, impactadas ou não pela queima acidental, a abundância e diversidade de famílias de aranhas, além de identificar o método mais eficiente para coletar estes organismos. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro

  12. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  13. Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia dos Santos; de Lima, Émilin Dreher; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2015-04-25

    Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  15. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestre, em sementes de Araucaria angustifolia "in vitro". O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia e Fisiologia Vegetal do CAV / UDESC, no período de junho a dezembro de 2004. As sementes, após preparadas e tratadas com substâncias de origem vegetal e sintéticas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com substrato constituído por vermiculita e colocadas em câmara de crescimento com temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do substrato e períodos de luz controlados. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, contendo 15 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 10 pinhões. As substâncias testadas, isoladas ou em misturas, foram: extratos alcoólicos de fruto de pimenta vermelha, raiz de salsa tempero e, da parte aérea de losna, óleo essencial de eucalipto, óleo de linhaça, óleo de mamona, breu, oxicloreto de cobre, sulfato de cobre, enxofre e tinta látex PVA. Emissão de raiz, emissão da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea foram avaliados 76 dias após a semeadura. As análises possibilitaram concluir que não houve efeitos fitotóxicos das substâncias testadas "in vitro" sobre as variáveis analisadas e que tais substâncias podem ser utilizadas nos experimentos de campo para testes de repelência aos animais consumidores de pinhões.

  16. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil; Atividade de {sup 14} C do 'fallout' em aneis anuais de crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia, de Arapoti - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de 14 C; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais. Lab. de Dendrocronologia

    2000-07-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial {sup 14} C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. {sup 14} C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of {delta}{sup 14} C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout {sup 14} C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11{sup S}, 49 deg 58{sup O}). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its {sup 14} C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the {delta} {sup 14} C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO{sub 2} mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  17. Characterization of structure and development of models to quantify wood potential of an unmanaged Araucaria angustifolia stand

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    Rafaella De Angeli Curto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize of an unmanaged stand of Araucaria angustifolia and to development of models to quantify the wood potential, aiming to support the development of forest management plans in stands with similar conditions. The work was developed into a stand established in 1946, in National Forest of Açungui, in Campo Largo County, Paraná State, Brazil. There was only one thinning in the stand, between 1970 and 1980. From the frequency of individuals in each diametric class, it was observed the condition of stagnation and competition with cohort in the beginning of class distribution. With the application of the probability density function of Weibull-3P, Trorey model, and the 5th polynomial by diameter class, it was possible to confirm the stock estimative of timber volume of the stand. This analysis indicated that the stand presents average annual wood production smaller than the species potential. So it is recommended the thinning to promote growth of remnant trees. With the probability density function of Weibull-3p, that was selected, it is possible to project the diametric distribution of the stand, when analyzed complementarily with growth diameter information, if the stand remains unmanaged. Certainly, the optimum potential of timber production could have been manifested if the stand were managed during the cycle planed.

  18. MANEJO DO CRESCIMENTO DIAMÉTRICO DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. BASEADO NA ÁRVORE INDIVIDUAL

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    Leif Nutto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi analisado o potencial do crescimento diamétrico de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. em diferentes sítios, com o objetivo de obter informações para o manejo dessa espécie em florestas heterogêneas inequiâneas, visando à produção de madeira de alta qualidade em árvores pré-selecionadas. O material usado constitui-se de 400 árvores de florestas nativas e plantios, crescendo sob condições e tratamentos variáveis nos estados de Santa Catarina, Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. O método usado para investigar a relação entre a largura da copa e o dap foi baseado na projeção horizontal da copa da árvore individual. Usando 16 amostras de 25 árvores, foram estudados vários estágios de desenvolvimento. Para cada amostra, foi feito um mapa de distribuição das árvores e das projeções das copas para avaliar o efeito da competição. O estudo mostra que existe uma estreita relação entre a largura da copa e o dap, que pode ser usada para o desenvolvimento de novas ferramentas de decisão aplicáveis em árvores individuais para o manejo de araucária em florestas heterogêneas inequiâneas ou para a produção de madeira de alta qualidade com árvores pré-selecionadas. Também, mostrou-se uma estreita correlação entre o crescimento de diâmetro e a qualidade do sítio, pois a expansão máxima da copa depende da qualidade deste, indicando que ele deve ser considerado como fator limitante para o manejo do crescimento.

  19. CONSERVAÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  20. Fatores ecológicos determinantes na ocorrência de Araucaria angustifolia e Podocarpus lambertii, na Floresta Ombrófila Mista da FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil Ecological factors that determine the occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia and Podocarpus lambertii in Mixed Ombrophylous Forest at São Francisco de Paula's FLONA, RS, Brazil

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na Floresta Nacional (FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, no Rio Grande do Sul. Teve como objetivo determinar, via análise de regressão logística, os fatores ambientais que influenciam a ocorrência das espécies Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl. em uma área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista na FLONA de São Francisco de Paula. Para o estudo, foram avaliados os indivíduos com cap=30cm, em 1.000 subunidades amostrais de 10 x 10m, demarcadas em 10 conglomerados permanentes de 1ha (100 x 100m previamente instalados na floresta. Em cada subunidade amostral, foram avaliados os fatores passíveis de influenciar a ocorrência das espécies, como os fatores relativos ao habitat: físicos do solo (profundidade, presença de afloramentos rochosos e umidade, exposição à luz e inclinação do terreno; e os fatores relativos à concorrência: área basal, densidade do sub-bosque e frequência de indivíduos. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que a Araucaria angustifolia ocorre em locais com solos profundos, expostos para o norte e com baixa frequência de indivíduos. Por outro lado, Podocarpus lambertii prefere locais não pedregosos, pouco inclinados, com exposição sul, relativamente úmidos, com alta frequência de indivíduos e alta densidade do sub-bosque.The present research was accomplished at São Francisco de Paula's National Forest (FLONA, in Rio Grande do Sul. The objective was to determine, through logistics regression analysis, the environmental and competition factors that could influence on the occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze and Podocarpus lambertii former Klotzsch Endl. species in Mixed ombrophylous forest. For the study, the individuals with cap=30cm had been evaluated, in 1000 samples of 10 x 10m, demarcated in ten permanent conglomerate of 1ha (100 x 100m previously installed in the forest. In each sample the factors that

  1. Conservação pós-colheita de pinhões [sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] armazenados em diferentes temperaturas Postharvest preservation of 'pinhões' [seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] stored at different temperatures

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão (semente de Araucaria angustifolia representa importante fonte de renda aos produtores rurais e uma opção a mais de alimento característico a ser oferecido aos turistas e à população em geral na região Sul do Brasil. A temperatura e a umidade de armazenamento são os principais determinantes da preservação pós-colheita de pinhões. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura de armazenamento nas taxas respiratórias e de evolução de etileno, bem como na perda de massa fresca e na germinação pós-colheita de pinhões destinados para consumo alimentar humano. Seguiu-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis temperaturas de armazenamento (2, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50°C e quatro repetições, cada repetição correspondendo a amostras contendo cerca de 300g de pinhões. Pinhões armazenados nas diferentes temperaturas não apresentaram produção de etileno (em níveis detectáveis através de cromatografia gasosa, com sensibilidade de 1ppm. A taxa respiratória aumentou substancialmente com o aumento na temperatura, com um Q10 @ 2,5 na faixa de temperatura de 2 a 37,1°C. Houve redução substancial da respiração com o aumento na temperatura de 37,1 para 50°C. A maior germinação dos pinhões foi verificada na temperatura de 20°C (~55% dos pinhões germinados aos 26 dias de armazenamento, reduzindo em temperaturas menores (~1% e 21% de germinação nas temperaturas de 2 e 10°C, respectivamente ou maiores (9% e The seeds ('pinhões' of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia represent an important sorce of income to the rural comunities and also an additional food product to be offered to the tourists and population in Southern Brazil. Temperature and humidity in the storage environment are the mais factors affecting 'pinhões' postharvest preservation. This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on postharvest respiration and ethylene production, as well as on

  2. Efeito de variáveis climáticas no crescimento mensal de Pinus taeda e Araucaria angustifolia em fase juvenil

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi construir curvas de produção e de incremento corrente mensal (ICM, e analisar o efeito de variáveis climáticas no crescimento mensal em diâmetro e altura de Pinus taeda L. e Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze, no período de três anos, em fase juvenil. Para tanto, foram selecionadas 30 árvores de cada espécie, sendo, mensalmente, entre junho de 2006 e julho de 2009, medidas as variáveis diâmetro e altura. As variáveis climáticas são provenientes de duas estações meteorológicas do SIMEPAR, próximas aos plantios monitorados. Para a análise do crescimento, foram desenvolvidas curvas de incremento e produção mensais, bem como análise da matriz de correlação dos dados e regressão pelo processo stepwise. Na análise do crescimento, observaram-se maiores ICMs entre outubro e fevereiro. As matrizes de correlação indicaram forte relação do ICM com temperatura, pressão atmosférica e fotoperíodo. Os modelos ajustados por stepwise, incluindo variáveis climáticas, apresentaram boas estatísticas de ajuste.

  3. Araucaria angustifolia management by Liocourt quotient in rural field, Painel municipality, SC, Brazil Manejo de araucaria angustifolia pelo quociente de Liocourt em propriedade rural no Município de Painel, SC

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    Andre Felipe Hess

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to calculate the ratio of Liocourt in natural forest with 50 hectares of Araucaria angustifolia. The diameter distribution behaved as expected for native forests, generating a distribution curve similar to an inverted-J. The forest showed 456 araucaria trees per hectare with diameter at breast hight (DBH above 10 cm and basal area of 24.64 m² ha-1. The value of the Liocourt quotient was 1.3, and 54 trees per hectare with 40 cm of DHB can be removed, with a reduction of 2.70 m² ha-1 of basal area or 135 m² total basal area and 34 trees per hectare for a 50 cm of DBH with a reduction of 1.9 m² ha-1 or 95 m² total basal area. Considering only the commercial classes (DBH ≥ 40 cm this withdrawal represents a reduction of 9.5% for the basal area to the diameter of 40 cm and 6.9% to the diameter of 50 cm.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.111

  1. Cultural landscapes of the Araucaria Forests in the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Mello, Anna Jacinta; Peroni, Nivaldo

    2015-06-09

    The Araucaria Forest is associated with the Atlantic Forest domain and is a typical ecosystem of southern Brazil. The expansion of Araucaria angustifolia had a human influence in southern Brazil, where historically hunter-gatherer communities used the pinhão, araucaria's seed, as a food source. In the north of the state of Santa Catarina, the Araucaria Forest is a mosaic composed of cultivation and pasture inserted between forest fragments, where pinhão and erva-mate are gathered; some local communities denominate these forest ecotopes as caívas. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand how human populations transform, manage and conserve landscapes using the case study of caívas from the Araucaria Forests of southern Brazil, as well as to evaluate the local ecological knowledge and how these contribute to conservation of the Araucaria Forest. This study was conducted in the northern plateau of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil in local five communities. To assess ethnoecological perceptions the historical use and management of caívas, semi-structured interviews, checklist interviews and guided tours were conducted with family units. In total 28 family units participated in the study that had caívas on their properties. During the course of the study two main perceptions of the ecotope caíva were found, there is no consensus to the exact definition; perception of caívas is considered a gradient. In general caívas are considered to have the presence of cattle feeding on native pasture, with denser forest area that is managed, and the presence of specific species. Eleven management practices within caívas were found, firewood collection, cattle grazing, trimming of the herbaceous layer, and erva-mate extraction were the most common. Caívas are perceived and defined through the management practices and native plant resources. All participants stated that there have been many changes to the management practices within caívas and to the ca

  2. Erva-mate production and conservation of Araucaria Forest

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    Pablo Signor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize a native production area (native erval through silvicultural procedures, productivity and density of Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil. (erva-mate and also the floristic, phytosociology, and diameter structure. To identify the silvicultural procedures, we used semi-structured interviews. For productivity assessment, the commercial biomass of I. paraguariensis was determined. For vegetation assessment, two permanent sample plots totaling 1.25 ha were installed, considering all individuals with circumference at 1.30 m above soil level (CBH ≥ 31.4 cm, for which it was registered CBH, botanical identification, XY coordinates in the plot, and all the individuals of I. paraguariensis composing the production system. Silvicultural procedures were characterized by mowing, canopy opening and conduct of natural regeneration, promoting I. paraguariensis, Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Kuntze, and cattle. I. paraguariensis density was 634 trees.ha-1, with 2,030 kg.ha-1 of productivity in three-year crops. We found 22 species, with a predominance of Myrtaceae and Aquifoliaceae. The species of highest importance value and coverage was A. angustifolia. The diameter distribution showed a higher concentration of individuals in the smaller classes.

  3. NOVOS PARASITÓIDES EM OVOS DE Dirphia Araucariae (LEPIDOPTERA, ATTACIDAE NEW PARASITOIDS IN EGGS OF Dirphia araucariae (LEP.; ATTACIDAE

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram observados novos parasitóides nos ovos de Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Attacidae. A porcentagem do parasitismo em ovos do hospedeiro, coletados na Fazenda Marabá, Município de Congonhinhas (PR foi de 20,71%, e as espécies de parasitóides identificadas e suas freqüências do: Anastatus sp (0,45%; A. charitos De Santis, 1982 (1,08%; A. (Proanastatus excavatus (De Santis, 1952 (1,97%; Ooencyrtus sp (17,86%; O. blastothricoide De Santis, 1988 (43,65%; e O. dirphiae De Santis, 1988 (34,99%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Anastatus spp; Araucaria angustifolia; controle biológico; lagarta-da-araucária; Ooencyrtus spp; pinheiro-do-Paraná.

    The parasitism in Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908 (Lepidoptera, Attacidae was studied and the parasitoids observed on its eggs collected in 'Fazenda Marabá’, Municipality of Congonhinhas, State of Paraná, Brazil, were the following: Anastatus sp.; A. charitos De Santis, 1982; A. (Proanastatus excavatus (De Santis, 1952; Ooencyrtus sp.; O. blastothricoide De Santis, 1988, and O. dirphiae De Santis, 1988, with a frequency of 0.45%, 1.08%, 1.97%, 17.86%, 43.65% and 34.99%, respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Biological control; Paraná-pine.

  4. Evolutionary diversification of new Caledonian Araucaria.

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    Mai Lan Kranitz

    Full Text Available New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot. Hypotheses for its biotic richness suggest either that the island is a 'museum' for an old Gondwana biota or alternatively it has developed following relatively recent long distance dispersal and in situ radiation. The conifer genus Araucaria (Araucariaceae comprises 19 species globally with 13 endemic to this island. With a typically Gondwanan distribution, Araucaria is particularly well suited to testing alternative biogeographic hypotheses concerning the origins of New Caledonian biota. We derived phylogenetic estimates using 11 plastid and rDNA ITS2 sequence data for a complete sampling of Araucaria (including multiple accessions of each of the 13 New Caledonian Araucaria species. In addition, we developed a dataset comprising 4 plastid regions for a wider taxon sample to facilitate fossil based molecular dating. Following statistical analyses to identify a credible and internally consistent set of fossil constraints, divergence times estimated using a Bayesian relaxed clock approach were contrasted with geological scenarios to explore the biogeographic history of Araucaria. The phylogenetic data resolve relationships within Araucariaceae and among the main lineages in Araucaria, but provide limited resolution within the monophyletic New Caledonian species group. Divergence time estimates suggest a Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic radiation of extant Araucaria and a Neogene radiation of the New Caledonian lineage. A molecular timescale for the evolution of Araucariaceae supports a relatively recent radiation, and suggests that earlier (pre-Cenozoic fossil types assigned to Araucaria may have affinities elsewhere in Araucariaceae. While additional data will be required to adequately resolve relationships among the New Caledonian species, their recent origin is consistent with overwater dispersal following Eocene emersion of New Caledonia but is too old to support a single dispersal from Australia to

  5. Araucaria forest management by the liocourt method, Painel municipality, SC

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    André Felipe Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the diameter distribution and calculate the value of the Liocourt quotient 'q' for the species Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze in natural forest, as well as evaluating competition indexes in a fragment with an area of 74.2 ha. Fixed area sample plots of 400 m2 were used in this study, totaling one hectare sampling area. Trees with DBH > 10 cm were measured in all plots and later distributed in diameter classes for the calculation of the density probability function and competition index. The forest showed a density of 228 trees per hectare and basal area of 19.49 m2·ha-1. The value of the "q" quotient for the forest was 1.1, indicating that the recruitment and mortality rates are in equilibrium. The calculated competition indices showed that the forest is in a competition stage, with Glover and Holl index of 0.9798 and 0.7069 m2 for the BALmod.

  6. Carabid beetle assemblages in three environments in the Araucaria humid forest of southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo Milton Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carabid beetle assemblages in three environments in the Araucaria humid forest of southern Brazil. Carabidae is composed mainly by ground-dwelling predator beetles. It is the fourth most diverse group within Coleoptera, but its diversity in the Neotropical region is understudied. Here we describe and analyze the diversity of carabid beetles in a region of subtropical rain forest dominated by Araucaria angustifolia with different landscapes. Three areas were chosen in an environmental integrity gradient: primary forests, secondary forests and old Pinus plantations. Pitfall traps were taken monthly, in a total of 14 samples per area. 1733 adult carabid beetles, belonging to 18 species, were sampled. There were differences in richness and abundance between the sampled areas. The total scores followed the same tendency: primary forests (14 species/747 individuals, secondary forests (13/631 and Pinus forests (10/355. An analysis of similarity shows differences in species composition, for both areas and seasons. Galerita lacordarei was the most abundant species for all samples and seasons. Carabid species show similar responses in accordance with habitat heterogeneity and disturbance. The abundance of Galerita lacordarei was influenced by temperature, for all sampled sites. Environmental changes affect the carabid assemblages and decrease diversity, possibly interfering in local dynamics. Seasonality patterns seem to indicate an increase in individual movement during summer, probably in search of resources. It is suggested that microhabitat patchiness is probably an important factor affecting carabid beetle diversity at small spatial scales.

  7. guadua Angustifolia Kunth

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    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga a compresión evaluada al límite de proporcionalidad en elementos cortos de Guadua angustifolia kunth fue relacionada con algunos parámetros físicos tales como el diámetro externo e interno, espesor de la pared, densidad aparente, número de entrenudos y contenido de humedad. Los elementos de Guadua fueron sometidos a compresión según las normas ISO-TC 165 dadas por el INBAR (1999. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que para predecir el comportamiento de la carga en el límite de proporcionalidad de elementos cortos de Guadua, los parámetros de mayor incidencia son el diámetro externo (De y el espesor total de la pared (e, para los cuales se obtuvo una correlación con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Un valor de 27,15 MPa con un coeficiente de variación del 16% fue encontrado para el esfuerzo a compresión evaluado al límite de proporcionalidad. Además se estableció un modelo aproximado para la densidad aparente de la Guadua según el contenido de humedad.

  8. Lavandula angustifolia Miller: English lavender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Sallie Stoltz

    2009-01-01

    Folk and traditional therapeutic use of the essential oil of English lavender for pain, infection, relaxation, and sedation dates back centuries. Current research focusing on the inherent synergism of Lavandula angustifolia Miller demonstrates great potential for future applications. Today's investigations may provide the key to eradicating degenerative inflammatory disease, infectious disease, and carcinogenesis.

  9. Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bílková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Zuzana Bílková, Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, Thesis, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, thesis author: PharmDr. Jan Martin, PhD., Hradec Králové, 2013, 72 pages. The thesis called "Biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil" is interested in biological activities of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil, specifically antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, nematicidal and repellency activit...

  10. Araucaria growth response to solar and climate variability in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Alan; Klausner, Virginia; Rojahn da Silva, Iuri; Ojeda-González, Arian; Lorensi, Caren

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the Sun-Earth-climate relationship is studied using tree growth rings of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) O. Kuntze collected in the city of Passo Fundo, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. These samples were previously studied by Rigozo et al. (2008); however, their main interest was to search for the solar periodicities in the tree-ring width mean time series without interpreting the rest of the periodicities found. The question arises as to what are the drivers related to those periodicities. For this reason, the classical method of spectral analysis by iterative regression and wavelet methods are applied to find periodicities and trends present in each tree-ring growth, in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and in annual mean temperature anomaly between the 24 and 44° S. In order to address the aforementioned question, this paper discusses the correlation between the growth rate of the tree rings with temperature and SOI. In each tree-ring growth series, periods between 2 and 7 years were found, possibly related to the El Niño/La Niña phenomena, and a ˜ 23-year period was found, which may be related to temperature variation. These novel results might represent the tree-ring growth response to local climate conditions during its lifetime, and to nonlinear coupling between the Sun and the local climate variability responsible to the regional climate variations.

  11. Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus stands in central Chile. Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo, Fernando Olave, Francisco Moreno, Sergio de Miguel, Margarita Clemente ...

  12. [Chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kang; Cao, Tuan-wu; Wang, Hong-ling; Geng, Chang-an; Zhang, Xue-mei; Chen, Ji-jun

    2015-09-01

    This present work is to study the chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia. The whole plants of air-dried Swertia angustifolia was extracted with 90% EtOH. The water extract was suspended in H2O and extracted with petroleum ether, EtOAc and nBuOH, successively. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography from the EtOAc fraction, and identified based on spectral analyses (MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). Fourteen compounds were isolated and characterized as 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 7-dimethoxyxanthone (1), 1, 8-dihydroxy-3, 5, 7-trimethoxyxanthone (2), 7-hydroxy-3, 8-dimethoxyxanthone-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 8-0-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6) -β-D-glucopyranosyl] -1, 7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (4), (+) -syringaresinol (5), ferulic acid (6), trans-coniferyl aldehyde (7), sinapaldehyde (8), trans-coniferyl alcohol (9), 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (11), isophthalic acid (12), 2-furoic acid (13), and 2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone(14). Compounds 2-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  13. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  14. Evidences of delayed size recovery in Araucaria angustifolia populations after post-glacial colonization of highlands in Southeastern Brazil

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    Valdir M. Stefenon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to date, little is known about the relationship between historical demography and the current genetic structure of A. Angus As a first effort towards overcoming this lack, microsatellite data scored in six populations and isozyme allele frequencies published for 11 natural stands of this species were analysed in order to assess molecular signatures of populations' demographic history. Signatures of genetic bottlenecks were captured in all analysed populations of southeastern Brazil. Among southern populations, signatures of small effective population size were observed in only three out of 13 populations. Southern populations likely experienced faster recovery of population size after migration onto highlands. Accordingly, current genetic diversity of the southern populations gives evidence of fast population size recovery. In general, demographic history of A. Angusmatches climatic dynamics of southern and southeastern Brazil during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Palynological records and reconstruction of the past climatic dynamics of southeastern and southern Brazil support the hypothesis of different population size recovery dynamics for populations from these regions.Até o momento, pouco se conhece sobre a relação entre história demográfica e a presente estrutura genética da A. Angus Como uma primeira tentativa em transpor esta deficiência, dados de microssatélites coletados em seis populações e freqüências alélicas de isoenzimas publicadas para 11 populações naturais desta espécie foram analisadas com o objetivo de acessar assinaturas moleculares da história demográfica populacional. Assinaturas de gargalos genéticos foram capturadas em todas as populações analisadas provenientes do Sudeste do Brasil. Entre as populações do Sul, assinaturas de pequeno tamanho populacional efetivo foram observadas em somente três entre 13 populações. Populações do Sul provavelmente apresentaram uma rápida recuperação do tamanho efetivo após a migração para os planaltos. Em acordança, a presente diversidade genética das populações do Sul apresenta evidências de uma rápida recuperação do tamanho populacional. Em geral, a história demográfica da A. Angus concorda com as dinâmicas climáticas do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil durante o Pleistoceno e o Holoceno. Estudos palinológicos e reconstrução de dinâmicas climáticas do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil suportam a hipótese de diferentes dinâmicas de recuperação do tamanho populacional em populações destas regiões.

  15. REPELLENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC SUBSTANCES TO THE CONSUMING WILD MAMMALS OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS AT FIELD SOWING

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction of the predation level. The treatments with linseed oil presented changeable behaviors, equally to the treatments with latex ink, in the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds. In the experiment with treated hollows, the lignosulfonate of calcium in mixture with extracts of pepper, with root of parsley and with wormwood herb presented significant effect of reduction on the predation. The solution of linseed with red pepper extracts and with root of parsley extract also had significant effect for reduction of the predation of these seeds, in the experiment with treated hollows.

  16. A Influencia dos roedores e aves na regeneraçao da Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.)O. Ktze

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Jorge Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Reserva Experimental do Setor de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, em São João do Triunfo a 130 quilômetros de Curitiba durante os anos de 19 81 e 19 82 em uma área de mata nativa, cujas árvores predominantes são araucárias. Os experimentos foram complementados por testes realizados no laboratório e no viveiro florestal do Curso de Engenharia Florestal. Visando incrementar a regeneração da araucária através da proteção de suas sementes- pi...

  17. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch Efeito da hidrólise ácida nas propriedades funcionais tecnológicas do amido de pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p As propriedades funcionais tecnológicas do amido nativo e modificado (hidrólise ácida de pinhão (Araucaria angustifólia foram comparadas às propriedades do amido nativo e ácido hidrolisado de milho. As espécies de amido foram hidrolisadas (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 horas e avaliadas, antes e após a reação de hidrólise, de acordo com as análises de formação, fusão e termorreversão do gel, retrogradação (em um período de 30 dias, com medidas a cada 3 dias, estabilidade ao congelamento e descongelamento (após 6 ciclos de congelamento e descongelamento, poder de inchamento e índice de solubilidade. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o amido de pinhão apresenta menor tendência à retrogradação quando comparado ao amido

  18. Micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth, commonly known as giant bamboo, using semisolid culture medium, is reported to have low multiplication rates. This study evaluated the multiplication index of G. angustifolia in a temporary immersion system (RITA®), comparing results with those obtained using a ...

  19. Propagules removal in fragments of native forest and in reforested areas in an Araucaria Forest region of Paraná State Remoção de propágulos em fragmento de floresta nativa e reflorestamentos numa região de Floresta Ombrófila Mista do estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rafael Bovolenta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A question that has been discussed is the role that reforestations with exotic species in native fauna and several studies have shown that removal of propagules is lower in these environments. This study compared the removal rate of propagules (araucaria seeds, peanuts, corn from areas of native forest (FN, reforestations of Pinus taeda L. (RP, Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE and Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. In FN all propagules were removed. There was no difference in the removal of araucaria seeds between FN and RA, and removal rate in both areas differ from the removal rate in the RP and RE. In RP there was high removal of peanuts, while the RE showed the lowest value of removal of the three propagules. The low removal rates in reforestation of pine and eucalyptus reflect the decreased exploitation of these habitats for wildlife, which may be related to a poorly structured understory. Uma questão que tem sido discutida é o papel das monoculturas florestais exóticas na manutenção da fauna nativa e vários estudos têm mostrado que a remoção de propágulos é menor nesses ambientes. O presente trabalho comparou a taxa de remoção de propágulos (pinhão, amendoim, milho entre áreas de Floresta Nativa (FN, Reflorestamentos de Pinus taeda L. (RP, de Eucalyptus saligna Sm. (RE e Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol Kuntze (RA. Na FN, todos os propágulos foram removidos e não houve diferença significativa na remoção de pinhão entre a FN e o RA. A remoção de propágulos nessas áreas diferiu da remoção no RP e RE. No RP, houve alta remoção de amendoim, enquanto que o RE apresentou os menores valores de remoção dos três propágulos. As baixas taxas de remoção nos reflorestamentos de pinus e eucalipto refletem a menor exploração desses habitas pela fauna, o que pode estar relacionado com um subosque pouco estruturado.

  20. Estimation of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia frost resistance

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    Р. І. Кременчук

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study effects of low temperatures on Lavandula angustifolia plants and their response depending on their age and variety as well as identify critical temperature values for such structure elements of plants as bark, cambium, wood, pith. Methods. Field investigation, spectrometric analysis, statistical evaluation. Results. Topicality of investigation of Lavandula angustifolia to be grown in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine was highlighted. Low temperature effects on structural elements of shoots for 8 varieties of domestic and foreign selection were analyzed. One-year shoots have suffered the most from low temperatures – 4.5 points on a six-point scale, two- and three-year shoots were damaged in a lesser degree – from 0.8 to 2 points. Plants of ‘Feuervogel’ and ‘Maestro’ varieties with total damage coefficient of 11.3% and 10.6% accordingly were the most resistant to low temperatures. These varieties can be recommended to producers for further introduction to the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Conclusions. Tissues of a lavender one-year shoot were most damaged by low temperatures regardless of a variety, but this organ is ephemeral and can be removed without causing damage to a plant. Two- and three-year shoots, which provide plant recovery, were significantly less damaged. None of the plants from 8 studied lavender varieties was lost under the influence of low temperatures, though some of them were damaged significantly. Such varieties as ‘Feuervogel’, ‘König Humbert’, ‘Veseli notky’ (pith damage is on the level of 1–2 points, ‘Maestro’ (0.8–2.5 points were the most resistant to low temperature exposure which allows to conclude about successful lavender cultivation under conditions of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine.

  1. Characterization of an Antimicrobial Extract from Elaeagnus angustifolia

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    Mohammad Hossein Dehghan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to ethnobotanical data, Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit has wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory effect and antifebrile prosperities. Objectives: This study was performed as to the best of our knowledge; there has been no scientific report on the characterization of antimicrobial effect of E. angustifolia extract. Materials and Methods: An aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was prepared and antimicrobial activity tests were performed on various target cultures. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extract was done using the broth dilution technique. To characterize the extract, shelf life, thermal and pH stability, effects of detergents such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton X100, toluene and enzymes on the antimicrobial activity of Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, were examined. Results: The MIC values ranged from 7.5 to 0.1 mg/mL, showing maximum activity (1.62 mg/mL against E. coli. Similarly, the MBC of the extract against E. coli was 1.62 mg/mL. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was relatively stable when kept in the refrigerator for 60 days. The antimicrobial activity of Elaeagnus angustifolia extract was absolutely stable at temperatures up to 700° C. After exposure of the Elaeagnus angustifolia extract to different pH solutions in the range of 4-10, almost 100% residual activity was found against E. coli at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7. Treatment of the extract with detergents, lipase and lysozyme eliminated its antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: Our study gives an indication of the presence of promising antimicrobial compounds and provides basic information about the nature of the Elaeagnus angustifolia extract. Future studies should elucidate the components responsible for antimicrobial activity of these extracts against target cultures.

  2. First report of Armillaria root disease caused by Armillaria tabescens on Araucaria araucana in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; J. W. Hanna; P. Cannon; R. Medel; A. Lopez

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, bark samples were collected from the root collar of a single Araucaria araucana tree that had recently died and was suspected of being killed by Armillaria root disease. Disease symptoms and signs included a thinning crown and fruiting bodies at the tree base over a several-year period before tree death.

  3. Steroidal saponins from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia, together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed th...

  4. Micropropagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universidad del Quindio

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... develop an application for RITA® for use in the commercial production of G. angustifolia. Key words: Giant .... Data were analyzed using a random block design with 20 replicates ..... Gray D (eds) Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory ... A (eds) Current Issues in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology,.

  5. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  6. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, MLT; Machado, LPB; Mateus, RP

    2014-01-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA – Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the...

  7. Microsatellite Markers for Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae

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    John F. Gaskin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion.

  8. Antioxidant activity of alstonia Angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Zakaria, Noorzafiza; Dzulkarnain, Syarifah Masyitah Habib; Azahar, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-10-01

    In current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.

  9. Hidden in plain view: Cryptic diversity in the emblematic Araucaria of New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhsam, Markus; Clark, Alexandra; Finger, Aline; Wulff, Adrien S; Mill, Robert R; Thomas, Philip I; Gardner, Martin F; Gaudeul, Myriam; Ennos, Richard A; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    Cryptic species represent a conservation challenge, because distributions and threats cannot be accurately assessed until species are recognized and defined. Cryptic species are common in diminutive and morphologically simple organisms, but are rare in charismatic and/or highly visible groups such as conifers. New Caledonia, a small island in the southern Pacific is a hotspot of diversity for the emblematic conifer genus Araucaria (Araucariaceae, Monkey Puzzle trees) where 13 of the 19 recognized species are endemic. We sampled across the entire geographical distribution of two closely related species (Araucaria rulei and A. muelleri) and screened them for genetic variation at 12 nuclear and 14 plastid microsatellites and one plastid minisatellite; a subset of the samples was also examined using leaf morphometrics. The genetic data show that populations of the endangered A. muelleri fall into two clearly distinct genetic groups: one corresponding to montane populations, the other corresponding to trees from lower elevation populations from around the Goro plateau. These Goro plateau populations are more closely related to A. rulei, but are sufficiently genetically and morphological distinct to warrant recognition as a new species. Our study shows the presence of a previously unrecognized species in this flagship group, and that A. muelleri has 30% fewer individuals than previously thought. Combined, this clarification of species diversity and distributions provides important information to aid conservation planning for New Caledonian Araucaria. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Enraizamento de microestacas de Lavandula angustifolia Rooting of Lavandula angustifolia microcuttings

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    Marília Pereira Machado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A eliminação da etapa de enraizamento in vitro na micropropagação de plantas é desejável do ponto de vista econômico, além de proporcionar a melhoria na qualidade do sistema radicial formado. Dois experimentos foram realizados com os objetivos de avaliar diferentes concentrações (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10mM de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento ex vitro de lavanda (L. angustifolia, cv. 'Provence Blue' e avaliar a capacidade de enraizamento ex vitro das cultivares 'Vera', 'Provence Blue', 'English' e 'Elegance Ice'. Após 30 dias, foi avaliado o número de microestacas enraizadas, comprimento das raízes principais, porcentagem de enraizamento e porcentagem de sobrevivência. A concentração de 5,0mM de AIB foi mais efetiva para o comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de enraizamento das microestacas de lavanda cv. 'Provence Blue', apesar de reduzir o número de raízes formadas. Entre as cultivares estudadas, a porcentagem de sobrevivência das plantas variou de 82% a 100%. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças no enraizamento ex vitro das microestacas, sendo as maiores médias de porcentagem de enraizamento registradas na 'Provence Blue' e 'Elegance Ice'. Conclui-se que a microestaquia pode ser uma técnica eficiente para a propagação de lavanda, pelo tratamento das microestacas com 5,0mM de AIB, por proporcionar alta porcentagem de enraizamento e sobrevivência das plantas.Two experiments were carried out aiming to evaluate the ex vitro rooting of L. angustifolia cv. 'Provence Blue' treated with different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10mM of indolebutyric acid (IBA with talc as a vehicle to evaluated the ex vitro rooting of 'Vera', 'Provence Blue', 'English' and 'Elegance Ice' lavender cultivars. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse using three concentrations of AIB plus control. After the 30th day, it was evaluated: surviving microcuttings percentage, percentage of rooted microcuttings, roots number, roots length

  11. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29). Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination. PMID:27891157

  12. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  13. Taquara bamboo control as an alternative to recovery of the Araucaria Forest Controle de taquaras como alternativa para a recuperação da Floresta com Araucária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sanquetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Native bamboos occur abundantly in forests with predominance of Araucaria angustifolia that were
    highly disturbed by anthropogenic causes. The occupation of the competitive space by these plants may indicate that there is a dependency relationship between the establishment of tree seedlings and bamboos in the ecosystem. This study aimed at evaluating the establishment of seedlings of tree species that appeared naturally in an area strongly dominated by bamboos in the understory. An  experiment of mechanical control of bamboos
    was established in the municipality of General Carneiro, southern Paraná State, with 1.00 hectare, following the
    completely randomized design. The results showed that felling of bamboos may be effective to stimulate the
    appearance of many species and also to increase seedling density. Mechanical bamboo control by felling,
    combined with its biomass removal and understory thinning, is effective to stimulate seedling establishment of the majority of species in the forest. In general, it can be concluded that response of the forest to management practices is quite quick. Few months after the effect of bamboo control on the regeneration of the tree species might be clearly noticed. This suggests that management practices may be very effective to the restoration of degraded ecosystems.Taquaras ocorrem abundantemente em florestas antropizadas com Araucaria angustifolia. Evidências
    levam a crer que existe uma relação de dependência entre a sua presença e o grau de estabelecimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o estabelecimento de plântulas espontaneamente regeneradas em áreas com forte presença de taquaras. Foi instalado um experimento no extremo sul do Paraná, com área de um hectare, por delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os resultados aos 18 meses revelaram que o corte das taquaras provocou o reaparecimento de

  14. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-03

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (PMapuche culture.

  15. Liquid chromatographic determination of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alpuna; Pandey, Richa; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

    2006-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sennosides B and A in leaves of Cassia angustifolia. These compounds were extracted from leaves with a mixture of methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) after defatting with hexane. Analyte separation and quantitation were achieved by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and UV absorbance at 270 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method involves the use of an RP-18 Lichrocart reversed-phase column (5 microm, 125 x 4.0 mm id) and a binary gradient mobile-phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis, namely, peak purity, similarity, recovery, repeatability, and robustness, were validated. Average recoveries of 98.5 and 98.6%, with a coefficient of variation of 0.8 and 0.3%, were obtained by spiking sample solution with 3 different concentration solutions of standards (60, 100, and 200 microg/mL). Detection limits were 10 microg/mL for sennoside B and 35 microg/mL for sennoside A, present in the sample solution. The quantitation limits were 28 and 100 microg/mL. The analytical method was applied to a large number of senna leaf samples. The new method provides a reliable tool for rapid screening of C. angustifolia samples in large numbers, which is needed in breeding/genetic engineering and genetic mapping experiments.

  16. Evaluation on bioactivities of total flavonoids from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Huang, Hua; Ji, Tengfei; Li, Chenyang; Tan, Wei; Chen, Yan; Ma, Long

    2015-07-01

    Lavandula angustifolia was used to treat flus and fevers, joint swelling and pain in Uighur medicine. This study aimed to investigate antioxidant, antit anti-inflammatory and antalgic noids content (530.1mg/g rutin/g dry extract) with stronger DPPH scavenging abilities and reduciactivities of total flavonoids from Lavandula angustifolia (LTF). Results indicated that LTF possesses the highest total flavong power. Some flavonoids separated from LTF, and their DPPH scavenging abilities as follows: rosmarinic acid (2, near to Vit C) >luteolin (3) >apigenin (4) >luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (5) >apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (6) >luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide (7). LTF significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in D-galactose induced aging model compared to the control group (P<0.05), as well as significantly increased plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities (P<0.05). Moreover, 17.4, 34.8 and 69.6 mg/kg doses of LTF were exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Cytotoxicity of LTF on Bel-7402 and Hela cell lines were showed by MTT assay also. These results verified traditional usage of this plant and suggested also that LTF is worth developing and studying further.

  17. The effect of acid hydrolysis on the technological functional properties of pinhão (Araucaria brasiliensis starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cruz Silveira Thys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological functional properties of native and acid-thinned pinhão (seeds of Araucária angustifolia, Brazilian pine starches were evaluated and compared to those of native and acid-thinned corn starches. The starches were hydrolyzed (3.2 mol.L-1 HCl, 44 ºC, 6 hours and evaluated before and after the hydrolysis reaction in terms of formation, melting point and thermo-reversibility of gel starches, retrogradation (in a 30-day period and measurements every three days, paste freezing and thawing stability (after six freezing and thawing cycles, swelling power, and solubility. The results of light transmittance (% of pastes of native and acid-thinned pinhão starches was higher (lower tendency to retrogradation than that obtained for corn starches after similar storage period. Native pinhão starch (NPS presented lower syneresis than native corn starch (NCS when submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. The acid hydrolysis increased the syneresis of the two native varieties under storage at 5 ºC and after freezing and thawing cycles. The solubility of NPS was lower than that of native corn starch at 25, 50, and 70 ºC. However, for the acid-thinned pinhão starch (APS, this property was significantly higher (p < 0.05 when compared to that of acid-thinned corn starch (ACS. From the results obtained, it can be said that the acid treatment was efficient in producing a potential fat substitute from pinhão starch variety, but this ability must be further investigated.

  18. Amido no megagametófito de Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze: degradação durante a germinação e desenvolvimento do esporófito Starchy reserve of the megagametophyte of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze: mobilization during germination and on the developing sporophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maris Rosado

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available O pinheiro brasileiro possui um diásporo de grandes dimensões, o pinhão, rico em reservas amiláceas. A mobilização dessas reservas pelo embrião foi quantificada em secções transversais do megagametófito, em cinco estágios de desenvolvimento da plântula, sob dois tratamentos, na luz e no escuro. Na luz, o consumo das reservas do megagametófito pela plântula é mais rápido do que no escuro e, existe uma tendência ao consumo do amido realizar-se primeiro na região do megagametófito próxima ao embrião.The parana pine has a very large dispore, the "pinhão", rich in starchy reserves. The mobilization of these reserves by the embryo was quantified in transversal sections of the megagametophyte, in five stages of seedling development, sampled in the light and in the darkness. The consuption of starch grains was in plantlets grown in light than those grown in darkness. There was a tendency to quicker use up of the the megagametophyte starch near to embryo.

  19. [Histo-anatomical researches of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Silvia; Galeş, Ramona; Toma, C; Stănescu, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the inflorescences of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia sL. angustifolia ssp. angustifolia and. L. angustifolia ssp. pyrenaica (D.C.) Guineaţ was studied to determine the range of variation in certain histo-anatomical characters. The flower and leaf structure has been analysed on cross and superficial section using the usual techniques and methods applied in plant histo-anatomical research. In cross-section, inflorescence axis has a squared-shape contour, with four proeminent ribs. On the epiderme of inflorescence axis there are present stomata, trichoms and secretory hairs. The trichoms are pluricelullar and T-branched. The secretory hairs have a short pedicel and a uni-or bicellular head. The study revealed that there are only quantitative differences, referring to the degree of sclerification and lignification of mechanical elements and the size of the vascular bundles.

  20. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

  1. Three new benzolactones from Lavandula angustifolia and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Lian; Tang, Shi-Yun; Liu, Chun-Bo; Ye, Ling; Yang, Pei-Song; Zhang, Feng-Mei; He, Pei; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Miao, Ming-Ming; Guo, Ya-Dong; Shen, Qin-Peng

    2017-08-01

    Three new benzolactones (1-3), together with four known ones (4-7), were isolated from the whole herb of Lavandula angustifolia. Their structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, UV, and IR) and comparison with data reported in the literature. New compounds were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activities and cytotoxic activities. The results revealed that compounds 1-3 showed obvious anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates of 26.9, 30.2, and 28.4%, which were at the same grade as positive control. Compounds 1-3 also showed weak inhibitory activities against some tested human tumor cell lines with IC 50 values in the range of 32.1-7.6 μM.

  2. Antioxidant capacity of Typha angustifolia extracts and two active flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peidong; Cao, Yudan; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2017-12-01

    The pollen of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for improving the microcirculation and promoting wound healing. Flavonoids are the main constituent in the plant, but little is known about the antioxidant activity of the principal constituent of the pollen in detail. To assess the antioxidant activities of ethanol and water extracts and two constituents of the pollen. Plant material (1 g) was extracted by 95% ethanol and water (10 mL × 2, 1 h each), respectively. The extracted activities (0.8-2.6 mg/mL) were measured by DPPH and the reducing activity of ferric chloride (1.7-2.6 mg/mL). Typhaneoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside (I3ON) (2.8-70 μmol/L) were investigated on the relationship between NO, MDA and SOD in HUVECs treated with 100 μg/mL of LPS for 24 h. Nine compounds were identified by UPLC-MS. Ethanol extract showed IC 50 values in DPPH (39.51 ± 0.72) and Fe 3+ reducing activity (82.76 ± 13.38), higher than the water extract (50.85 ± 0.74) and (106.33 ± 6.35), respectively. Typhaneoside and I3ON promoted cell proliferation at the respective concentration range of 2.8 to 70 μmol/L (p concentration of 70 μmol/L compared with LPS group. The constituents from Typha angustifolia could be a novel therapeutic strategy for LPS-induced inflammation.

  3. Identification of the temperature- induced larvicidal efficacy of Agave angustifolia against Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae

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    Mithilesh eKajla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticides are generally employed to control the mosquito population. However, their injudicious over usage and non-biodegradability are associated with many adverse effects on the environment and mosquitoes. The application of environment-friendly mosquitocidals might be an alternate to overcome these issues. In this study, we found that organic or aqueous extracts of Agave angustifolia leaves exhibited a strong larvicidal activity (LD50 28.27 µg/ml against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi larvae within a short exposure of 12h. The larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia is inherited and independent of the plants vegetative growth. Interestingly, the plant larvicidal activity was observed exclusively during the summer season (April-August, when outside temperature is between 30oC to 50oC and it was significantly reduced during winter season (December-February, when the outside temperature falls to ~4oC or lower. Thus, we hypothesized that the larvicidal components of Agave angustifolia might be induced by the manipulation of environmental temperature and should be resistant to the hot conditions. We found that the larvicidal activity of Agave angustifolia was induced when plants were maintained at 37oC in a semi-natural environment against the controls that were growing outside in cold weather. Pre-incubation of Agave angustifolia extract at 100oC for 1h killed 60% larvae in 12h, which gradually increased to 100% mortality after 24h. In addition, the dry powder formulation of Agave angustifolia, also displayed a strong larvicidal activity after a long shelf life. Together, these findings revealed that Agave angustifolia is an excellent source of temperature induced bioactive metabolites that may assist the preparedness for vector control programs competently.

  4. Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and analyse the intra-specific genetic relationships of seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, collected from the Xinjiang areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins produced by seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia, were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild plant only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 μm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm×3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 25%~60% solvent B with flow rate of 1 ml/min and run time of 67 min, the chromatography yielded optimum separation ofE. angustifolia alcohol-soluble proteins. Representative peaks in each population were chosen according to peak area and occurrence in every seed. The converted data on the elution peaks of each population were different and could be used to represent those populations. GSC (genetic similarity coefficients) of 41% to 62% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the populations in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia could be divided into six clusters at the GSC=0.535 level and indicated the general and unique biochemical markers of these clusters. We suggest that E. angustifolia distribution in these eco-areas could be classified into six variable species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for E. angustifolia classification and identification and for analysis of genetic diversity.

  5. Incendios en bosques de Araucaria araucana y consideraciones ecológicas al madereo de aprovechamiento en áreas recientemente quemadas Wildfire in Araucaria araucana forests and ecological considerations about salvage logging in areas recently burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURO E GONZÁLEZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El fuego es el tipo de disturbio más importante en conformar el paisaje forestal de Araucaria araucana en la zona centro-sur de Chile y Argentina. En la Región de la Araucanía el clima y el ser humano han influenciado el régimen de fuego durante al menos los últimos mil años. Los incendios catastróficos ocurridos recientemente (año 2002 que afectaron los bosques de Araucaria atrajeron la atención pública, política y científica generando una importante necesidad de entender las causas y efectos de tales eventos en los ecosistemas forestales. Estos grandes incendios produjeron una abundante cantidad de material muerto en pie y en el suelo, promoviendo el desarrollo de otros atributos estructurales conocidos como legados biológicos que tienen un rol crítico en la recuperación de los ecosistemas luego de este tipo de eventos. El madereo de aprovechamiento ("salvage logging" es considerado un factor negativo en la recuperación de áreas afectadas significando tanto una pérdida o menoscabo de la capacidad de regeneración como un deterioro en otros procesos ecológicos clave. Incendios catastróficos de alta severidad, ya sea antrópicos o naturales, crean presiones tanto para reemplazar el bosque nativo por plantaciones de especies de crecimiento rápido o llevar a cabo operación de madereo de aprovechamiento. Las decisiones de manejo deben estar basadas en un mejor entendimiento de la ocurrencia pasada de incendios y su rol en modelar los presentes ecosistemas de Araucaria. Particularmente, en el contexto del excepcional valor ecológico y cultural de estos ecosistemas, las agencias y profesionales del manejo forestal deberían considerar políticas que efectivamente aseguren y sean consistentes con la restauración de procesos ecológicos y atributos clave en los ecosistemas de AraucariaFire is the most important kind of disturbance shaping the Araucaria araucana forest landscapes of south-central Chile and Argentina. In the

  6. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  7. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM CALAMAGROSTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA KOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fei Cao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 ºC and 90 ºC, 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL at 80 ºC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H5-H8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.

  8. Three new phenylpropanoids from Lavandula angustifolia and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiyun; Shi, Jianlian; Liu, Chunbo; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Xin; Xiang, Nengjun; Chen, Yongkuan; Shen, Qinpeng; Miao, Mingming; Liu, Zhihua; Yang, Guangyu

    2017-06-01

    Three new phenylpropanoids, 3-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-oxopropyl acetate (1), 3-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-methylphenyl)propan-1-one (2), and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-methylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-6-yl) propan-1-one (3), together with three known phenylpropanoids (4-6) were isolated from the whole plant of Lavandula angustifolia. Their structures were determined by means of HRESIMS and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic studies. Compounds 1-6 were tested for their anti-tobacoo mosaic virus (TMV) activities and cytotoxicity activities. The results revealed that compounds 1-3 showed high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.2, 38.4 and 33.9%. These rates are higher than that of positive control. The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates in the range of 26.8-28.9%, respectively. Compounds 1-6 also showed weak inhibitory activities against some tested human tumour cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.8-8.8 μM.

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  10. Typha angustifolia L. X T. latifolia L. (T.) (glauca Godr.) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1962-01-01

    Typha x glauca Godr., the hybrid of T. angustifolia L. and T. latifolia L. was found in the Netherlands for the first time in 1847 and again in 1946, as appears from the collections in the Rijksherbarium, Leiden. Fig. 1 shows the differences found in the female flowers, the pollen, and the

  11. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  12. Composition of the essential oils of Kaempferia rotunda L. and Kaempferia angustifolia Roscoe rhizomes from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Windono, T; Bos, R; Riswan, S; Quax, WJ

    2004-01-01

    The volatile constituents of rhizomes (main rhizome, lateral parts) of two medicinally used Indonesian plants of the family Zingiberaceae, Kaempferia rotunda L. and K. angustifolia Roscoe, were investigated by GC and GC-MS (EI) analysis. A total of 75 compounds were identified. The most abundant

  13. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic diversity in populations of Maytenus dasyclada (Celastraceae in forest reserves and unprotected Araucaria forest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castilhos Reichmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the genetic structure and diversity of plants is fundamental to their conservation and permits their sustainable use by local communities. The genus Maytenus (Celastraceae is composed of plants possessing pharmacological and antioxidant properties. However, the genetic and economic properties of the species M. dasyclada, a typical species of Araucaria forests in Brazil and Uruguay, have been little studied. In this work, the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of M. dasyclada located in unprotected and preserved forest remnants were investigated using RAPD and isozymes markers. The results demonstrated that in areas of preservation, populations of M. dasyclada possess a relatively high degree of polymorphism and high values for Na, Ne, Shannon index, He and Ho, indicating high genetic variability. Moreover, these protected populations are very close to each other and potentially experience significant gene flow. The results presented here highlight the relevance of preservation areas for the conservation of M. dasyclada, and that populations inhabiting these areas could serve as a genetic source for the recovery of populations in regions where genetic diversity has been lost.

  15. Aggregate Stability in Soil with Humic and Histic Horizons in a Toposequence under Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aggregate stability is one of the most important factors in soil conservation and maintenance of soil environmental functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the aggregate stability mechanisms related to chemical composition of organic matter in soil profiles with humic and histic horizons in a toposequence under Araucaria moist forest in southern Brazil. The soils sampled were classified as Humic Hapludox (highest position, Fluvaquentic Humaquepts (lowest slope position, and Typic Haplosaprists (floodplain. The C and N contents were determined in bulk soil samples. The chemical composition of soil organic matter was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. Aggregate stability was determined by applying increasing levels of ultrasound energy. Carbon content increased from the top of the slope to the alluvial plain. Higher ultrasonic energy values for clay dispersion were observed in the C-rich soils in the lower landscape positions, indicating that organic compounds play an important role in the structural stabilization of these profiles. Both aliphatic and carbohydrate-like structures were pertinent to aggregate stability. In the Oxisol, organo-mineral interaction between carbohydrates and the clay mineral surface was the most important mechanism affecting aggregation. In soils with a higher C content (Humaquepts and Haplosaprists, stabilization is predominantly conferred by the aliphatic groups, which is probably due to the structural protection offered by these hydrophobic organic groups.

  16. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M A

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  17. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants.

  18. Biosorption of Cd+2 by green plant biomass, Araucaria heterophylla: characterization, kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarada, B.; Krishna Prasad, M.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Murthy, Ch V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The present study attempted to analyze the biosorption behavior of novel biosorbent, Araucaria heterophylla (green plant) biomass, to remove Cd+2 from solutions against various parameters, i.e., initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, sorbent dosage and biomass particle size. The maximum biosorption was found to be 90.02% at pH 5.5 and biosorption capacity ( q e) of Cd+2 is 9.2506 mg g-1. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and it was observed that Freundlich model is the best fit than the Langmuir model with correlation co-efficient of 0.999. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of Cd+2 well followed the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 0.999. Thermodynamic studies observed that the process is exothermic (Δ H ° negative). Free energy change (Δ G °) with negative sign reflected the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process. The chemical functional -OH groups, CH2 stretching vibrations, C=O carbonyl group of alcohol, C=O carbonyl group of amide, P=O stretching vibrations and -CH groups were involved in the biosorption process. The XRD pattern of the A. heterophylla was found to be mostly amorphous in nature. The SEM studies showed Cd+2 biosorption on selective grains of the biosorbent. It was concluded that A. heterophylla leaf powder can be used as an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly biosorbent for the removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solution.

  19. Floristic-functional variation of tree component along an altitudinal gradient in araucaria forest areas, in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleski, Vanessa F; Higuchi, Pedro; Silva, Ana Carolina DA; Silva, Mariele A F DA; Nunes, Amanda S; Loebens, Rodineli; Souza, Karine DE; Ferrari, Jheniffer; Lima, Carla L; Kilca, Ricardo V

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the taxonomic and functional variations of tree component of Araucaria Forest (AF) areas located along an altitudinal gradient (700, 900 and 1,600 m asl), in the southern region of Brazil. The functional traits determined were leaf area, specific leaf area, wood density, maximum potential height and dispersal syndromes and deciduousness. The data were analyzed through a functional and taxonomic dissimilarity dendrograms, community-weighted mean trait values, parametric and nonparametric tests, and Principal Component Analysis. The largest floristic-structural similarity was observed between the lower altitude areas (700 and 900 m asl), whose Bray-Curtis distance was 0.63. The area at 700 m asl was characterized by a predominance of deciduous and semi-deciduous species, with a high number of self- and wind-dispersed species, whereas the area at 1,600 m asl exhibited a predominance of animal-dispersed and evergreen species. It was also observed that there were significant variations for leaf traits, basic wood density and maximum potential height. Over all altitudinal gradient, the ordinations indicated that there was no evidence of functional differentiation among dispersal and deciduousness groups. In conclusion, the evaluated Araucaria Forest areas presented high floristic-functional variation of the tree component along the altitudinal gradient.

  20. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, S.; Arias, N.P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O.

    2012-01-01

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in NaOH or NH 4 OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  1. Seed germination of Phillyrea angustifolia L., a species of difficult propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mira, Sara; Arnal, Alberto; Pérez-García, Félix

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae) seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain) were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84%) or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%). Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.

  2. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  4. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Modulates Antioxidant Response and Ion Distribution in Salt-Stressed Elaeagnus angustifolia Seedlings

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    Wei Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Elaeagnus angustifolia L. is a drought-resistant species. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is considered to be a bio-ameliorator of saline soils that can improve salinity tolerance in plants. The present study investigated the effects of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on the biomass, antioxidant enzyme activities, and root, stem, and leaf ion accumulation of E. angustifolia seedlings grown during salt stress conditions. Salt-stressed mycorrhizal seedlings produced greater root, stem, and leaf biomass than the uninoculated stressed seedlings. In addition, the seedlings colonized by R. irregularis showed notably higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX in the leaves of the mycorrhizal seedlings in response to salinity compared to those of the non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal seedlings not only significantly increased their ability to acquire K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, but also maintained higher K+:Na+ ratios in the leaves and lower Ca2+:Mg2+ ratios than non-mycorrhizal seedlings during salt stress. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of E. angustifolia seedlings could be enhanced by R. irregularis. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis could be a promising method to restore and utilize salt-alkaline land in northern China.

  5. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-30

    The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum , linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Modulates Antioxidant Response and Ion Distribution in Salt-Stressed Elaeagnus angustifolia Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Sui, Xin; Fan, Xiao-Xu; Jia, Ting-Ting; Song, Fu-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia L. is a drought-resistant species. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is considered to be a bio-ameliorator of saline soils that can improve salinity tolerance in plants. The present study investigated the effects of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on the biomass, antioxidant enzyme activities, and root, stem, and leaf ion accumulation of E. angustifolia seedlings grown during salt stress conditions. Salt-stressed mycorrhizal seedlings produced greater root, stem, and leaf biomass than the uninoculated stressed seedlings. In addition, the seedlings colonized by R. irregularis showed notably higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the leaves of the mycorrhizal seedlings in response to salinity compared to those of the non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal seedlings not only significantly increased their ability to acquire K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ , but also maintained higher K + :Na + ratios in the leaves and lower Ca 2+ :Mg 2+ ratios than non-mycorrhizal seedlings during salt stress. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of E. angustifolia seedlings could be enhanced by R. irregularis. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis could be a promising method to restore and utilize salt-alkaline land in northern China.

  7. Chemical composition of essential oils of Drimys angustifolia Miers and Drimys brasiliensis Miers and their repellency to drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted from leaves of the Southern Brazilian native species Drimys angustifolia Miers (DA and Drimys brasiliensis Miers (DB by Clevenger distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The oils of DA and DB consisted predominantly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The largest components of DA oil were bicyclogermacrene (19.6%, sabinene (9.7% and myrcene (5.2%, while DB oil was characterized by cyclocolorenone (18.2%, followed by terpinen-4- ol (8.7% and alpha-gurjunene (6.9%. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the repellency of the essential oils to the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. It was observed that the oil showed repellency at the concentrations 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL. The oils of both species exhibited a negative repellency index, which represents repellent activity, except for DA oil at the highest concentration, which was attractive. Five deaths (11% of the termite sample were observed at 25 μg/mL DA, in the fourhour repellency test, while four deaths occurred at 12.5 μg/mL (approximately 9%. The essential oil of DB did not cause any termite deaths.

  8. Repelência de substâncias naturais e sintéticas aos mamíferos silvestres consumidores de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze em semeadura no campo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction of the predation level. The treatments with linseed oil presented changeable behaviors, equally to the treatments with latex ink, in the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds. In the experiment with treated hollows, the lignosulfonate of calcium in mixture with extracts of pepper, with root of parsley and with wormwood herb presented significant effect of reduction on the predation. The solution of linseed with red pepper extracts and with root of parsley extract also had significant effect for reduction of the predation of these seeds, in the experiment with treated hollows

  9. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Cavasini

    Full Text Available Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA – Parque Municipal das Araucárias and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL – Fazenda Brandalise, in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H′ = 2.221 was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H′ = 1.592. This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602 only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128, which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  10. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, M L T; Machado, L P B; Mateus, R P

    2014-11-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA - Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL - Fazenda Brandalise), in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H' = 2.221) was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H' = 1.592). This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602) only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128), which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni) and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  11. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  12. Phytodesalinization potential of Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris for removal of de-icing salts from runoff water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, Gaëlle; de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Galvez-Cloutier, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris were evaluated for de-icing salt removal from runoff water. Plants were exposed to a range of de-icing salt levels (0.2, 0.7, 4, 8, and 13 dS m(-1)) in laboratory-scale subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) for 2 months under greenhouse conditions. Effluent characteristics, plant height, biomass, and Cl and Na removal rates and uptake were monitored. More water volume was retained in CWs of T. angustifolia (∼60 %) than of J. maritimus and E. palustris (∼37.5 %), which accounted for the electrical conductivity increase in effluents (1.3-1.9-fold). Based on the NaCl removal rate, T. angustifolia showed the greatest phytodesalinization ability (31-60 %) with the highest removal at the lowest salt levels (0.2-0.7 dS m(-1)), followed by J. maritimus (22-36 %) without differences in removal among levels, and E. palustris (3-26 %) presenting a removal rate highly decreased with increasing salt levels. Plant height and biomass were stimulated at low de-icing salt levels, but, at higher levels, T. angustifolia and E. palustris growth was inhibited (tolerance index ∼67 and 10 %, respectively, in the worst cases). Salt amounts in aboveground biomass in g m(-2) differed among levels and ranged as follows: 13.6-29.1 (Cl), 4.2-9.3 (Na; T. angustifolia); 7.0-12.0 (Cl), 2.7-6.4 (Na; J. maritimus); and 0.9-7.6 (Cl), 0.3-1.6 (Na; E. palustris). Chloride and Na translocation decreased with de-icing salt increase in T. angustifolia, while no significant differences were found in J. maritimus, which is interesting for harvesting purposes.

  13. Vascular species composition of a contact zone between Seasonal and Araucaria forests in Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gnigler, Luciana; Caddah, Mayara

    2015-01-01

    A floristic survey was carried out in a contact area between Araucaria Forest and Seasonal Forest areas, in the municipality of Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. We provide a checklist containing 108 species and 42 plant families for the area. Families with the most encountered number of species were Myrtaceae (eight species), Solanaceae (eight), Euphorbiaceae (seven) and Poaceae (six). Two species are classified as endangered of extinction, following IUCN criteri...

  14. Identification of selected CITES-protected Araucariaceae using DART TOFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip D. Evans; Ignacio A. Mundo; Michael C. Wiemann; Gabriela D. Chavarria; Pamela J. McClure; Doina Voin; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Determining the species source of logs and planks suspected of being Araucaria araucana (Molina) K.Koch (CITES Appendix I) using traditional wood anatomy has been difficult, because its anatomical features are not diagnostic. Additionally, anatomical studies of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, Araucaria...

  15. Morphological variability of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in the north-western Balkans

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    Kristjan Jarni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl is a species native in the north-western Balkans, where it has a divided range. Most of its range is located in flood-prone riparian sites in the Pannonian plain but the species is also found on humid sites along some rivers in the Submediterranean region. We analysed morphologic variation within and between five populations (14 trees/population located in the Subpannonian and Submediterranean region of Slovenia. Thirty two characters were assessed on ca. 80 leaves from each tree which were divided depending on exposure to sunlight (sun and shade leaves, and 8 traits on each fruit (ca. 50 fruits/tree. A hierarchically designed experiment using analysis of variance confirmed the significant contribution of all the analysed hierarchical levels of variation to the total variation. The results show that the differences between the trees in a single population are the greatest factor of variability of leaves, followed by differences between populations and differences which are the result of variation in exposure to sunlight. Leaves in shade positions are typically larger than those in sunny positions, and they have broader and shorter-pointed leaflets; in this feature they are very similar to the leaves of F. excelsior. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that the traits which refer to the leaflet number and length are the best differentiating traits between individual populations. The Submediterranean population Dragonja stands out with the smallest leaves and the population Lijak from the same region is the most similar to Dragonja for most morphological traits. In general, phenotypic differences between the Subpannonian and the Submediterranean populations of F. angustifolia are minor and indistinct. Based on the differences ascertained by the study, we can only confirm the presence of F. angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa (Bieb. ex Willd. Franco et Rocha Alfonso in this part of its natural range.

  16. Essential oil composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in the mid hills of Uttarakhand, India

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    RAM S. VERMA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil content in the inflorescence of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. cultivated in the mid hills of Uttarakhand was found to be 2.8 % based on the fresh weight. The oil was analysed by capillary GC and GC–MS. Thirty seven constituents, representing 97.81 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were linalyl acetate (47.56 %, linalool (28.06 %, lavandulyl acetate (4.34 % and α-terpineol (3.75 %. The quality of lavender oil produced in India was found to be comparable to that produced in Hungary, France, China, Bulgaria, Russia and the USA.

  17. Estudio exploratorio de los laminados de bambú Guadua angustifolia como material estructural

    OpenAIRE

    López,Luis Felipe; Correal,Juan Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental, desarrollado en la Universidad de los Andes en Bogotá D.C., Colombia, acerca del potencial de los laminados de guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunt) como material estructural. La influencia de la dirección de las fibras y de la ubicación de las láminas de guadua en las propiedades mecánicas es discutida en detalle. Los esfuerzos de diseño a compresión, tracción, corte y flexión de los laminados de guadua son comparados con los resp...

  18. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  19. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Smidt, Eric de Camargo; Brotto, Marcelo Leandro; Silva-Pereira, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL) and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL). The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  20. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Bolson

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL. The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  1. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Cassia angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaladhas, T. Peter; Sivagami, S.; Akkini Devi, T.; Ananthi, N.; Priya Velammal, S.

    2012-12-01

    In this study Cassia angustifolia (senna) is used for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles having symmetric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at 420 nm were obtained within 10 min at room temperature by treating aqueous solutions of silver nitrate with C. angustifolia leaf extract. The water soluble components from the leaves, probably the sennosides, served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were poly-dispersed, spherical in shape with particle size in the range 9-31 nm, the average size was found to be 21.6 nm at pH 11. The zeta potential was -36.4 mV and the particles were stable for 6 months. The crystalline phase of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The rate of formation and size of silver nanoparticles were pH dependent. Functional groups responsible for capping of silver nanoparticles were identified from the FTIR spectrum. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Cassia angustifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Amaladhas, T; Akkini Devi, T; Ananthi, N; Priya Velammal, S; Sivagami, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study Cassia angustifolia (senna) is used for the environmentally friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles having symmetric surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at 420 nm were obtained within 10 min at room temperature by treating aqueous solutions of silver nitrate with C. angustifolia leaf extract. The water soluble components from the leaves, probably the sennosides, served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanoparticles were poly-dispersed, spherical in shape with particle size in the range 9–31 nm, the average size was found to be 21.6 nm at pH 11. The zeta potential was –36.4 mV and the particles were stable for 6 months. The crystalline phase of the nanoparticles was confirmed from the selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The rate of formation and size of silver nanoparticles were pH dependent. Functional groups responsible for capping of silver nanoparticles were identified from the FTIR spectrum. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. (paper)

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping; Wu Feibo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of Typha angustifolia leaf under chromium, cadmium and lead stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Sun Hongyan; Chen Fei; Zhou Jing; Dai Huaxin; Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The present study investigated Typha angustifolia leaf proteome in response to Cr, Cd and Pb stress. T. angustifolia of 90 (D90) and 130 d (D130) old plants were subjected to 1 mM Cr, Cd and Pb and samples were collected 30 d after treatment. 2-DE coupled with MS (mass spectrometry) was used to analyze and identify Cr, Cd and Pb-responsive proteins. More than 1600 protein spots were reproducibly detected on each gel, wherein 44, 46, 66 and 33, 26, 62 spots in D90 and D130 samples were differentially expressed by Cr, Cd, Pb over the control, respectively. Of these differentially expressed proteins, 3, 1, 8 overlapped in D90 and D130; while 5, 8, 5 with regulation factors above 3 in one of D90 or D130 samples. Total of 22 and 4 up- and down-regulated proteins were identified using MS and data bank analysis. Cr-induced expression of ATP synthase, RuBisCO small subunit and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; Cd-induced RuBisCO large subunit; Pb up-regulated carbohydrate metabolic pathway enzymes of fructokinase, and improved RuBisCO activase and large subunit, Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase. Contrarily, elF4F was inhibited by Cr/Pb, chloroplast FtsZ-like protein and GF14omega impeded by Cd and Pb, respectively.

  5. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.

  6. Effect of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Acute Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; Cavalcante, Heitor Augusto Otaviano; Cassarotti, Larissa Laila; Salvadego, Valter Eduardo Cocco; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is a plant of Lamiaceae family, with many therapeutic properties and biological activities, such as anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. essential oil (LEO) on acute inflammatory response. LEO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) methods and showed predominance of 1,8-cineole (39.83%), borneol (22.63%), and camphor (22.12%). LEO at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 3, and 10 μg/ml did not present in vitro cytotoxicity. Additionally, LEO did not stimulate the leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. The LEO topical application at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ear reduced edema formation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and nitric oxide (NO) production in croton oil-induced ear edema model. In carrageenan-induced paw edema model, LEO treatment at doses of 75, 100, and 250 mg/kg reduced edema formation, MPO activity, and NO production. In dextran-induced paw edema model, LEO at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg reduced paw edema and MPO activity. In conclusion, LEO presented anti-inflammatory activity, and the mechanism proposed of LEO seems to be, at least in part, involving the participation of prostanoids, NO, proinflammatory cytokines, and histamine. PMID:29743918

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Christian; Fink, Barbara; Festner, Maria; Dregus, Márta; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-09-15

    The essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is mainly composed of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Using a homology-based PCR strategy, two monoterpene synthases (LaLIMS and LaLINS) and one sesquiterpene synthase (LaBERS) were cloned from lavender leaves and flowers. LaLIMS catalyzed the formation of (R)-(+)-limonene, terpinolene, (1R,5S)-(+)-camphene, (1R,5R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene and traces of alpha-phellandrene. The proportions of these products changed significantly when Mn(2+) was supplied as the cofactor instead of Mg(2+). The second enzyme LaLINS produced exclusively (R)-(-)-linalool, the main component of lavender essential oil. LaBERS transformed farnesyl diphosphate and represents the first reported trans-alpha-bergamotene synthase. It accepted geranyl diphosphate with higher affinity than farnesyl diphosphate and also produced monoterpenes, albeit at low rates. LaBERS is probably derived from a parental monoterpene synthase by the loss of the plastidial signal peptide and by broadening its substrate acceptance spectrum. The identification and description of the first terpene synthases from L. angustifolia forms the basis for the biotechnological modification of essential oil composition in lavender.

  8. Functional Characterisation of Anticancer Activity in the Aqueous Extract of Helicteres angustifolia L. Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejuan Li

    Full Text Available Helicteres angustifolia L. is a shrub that forms a common ingredient of several cancer treatment recipes in traditional medicine system both in China and Laos. In order to investigate molecular mechanisms of its anticancer activity, we prepared aqueous extract of Helicteres angustifolia L. Roots (AQHAR and performed several in vitro assays using human normal fibroblasts (TIG-3 and osteosarcoma (U2OS. We found that AQHAR caused growth arrest/apoptosis of U2OS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It showed no cytotoxicity to TIG-3 cells at doses up to 50 μg/ml. Biochemical, imaging and cell cycle analyses revealed that it induces ROS signaling and DNA damage response selectively in cancer cells. The latter showed upregulation of p53, p21 and downregulation of Cyclin B1 and phospho-Rb. Furthermore, AQHAR-induced apoptosis was mediated by increase in pro-apoptotic proteins including cleaved PARP, caspases and Bax. Anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 showed decrease in AQHAR-treated U2OS cells. In vivo xenograft tumor assays in nude mice revealed dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth and lung metastasis with no toxicity to the animals suggesting that AQHAR could be a potent and safe natural drug for cancer treatment.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves and rhizomes of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Sudipta; Ray, Asit; Banerjee, Anwesha; Sahoo, Ambika; Nasim, Noohi; Sahoo, Suprava; Kar, Basudeba; Patnaik, Jeetendranath; Panda, Pratap Chandra; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-09-01

    The essential oil extracted from rhizome and leaf of Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 35 identified constituents, comprising 92.6% and 92% of total leaf and rhizome oil, respectively. Curzerenone (33.2%), 14-hydroxy-δ-cadinene (18.6%) and γ-eudesmol acetate (7.3%) were the main components in leaf oil. In rhizome oil, curzerenone (72.6%), camphor (3.3%) and germacrone (3.3%) were found to be the major constituents. Antioxidant capacities of oil were assessed by various methods, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and reducing power ability (RPA). Based on the results, the leaf oil showed more antioxidant potential as compared to rhizome oil and reference standards (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)). Thus, the leaf essential oil of C. angustifolia can be used as an alternative source of natural antioxidant.

  10. Impact of the invasive species Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. on vegetation in Pontic desert steppe zone (Southern Ukraine)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudnik-Wojcikowska, B.; Moysiyenko, I.; Slim, P.A.; Moraczewski, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Irano-Turanian species – Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) – is one of most commonly planted tree in the shelterbelts in southern Ukraine. The consequences of introduction of the species from windbreaks, into areas of different land use in west and central Pontic desert steppe zone are

  11. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  12. Lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a novel and promising natural candidate for tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2010-10-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is a well known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of L. angustifolia essential oil (EO) against engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari; Ixodidae) females. For this purpose six serial concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% w/v) of L. angustifolia EO were used. There was considerable mortality in concentrations more than 4.0% although there were no differences between 6.0 and 8.0% in all measured criteria. The mortality rate 24 h after inoculation was 73.26 and 100% in groups treated with 4.0 and 8.0% EO, respectively. Lavender EO also reduced tick egg weight in a concentration-dependent manner. The amount of eggs produced varied from 0.12 g (at 0.5% EO) to 0.00 g (at 8.0% EO) but did not differ statistically from the control. L. angustifolia EO caused 100% failure in egg laying at 6.0 and 8.0% whereas this value in the control group was zero. A positive correlation between L. angustifolia EO concentration and tick control, assessed by relative mortality rate and egg-laying weight, was observed by the EO LC/EC(50), which, when calculated using the Probit test, was 2.76-fold higher than the control. Lavender is a promising acaricidal against R. (B.) annulatus in vitro. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Lavandula angustifolia Mill. WHICH IS A PHYTOCOSMETIC SPECIES AND INVESTIGATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT IN COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Cesur Turgut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lavander (Lavandula sp. is a precious essential oil plant from the Lamiaceae family. There are 39 lavender species (Lavandula sp. most of which have Mediterranean origin and among them three have high commercial value. While the essential oil quality of the lavender species (British lavender is high the lavandin species (hybrid lavender have high essential oil yield [2, 52]. In this study, the content of the extracts obtained from Lavandula angustifolia, which were grown in Burdur Örtülü locality, was determined via HPLC and GC analysis and the anti-microbial effect of the essential oil L. angustifolia was investigated. The study was made with the dried flowers of L. angustifolia. Some of the dried flowers were extracted and the essential oil was distilled from the remaining part. Various phenolic compounds in the extract were quantitatively determined by HPLC. Quantitatively cafeic, rosemeric and the 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in the content in decreasing order. In the GC analysis 31 different compounds were determined: Linalool and Linalil Acetate having the highest concentration. Anti-microbial effect was determined against the most frequently encountered microorganisms in the cosmetics: Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus brasiliensis. According to the results it is concluded that the essential oil, L. angustifolia, can be used either directly or incorporated into the cosmetics without the necessity for any other extra preservative against the said microrganisms. According to the literature these microorganisms, which are frequently found in creams, cause various diseases. It was observed that the essential oil L. Angustifolia could completely remove the contamination caused by the said micro-organisms as of the 14. day.

  14. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy from Near-infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Górski, Marek; Gieren, Wolfgang; Bersier, David

    2017-12-01

    We have obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J and K bands for 77 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. We have used different theoretical and empirical NIR period-luminosity-metallicity calibrations for RRL stars to derive their absolute magnitudes, and found a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.818+/- 0.015{{(statistical)}}+/- 0.116{{(systematic)}} mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained within the Araucaria Project from the NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.858 ± 0.013 mag), the tip of the red giant branch (20.84+/- 0.04+/- 0.14 mag), as well as with other independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The effect of metallicity and reddening is substantially reduced in the NIR domain, making this method a robust tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level. This precision is expected to reach the level of 3% once the zero points of distance calibrations are refined thanks to the Gaia mission. NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relations of RRL stars are particularly useful for distance determinations to galaxies and globular clusters up to 300 kpc, that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids. Based on data collected with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile, as a part of programme 082.D-0123(B).

  15. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: THE DISTANCE TO THE CARINA DWARF GALAXY FROM INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF RR LYRAE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Suchomska, Ksenia; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Pilecki, Bogumił; Wielgórski, Piotr [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Graczyk, Dariusz, E-mail: pkarczmarek@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: ksenia@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: piokon@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pwielgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-09-15

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J- and K-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period–luminosity–metallicity relation for RRL stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 ± 0.017 (statistical) ± 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.165 ± 0.015) and the tip of red giant branch (20.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.12 mag in the J band, 20.14 ± 0.04 ± 0.14 mag in the K band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The NIR RRL method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids.

  16. A New Abietene Diterpene and Other Constituents from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (5S,6S,7S,9S,10S,11R,13S-abiet-8(14-enepenta-6,7,9,11,13-ol, 1, was isolated from a rhizome extract of Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. along with the known compounds crotepoxide, boesenboxide, zeylenol, 2′-hydroxy-4,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone, (24S-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11,25-dien-3β-ol, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of mass spectroscopic and NMR data. Zeylenol (2, the major constituent of the plant, was derivatized into diacetate, triacetate and epoxide derivatives through standard organic reactions. The cytotoxic activity of compounds 1, 2 and the zeylenol derivatives was evaluated against the HL-60, MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cell lines.

  17. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakusić, Branislava; Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Marcetić, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development.

  18. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L. uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at p<0.05. Leaves from low density populations showed higher stomatal density and index. These modifications on stomatal characteristics were more evident on the leaf abaxial surface. Plants from low density populations showed thicker mesophyll and higher proportion of aerenchymal area. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  19. Bornyl-diphosphate synthase from Lavandula angustifolia: A major monoterpene synthase involved in essential oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despinasse, Yolande; Fiorucci, Sébastien; Antonczak, Serge; Moja, Sandrine; Bony, Aurélie; Nicolè, Florence; Baudino, Sylvie; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Jullien, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products. Molecular modeling of the enzyme's active site suggests that the carbocation intermediates are more stable in LaBPPS than in SoBPPS leading probably to a lower efficiency of LaBPPS to convert GPP into BPP. Quantitative RT-PCR performed from leaves and flowers at different development stages of L. angustifolia samples show a clear correlation between transcript level of LaBPPS and accumulation of borneol/camphor, suggesting that LaBPPS is mainly responsible of in vivo biosynthesis of borneol/camphor in fine lavender. A phylogenetic analysis of terpene synthases (TPS) pointed out the basal position of LaBPPS in the TPSb clade, suggesting that LaBPPS could be an ancestor of others lavender TPSb. Finally, borneol could be one of the first monoterpenes to be synthesized in the Lavandula subgenus. Knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies to improve the lavender oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding. Accession numbers: LaBPPS: KM015221. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

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    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management dueto their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shadingon the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resultedin higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison tothe other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to maintain

  1. Post-planting treatments and shading effects in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Klossas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems present difficulties in their management due to their complexity. When trees are planted into grasslands, they need protection from livestock to prevent damage from trampling or browsing, especially during early years of establishment. One of the common post-planting protective treatments is the protection of individual trees with shelters. Trees also need protection from competition from herbaceous vegetation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of using different types of tree shelters and of controlling competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of planted young trees and, to assess the effects of heavy shading on the herbage production and composition. The study was conducted in a Fraxinus angustifolia silvopastoral system of a 2 x 2.5 m spacing plantation in northern Greece. The effects of solid-walled (tubex and handmade by greenhouse nylon and wire mesh tree shelters as well as of herbicide application and mechanical removal of the competing herbaceous vegetation on tree height, height increment and the crown surface area of the trees were tested. The effects of artificial shading (80% on the production of the natural herbaceous vegetation were also investigated. All measurements were recorded three years after plantation. The use of solid wall tubex shelters resulted in higher tree height and higher crown surface area in comparison to the other tested shelters. The solid wall Nylon shelters were more beneficial to the above growth parameters than the wire mesh ones. Both vegetation control treatments proved beneficial to all the growth parameters of Fraxinus angustifolia. The artificially applied heavy shading reduced herbage production by 54% compared to the control. The results indicated that post planting treatments in the Mediterranean droughty conditions are essential for the success of this tree species establishment. Furthermore, the later thinning of the dense spacing is important to

  2. Ultraestructura del bambú Guadua angustifolia var. bicolor (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, presente en Costa Rica

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    Mayra Montiel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la ultraestructura anatómica de la lámina y la vaina de la hoja, así como de la bráctea del culmo, de Guadua angustifolia var. bicolor, por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se encontraron similitudes con otras guaduas: estomas de alto domo, células largas con paredes sinuosas y células de sílice. Son propios de la var. bicolor el patrón estomático en la zona abaxial de la hoja cerca de la vaina, con la presencia de gran cantidad de tricomas ganchudos y sin papilas; las brácteas de color café dorado que cubren los culmos y tienen tricomas papilares que cubren el haz; y el abundante número de tricomas auriculares, en grupos de 12.The anatomy of several parts of Guadua angustifolia var. bicolor was analyzed and characterized under a scanning electron icroscope. any similarities ere observed with other Guadua species, particularly the presence of high dome stomata, of large cells with sinuous walls and of silica cells. Specific bicolor characteristics include (1 a different stomatal pattern in the adaxial zone of the leaf base (close to the sheath; (2 the abundance of hook-sshaped trichomes without papilla; (3 the distinctive golden brown color of the bract that covers the culm (caused by papillar trichomes that cover the adaxial sheath; and (4 the size of the groups of auricular trichomes (formed by 12 trichomes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2: 13-19. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.

  3. Rooting induction of different Lavandula angustifolia accessions by auxin applicationIndução de enraizamento em diferentes acessos de Lavandula angustifolia por meio de aplicação de auxina

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    Claudine Maria de Bona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lavandula angustifolia Miller (lavender, considered a hard to root species, is comprised of many varieties and horticultural forms, and genotypes from different provenances may present variance in rooting capacity. The objective of this experiment was to test different concentrations of indol-3-butyric acid (IBA on rooting of eight (G1 to G8 L. angustifolia genotypes from different provenances. Cuttings were treated with different doses (0 to 2000 mg L-1 of IBA. Rooting percentage (RP, root number (RN, and length of the longest root (RL were evaluated. The different accessions presented very diverse response to IBA application. IBA did not exert influence on rooting of G1, G2, and G7; was benefic to G3 until 700 mg L-1; was benefic to G4 and G6; and was prejudicial to G5 and G8; the same IBA dose which promoted better rooting on G3 (700 mg L-1 was toxic to G5; 1500 mg L-1 of IBA promoted better rooting, greater root number and length on G6 but was completely and significantly detrimental to G8. G1 and G3 presented high rooting percentages, in spite of L. angustifolia being considered a hard to root species. G4, G5 and G6, however, presented very poor rooting, compared to the other genotypes. Necessity of auxin application and adequate dose may not be generalized to L. angustifolia different accessions. Its use should be incentivized when the genotype is recalcitrant to root and auxin concentration should be adjusted to it.A Lavandula angustifolia Miller (alfazema, considerada de difícil enraizamento, apresenta muitas variedades e formas horticulturais, e genótipos de diferentes procedências podem apresentar variação na sua capacidade de enraizamento. O objetivo deste experimento foi testar diferentes concentrações de ácido indol butírico (AIB no enraizamento de oito genótipos (G1 a G8 de L. angustifolia de diferentes procedências. Estacas foram tratadas com diferentes doses (0 a 2000 mg L-1 de AIB. Porcentagem de enraizamento (RN, n

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Infección por micorrizas arbusculares en dos tipos de raíces de Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

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    P. Diehl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina. Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR and globular short roots (GSR. Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.La conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch se encuentra distribuida en los bosques Andino-Patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo se relacionaron las diferentes clases morfológicas de raíces presentes en la especie con el comportamiento micorrícico. Las muestras fueron tomadas en tres sitios del Parque Nacional Lanín (NO de Patagonia, Argentina. Se observaron dos clases diferentes de raíces: raíces finas longitudinales (RFL y raíces cortas globulares (RCG. Ambas clases

  5. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Budrovka': a comparative study with L. angustifolia Mill.

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    Blazeković, Biljana; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda; Brantner, Adelheid; Stefan, Maja Bival

    2010-08-30

    A Croatian indigenous cultivar of lavandin, Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' (Lamiaceae) was studied for the phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, procyanidins and total tannins, as well as total polyphenols content, in the flower, inflorescence stalk and leaf ethanolic extracts. Antioxidant potentials on these plant part extracts were assessed by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition properties and total antioxidant capacity assays. All results were compared with those of Lavandula angustifolia, the only member of the Lavandula genus officially used in modern phytotherapy. Based on the results of our parallel study, we may suggest that Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' is as potent an antioxidant as Lavandula angustifolia and the antioxidant activity of the Lavandula extracts is mainly due to the presence of rosmarinic acid. A good correlation was found between the polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts.

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Budrovka': A Comparative Study with L. angustifolia Mill.

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    Maja Bival Štefan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A Croatian indigenous cultivar of lavandin, Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' (Lamiaceae was studied for the phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, procyanidins and total tannins, as well as total polyphenols content, in the flower, inflorescence stalk and leaf ethanolic extracts. Antioxidant potentials on these plant part extracts were assessed by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, iron chelating activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition properties and total antioxidant capacity assays. All results were compared with those of Lavandula angustifolia, the only member of the Lavandula genus officially used in modern phytotherapy. Based on the results of our parallel study, we may suggest that Lavandula x intermedia 'Budrovka' is as potent an antioxidant as Lavandula angustifolia and the antioxidant activity of the Lavandula extracts is mainly due to the presence of rosmarinic acid. A good correlation was found between the polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts

  8. Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia Removal in the Western United States: Multi-Site Findings and Considerations for Future Research

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    Margaret Gaddis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive is an introduced tree that has become one of the dominant species in many watersheds in the American West. Although it is a target of restoration efforts, very little is known about vegetation response after removal of this exotic species. To address this gap we surveyed 25 sites in Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana where E. angustifolia was removed. We collected information regarding plant cover and richness, climate, soil characteristics, management history, and geography. We analyzed these data using regression tree modeling. Our results indicate that moisture and temperature are key environmental factors relating to restoration success as measured by abundance of native cover; lower temperatures and greater availability of water were generally associated with more native cover. These results have important implications for selection of restoration sites, and for understanding the consequences of removing this species.

  9. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

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    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  10. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Essential Oil Exerts Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Macrophage Mediated Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Giovannini, D; Gismondi, A; Basso, A; Canuti, L; Braglia, R; Canini, A; Mariani, F; Cappelli, G

    2016-01-01

    Different studies described the antibacterial properties of Lavandula angustifolia (Mill.) essential oil and its anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, no data exist on its ability to activate human macrophages during the innate response against Staphylococcus aureus. The discovery of promising regulators of macrophage-mediated inflammatory response, without side effects, could be useful for the prevention of, or as therapeutic remedy for, various inflammation-mediated diseases. This study investigated, by transcriptional analysis, how a L. angustifolia essential oil treatment influences the macrophage response to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The results showed that the treatment increases the phagocytic rate and stimulates the containment of intracellular bacterial replication by macrophages. Our data showed that this stimulation is coupled with expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species production (i.e., CYBB and NCF4). Moreover, the essential oil treatment balanced the inflammatory signaling induced by S. aureus by repressing the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors and inducing the heme oxygenase-1 gene transcription. These data showed that the L. angustifolia essential oil can stimulate the human innate macrophage response to a bacterium which is responsible for one of the most important nosocomial infection and might suggest the potential development of this plant extract as an anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory coadjutant drug.

  11. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

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    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  12. First records of three species of Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Coleóptera: Belidae in Argentina and use of a predictive model to compare their potential distribution with the range of their host-plant, Araucaria araucana Primera cita de las tres especies de Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Coleóptera: Belidae en Argentina y uso de un modelo predictivo para comparar su distribución potencial con el rango de su planta huésped, la Araucaria araucana

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    M.S. FERRER

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The first records of the three known species of Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Belidae: Oxycoryninae in Argentina are reported, and added to their known distribution in Chile. These weevils are of interest because of their association with the pehuén or monkey puzzle tree, Araucaria araucana, a species of conservation concern. Their distribution data are of value for the protection of biodiversity in natural areas of Patagonia. The potential distribution of Oxycraspedus, as predicted by a model using bioclimatic variables, is coincident as expected, with the geographic range of the araucaria host-plantSe reportan por primera vez en Argentina las tres especies de Oxycraspedus Kuschel (Belidae: Oxycoryninae y se añaden a su distribución en Chile. Estos gorgojos son de interés debido a su asociación con el pehuén Araucaria araucana, una especie de gran interés en temas de conservación. Los datos sobre su distribución son valiosos para proteger la biodiversidad en áreas de la Patagonia. La distribución potencial de Oxycraspedus predicha por un modelo a partir de variables bioclimáticas, es coincidente, como se esperaba, con el rango geográfico de su planta huésped, la araucaria

  13. Chromosome studies on Brazilian cerrado plants

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    Eliana Regina Forni-Martins

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado is the Brazilian name for the neotropical savanna, which occurs mainly in Brazilian Central Plateau, composed of herbaceous-subshrubby and shrubby-arboreal floras, both of which are heliophilous, highly diverse and regionally differentiated. Considering species distribution and chromosome numbers, some authors have proposed that the herbaceous-subshrubby flora of the neotropical savanna is quite old, while the shrubby-arboreal flora is derived from forests, a hypothesis that implies higher chromosome numbers in the savanna than in the forest. If, however, chromosome numbers are similar in the cerrado and in forests, both could be similarly old, indicating that bi-directional flow of flora occurred in the past. This paper presents data on chromosome numbers and microsporogenesis for 20 species in 13 families collected in the States of São Paulo, Goiás and Minas Gerais, providing previously unpublished data for Myrcia (Myrtaceae, Luxemburgia (Ochnaceae and Hortia (Rutaceae. Meiosis proved to be normal, indicating regularity in the sexual reproductive process. Chromosome numbers varied from 2n = 18 (Allamanda angustifolia: Apocynaceae to 2n = ca. 104 (Ouratea spectabilis: Ochnaceae, being low (20 Cerrado é a palavra que, no Brasil, designa a savana neotropical, com área nuclear no Planalto Central, constituída de uma flora herbáceo-subarbustiva e outra arbustivo-arbórea, ambas heliófilas, altamente diversificadas e regionalmente diferenciadas. Considerando a distribuição de espécies e de números cromossômicos, alguns autores propuseram que a flora herbáceo-subarbustiva da savanna neotropical seria bastante antiga, enquanto a flora arbustivo-arbórea seria derivada das florestas Atlântica e Amazônica, uma hipótese que implica na ocorrência de números cromossômicos mais altos no cerrado que nas florestas. Porém, se os números cromossômicos forem similares no cerrado e nas florestas, ambos os tipos de formação poderiam

  14. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

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    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  15. Formation and distribution of sennosides in cassia angustifolia, as determined by a sensitive and specific radioimmunnoassay

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    Atzorn, R.; Weiler, E.W.; Zenk, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of (/sup 3/H)-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, (/sup 3/H)-sennoside A and (/sup 3/H)-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in Cassia angustifolia VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60/sup 0/C.

  16. Formation and distribution of sennosides in cassia angustifolia, as determined by a sensitive and specific radioimmunnoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzorn, R.; Weiler, E.W.; Zenk, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of nanogram-amounts of sennoside B and related compounds in plant extracts is described. The assay makes use of [ 3 H]-8-glucosidorheinanthrone of high specific activity (5.2 Ci/mmol) whose synthesis is reported here. From this material, [ 3 H]-sennoside A and [ 3 H]-sennoside B have also been synthesized. The assay is applied to the analysis of sennoside formation and distribution in Cassia angustifolia VAHL. High levels of sennosides in dried leaves and fruits have been observed whereas the seed alone, as well as stems and roots, contain very little sennoside. In flowers, as much as 4-5% of the dry weight consists of sennoside B and other immunoreactive constituents. Sennosides have been found in cotyledons of three day old seedlings in concentrations comparable to that of the mature leaf. Upon dehydration, leaf levels of sennoside B rise steadily, this rise being inversely correlated with the water loss. The absolute levels of sennoside B formed this way are the same as compared to rapid drying at 60 0 C. (orig.)

  17. Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets

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    Víctor López

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lavender essential oil is traditionally used and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA as herbal medicine to relieve stress and anxiety. Some animal and clinical studies reveal positive results in models of anxiety and depression although very little research has been done on molecular mechanisms. Our work consisted of evaluating the effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on central nervous system well-established targets, such as MAO-A, SERT, GABAAand NMDA receptors as well as in vitro models of neurotoxicity. The results showed that lavender essential oil and its main components exert affinity for the glutamate NMDA-receptor in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.04 μl/mL for lavender oil. In addition, lavender and linalool were also able to bind the serotonin transporter (SERT whereas they did not show affinity for GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor. In three different models of neurotoxicity, lavender did not enhance the neurotoxic insult and improved viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. According to our data, the anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects attributed to lavender may be due to an antagonism on the NMDA-receptor and inhibition of SERT. This study suggests that lavender essential oil may exert pharmacological properties via modulating the NMDA receptor, the SERT as well as neurotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  19. Hydrophobic modification of cellulose isolated from Agave angustifolia fibre by graft copolymerisation using methyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan; Mohamed, Faizal

    2015-07-10

    Graft copolymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto Agave angustifolia was conducted with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the redox initiator. The maximum grafting efficiency was observed at CAN and MMA concentrations of 0.91 × 10(-3) and 5.63 × 10(-2)M, respectively, at 45°C for 3h reaction time. Four characteristic peaks at 2995, 1738, 1440, and 845 cm(-1), attributed to PMMA, were found in the IR spectrum of grafted cellulose. The crystallinity index dropped from 0.74 to 0.46, while the thermal stability improved upon grafting. The water contact angle increased with grafting yield, indicating increased hydrophobicity of cellulose. SEM images showed the grafted cellulose to be enlarged and rougher. The changes in the physical nature of PMMA-grafted cellulose can be attributed to the PMMA grafting in the amorphous regions of cellulose, causing it to expand at the expense of the crystalline component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic of biochemical soil properties in rainfed agave angustifolia haw. fields in semiard zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A. B.; Cervantes, T. L.; Pacheco, R. P.; Martinez, M. D. L. R.; Perez, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined (a) the activity of the selected enzymes of C (invertase and cellulase), N (urease), P (acid phosphatase, AcP and alkaline phosphatase, AlkP) cycling, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) in the rhizosphere of Agave angustifolia Haw. (maguey espadin) cultivated in valley, hill and mountain soils in Tlacolula, Oaxaca (Mexico), and (b) changes in selected biochemical soil properties associated with seasonality and plant age. Three maguey espadin plantations with two replicates per topography were selected. Rhizosphere soil sampling was carried out for one year. AcP and urease activities were highest in mountain sites. AlkP and cellulase activities were highest in hill and mountain sites. Invertase activity and SMBC were not different among sites. Phosphatase activity showed no temporal changes. Cellulase and invertase activities were highest in December; maximum urease activity was in October and February. SMBC was highest in August. AcP activity was highest in 0-2 years old plants. AlkP activity and SMBC were highest in 2.1-4 years old plants. Urease, cellulase and invertase activity was not affected by plant age. Significant effects for the site*seasonality*plant age interaction suggest that biochemical soil properties were influenced by site. Mountain soils displayed the highest enzyme activity, which can accelerate soil organic matter turnover and contribute to the longterm sustainability of maguey espadin cropping under rainfed conditions. (author)

  1. Phytochemicals from Kaempferia angustifolia Rosc. and Their Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities

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    Sook Wah Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on rhizomes of Kaempferia angustifolia has afforded a new abietene diterpene, kaempfolienol (1 along with crotepoxide (2, boesenboxide (3, 2′-hydroxy-4,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone (4, zeylenol (5, 6-methylzeylenol (6, (24S-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11, 25-dien-3β-ol (7, sucrose, β-sitosterol, and its glycoside (8. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, and NMR. Isolation of 6-methylzeylenol (6, (24S-24-methyl-5α-lanosta-9(11, 25-dien-3β-ol (7, and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 from this plant species has never been reported previously. The spectroscopic data of (7 is firstly described in this paper. Cytotoxic screening indicated that most of the pure compounds tested showed significant activity with (4 showing the most potent activity against HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia and MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell lines. However, all extracts and most of the pure compounds tested were found to be inactive against HT-29 (human colon cancer and HeLa (human cervical cancer cell lines. Similarly, none of the extracts or compounds showed activity in the antimicrobial testing.

  2. Evaluation of Anti-Oxidant Activity of Lavandula angustifolia using DPPH Method

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    Masoud Soheili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress oxidative factors are known to causes diseases resulting from metabolic disorders. Therefore, preventing, or at least decreasing the amount of these factors may have a positive impact on prevention or improvement of the metabolic problems. Recently, the herbal medicines are more considered due to more effectiveness. We designed the present study to evaluate anti-oxidant effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia. Materials and Methods: For extract preparation, the dry aerial part of lavender mixed with boiling water for 4 hours and then the container was filtered and condensed in a bain marie. Finally, the extract was powdered by freeze dryer. The anti-oxidant activities of the herbal medicine samples in 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm concentrations were determined via DPPH method. This method is based on free radical scavenging of 2, 2- dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH reflected in the color and absorbance changes in spectrophotometery method in 520 nm. Finally the IC50 was calculated and compared with that of for vitamin C as a standard. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract of the lavender showed dose- dependent potent anti-oxidant activity, So that, their differences were significant compared to control sample. The IC50 of the herbal medicine was 24.66 ppm that was less than the vitamin C of 2.3 ppm. Conclusion: As a potent anti-oxidant, the lavender aqueous extract can be effective in treatment of metabolic diseases.

  3. Lavandula angustifolia extract improves deteriorated synaptic plasticity in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Masoud; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Salami, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Neurodegenerative Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with profound deficits in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP), an experimental form of synaptic plasticity, is intensively examined in hippocampus. In this study we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) on induction of LTP in the CA1 area of hippocampus. In response to stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals the baseline or tetanized field extracellular postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 area. Materials and Methods: The electrophysiological recordings were carried out in four groups of rats; two control groups including the vehicle (CON) and lavender (CE) treated rats and two Alzheimeric groups including the vehicle (ALZ) and lavender (AE) treated animals. Results: The extract inefficiently affected the baseline responses in the four testing groups. While the fEPSPs displayed a considerable LTP in the CON animals, no potentiation was evident in the tetanized responses in the ALZ rats. The herbal medicine effectively restored LTP in the AE group and further potentiated fEPSPs in the CE group. Conclusion: The positive effect of the lavender extract on the plasticity of synaptic transmission supports its previously reported behavioral effects on improvement of impaired spatial memory in the Alzheimeric animals. PMID:26949505

  4. Lavandula angustifolia extract improves deteriorated synaptic plasticity in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Masoud; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Salami, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with profound deficits in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP), an experimental form of synaptic plasticity, is intensively examined in hippocampus. In this study we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) on induction of LTP in the CA1 area of hippocampus. In response to stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals the baseline or tetanized field extracellular postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 area. The electrophysiological recordings were carried out in four groups of rats; two control groups including the vehicle (CON) and lavender (CE) treated rats and two Alzheimeric groups including the vehicle (ALZ) and lavender (AE) treated animals. The extract inefficiently affected the baseline responses in the four testing groups. While the fEPSPs displayed a considerable LTP in the CON animals, no potentiation was evident in the tetanized responses in the ALZ rats. The herbal medicine effectively restored LTP in the AE group and further potentiated fEPSPs in the CE group. The positive effect of the lavender extract on the plasticity of synaptic transmission supports its previously reported behavioral effects on improvement of impaired spatial memory in the Alzheimeric animals.

  5. Lavandula angustifolia extract improves deteriorated synaptic plasticity in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soheili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Neurodegenerative Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with profound deficits in synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP, an experimental form of synaptic plasticity, is intensively examined in hippocampus. In this study we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia on induction of LTP in the CA1 area of hippocampus. In response to stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals the baseline or tetanized field extracellular postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs were recorded in the CA1 area. Materials and Methods: The electrophysiological recordings were carried out in four groups of rats; two control groups including the vehicle (CON and lavender (CE treated rats and two Alzheimeric groups including the vehicle (ALZ and lavender (AE treated animals. Results: The extract inefficiently affected the baseline responses in the four testing groups. While the fEPSPs displayed a considerable LTP in the CON animals, no potentiation was evident in the tetanized responses in the ALZ rats. The herbal medicine effectively restored LTP in the AE group and further potentiated fEPSPs in the CE group. Conclusion:The positive effect of the lavender extract on the plasticity of synaptic transmission supports its previously reported behavioral effects on improvement of impaired spatial memory in the Alzheimeric animals.

  6. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

  7. Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets

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    López, Víctor; Nielsen, Birgitte; Solas, Maite; Ramírez, Maria J.; Jäger, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Lavender essential oil is traditionally used and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as herbal medicine to relieve stress and anxiety. Some animal and clinical studies reveal positive results in models of anxiety and depression although very little research has been done on molecular mechanisms. Our work consisted of evaluating the effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil on central nervous system well-established targets, such as MAO-A, SERT, GABAAand NMDA receptors as well as in vitro models of neurotoxicity. The results showed that lavender essential oil and its main components exert affinity for the glutamate NMDA-receptor in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.04 μl/mL for lavender oil. In addition, lavender and linalool were also able to bind the serotonin transporter (SERT) whereas they did not show affinity for GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor. In three different models of neurotoxicity, lavender did not enhance the neurotoxic insult and improved viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. According to our data, the anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects attributed to lavender may be due to an antagonism on the NMDA-receptor and inhibition of SERT. This study suggests that lavender essential oil may exert pharmacological properties via modulating the NMDA receptor, the SERT as well as neurotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. PMID:28579958

  8. Substrate promiscuity of a rosmarinic acid synthase from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Christian; Hücherig, Stefanie; Fink, Barbara; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dittlein, Daniela; Coiner, Heather A; Schwab, Wilfried

    2011-08-01

    One of the most common types of modification of secondary metabolites is the acylation of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing substrates to produce esters and amides, respectively. Among the known acyltransferases, the members of the plant BAHD family are capable of acylating a wide variety of substrates. Two full-length acyltransferase cDNAs (LaAT1 and 2) were isolated from lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia L.) by reverse transcriptase-PCR using degenerate primers based on BAHD sequences. Recombinant LaAT1 exhibited a broad substrate tolerance accepting (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-CoAs as acyl donors and not only tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and anthranilic acid but also shikimic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid as acceptors. Thus, LaLT1 forms esters and amides like its phylogenetic neighbors. In planta LaAT1 might be involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid, the ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, a major constituent of lavender flowers. LaAT2 is one of three members of clade VI with unknown function.

  9. ANGUSTIFOLIA mediates one of the multiple SCRAMBLED signaling pathways regulating cell growth pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Song, Sang-Kee; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2015-09-25

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SCRAMBLED (SCM), is required for multiple developmental processes including root epidermal cell fate determination, silique dehiscence, inflorescence growth, ovule morphogenesis, and tissue morphology. Previous work suggested that SCM regulates these multiple pathways using distinct mechanisms via interactions with specific downstream factors. ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) is known to regulate cell and tissue morphogenesis by influencing cortical microtubule arrangement, and recently, the AN protein was reported to interact with the SCM protein. Therefore, we examined whether AN might be responsible for mediating some of the SCM-dependent phenotypes. We discovered that both scm and an mutant lines cause an abnormal spiral or twisting growth of roots, but only the scm mutant affected root epidermal patterning. The siliques of the an and scm mutants also exhibited spiral growth, as previously reported, but only the scm mutant altered silique dehiscence. Interestingly, we discovered that the spiral growth of roots and siliques of the scm mutant is rescued by a truncated SCM protein that lacks its kinase domain, and that a juxtamembrane domain of SCM was sufficient for AN binding in the yeast two-hybrid analysis. These results suggest that the AN protein is one of the critical downstream factors of SCM pathways specifically responsible for mediating its effects on cell/tissue morphogenesis through cortical microtubule arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prebiotic Potential of Agave angustifolia Haw Fructans with Different Degrees of Polymerization

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    José Rodolfo Velázquez-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inulin-type fructans are the most studied prebiotic compounds because of their broad range of health benefits. In particular, plants of the Agave genus are rich in fructans. Agave-derived fructans have a branched structure with both β-(2→1 and β-(2→6 linked fructosyl chains attached to the sucrose start unit with a degree of polymerization (DP of up to 80 fructose units. The objective of this work was to assess the prebiotic potential of three Agave angustifolia Haw fructan fractions (AFF with different degrees of polymerization. The three fructan fractions were extracted from the agave stem by lixiviation and then purified by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography: AFF1, AFF2 and AFF3 with high (3–60 fructose units, medium (2–40 and low (2–22 DP, respectively. The fructan profile was determined with high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD, which confirmed a branched fructan structure. Structural elucidation was performed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. The AFF spectrum shows characteristic fructan bands. The prebiotic effect of these fractions was assessed in vitro through fermentation by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Four growth patterns were observed. Some bacteria did not grow with any of the AFF, while other strains grew with only AFF3. Some bacteria grew according to the molecular weight of the AFF and some grew indistinctly with the three fructan fractions.

  11. Environmental heterogeneity explains the genetic structure of Continental and Mediterranean populations of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.

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    Martina Temunović

    Full Text Available Tree species with wide distributions often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in a wind-pollinated Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl, within a recognised glacial refugium in Croatia. We sampled 11 populations from environmentally divergent habitats within the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographical regions. We combined genetic data analyses based on nuclear microsatellite loci, multivariate statistics on environmental data and ecological niche modelling (ENM. We identified a geographic structure with a high genetic diversity and low differentiation in the Continental region, which contrasted with the significantly lower genetic diversity and higher population divergence in the Mediterranean region. The positive and significant correlation between environmental and genetic distances after controlling for geographic distance suggests an important influence of ecological divergence of the sites in shaping genetic variation. The ENM provided support for niche differentiation between the populations from the Continental and Mediterranean regions, suggesting that contemporary populations may represent two divergent ecotypes. Ecotype differentiation was also supported by multivariate environmental and genetic distance analyses. Our results suggest that despite extensive gene flow in continental areas, long-term stability of heterogeneous environments have likely promoted genetic divergence of ashes in this region and can explain the present-day genetic variation patterns of these ancient populations.

  12. Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the growth of Agave angustifolia Haw (Maguey Espadin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.B.; Gutierrez, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth of maguey espadin (Agave angustifolia Haw.). A total of nine strains of PSB, previously isolated in the maguey rhizosphere and identified as PSBVa, PSBVb, PSBVf, PSBHa, PSBHc, PSBHd, PSBMg, PSBMh and PSBMi were tested on maguey plants grown in phosphorus-deficient sterilized and unsterilized soils of three sites where maguey is grown (valley, hill and mountain) under greenhouse conditions. Aerial dry weight and the total weight of maguey plants inoculated with PSBMh in unsterile mountain soil increased by 12.14% and 10.99% respectively, compared with the uninoculated control. Total root dry weight increased by 17.85% with PSBMh in sterile mountain soils and by 11.64% with PSBMg in unsterile mountain soils, with respect to the uninoculated sterile and unsterile control respectively. Plant stem diameter increased by 13.61% with PSBVb in unsterile valley soil, compared to the uninoculated control. Root length was 56.84% higher with PSBMi in unsterile mountain soils than the uninoculated control. Plant leaf number increased by 35% with PSBHd in unsterile hill soil, with respect to the uninoculated control. In all treatments, the available phosphorus at harvest was higher than pre-planting levels. This study suggests that isolated PSBMh, PSBMg and PSBMi are the most efficient biofertilizers for maguey espadin cultivation. (author)

  13. Lead pollution due to exhaust gases. [Celtis occidentalis; fraxinus angustifolia; aesculus hippocastanum; hedera helix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinscek, P

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the changes in the lead content of trees and shrubs on the Margaret island in Budapest as a response to the reduction in motor-vehicle traffic introduced in 1974. Compared to samples of the control area (Vacratot) the Margaret island samples were found to have a considerable higher lead content. As a consequence of the traffic modifying measure a 30% decrease in the lead content of the samples was verified. The lead pollution did not involve changes in the chlorophyll content of samples. Accumulation of lead pollution is a specific feature. Lead pollution is accumulated to a great extent (multiple of other plants) by the pilose-leaved CELTIS occidentalis, the pinnate-leaved FRAXINUS angustifolia, ssp. pannonica and the undulate-leaved AESCULUS hippocastanum as well as from among the evergreen by the stellate-hair HEDERA helix. The green belt bordering the roads by its active lead cumulation plays an important role in lessening the plumb pollution of areas more distant from the road. 14 references 3 tables.

  14. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  15. Phytoremediation potential of Cd and Zn by wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta L. Schott., Cyperus malaccensis Lam. and Typha angustifolia L. grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayapan, P; Kruatrachue, M; Meetam, M; Pokethitiyook, P

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium and zinc phytoremediation potential of wetland plants, Colocasia esculenta, Cyperus malaccensis, and Typha angustifolia, was investigated. Plants were grown for 15 days in nutrient solutions containing various concentrations of Cd (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg l(-1)) and Zn (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 mg l(-1)). T angustifolia was tolerant to both metals as indicated by high RGR when grown in 50 mg I(-1) Cd and 100 mg I(-1) Zn solutions. All these plants accumulated more metals in their underground parts and > 100 mg kg(-1) in their aboveground with TF values 10,000 mg kg(-1) in its aboveground parts with TF > 1. T angustifolia exhibited highest biomass production and highest Cd and Zn uptake, confirming that this plant is a suitable candidate for treating of Cd contaminated soil/sediments.

  16. Induction of quadrangular shapes to stems of Guadua angustifolia Kunth for the business development in the rural communities of Ecuadorian Amazon

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    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local development at indigenous communities from Ecuadorian Amazonía, may develop their potentialities and improve families’ incomes. In sector San José, cantón Mera, province Pastaza (Ecuador, the induction of square shape in G. angustifolia stems was studied using an adjustable metallic mold during three time intervals (15, 30 and 45 days. Square shape in stems of G. angustifolia was observed once metallic mold was used in shoots proliferation stage with 50 cm of height. It was obtained a 60.93 % of perimeter of stem with plane surface and six induced nodes. Metallic molds affected in approximately 55% the elongation of induced nodes, limiting stems normal length. By means of the induction of square shape in stems of G. angustifolia, members from farmer’s communities may develop agricultural production and commercialization to generate micro-enterprising and improve their life quality

  17. Muscarinic receptors, nitric oxide formation and cyclooxygenase pathway involved in tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhshesh, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) Mill. (Common name Lavender) is used in traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases including respiratory disorders worldwide. The relaxant effect of the plant on the smooth muscle of some tissues was shown previously. The present study has investigated the role of different receptors and pathways in the relaxant effect of L. angustifolia on tracheal smooth muscle. Cumulative concentrations of the hydro-ethanolic extract of L. angustifolia flowers (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml) were added on pre-contracted tracheal smooth muscle by methacholine (10 μM) or KCl (60 mM) on non-preincubated or preincubated tissues with atropine, chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, indomethacin, ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and papaverine. The results compared with of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) as positive control and saline (1 ml) as negative control. The extract showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects in non-preincubated tracheal smooth muscle contracted by KCl and methacholine (p effect ofL. angustifolia was not significantly different between non-preincubated and preincubated tissues with chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, and papaverine. However, two higher concentrations of L. angustifolia in preincubated tissues with L-NAME (p effects than non-preincubated tissues. The EC 50 values of L. angustifolia in tissues preincubated with indomethacin was significantly higher than non-preincubated trachea (p effects of three first concentrations of the extract on KCl and methacholine-induced muscle contraction were significantly lower than those of theophylline (p effect ofL. angustifolia that was lower than the effect of theophylline. The possible mechanisms of relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal smooth muscle are muscarinic receptors blockade, inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathways and/or involvement of nitric oxide production

  18. Assessment of the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia extract on the contusive model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats

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    Gholamreza eKaka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpinal cord injury (SCI involves a primary trauma and secondary cellular processes that can lead to severe damage to the nervous system, resulting in long-term spinal deficits. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis, of which glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP is a major index. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia (Lav on the repair of spinal cord injuries in Wistar rats.Materials and MethodsForty-five female rats were randomly divided into six groups of seven rats each: the intact, sham, control (SCI, Lav 100, Lav 200, and Lav 400 groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB score. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions post-injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction.Results BBB scores were significantly increased and delayed responses on sensory tests were significantly decreased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. The greatest decrease of GFAP was evident in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups. EMG results showed significant improvement in the hindlimbs in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. Cavity areas significantly decreased and the number of ventral motor neurons significantly increased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups.ConclusionLav at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg can promote structural and functional recovery after SCI. The neuroprotective effects of L. angustifolia can lead to improvement in the contusive model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats.Keywords Spinal cord injury (SCI; Lavandula angustifolia; neuroprotection; Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB; glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; somatosensory evoked potential (SEP

  19. Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

  20. Comparison of EDTA- and citric acid-enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals in artificially metal contaminated soil by Typha angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Dawood; Chen, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2009-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant height and biomass, compared with the control, and stunted plant growth, while 2.5 and 5 mM CA addition induced significant increases in root dry weight. EDTA, and 5 and 10 mM CA significantly increased shoot Cd, Pb, and Cr concentrations compared with the control, with EDTA being more effective. At final harvest, the highest shoot Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations were recorded in the treatment of 5 mM EDTA addition, while maximal root Pb concentration was found at the 2.5 mM CA treatment. However, shoot Cd accumulation in the 10 mM CA treatment was 36.9% higher than that in 2.5 mM EDTA, and similar with that in 10 mM EDTA. Shoot Pb accumulation was lower in 10 mM CA than that in EDTA treatments. Further, root Cd, Cu, and Pb accumulation of CA treatments and shoot Cr accumulation in 5 or 10 mM CA treatments were markedly higher than that of control and EDTA treatments. The results also showed that EDTA dramatically increased the dissolution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd in soil, while CA addition had less effect on water-soluble Cu, Cr, and Cd, and no effect on Pb levels. It is suggested that CA can be a good chelator candidate for T. angustifolia used for environmentally safe phytoextraction of Cd and Cr in soils.

  1. Hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)--their chemical composition as well as aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinowska, Renata; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2016-01-01

    It was shown that the method for obtaining hydrolates from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) influences the content of active compounds and the aromatic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the hydrolates. The content of volatile organic compounds ranged from 9.12 to 97.23 mg/100 mL of hydrolate. Lavender hydrolate variants showed low antimicrobial activity (from 0% to 0.05%). The radical scavenging activity of DPPH was from 3.6 ± 0.5% to 3.8 ± 0.6% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) results were from 0 to 266 μM Trolox equivalent, depending on the hydrolate variant.

  2. Efficacy of Elaeagnus angustifolia Topical Gel in the Treatment of Symptomatic Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Beigom Taheri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy of 19% Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA topical gel in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. Patients with symptomatic oral lichen planus referring to the Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate in the study. Twenty-eight patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with lichen planus were divided into two groups (15 in the case and 13 in the control groups. The subjects were randomly assigned to either topical gel of EA or placebo in a double-blind manner. They were then instructed to apply the medication on dried lesions three times daily. Pain and size of the lesions were evaluated after 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by SPSS 12.0 software, using t-test, paired t-test, Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test. Results. Twenty-eight patients (m/f: 7/21 with symptomatic oral lichen planus participated in the study. Fifteen patients (m/f: 4/11 received E A gel and 13 patients (m/f: 3/10 received placebo. There was a 75% decrease in pain (33.3% in the case and 7.7% in the control groups, and a decrease of 50% in size (33.3% in the case group and 75% only in 7.6% of the case group. Conclusion. The results suggest that 19% EA gel is efficient in the treatment of symptomatic oral lichen planus, with antiinflammatory and analgesic effects, as well.

  3. Spatially Different Tissue-Scale Diffusivity Shapes ANGUSTIFOLIA3 Gradient in Growing Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawade, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2017-09-05

    The spatial gradient of signaling molecules is pivotal for establishing developmental patterns of multicellular organisms. It has long been proposed that these gradients could arise from the pure diffusion process of signaling molecules between cells, but whether this simplest mechanism establishes the formation of the tissue-scale gradient remains unclear. Plasmodesmata are unique channel structures in plants that connect neighboring cells for molecular transport. In this study, we measured cellular- and tissue-scale kinetics of molecular transport through plasmodesmata in Arabidopsis thaliana developing leaf primordia by fluorescence recovery assays. These trans-scale measurements revealed biophysical properties of diffusive molecular transport through plasmodesmata and revealed that the tissue-scale diffusivity, but not the cellular-scale diffusivity, is spatially different along the leaf proximal-to-distal axis. We found that the gradient in cell size along the developmental axis underlies this spatially different tissue-scale diffusivity. We then asked how this diffusion-based framework functions in establishing a signaling gradient of endogenous molecules. ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) is a transcriptional co-activator, and as we have shown here, it forms a long-range signaling gradient along the leaf proximal-to-distal axis to determine a cell-proliferation domain. By genetically engineering AN3 mobility, we assessed each contribution of cell-to-cell movement and tissue growth to the distribution of the AN3 gradient. We constructed a diffusion-based theoretical model using these quantitative data to analyze the AN3 gradient formation and demonstrated that it could be achieved solely by the diffusive molecular transport in a growing tissue. Our results indicate that the spatially different tissue-scale diffusivity is a core mechanism for AN3 gradient formation. This provides evidence that the pure diffusion process establishes the formation of the long-range signaling

  4. A genomics resource for investigating regulation of essential oil production in Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alexander; Boecklemann, Astrid; Woronuk, Grant N; Sarker, Lukman; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2010-03-01

    We are developing Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) as a model system for investigating molecular regulation of essential oil (a mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes) production in plants. As an initial step toward building the necessary 'genomics toolbox' for this species, we constructed two cDNA libraries from lavender leaves and flowers, and obtained sequence information for 14,213 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Based on homology to sequences present in GenBank, our EST collection contains orthologs for genes involved in the 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) and the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathways of terpenoid biosynthesis, and for known terpene synthases and prenyl transferases. To gain insight into the regulation of terpene metabolism in lavender flowers, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the genes encoding for 1-deoxy-D: -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), which represent regulatory steps of the DXP and MVA pathways, respectively, in glandular trichomes (oil glands) by real-time PCR. While HMGR transcripts were barely detectable, DXS was heavily expressed in this tissue, indicating that essential oil constituents are predominantly produced through the DXP pathway in lavender glandular trichomes. As anticipated, the linalool synthase (LinS)-the gene responsible for the production of linalool, a major constituent of lavender essential oil-was also strongly expressed in glands. Surprisingly, the most abundant transcript in floral glandular trichomes corresponded to a sesquiterpene synthase (cadinene synthase, CadS), although sesquiterpenes are minor constituents of lavender essential oils. This result, coupled to the weak activity of the MVA pathway (the main route for sesquiterpene production) in trichomes, indicates that precursor supply may represent a bottleneck in the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in lavender flowers.

  5. Cloning and functional characterization of β-phellandrene synthase from Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zerihun A; Sarker, Lukman S; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2011-04-01

    En route to building genomics resources for Lavandula, we have obtained over 14,000 ESTs for leaves and flowers of L. angustifolia, a major essential oil crop, and identified a number of previously uncharacterized terpene synthase (TPS) genes. Here we report the cloning, expression in E. coli, and functional characterization of β-phellandrene synthase, LaβPHLS. The ORF--excluding the transit peptide--for this gene encoded a 62.3 kDa protein that contained all conserved motifs present in plant TPSs. Expression in bacteria resulted in the production of a soluble protein that was purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography. While the recombinant LaβPHLS did not utilize FPP as a substrate, it converted GPP (the preferred substrate) and NPP into β-phellandrene as the major product, with K (m) and k (cat) of 6.55 μM and 1.75 × 10(-2) s(-1), respectively, for GPP. The LaβPHLS transcripts were highly abundant in young leaves where β-phellandrene is produced, but were barely detectable in flowers and older leaves, where β-phellandrene is not synthesized in significant quantities. This data indicate that β-phellandrene biosynthesis is transcriptionally and developmentally regulated. We also cloned and expressed in E. coli a second TPS-like protein, LaTPS-I, that lacks an internal stretch of 73 amino acids, including the signature DDxxD divalent metal binding motif, compared to other plant TPSs. The recombinant LaTPS-I did not produce detectable products in vitro when assayed with GPP, NPP or FPP as substrates. The lack of activity is most likely due to the absence of catalytically important amino acid residues within the missing region.

  6. Protein Drug Targets of Lavandula angustifolia on treatment of Rat Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zali, Hakimeh; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Akbar-zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment strategies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are being studied for treating or slowing the progression of AD. Many pharmaceutically important regulation systems operate through proteins as drug targets. Here, we investigate the drug target proteins in beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected rat hippocampus treated with Lavandula angustifolia (LA) by proteomics techniques. The reported study showed that lavender extract (LE) improves the spatial performance in AD animal model by diminishing Aβ production in histopathology of hippocampus, so in this study neuroprotective proteins expressed in Aβ injected rats treated with LE were scrutinized. Rats were divided into three groups including normal, Aβ injected, and Aβ injected that was treated with LE. Protein expression profiles of hippocampus tissue were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) method and dysregulated proteins such as Snca, NF-L, Hspa5, Prdx2, Apoa1, and Atp5a1were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. KEGG pathway and gene ontology (GO) categories were used by searching DAVID Bioinformatics Resources. All detected protein spots were used to determine predictedinteractions with other proteins in STRING online database. Different isoforms of important protein, Snca that exhibited neuroprotective effects by anti-apoptotic properties were expressed. NF-L involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. Hspa5 likewise Prdx2 displays as anti-apoptotic protein that Prdx2 also involved in the neurotrophic effects. Apoa1 has anti-inflammatory activity and Atp5a1, produces ATP from ADP. To sum up, these proteins as potential drug targets were expressed in hippocampus in response to effective components in LA may have therapeutic properties for the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25561935

  7. Ecosystem Services and Potential Utilization of of Urban Typha angustifolia Wetlands of across Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrairat, S.

    2014-12-01

    Over half the world's 7.2 billion population are living in urban habitats. While these cities only occupy 2% of the world's surface, the ecological footprint by these cities combined is far greater than that of the other 98% of the world. Bangkok, Thailand has experienced this rapid urbanization that has resulted in various environmental problems, including pollution, land subsidence, and flooding. Major flooding in 2011 has raised awareness about the importance of restoring ecosystem services in urban space to cope up with the forecasted extreme climatic conditions. Finding localized flooding, carbon and pollution mitigation methods will be important to cities. Upland reforestration has been proposed as a way to decrease these anthropogenic and climate change impacts. However, there is also a large area of wetlands in Bangkok with possibly high ecosystem services that have not been quantified. This study measure above ground and below ground carbon accumulation in wide-spread Typha angustifolia wetlands as an untapped source of ecosystem services that are worth projected. These wetlands are typically viewed as wasteland and are not being protected. We examined carbon and heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu) pools in 7 wetlands across Bangkok with various environmental settings--from industrialized zone, to residential area, farms, and protected urban green space. The results indicate recent peat accumulation layer by these wetlands at high rate. Heavy concentration are found near contaminant source such as industries and farms. Combined with their ability to buffer storms and being habitats for wildlife, these wetlands have important values in increasing ecosystem services in urban space and should be considered for protection.

  8. Meiotic restitution mechanisms involved in the formation of 2n pollen in Agave tequilana Weber and Agave angustifolia Haw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A cytological analysis of the microsporogenesis was carried out in the Agave tequilana and A. angustifolia species. Several abnormalities such as chromosomal bridges, lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, monads, dyads and triads were found. The morphological analysis of the pollen, together with the above-mentioned 2n microspores, allowed us to confirm the presence of 2n pollen as well as its frequency. In both A. tequilana and A. angustifolia two different mechanisms were observed: the first mechanism, a failure in the cytokinesis in meiosis II caused the formation of dyads with two 2n cells and triads containing two n cells and one 2n cell; the second mechanism, involves an abnormal spindle, which caused the formation of triads with two n cells and one 2n cell. Likewise, the presence of monads was detected in both species, these, might be caused by a failure of the cytokinesis in both meiotic divisions. This is the first report about the presence of a Second Division Restitution mechanism (SDR) which causes the formation of 2n pollen in the genus Agave. The genetic implications of the presence of 2n pollen in the genus Agave are discussed.

  9. Physiological differences and changes in global DNA methylation levels in Agave angustifolia Haw. albino variant somaclones during the micropropagation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Aké, Fátima; Castillo-Castro, Eduardo; Pool, Felipe Barredo; Espadas, Francisco; Santamaría, Jorge M; Robert, Manuel L; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2016-12-01

    Global DNA methylation changes caused by in vitro conditions are associated with the subculturing and phenotypic variation in Agave angustifolia Haw. While the relationship between the development of albinism and in vitro culture is well documented, the role of epigenetic processes in this development leaves some important questions unanswered. During the micropropagation of Agave angustifolia Haw., we found three different phenotypes, green (G), variegated (V) and albino (A). To understand the physiological and epigenetic differences among the somaclones, we analyzed several morphophysiological parameters and changes in the DNA methylation patterns in the three phenotypes during their in vitro development. We found that under in vitro conditions, the V plantlets maintained their CAM photosynthetic capacity, while the A variant showed no pigments and lost its CAM photosynthetic ability. Epigenetic analysis revealed that global DNA methylation increased in the G phenotype during the first two subcultures. However, after that time, DNA methylation levels declined. This hypomethylation correlated with the appearance of V shoots in the G plantlets. A similar correlation occurred in the V phenotype, where an increase of 2 % in the global DNA methylation levels was correlated with the generation of A shoots in the V plantlets. This suggests that an "epigenetic stress memory" during in vitro conditions causes a chromatin shift that favors the generation of variegated and albino shoots.

  10. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  11. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Kamatou, Guy; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC) was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%), additive (48.9%), non-interactive (23.7%), and antagonistic (0.7%) interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender. PMID:23737850

  12. Quantitative analyses of the main chemical constituents in the roots of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, Jorge; Valverde, Roberto; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Molina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Free phenylpropanoids (chlorogenic and cichoric acids), and glycosidic (echinecoside), as well as the alkamides, present in root extracts of the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia produced in 3 different locations of Costa Rica (Los Santos at 1650 masl, Santa Barbara de Heredia at 1250 masl and Ojo de Agua at 850 masl) were quantified. Results showed a decrease on secondary metabolites associated to an altitude reduction of the growing zone. Concentration of free phenylpropanoids and the echinecoside (synthesized exclusively for E. angustifolia) produced in Costa Rica was 100 and 34% higher than the concentration reported for a standard sample from U.S.A. Alkamides concentration ranged from 0.89-2.31%, as compared to 0.004-0.36% reported from U.S.A. The alkamides produced in Costa Rica were similar in the 3 growing zones. In addition, 2 of them showed different isomerism than the ones reported in samples from U.S.A. These results indicate that in tropical conditions not only is it possible to produce Echinacea, but also that the amount of metabolites is higher than those produced in the Echinacea's origin areas. The presence of compounds with different isomerism could provide an alternative use for those metabolites. (author) [es

  13. Phytoextraction, phytotransformation and rhizodegradation of ibuprofen associated with Typha angustifolia in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifei; Zhang, Jiefeng; Zhu, Guibing; Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing; Ng, Wun Jern; Appan, Adhityan; Tan, Soon Keat

    2016-10-01

    Widespread occurrence of trace pharmaceutical residues in aquatic environments is of great concerns due to the potential chronic toxicity of certain pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen on aquatic organisms even at environmental levels. In this study, the phytoextraction, phytotransformation and rhizodegradation of ibuprofen associated with Typha angustifolia were investigated in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system. The experimental wetland system consisted of a planted bed with Typha angustifolia and an unplanted bed (control) to treat ibuprofen-loaded wastewater (∼107.2 μg L(-1)). Over a period of 342 days, ibuprofen was accumulated in leaf sheath and lamina tissues at a mean concentration of 160.7 ng g(-1), indicating the occurrence of the phytoextraction of ibuprofen. Root-uptake ibuprofen was partially transformed to ibuprofen carboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy ibuprofen and 1-hydroxy ibuprofen which were found to be 1374.9, 235.6 and 301.5 ng g(-1) in the sheath, respectively, while they were 1051.1, 693.6 and 178.7 ng g(-1) in the lamina. The findings from pyrosequencing analysis of the rhizosphere bacteria suggest that the Dechloromonas sp., the Clostridium sp. (e.g. Clostridium saccharobutylicum), the order Sphingobacteriales, and the Cytophaga sp. in the order Cytophagales were most probably responsible for the rhizodegradation of ibuprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Other Aroma-Therapeutic Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil was assessed in combination with 45 other oils to establish possible interactive properties. The composition of the selected essential oils was confirmed using GC-MS with a flame ionization detector. The microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay was undertaken, whereby the fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC was calculated for the oil combinations. When lavender oil was assayed in 1 : 1 ratios with other oils, synergistic (26.7%, additive (48.9%, non-interactive (23.7%, and antagonistic (0.7% interactions were observed. When investigating different ratios of the two oils in combination, the most favourable interactions were when L. angustifolia was combined with Cinnamomum zeylanicum or with Citrus sinensis, against C. albicans and S. aureus, respectively. In 1 : 1 ratios, 75.6% of the essential oils investigated showed either synergistic or additive results, lending in vitro credibility to the use of essential oil blends in aroma-therapeutic practices. Within the field of aromatherapy, essential oils are commonly employed in mixtures for the treatment of infectious diseases; however, very little evidence exists to support the use in combination. This study lends some credence to the concomitant use of essential oils blended with lavender.

  15. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.: From a variety of traditional medicinal applications to its novel roles as active antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and analgesic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie Hamidpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elaeagnus angustifolia L., which is commonly known as oleaster or Russian olive, is a deciduous plant from Elaeagnacea family. This plant can tolerate and survive a wide variety of environmental conditions. Different parts of E. angustifolia plant, especially the fruits and flowers, have been used traditionally in treating a variety of common illnesses such as nausea, cough, asthma, fever, jaundice, and diarrhea. The use of fruit powder and extract of E. angustifolia L. have shown to be effective in alleviating pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and also in reducing the healing time of wounds in injured person. In addition, some recent reports have indicated the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer and some other properties of oleaster plant. The other important property of this plant would be its role in bio-monitoring the environment for some toxic elements and also its action as a bio-fertilizer agent in distressed lands. It seems that with more advanced studies on E. angustifolia L. and its bioactive components, this plant might be potentially effective and can be used as a natural alternative resource in pharmaceutical industries for treating chronic and serious problems, Fig. 1.

  16. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  18. Impact of gamma radiations on phytochemistry of senna, Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Sunita; Vyas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia (senna) is native to India, and is cultivated mainly in India and Pakistan. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the leaves Senna is also known by the names Alexandrian Senna and and the pods. The leaves have a purging quality, but afterwards may have a binding effect. Both the leaves and pods are used in many over-the-counter pharmaceutical laxative preparations. People in northern Africa and southwestern Asia have used Senna as a natural laxative for centuries. Senna is a powerful cathartic used primarily in the treatment of constipation, working through a stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. The primary chemical Constituents of Senna include anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides, aloe-emodin, rhein), beta-sitosterol, flavones, tartaric acid, mucin, essential oil, mucilage, tannin and resin. The sennosides are irritating to the large intestine lining, causing peristaltic action and bowel evacuation. Senna is often combined with aromatic, carminative herbs such as cardamom, ginger root, peppermint and fennel to increase its palatability. Other historical applications of this herb have included support for inflammatory skin conditions, hypertension and weight control. Although the biological effects of large doses of ionizing radiation are predominantly harmful, low-to-intermediate doses have been observed to enhance growth and survival, augment the immune response, and increase resistance to the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of further irradiation in plants, bacteria, insects, and mammals. The existence of these stimulatory, or adaptive responses implies that the dose-response relationships for genetic and carcinogenic effects of radiation may be similarly biphasic or hermetic in nature. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material, is an excellent source of sennosides. To investigate the effect of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the dry seeds of senna were treated with different doses of

  19. An improved method for the analysis of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, S; Uniyal, G C; Dubey, T; Singh, S P

    2001-01-01

    A reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of sennosides A and B present in leaf and pod extracts of Cassia angustifolia has been developed using a Symmetry C18 column and a linear binary gradient profile. The method can be utilised for the quantitative determination of other sennosides as a baseline resolution for most of the constituents was achieved. The method is economical in terms of the time taken and the amount of solvent used (25 mL) for each analysis. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of each peak with those of reference compounds using a photodiode array detector.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Fadli, Ulfa Mahfudli; Prasada, Ashari Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius. (paper)

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius and Cassia angustifolia as Photosensitizer for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Mahfudli Fadli, Ulfa; Bayu Prasada, Ashari

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) is one of the electric cells photochemical consisting of photoelectrode, dye, counter electrode, and electrolyte. The aims of the research to determine of the optical and electrical characteristic of the extract Sansevieria trifasciata, Pandanus amaryllifolius, and Cassia angustifolia. The study is also aimed to determine the effect of natural dyes extract to increase the efficiency of solar cells based DSSC. Sandwich structures formed in the sample consisted of working electrode pair Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and the counter electrode platinum (Pt). Dye extraction process is performed by stirring for 1 hour and then allowed to stand for 24 hours. Absorbance test is measure by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer Lambda 25, conductivity test by using a two-point probes Elkahfi 100, and characterization of current and voltage (I-V) by using a Keithley 2602A. The results showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.160% at Dye Pandanus amaryllifolius.

  2. Chemical characterization of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia miers (Winteraceae) and antibacterial activity of their major compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thalita G.; Dognini, Jocinei; Begnini, Ieda M.; Rebelo, Ricardo A., E-mail: ricardorebelo@furb.br [Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Verdi, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Gasper, Andre L. de [Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Dalmarco, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas

    2013-01-15

    Essential oils have been extensively studied in recent years as a natural source of new antimicrobial agents. In this work, essential oils of leaf and branch from Drimys angustifolia growing in Southern Brazil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatographies with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Drimenol and bicyclogermacrene were isolated by column chromatography from branch and leaf essential oils, respectively. Oils, isolated compounds and combinations of them were assayed against Gram-(+) and Gram-(-) bacteria. The oils showed to be more active against Bacillus cereus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 and 250 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for branch and leaf oils, respectively, strongly inhibiting bacterial growth. Bicyclogermacrene was more active then drimenol, providing a MIC value of 167 {mu}g mL-1 against B. cereus. Synergism was not observed in any of the combinations tested. (author)

  3. Chemical characterization of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia miers (Winteraceae) and antibacterial activity of their major compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Thalita G.; Dognini, Jocinei; Begnini, Ieda M.; Rebelo, Ricardo A.; Verdi, Marcio; Gasper, Andre L. de; Dalmarco, Eduardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been extensively studied in recent years as a natural source of new antimicrobial agents. In this work, essential oils of leaf and branch from Drimys angustifolia growing in Southern Brazil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatographies with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Drimenol and bicyclogermacrene were isolated by column chromatography from branch and leaf essential oils, respectively. Oils, isolated compounds and combinations of them were assayed against Gram-(+) and Gram-(–) bacteria. The oils showed to be more active against Bacillus cereus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 and 250 μg mL -1 for branch and leaf oils, respectively, strongly inhibiting bacterial growth. Bicyclogermacrene was more active then drimenol, providing a MIC value of 167 μg mL-1 against B. cereus. Synergism was not observed in any of the combinations tested. (author)

  4. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity amongst regenerants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl employing RAPD marker and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Siva K; Sardar, Pratima Rani; Agrawal, Veena

    2014-10-01

    In vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Cassia angustifolia Vahl which is an important source of anticancerous bioactive compounds, sennoside A and B. Nodal explants excised from field raised elite plant (showing optimum level of sennoside A and B) of C. angustifolia when reared on Murashige and Skoog's medium augmented with different cytokinins, viz. N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-(2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (Kn) differentiated multiple shoots in their axils. Of the three cytokinins, BA at 5 μM proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 95 % cultures with an average of 9.14 shoots per explant within 8 weeks of culture. Nearly, 95 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 10 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The phenotypically similar micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity employing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Eleven individuals, randomly chosen amongst a population of 120 regenerants were compared with the donor plant. A total of 36 scorable bands, ranging in size from 100 to 1,000 bp were generated amongst them by the RAPD primers. All banding profiles from micropropagated plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant proving their true to the type nature. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography evaluation of the sennoside A and B content amongst leaves of the mature regenerants and the elite mother plant too revealed consistency in their content.

  5. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  6. The antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) and its influence on the production performance of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M; Szczerbińska, D

    2018-04-14

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity (in vitro) of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil (LEO) and the effect of its addition to the drinking water of broiler chickens on their production performance. Antimicrobial activity was determined by establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a series of microdilutions. Bird experiments were carried out on a commercial farm on 300 Ross 308 broilers. One-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of 100 individuals (five replications of 20 individuals each). In the control group, chickens received drinking water without added essential oil throughout the rearing period. In the LEO 0.2 and LEO 0.4 groups, from 1 to 42 days of bird life, the LEO 0.2 group had 0.2 ml/L of essential lavender oil added to the drinking water, while LEO 0.4 had 0.4 ml/L added. The results of the experiment showed the antimicrobial activity of LEO and its positive effect on the production results of broiler chickens. Application of higher concentration of essential oil (0.4 ml/L) significantly affected production results (BW, FCR, WCR-p  .05). In vitro studies indicate a significant effect of LEO on the inhibition of microbial growth. These results encourage further studies on a larger scale that will confirm antimicrobial efficiency and define the mechanisms of action of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil and its individual components. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Extract on the Contusive Model of Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, Gholamreza; Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Davoodi, Shaghayegh; Hosseini, Seyed R.; Sadraie, Seyed H.; Mansouri, Korosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves a primary trauma and secondary cellular processes that can lead to severe damage to the nervous system, resulting in long-term spinal deficits. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis, of which glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a major index. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia (Lav) on the repair of spinal cord injuries in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-five female rats were randomly divided into six groups of seven rats each: the intact, sham, control (SCI), Lav 100, Lav 200, and Lav 400 groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions post-injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results: BBB scores were significantly increased and delayed responses on sensory tests were significantly decreased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. The greatest decrease of GFAP was evident in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups. EMG results showed significant improvement in the hindlimbs in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups compared to the control group. Cavity areas significantly decreased and the number of ventral motor neurons significantly increased in the Lav 200 and Lav 400 groups. Conclusion: Lav at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg can promote structural and functional recovery after SCI. The neuroprotective effects of L. angustifolia can lead to improvement in the contusive model of SCI in Wistar rats. PMID:26903793

  8. Inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil inhibits consolidation of contextual- but not tone-fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Laura Segismundo; Correa-Netto, Nelson Francisco; Masukawa, Marcia Yuriko; Lima, Ariadiny Caetano; Maluf, Samia; Linardi, Alessandra; Santos-Junior, Jair Guilherme

    2018-04-06

    Although the current treatment for anxiety is effective, it promotes a number of adverse reactions and medical interactions. Inhaled essential oils have a prominent action on the central nervous system, with minimal systemic effects, primarily because of reduced systemic bioavailability. The effects of drugs on the consolidation of fear conditioning reflects its clinical efficacy in preventing a vicious cycle of anticipatory anxiety leading to fearful cognition and anxiety symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on the consolidation of aversive memories and its influence on c-Fos expression. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to a fear conditioning protocol. Immediately after the training session, the rats were exposed to vaporized water or essential oil (1%, 2.5% and 5% solutions) for 4h. The next day, the rats underwent contextual- or tone-fear tests and 90min after the test they were euthanized and their brains processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. In the contextual-fear test, essential oil at 2.5% and 5% (but not 1%) reduced the freezing response and its respective c-Fos expression in the ventral hippocampus and amygdala. In the tone-fear test, essential oil did not reduce the freezing response during tone presentation. However, rats that inhaled essential oil at 2.5% and 5% (but not 1%) showed decreased freezing in the three minutes after tone presentation, as well as reduced c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. These results show that the inhalation of L. angustifolia essential oil inhibited the consolidation of contextual- but not tone-fear conditioning and had an anxiolytic effect in a conditioned animal model of anxiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Marcial Alvaran

    2007-04-15

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S. tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effects of varying dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also it sought to determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on the three species and to determine their optimum dose or the dose level that will lead to production of more mutants. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose levels of gamma radiation. Results of the study showed that as the dose level administered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases. Further, seedling height, number of roots and root length decreases. However, there was an increase in number of leaves at certain dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreases the number of leaves.Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma radiation. It further shows that the three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. It was found that S. kimballiana var. angustifolia was the least radiosensitive among the species, and could have a great potential for a wide array of genetic variations due to the observed emergence of more morphological mutations that came out as effect of gamma radiation. (Author)

  10. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  11. ESTUDO DA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE LAVANDA (Lavandula angustifolia Miller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. AOYAMA

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico, do efeito luz/escuro e do pré-resfriamento sobre a germinação de sementes de lavanda (Lavandula angustifolia Miller, empregou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de 30 sementes cada, e os seguintes tratamentos: testemunha; GA3 100 ppm; GA3 200 ppm; escuro; GA3 100 e 200 ppm + 48 h de pré-resfriamento e GA3 100 e 200 ppm + 7 dias de pré-resfriamento. As sementes de lavanda foram pré-embebidas por 18 horas nas soluções de GA3 e em água destilada e depois colocadas em gerbox, com papel de filtro umedecido com água destilada. Nos tratamentos com pré-resfriamento as sementes foram mantidas em câmara fria por 48 horas e 7 dias à temperatura de 5° C; posteriormente, foram transferidas para o germinador, sob luz branca contínua à temperatura constante de 25°C. A contagem das sementes foi realizada de 2 em 2 dias até completar 30 dias de teste. Para a avaliação dos efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a germinação das sementes foram realizadas as seguintes observações: a porcentagem de sementes germinadas e b tempo médio de germinação (expresso em dias. A partir dos resultados obtidos pode-se verificar que os tratamentos com GA3, em conjunto ou não com pré-resfriamento, aumentaram significativamente a porcentagem de germinação, além de acelerar tal processo.To study the effects of gibbellic acid, of the light/darkness and of pre-freezing on the germination of lavender seeds, a randomized experiment was used, with five replications of 30 seeds, with the following treatments: control, GA3 100 ppm, GA3 200 ppm, darkness, GA3 100 and 200 ppm + 48 h pre-freezing and GA3 100 and 200 ppm + 7 days of pre-freezing. The lavender seeds were pre-soaked during 18 hours in GA3 and destilated water solutions, and thereafter placed in gerbox, using moistened filter paper. In the pre-freezing treatments the seeds were kept in a refrigerator for

  12. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT. A DISTANCE DETERMINATION TO THE LOCAL GROUP SPIRAL M33 FROM NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF CEPHEID VARIABLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Graczyk, Dariusz, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: pietrzyn@hubble.cfm.udec.cl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2013-08-10

    Motivated by an amazing range of reported distances to the nearby Local Group spiral galaxy M33, we have obtained deep near-infrared photometry for 26 long-period Cepheids in this galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope. From the data, we constructed period-luminosity relations in the J and K bands which together with previous optical VI photometry for the Cepheids by Macri et al. were used to determine the true distance modulus of M33, and the mean reddening affecting the Cepheid sample with the multiwavelength fit method developed in the Araucaria Project. We find a true distance modulus of 24.62 for M33, with a total uncertainty of {+-}0.07 mag which is dominated by the uncertainty on the photometric zero points in our photometry. The reddening is determined as E(B - V) = 0.19 {+-} 0.02, in agreement with the value used by the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project of Freedman et al. but in some discrepancy with other recent determinations based on blue supergiant spectroscopy and an O-type eclipsing binary which yielded lower reddening values. Our derived M33 distance modulus is extremely insensitive to the adopted reddening law. We show that the possible effects of metallicity and crowding on our present distance determination are both at the 1%-2% level and therefore minor contributors to the total uncertainty of our distance result for M33.

  13. LAVENDER (LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA) AROMATHERAPY AS AN ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT IN REDUCING PAIN IN PRIMIPAROUS MOTHERS IN THE ACTIVE FIRST STAGE OF LABOR

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Yani Karo Karo; Noor Pramono; Sri Wahyuni; Imam Djamaluddin Mashoedi; Leny Latifah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Labor and childbirth is an extremely painful process. Aromatherapy is considered as one of the nonpharmacological methods to reduce labor pain. Objective: To determine the effect of Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia) aromatherapy on the level of pain in primipara in the first stage of labor. Methods: A quasy-experimental research with pretest and posttest design with control group conducted between October until November 2016. Forthy respondents selected using consecutive sa...

  14. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action.

  16. The Capability of Equisetum ramosissium and Typha angustifolia as Phytoremediation Agents to Reduce Nitrate-Phosphate Pollutants and Prevent Microcystis Blooming in Fresh Water Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viky Vidayanti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the kind of hydromacrophyte composition having the highest capability to reduce nitrate-phosphate pollutant and Microcystis growth in phytoremediation media using Equisetum ramosissium, Typha angustifolia and the combination of both. Microcystis were obtained from Sutami reservoir, then being inoculated in a media grown by hydromacrophytes (E. ramosissium, T. angustifolia and both of the hydromacrophytes in the batch culture system. The number of Microcystis was counted every day within fifteen days. Abiotic factors were observe, including the concentration of nitrate using brucine-colorimetry method and orthophosphate (dissolved phosphate using stannous chloride-colorimetry method on day 0, 6th, 12th and 15th. The growth rate of Microcystis carrying capacity and orthophosphate-nitrate levels among treatments were analysed by ANOVA test. The results showed that E. ramosissium and T. angustifolia in mono and polyculture techniques had similar potentiality to reduce the nitrate and ortophosphate. The concentrations of nitrate and orthophosphate decreased over 70 % in the 6th day after incubation. All of the treatments were able to reduce the carrying capacity of Microcystis up to 46 % , but the growth rates were similar in all media, that is, around 97-170 cells/L/day.

  17. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  18. La semilla de Campsiandra angustifolia (Fabaceae:Caesalpiniodeaecomo un reflejo de las presiones selectivas sobre su dispersión y establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G Farji-Brener

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluamos indirectamente las presiones selectivas sobre la dispersión y el establecimiento en Campsiandra angustifolia, un árbol de la Amazonía Peruana dispersado por agua, analizando variaciones de la relación entre el volumen ocupado por las estructuras de dispersión y de establecimiento en sus semillas. Medimos un total de 535 semillas de 13 árboles ubicados en tres hábitats diferentes, las cuales presentaron una gran variación en su volumen total. Independientemente del tamaño de la semilla y de la ubicación del árbol de origen, la relación entre el volumen asignado a estructuras de establecimiento y a estructuras de dispersión fue relativamente constante (~1 y presentó una distribución normal con baja asimetría, indicando selección estabilizante. Este resultado sugiere que los procesos de dispersión y establecimiento poseen una importancia relativa similar para C.angustifolia en los hábitats estudiados. En especies con semillas empaquetadas, el volumen relativo ocupado por estructuras relacionadas con la dispersión o el establecimiento podría ser una medida más adecuada de la solución de compromiso entre estos dos procesos que la variación del tamaño de la semillaThe seeds of Campsiandra angustifolia (Fabaceae:Caesalpiniodeae as a reflex of selective pressures on dispersal and establishment. We indirectly evaluated the selective pressures on dispersal and establishment of Campsiandra angustifolia, a common water-dispersed tree from the Peruvian Amazon, analyzing the variation in the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures in a total of 535 seeds from 13 trees located at three different habitats. The seeds differed one order of magnitude in their total volume. However, independently of their size and the location of the maternal tree, the relationship between the volume occupied by dispersal and establishment structures was relatively constant (~1 and showed a normal

  19. Organic Matter Stocks and the Interactions of Humic Substances with Metals in Araucaria Moist Forest Soil with Humic and Histic Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soils with humic and histic horizons in tropical and subtropical ecosystems play an important role in determining the atmospheric C stock and its stabilization, climate regulation, water holding capacity, and environmental filtering, due to the different functions of soil organic matter (SOM. However, the processes and mechanisms that regulate SOM dynamics in these soils are not clear. The objectives of this study were: i determine the C and N stocks and ii investigate the SOM chemical fractions and their interactions with Fe and Al ions in soils with humic and histic horizons of a toposequence under Araucaria moist forest in southern Brazil. The soils sampled were classified as Humic Hapludox (top - not hydromorphic, Fluvaquentic Humaquepts (lower third - hydromorphic, and Typic Haplosaprists (floodplain - hydromorphic. The C and N contents were determined in bulk soil samples and SOM chemical fractions; in these fractions, Fe and Al co-extracted contents were also determined. The chemical composition of humin and humic acid fractions was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The C content in the toposequence increased from the top to the lowest position. The differences observed in SOM content and SOM chemical composition were defined by the differences in soil water regime. The amount of C stored in the subsurface horizons is about 70 % of total organic C. The carbohydrate-like structures in the humin fraction were protected from solubilization through interaction with iron oxides, which may represent an important mechanism for labile organic compound preservation in these soils. The soluble humic substances showed the highest Fe and Al contents, and their compartments have different affinities for Fe and Al.

  20. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  1. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  2. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  3. Effect of gamma radiations, ethyl methane sulfonate and sodium azide on the sennoside content in Cassia angustifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatkar, A.S.; Bhargava, Y.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia commonly known as Tinnevelly Senna is an excellent source of sennosides. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material. To investigate the effect(s) of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the sand treated dry seeds of Senna were treated with different doses of gamma radiations, ethyl methane sulfonate and sodium azide for 18 hours duration at 24 ± 2°C. The treated population in M1 generation exhibited different degree of stimulation in growth. Other parameters were also affected by all the three mutagenic treatments. Seeds collected from M1 generation were sown and M2 plant progenies were raised. Morphological mutations with desirable characters were further investigated. Biochemical estimation of sennoside from the leaflets in vegetative and blooming phases was carried out. Of the three mutagens, 0.006% sodium azide yielded maximum sennoside in the vegetative phase; while, in the blooming phase, it was highest with 20 kR of gamma radiations. Seeds of these plant types hold promise for enhancing the sennoside yields per gram of tissue

  4. Chemical composition, antischistosomal and cytotoxic effects of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia grown in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L.L. Mantovani

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the chemical composition, the in vitroantischistosomal effects, and the cytotoxicity of the essential oil from the leaves of Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae, grown in the Southeastern Brazil. Borneol (22.4%, epi-α-muurolol (13.4%, α-bisabolol (13.1%, precocene I (13.0%, and eucalyptol (7.9% were the major essential oil constituents. Incubation with essential oil at 200 μg/ml killed all the adult S. mansoni worms after 24 h (LC50117.7 and 103.9 μg/ml at 24 and 120 h of incubation, respectively. At a concentration of 50 μg/ ml, the essential oil significantly decreased the motor activity and reduced the percentage of egg development after 120 h. In addition, the essential oil separated all the coupled S. mansoni worm pairs into individual male and female at 25 and 50 μg/ml within 120 and 24 h, respectively. This oil was cytotoxic to GM07492-A cells at only concentrations higher than 200 µg/ml (IC50243.7 µg/ml. These data indicate that LA-EO exhibits moderate in vitro activity against adult S. mansoniand exerts remarkable effects on eggs development.

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activity of Mentha × piperita L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, Ersilia; Radulov, Isidora; Obistioiu, Diana; Sumalan, Renata Maria; Morar, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition of Mentha × piperita L. (MP) and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (LA) extracts in terms of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAs) content, in particular, caffeic (CA), p-cumaric (CU), ferulic (FE), and rosmarinic (RS) acids using LC-MS. Also, the in vitro antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and the antiproliferative activity against two cancerous cell lines (A375 and MDA-MB-231) using the MTT assay were tested. The extracts were prepared using aromatic water which resulted from the extraction of oils from plants as extraction medium, with/without acid. The results showed that RS and FE represent the majority of HCAs compounds; the highest content of FE is found in LA (7.47 mg·g–1d.m.), and the maximum content of RS in MP (6.36 mg·g–1d.m.). Regarding the antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, the two extracts showed a simulative role on the growth rate of Staphyloccocus aureus, but a slightly inhibitory effect (69.12%) can be attributed to the acidic environment. In terms of biological activity against MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line, and A375 human melanoma cell line, at the highest employed concentration, 150 μg·mL–1, the tested extracts present a weak antiproliferative effect. PMID:29552454

  6. Comparison of phenolic acids and flavonoids contents in various cultivars and parts of common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) derived from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M; Dzięcioł, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of study was to compare the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in two cultivars of Lavandula angustifolia: 'Blue River' and 'Ellagance Purple', including flowers and leafy stalks. Total phenolics and total flavonoids contents were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The contents of total phenolics in leafy stalks (3.71-4.06 mg g -1 d.m.) were higher than in flowers (1.13-1.14 mg g -1 d.m.). Similarly, higher total contents of flavonoids were determined in leafy stalks (3.41-3.51 mg g -1 d.m.), as compared with flowers (0.86-0.91 mg g -1 d.m.). Phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified and quantified using HPLC and UPLC methods. Three phenolic acids were determined: rosmarinic, ferulic and caffeic acid. Lavender extracts contained also flavonoids from group of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin. Higher amounts of luteolin diglucuronide and luteolin glucuronide were found in leafy stalks in comparison to flowers. Obtained results indicate that leafy stalks of lavender can be also valuable source of antioxidant compounds.

  7. „IN VITRO” EFFECT OF SOME INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS ON LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA MILL. EXPLANT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Tanase

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After many studies, it was observed that lavender has many therapeutic effects, such as sedation, activities spasmolytic, antiviral, antibacterial. Thus, given the importance of lavender in different areas of human life, in the present study, we studied the influence of natural products bioregulatoars separated from industrial by-products on some lavender stems explants. These explants were inoculated in vitro on MS nutrient media. In these culture media were added polyphenolic extracts obtained from spruce bark and hemp shives, and evaluated their influence on lavender stems explants. The results obtained were compared with those obtained for the control variant, where MS culture medium was used as standard. It was found that the addition of aqueous extract from spruce bark of concentration of 130 mg GAE / L, in the growth of explants of Lavandula angustifolia Mill, an increase in the elongation of the main stem, number of leaves formed, the amount of photoassimilating pigments synthesized and causes the phenomenon of shoots formation. At a higher concentration of the extract (26 mgGAE/100g values are lower.

  8. Radiosensitivity of three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S. kimballiana var. angustifolia and S. tomentosa) to acute gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.A.; Tapic, R.T.; Aurigue, F.B.

    2008-01-01

    A radiosensitivity study coupled with tissue culture technique was conducted as preliminary to mutation breeding of the three species of ground orchids (Spathoglottis plicata, S.kimballiana var. angustifolia, and S.tomentosa). It aimed to compare the effect of dose levels of gamma radiation applied to the germinated embryos (protocorms) of the three species. Also, it sought to determine the lethal dose and optimum dose of gamma radiation on the three species. The protocorms of the three species were irradiated at 10 Gy, 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 50 Gy dose level of gamma radiation. The three species have varied radiosensitivity as affected by their individual phenotype. Results showed that as the dose level and ministered increases, percent mortality of seedlings also increases whereas, the seedlings height, number of roots and root length decreased. However, there was an increase in the number of leaves at 10 and 20 Gy dose levels due to the emergence of furcations, but further increase in the dose levels of radiation decreased the number of leaves. Furthermore, some qualitative characters such as albinism, pigmentation, forked leaves, furcations, and multiple branching came out as responses to gamma irradiation

  9. ANGUSTIFOLIA, a Plant Homolog of CtBP/BARS Localizes to Stress Granules and Regulates Their Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemal Bhasin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN gene in Arabidopsis is important for a plethora of morphological phenotypes. Recently, AN was also reported to be involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. It encodes a homolog of the animal C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs. In contrast to animal CtBPs, AN does not appear to function as a transcriptional co-repressor and instead functions outside nucleus where it might be involved in Golgi-associated membrane trafficking. In this study, we report a novel and unexplored role of AN as a component of stress granules (SGs. Interaction studies identified several RNA binding proteins that are associated with AN. AN co-localizes with several messenger ribonucleoprotein granule markers to SGs in a stress dependent manner. an mutants exhibit an altered SG formation. We provide evidence that the NAD(H binding domain of AN is relevant in this context as proteins carrying mutations in this domain localize to a much higher degree to SGs and strongly reduce AN dimerization and its interaction with one interactor but not the others. Finally, we show that AN is a negative regulator of salt and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis suggesting a functional relevance in SGs.

  10. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, G A; Cruz, R A; Chávez, A M

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves

  11. Biochemical composition and antioxidant properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil are shielded by propolis against UV radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; Angelo, Gismondi; Canuti, Lorena; Lorena, Canuti; Grispo, Marta; Marta, Grispo; Canini, Antonella; Antonella, Canini

    2014-01-01

    UV radiations are principal causes of skin cancer and aging. Suntan creams were developed to protect epidermis and derma layers against photodegradation and photooxidation. The addition of antioxidant plant extracts (i.e. essential oil) to sunscreens is habitually performed, to increase their UV protective effects and to contrast pro-radical and cytotoxic compounds present in these solutions. According to these observations, in the present work, the alteration of chemical composition and bioactive properties of Lavandula angustifolia Miller essential oil, exposed to UV light, was investigated. UV induced a significant deterioration of lavender oil biochemical profile. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of this solution, in in vitro tests and directly on B16-F10 melanoma cells, greatly decreased after UV treatment. Our results also showed that essential oil was shielded from UV stress by propolis addition. Even after UV treatment, bee glue highly protected lavender oil secondary metabolites from degradation and also preserved their antiradical properties, both in in vitro antioxidant assays and in cell oxidative damage evaluations. This research proposed propolis as highly efficient UV protective and antiradical additive for sunscreens, cosmetics and alimentary or pharmaceutical products containing plant extracts. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Ivelina; Denkova, Rositsa; Chochkov, Rosen; Teneva, Desislava; Denkova, Zapryana; Dessev, Tzvetelin; Denev, Petko; Slavov, Anton

    2018-07-01

    The effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on preparation, characteristics and shelf life of bread was investigated. It was found that lavender and melissa waste, generated yearly in large amounts, were rich on polyphenols (especially rosmarinic acid) and aroma compounds, and exhibited high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The bread with 2.5% lavender waste was characterized with the highest loaf volume and loaf specific volume. The total dietary fiber increased three times and the polyphenols and flavonoids increased more than four times for breads with added 5% lavender and melissa waste, compared to control sample. The breads with 2.5% and 5% added lavender waste had increased shelf life (up to 96 h) compared to control, and no fungal or bacterial spoilage was observed during storage at 22 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C for four days. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that the consumers preferred mainly bread with 2.5% lavender waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Biological Activity of Mentha × piperita L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical composition of Mentha × piperita L. (MP and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (LA extracts in terms of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAs content, in particular, caffeic (CA, p-cumaric (CU, ferulic (FE, and rosmarinic (RS acids using LC-MS. Also, the in vitro antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and the antiproliferative activity against two cancerous cell lines (A375 and MDA-MB-231 using the MTT assay were tested. The extracts were prepared using aromatic water which resulted from the extraction of oils from plants as extraction medium, with/without acid. The results showed that RS and FE represent the majority of HCAs compounds; the highest content of FE is found in LA (7.47 mg·g–1d.m., and the maximum content of RS in MP (6.36 mg·g–1d.m.. Regarding the antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, the two extracts showed a simulative role on the growth rate of Staphyloccocus aureus, but a slightly inhibitory effect (69.12% can be attributed to the acidic environment. In terms of biological activity against MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line, and A375 human melanoma cell line, at the highest employed concentration, 150 μg·mL–1, the tested extracts present a weak antiproliferative effect.

  14. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  15. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  16. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  17. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  18. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 3-O-[(6'-O-Palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl Sitosterol] from Agave angustifolia on Ear Edema in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hernández-Valle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico Agave angustifolia has traditionally been used to treat inflammation. The aim of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract of A. angustifolia, the isolation and identification of active compounds. From the acetone extract two active fractions were obtained, (AsF13 and AaF16. For the characterization of pharmacological activity, the acute inflammatory model of mouse ear edema induced with TPA was used. The tissue exposed to TPA and treatments were subjected to two analysis, cytokine quantification (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α and histopathological evaluation. The active fraction (AaF16 consisted principally of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranpsyl] sitosterol. In AaF13 fraction was identified β-sitosteryl glucoside (2 and stigmasterol (3. The three treatments tested showed a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory effect (AaAc Emax = 33.10%, EC50 = 0.126 mg/ear; AaF13 Emax = 54.22%, EC50 = 0.0524 mg/ear; AaF16 Emax = 61.01%, EC50 = 0.050 mg/ear. The application of TPA caused a significant increase on level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα compared with basal condition, which was countered by any of the experimental treatments. Moreover, the experimental treatments induced a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, compared to the level observed when stimulated with TPA. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effect of Agave angustifolia, is associated with the presence of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] sitosterol.

  20. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  1. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  2. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) improves the spatial performance of a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Masoud Soheili; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Salami, Mahmoud

    2011-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative disorders. It is characterized by dementia including deficits in learning and memory. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) on spatial performance of AD rats. Male Wistar rats were first divided into control and AD groups. Rat model of AD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of 10 μg Aβ1-42 20 d prior to administration of the lavender extract. Rats in both groups were then introduced to 2 stages of task learning (with an interval of 20 d) in Morris water maze, each followed by one probe test. After the first stage of spatial learning, control and AD animals received different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the lavender extract. In the first stage of experiment, the latency to locate the hidden platform in AD group was significantly higher than that in control group. However, in the second stage of experiment, control and AD rats that received distilled water (vehicle) showed similar performance, indicating that the maze navigation itself could improve the spatial learning of AD animals. Besides, in the second stage of experiment, control and AD rats that received lavender extract administration at different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/ kg) spent less time locating the platform (except for the AD rats with 50 mg/kg extract treatment), as compared with their counterparts with vehicle treatment, respectively. In addition, lavender extract significantly improved the performance of control and AD rats in the probe test, only at the dose of 200 mg/kg, as compared with their counterparts with vehicle treatment. The lavender extract can effectively reverse spatial learning deficits in AD rats.

  4. Climate, streamflow, and legacy effects on growth of riparian Populus angustifolia in the arid San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors affecting the vigor of desert riparian trees is important for their conservation and management. I used multiple regression to assess effects of streamflow and climate (12–14 years of data) or climate alone (up to 60 years of data) on radial growth of clonal narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), a foundation species in the arid, Closed Basin portion of the San Luis Valley, Colorado. I collected increment cores from trees (14–90 cm DBH) at four sites along each of Sand and Deadman creeks (total N = 85), including both perennial and ephemeral reaches. Analyses on trees conditions was common. Models for trees farther from the channel or over a deep water table explained 23–71% of SGI variability, and 4 of 5 contained a streamflow variable. Analyses using solely climate variables over longer time periods explained 17–85% of SGI variability, and 10 of 12 included a variable indexing summer precipitation. Three large, abrupt shifts in recent decades from wet to dry conditions (indexed by a seasonal Palmer Drought Severity Index) coincided with dramatically reduced radial growth. Each shift was presumably associated with branch dieback that produced a legacy effect apparent in many SGI series: uncharacteristically low SGI in the year following the shift. My results suggest trees in locations distant from the active channel rely on the regional shallow unconfined aquifer, summer rainfall, or both to meet water demands. The landscape-level differences in the water supplies sustaining these trees imply variable effects from shifts in winter-versus monsoon-related precipitation, and from climate change versus streamflow or groundwater management.

  5. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  6. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  7. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  8. Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems.

  9. Análisis de los ácidos kaurénicos presentes en Espeletiopsis angustifolia Cuatrec. de los Andes venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of kaurenic acids present in Espeletiopsis angustifolia Cuatrec. from the Venezuelan Andes. Leaves of Espeletiopsis angustifolia were collected at paramo of San José de Acequias (Mérida State at 2870 m.a.s.l. The dried leaves were minced and extracted with hexane-diethyl ether (3:1. This extract was shaken with 0.5 N NaOH to separate the acid fraction which was purified by flash chromatography. An aliquote of it was methylated with diazomethane and analyzed by GC-MS which permitted to identify ent-kaurenic acid (18.6%, ent-15α-O-isovaleroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (16.2%, ent-15α-hidroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (grandiflorolic acid, 9.2%, ent-kauranic acid (4.9%, ent-kaur-9(11,16-diene-19-oic acid (grandiflorenic acid, 4.5% and ent-15α-O-acetoxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3.4%. The neutral fraction yielded ent-kaur-16-en-19-ol (kaurenol, 32.7% and several long-chain wax n-alkanes with predominance of odd carbon number alkanes: heptacosane (38.3%, nonacosane (21.0% and entriacontane (4.6%

  10. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats

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    Kayvan Yaghoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs, isolated from Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI.

  11. Lavandula angustifolia Extract Improves the Result of Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Transplantation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kayvan; Kaka, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Korosh; Davoodi, Shaghayegh; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Hosseini, Seyed Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The primary trauma of spinal cord injury (SCI) results in severe damage to nervous functions. At the cellular level, SCI causes astrogliosis. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs), isolated from Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord, can be easily obtained. Previously, we showed that the neuroprotective effects of Lavandula angustifolia can lead to improvement in a contusive SCI model in rats. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. angustifolia (Lav) on HUMSC transplantation after acute SCI. Materials and Methods. Sixty adult female rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Every week after SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcomes. H&E staining was performed to examine the lesions after injury. GFAP expression was assessed for astrogliosis. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results. Behavioral tests showed that the HUMSC group improved in comparison with the SCI group, but HUMSC + Lav 400 was very effective, resulting in a significant increase in locomotion activity. Sensory tests and histomorphological and immunohistochemistry analyses verified the potentiation effects of Lav extract on HUMSC treatment. Conclusion. Transplantation of HUMSCs is beneficial for SCI in rats, and Lav extract can potentiate the functional and cellular recovery with HUMSC treatment in rats after SCI. PMID:27057171

  12. MODELLING THE POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TREE SPECIES ON A NATIONAL SCALE IN COLOMBIA: APPLICATION TO PALICOUREA ANGUSTIFOLIA KUNTH AND PALICOUREA GUIANENSIS AUBL.

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    Armenteras Dolors

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results in this study illustrate the methods of using the existing species' presentrecords and environmental data to produce a niche-based model based on Mahalanobis distances, and also to predict the distribution of a number of tree species in order to apply it on a national scale to a tropical country such as Colombia. The technique applied is based on the Mahalanobis distance, a generalised squared distance statistic. We used environmental data integrated into a GIS, and a georeferenced collection of localities of Palicourea angustifolia and Palicourea guianensis to produce and test the predictive models. We used record data for Warszewiczia coccinea to validate the model. The two Palicourea species show largely complementary potential ranges. P. angustifolia shows a clear Andean distribution with a presence in lower and upper mountain areas but not in the highlands or in the inter-Andean valleys. P. guianensis was predicted throughout most of the lowland areas of Colombia including lowland Amazonian forests, and most of the tropical savannas of Orinoquia. The model predicted an overlapping distribution of the two species of 93.9 km2. The Mahalanobian approach contributes to the development of biogeographically oriented modelling that makes the best use of the available data in data-scarce regions (such as most of the tropics. The technique provides key information about the environmental niche of the species being modelled, and allows comparisons between the species. The prediction achieved for the two species was considered satisfactory.

  13. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics to Explore the Bioavailability of the Secoiridoids from a Seed/Fruit Extract (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl in Human Healthy Volunteers: A Preliminary Study

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    Rocío García-Villalba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark, seeds, fruits and leaves of the genus Fraxinus (Oleaceae which contain a wide range of phytochemicals, mostly secoiridoid glucosides, have been widely used in folk medicine against a number of ailments, yet little is known about the metabolism and uptake of the major Fraxinus components. The aim of this work was to advance in the knowledge on the bioavailability of the secoiridoids present in a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl seed/fruit extract using both targeted and untargeted metabolomic analyses. Plasma and urine samples from nine healthy volunteers were taken at specific time intervals following the intake of the extract and analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF. Predicted metabolites such as tyrosol and ligstroside-aglycone glucuronides and sulfates were detected at low intensity. These compounds reached peak plasma levels 2 h after the intake and exhibited high variability among the participants. The ligstroside-aglycone conjugates may be considered as potential biomarkers of the Fraxinus secoiridoids intake. Using the untargeted approach we additionally detected phenolic conjugates identified as ferulic acid and caffeic acid sulfates, as well as hydroxybenzyl and hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde sulfate derivatives which support further metabolism of the secoiridoids by phase I and (or microbial enzymes. Overall, the results of this study suggest low uptake of intact secoiridoids from a Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl extract in healthy human volunteers and metabolic conversion by esterases, glycosidases, and phase II sulfo- and glucuronosyl transferases to form smaller conjugated derivatives.

  14. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  15. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

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    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  16. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  17. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Flowers: Optimisation of Oxygenated Monoterpenes, Coumarin and Herniarin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Molnar, Maja; Vidović, Senka; Vladić, Jelena; Jokić, Stela

    2017-11-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is good source of oxygenated monoterpenes containing coumarins as well, which are all soluble in supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ). The study objective is to investigate SC-CO 2 extraction parameters on: the total yield; GC-MS profile of the extracts; relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes; the amount of coumarin and herniarin; and to determine optimal SC-CO 2 extraction conditions by response surface methodology (RSM). SC-CO 2 extraction was performed under different pressure, temperature and CO 2 flow rate determined by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The sample mass and the extraction time were kept constant. The chemical profiles and relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes (as coumarin equivalents, CE) were determined by GC-MS. Coumarin and herniarin concentrations were dosed by HPLC. SC-CO 2 extracts contained linalool (57.4-217.9 mg CE/100 g), camphor (10.6-154.4 mg CE/100 g), borneol (6.2-99.9 mg CE/100 g), 1,8-cineole (5.0-70.4 mg CE/100 g), linalyl acetate (86.1-267.9 mg CE/100 g), coumarin (0.95-18.16 mg/100 g), and herniarin (0.95-13.63 mg/100 g). The interaction between the pressure and CO 2 flow rate as well as between the temperature and CO 2 flow rate showed statistically significant influence on the extraction yield. Applying BBD, the optimum extraction conditions for higher monoterpenes and lower coumarin content were at 10 MPa, 41°C and CO 2 flow rate 2.3 kg/h, and at 30 MPa, 50°C and CO 2 flow rate 3 kg/h for higher monoterpenes and coumarin content. SC-CO 2 extraction is a viable technique for obtaining lavender extracts with desirable flavour components. The second-order model based on BBD predicts the results for SC-CO 2 extraction quite satisfactorily. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Lab-scale co-firing of virgin and torrefied bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth as a fuel substitute in coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryda, Lydia; Daza, Claudia; Pels, Jan; Janssen, Arno; Zwart, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo is a potential sustainable biomass source for renewable heat and power production as it presents common fuel characteristics with other biomass feedstocks regarding heating value and chemical composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the combustion behaviour of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia Kunth, virgin as well as torrefied, in blends with coal or pure, comparing with other biomass feedstocks such as wood and herbaceous biomass. The bamboo pre-treatment and the combustion experiments were carried out at dedicated installations at ECN, including a laboratory scale batch torrefaction reactor and a combustion simulation test facility. The results on combustion and co-firing reveal that in terms of fouling, the untreated bamboo shows behaviour closer to herbaceous biomass rather than to wood, with specific fouling factors of wood, bamboo and herbaceous biomass of 0.91·10 −3 , 2.9·10 −3 , 3.1·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. Dry torrefaction improves its physical properties by increasing the density and grindability without improving significantly its fouling behaviour while the fouling behaviour of wet torrefied bamboo is similar to woody biomass; the specific fouling factors of dry torrefied and wet torrefied bamboo are 2.4·10 −3 and 0.89·10 −3  K·m 2 ·W −1 ·g −1 respectively. The fouling behaviour of biomass and coal blends lies between the fuels of the blend. Alternative bamboo species were evaluated using the alkali index A i based on their fuel composition. It appears that the fouling behaviour of alternative species is better than for G. angustifolia, therefore these should be further analysed. - Highlights: • Bamboo species Guadua angustifolia is a promising feedstock for power generation. • Dry and wet torrefaction of selected samples were carried out at ECN. • Virgin (untreated) and pretreated samples were fired pure or in coal blends. • Pretreated bamboo is suitable for large scale power

  19. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  20. Summary of some studies on Kalmia angustifolia L.: A problem species in newfoundland forestry. Information report No. N-X-296

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, B D; Sidhu, S S; Mallik, A U

    1996-12-31

    The shrub known as sheep laurel or lambkill (Kalmia angustifolia L.) is commonly found as an understory component of black spruce forests, and can proliferate rapidly after stand disturbances. Subsequent regeneration and growth of spruce on Kalmia-dominated sites is often poor, and a greater understanding of the ecology of Kalmia and its interactions with black spruce is required for the management of such sites. This report reviews a series of field, greenhouse, and laboratory studies on the biology of Kalmia. It describes the phytological associations of the shrub in Newfoundland, its method of reproduction and propagation, seed germination requirements, soil requirements for adequate regeneration, and histology. Study results reported include the factors inhibiting black spruce growth by Kalmia and the response of Kalmia to control treatments. The report concludes with silvicultural recommendations to address the Kalmia problem.

  1. Influence of calcium content of tissue on hyperhydricity and shoot-tip necrosis of in vitro regenerated shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of two CaCl2.2H2O levels (440 and 1320 mg L-1 and two subcultures were evaluated on in vitro shoots of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Provence Blue. Ca2+ content of the apical, middle and basal portion of shoots was determined. Increasing CaCl2.2H2O level in the culture medium increased tissue Ca2+ content and decreased hyperhydricity. Shoot-tip necrosis also decreased with 1320 mg L-1 CaCl2.2H2O, but it did not occur in the second subculture. The middle and basal portion had higher Ca2+ content than apical portion. In non-hyperhydric tissues, there were smaller and more juxtaposed cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaves demonstrated that trichomes from in vitro leaf surface occurred in smaller quantities.

  2. Antileishmanial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils and Nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER

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    Azar SHOKRI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: The aim of present study was to evaluate antileishmanial effects of Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis medicinal plants essential oils and nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (L. major. Methods: The present study was performed in Leishmaniasis Reference Lab at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2016-2017. The IC50 values were calculated in both the promastigote and amastigote stages in J774 macrophage in comparison with meglumine antimoniate (MA as positive control. In addition, cytotoxicity effects of essential oils and nano-emulsions prepared from both plants against macrophages were evaluated.Results: Both essential oil and nano-emulsion of Lavander and Rosemary showed anti-leishmania activity on promastigote with IC50=0.11 μl/mL, IC50=0.26 μl/mL, and IC50=0.08 μl/mL respectively. Moreover, during amastigote assay, Lavander and Rosemary essential oils and nano-emulsion were effective at least in concentration of 0.12 μl/mL and 0.06 µl/mL (P=0.0001 respectively, on mean infected macrophages (MIR and amastigotes in macrophages (P=0.0001. Additionally, cytotoxicity assay against macrophage revealed no toxicity on the host cells at IC50 concentrations.Conclusion: The nano-emulsions of both plants were more effective than essential oil in both MIR and amastigote. However, in comparison with MA, the Lavander essential oil is more effective in reducing MIR. Rosemary nano-emulsion reduced MIR significantly more than MA in concentration of 0.25 μl/mL (P<0.001. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the effect of these medicinal plants in murine models.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of Lavender angustifolia Essential Oil and Its Active Constituents on the Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunqi; Chen, Ran; Wang, Yun; Qing, Chen; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is the most widely cultivated Lavandula species. The extraction of its flower and leaves has been used as herbal medicine. In this study, the in vitro antitumor activities were tested on human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Flow cytometry technology was applied to study apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. The PC-3 cell line was used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in the TUNEL (terminal deocynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to detect cell proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA. Lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate showed stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 cells than on DU145 cells. The apoptotic cell populations observed in PC-3 cells treated with lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate were 74.76%, 67.11%, and 56.14%, respectively. The PC-3 cells were mainly arrested in the G2/M phase. In the xenograft model with PC-3 cell transplantation, essential oil and linalool significantly suppressed tumor growth. The immunosignals of Ki67 and PCNA in the essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate treatment groups were significantly lower than that of the control group in xenograft tumor sections. The TUNEL assay indicated that each of the 3 phytochemicals significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group. This study provides novel insight and evidence on the antiproliferative effect of L angustifolia essential oil and its major constituents on human prostate cancer. The antitumor effect was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in xenograft tumors. PMID:27151584

  4. Effective population size estimation in seed orchards: A case study of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./ F. angustifolia VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machanská Eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size as a parameter closely correlating with the genetic and genotypic diversity of the seed orchard output is an important indicator of seed orchard functioning. It is determined by the variation of male and female gametic contributions of parental genotypes (including those outside the seed orchard, influenced by the variation in male and female gamete production, reproductive phenology, pollen dispersal within seed orchard and other factors. We assessed male and female fecundity, as well as temporal course of male and female flowering in two seed orchards of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./F. angustifolia VAHL. in Slovakia. In both cases, male and female gametic contributions of plus-tree clones were modeled on the basis of fecundity and flowering phenology, and were used to calculate status number as an estimator of effective population size. In the seed orchard of Pinus nigra, marker-aided verification of clonal fidelity revealed unexpectedly high proportion of misplaced ramets (29.9% and alien genotypes (44.4%. Monitoring of reproductive processes in 2002 and 2003 showed high variation in both male and female fecundity, and pollen shedding preceding female receptivity in Pinus nigra. All these factors contributed to a very low relative status effective number, representing 8.6% to 38.6% of the population census (depending from the management option in relation to misplaced and alien genotypes. In the mixed seed orchard of Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia, the proportion of misplaced and alien genotypes was much lower (22.4% and 12.3%, respectively. However, a high fecundity variation and protogyny resulted in a low relative status number (18.8% to 29.5% of the census number of clones also in this seed orchard. Practical implications of these findings are shortly discussed and practical management options are proposed.

  5. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  6. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN DE POISSON DE LA Guadua angustifolia Kunth A PARTIR DE PROCESAMIENTOS DE imágenes Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DETERMINATION OF POISSON´S RATIO OF THE Guadua angustifolia Kunth USING IMAGE PROCESSING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alexander Osorio Saraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se propuso determinar los valores de la relación de Poisson para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth, en la cepa y la basa del culmo, además de analizar la incidencia que ejerce la estructura interna en dicha propiedad. Los resultados indicaron que la relación de Poisson depende significativamente de la estructura del material variando entre 0,22 y 0,35 haciéndolo un producto biológico altamente heterogéneo y anisotrópico. Además, los análisis de estructura interna de tejido conductivo, parénquima y tejidos de fibras, indicaron que estos componentes varían a través de la sección transversal del culmo de la guadua.The technique of image processing was applied to determine the values of the Poisson's ratio for the Guadua angustifolia Kunth, in the “cepa” and the “basa” of the element, besides to analyze the incidence of its internal structure in this property. The results indicated that the Poisson's ratio depends upon the material structure reaching values between 0,22 and 0,35 making of this biological product a material highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. In addition the microstructure analysis of conductive tissue, parenchyma and fibers, indicated that these components vary through the cross-sectional section of the guadua element.

  7. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la

  8. FITOSSOCIOLOGIA DA VEGETAÇÃO ARBÓREA DO PARQUE NACIONAL DO IGUAÇU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Felipe de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociology of tree vegetation in Iguaçu National Park is inserted within Atlantic Forest biome and is considered the largest Brazilian non-Amazon Park. Despite its importance and its significant forest area, there are few scientific studies related to its vegetation. In order to meet this demand, we conducted a phytosociological inventory of the tree vegetation by means of plots installed in different environments, striving to achieve optimum environmental representation. In the classification of vegetation by TWINSPAN the forests were initially separated into ambient montane and submontane. An ecotone region between seasonal and araucaria forests was observed in the montane site, at an altitude above 700 m. The semideciduous forest montane was observed at altitudes of 600-700 meters. The Forest Seasonal Submontane in the lowlands was separated into two subformations, Typical and Humid, due to physiognomic variations regulated by geomorphology and humidity. According to the results, the tree vegetation of Iguaçu National Park is a remnant of great importance for the conservation of forest species in southern Brazil, among which stand out Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Euterpe edulis Mart. and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

  9. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  10. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  11. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  12. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  13. Use of bioremediation and treatment of wetland for remediation of the accidental crude-oil spill of July 16, 2000 at the Petrobras Refinery Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas (REPAR), Araucaria, PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millette, D. [Hydrogeo Plus Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Falkiewicz, F.; Zamberlan, E. [Petrobras-REPAR, Araucaria (Brazil); Campos Carvalho, F.J.P. de [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curifiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Neto, A.C.B.; Caicedo, N.O.L.; Motta Marques, D. [Universidad Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Instituto de pesquisas hidraulicas; Linhares, M. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    On July 16, 2000, a pipeline supplying oil to the PETROBRAS refinery Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas-REPAR, located in Araucaria, Brazil, ruptured. The resulting oil spill involved approximately 4 million litres of crude oil. Workers managed to retain a vast quantity of oil within a two-kilometre area called Ponto O. The banks and floodplain of a small stream, the Arroio Saldanha, were contaminated, as well as the soil of four small wetlands. The authors presented an overview of the remediation program implemented. They focused on the soil bioremediation and treatment of wetland programs. Some of the remediation technologies used were: in situ bioremediation, injection and recovery trenches, and treatment of wetland in the vicinity of the discharge. Most of the free product from the sector adjacent to the spill site seems to have been removed by the recovery trenches. The preliminary data obtained from soil monitoring points to the efficiency of in situ bioremediation. Wetland vegetation was successfully restored and hydrocarbons appear to have been removed from the groundwater. 2 figs.

  14. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  15. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  16. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  17. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  19. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl., a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Reddy Rama Reddy

    Full Text Available Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl. is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG, Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG and Gene Ontology (GO. Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0% and 36349 (97.7% from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf and 32077 (mature leaf transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7% CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in

  20. Next Generation Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis Predicts Biosynthetic Pathway of Sennosides from Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.), a Non-Model Plant with Potent Laxative Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Mehta, Rucha Harishbhai; Soni, Palak Harendrabhai; Makasana, Jayanti; Gajbhiye, Narendra Athamaram; Ponnuchamy, Manivel; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090)', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various

  1. Isolation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase cDNA clones from Angelonia x angustifolia and heterologous expression as GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gosch

    Full Text Available Blue Angelonia × angustifolia flowers can show spontaneous mutations resulting in white/blue and white flower colourations. In such a white line, a loss of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR activity was observed whereas chalcone synthase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase activity remained unchanged. Thus, cloning and characterization of a DFR of Angelonia flowers was carried out for the first time. Two full length DFR cDNA clones, Ang.DFR1 and Ang.DFR2, were obtained from a diploid chimeral white/blue Angelonia × angustifolia which demonstrated a 99% identity in their translated amino acid sequence. In comparison to Ang.DFR2, Ang.DFR1 was shown to contain an extra proline in a proline-rich region at the N-terminus along with two exchanges at the amino acids 12 and 26 in the translated amino acid sequence. The recombinant Ang.DFR2 obtained by heterologous expression in yeast was functionally active catalyzing the NADPH dependent reduction of dihydroquercetin (DHQ and dihydromyricetin (DHM to leucocyanidin and leucomyricetin, respectively. Dihydrokaempferol (DHK in contrast was not accepted as a substrate despite the presence of asparagine in a position assumed to determine DHK acceptance. We show that substrate acceptance testing of DFRs provides biased results for DHM conversion if products are extracted with ethyl acetate. Recombinant Ang.DFR1 was inactive and functional activity could only be restored via exchanges of the amino acids in position 12 and 26 as well as the deletion of the extra proline. E. coli transformation of the pGEX-6P-1 vector harbouring the Ang.DFR2 and heterologous expression in E. coli resulted in functionally active enzymes before and after GST tag removal. Both the GST fusion protein and purified DFR minus the GST tag could be stored at -80°C for several months without loss of enzyme activity and demonstrated identical substrate specificity as the recombinant enzyme obtained from heterologous expression in yeast.

  2. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  3. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  4. LAVENDER (LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA AROMATHERAPY AS AN ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT IN REDUCING PAIN IN PRIMIPAROUS MOTHERS IN THE ACTIVE FIRST STAGE OF LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Yani Karo Karo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Labor and childbirth is an extremely painful process. Aromatherapy is considered as one of the nonpharmacological methods to reduce labor pain. Objective: To determine the effect of Lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia aromatherapy on the level of pain in primipara in the first stage of labor. Methods: A quasy-experimental research with pretest and posttest design with control group conducted between October until November 2016. Forthy respondents selected using consecutive sampling, which 20 assigned in each group. a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS pain scale was used. Paired and independent t-test were used for data analyses. Results: The results showed that the p-value of labor pain after intervention was 0.000 (<0.05, which indicated that there was statistically mean difference of labor pain between intervention (6.10 and control group (4.05 in primipara in the first active stage of labor. Conclusion: The women in the lavender aromatherapy group reported lower intensity of labor pain. The intervention study could be practiced in the community health centers for pregnant women in order for them to apply this healing method.

  5. Randomized controlled trial for Salvia sclarea or Lavandula angustifolia: differential effects on blood pressure in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Geun Hee; Lee, Yun Hee; Kang, Purum; You, Ji Hye; Park, Mira; Min, Sun Seek

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inhalation of Salvia sclarea (clary sage; clary) or Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) essential oil vapors on autonomic nervous system activity in female patients with urinary incontinence undergoing urodynamic assessment. STUDY DESIGN, LOCATION, AND SUBJECTS: This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial carried out in 34 female patients with urinary incontinence. The subjects were randomized to inhale lavender, clary, or almond (control) oil at concentrations of 5% (vol/vol) each. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and salivary cortisol were measured before and after inhalation of these odors for 60 minutes. The clary oil group experienced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with the control (p=0.048) and lavender oil (p=0.026) groups, a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure compared with the lavender oil group (p=0.034) and a significant decrease in respiratory rate compared with the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the lavender oil group tended to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, inhalation of lavender oil (p=0.045) and clary oil (p<0.001) resulted in statistically significant reductions in respiratory rate. These results suggest that lavender oil inhalation may be inappropriate in lowering stress during urodynamic examinations, despite its antistress effects, while clary oil inhalation may be useful in inducing relaxation in female urinary incontinence patients undergoing urodynamic assessments.

  6. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  7. Differential accumulation of volatile terpene and terpene synthase mRNAs during lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and L. x intermedia) inflorescence development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Moja, Sandrine; Valot, Nadine; Legrand, Sylvain; Jullien, Frédéric; Legendre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.

  8. Kocuria palustris sp. nov. and Kocuria rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from the rhizoplane of the narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, G; Burghardt, J; Pradella, S; Schumann, P; Stackebrandt, E; Màrialigeti, K

    1999-01-01

    Two Gram-positive, aerobic spherical actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizoplane of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia) collected from a floating mat in the Soroksár tributary of the Danube river, Hungary. Sequence comparisons of the 16S rDNA indicated these isolates to be phylogenetic neighbours of members of the genus Kocuria, family Micrococcaceae, in which they represent two novel lineages. The phylogenetic distinctness of the two organisms TA68T and TAGA27T was supported by DNA-DNA similarity values of less than 55% between each other and with the type strains of Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae and Kocuria varians. Chemotaxonomic properties supported the placement of the two isolates in the genus Kocuria. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan is lysine, the interpeptide bridge is composed of three alanine residues. Predominant menaquinone was MK-7(H2). The fatty acid pattern represents the straight-chain saturated iso-anteiso type. Main fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0. The phospholipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown component. The DNA base composition of strains TA68T and TAGA27T is 69.4 and 69.6 mol% G+C, respectively. Genotypic, morphological and physiological characteristics are used to describe two new species of Kocuria, for which we propose the names Kocuria palustris, type strain DSM 11925T and Kocuria rhizophila, type strain DSM 11926T.

  9. Effect of reclaimed water effluent on bacterial community structure in the Typha angustifolia L. rhizosphere soil of urbanized riverside wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingru; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of reclaimed water on the ecology of bacterial communities in the Typha angustifolia L. rhizosphere soil, bacterial community structure was investigated using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results revealed significant spatial variation of bacterial communities along the river from upstream and downstream. For example, a higher relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and a lower proportion of β-Proteobacteria and ε-Proteobacteria was detected at the downstream site compared to the upstream site. Additionally, with an increase of the reclaimed water interference intensity, the rhizosphere bacterial community showed a decrease in taxon richness, evenness and diversity. The relative abundance of bacteria closely related to the resistant of heavy-metal was markedly increased, while the bacteria related for carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus/sulfur cycling wasn't strikingly changed. Besides that, the pathogenic bacteria markedly increased in the downstream rhizosphere soil since reclaimed water supplement, while the possible plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria obviously reduced in the downstream sediment. Together these data suggest cause and effect between reclaimed water input into the wetland, shift in bacterial communities through habitat change, and alteration of capacity for biogeochemical cycling of contaminants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Toxicity of Lavandula angustifolia oil constituents and spray formulations to insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant Plutella xylostella and its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang Geun; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Si Hyeock; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Kwon, Min; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Plutella xylostella is one of the most serious insect pests of cruciferous crops. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 21 constituents from Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LA-EO) and another 16 previously known LA-EO constituents and the toxicity of six experimental spray formulations containing the oil (1-6 g L(-1) sprays) to susceptible KS-PX and pyrethroid-resistant JJ-PX P. xylostella larvae, as well as to its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata adults. Linalool and linalool oxide (LC50 = 0.016 mg cm(-3) ) were the most toxic fumigant compounds and were 10.7-fold less toxic than dichlorvos to KS-PX larvae. Either residual or fumigant toxicity of these compounds was almost identical against larvae from either of the two strains. Against C. glomerata, dichlorvos (LC50 = 7 × 10(-6)  mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic insecticide. LA-EO was ∼1430 times less toxic than dichlorvos. The oil applied as 6 g L(-1) spray and emamectin benzoate 21.5 g L(-1) emulsifiable concentrate provided 100% mortality against larvae from either of the two strains. Reasonable P. xylostella control in greenhouses can be achieved by a spray formulation containing the 6 g L(-1) oil as potential contact-action fumigant. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States-A Report on the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. This report was published in 2010 as a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report (available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5247). The report was produced through a collaborative effort led by the Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey, with critical contributions from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and from university researchers. The document synthesizes the state of the science and key research needs on the following topics related to management of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States: their distribution and abundance (extent); the potential for water savings associated with controlling these species; considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat and restored habitats; methods of control and removal; possible utilization of dead biomass following control and removal; and approaches and challenges associated with site revegetation or restoration. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, potentially useful field-demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  12. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  13. Co-processed extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, for production of high load tablets

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    Verônica M. L. Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a co-processing technique for improving the manufacturing properties of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, and Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, extracts in order to obtain tablets containing a high dose of such extracts. An experimental mixture design was used to optimise the formulation composition. Flowability parameters, such as compressibility index, time flow and angle of repose, were determined. Additional important industrial parameters, such as granulometry, bulk density and moisture stability, were also studied. The results demonstrated that co-processing technique was able to improve the flowability of vegetal extracts, making these materials suitable for a direct compression process. The contour plots revealed that formulations with a higher amount of lactose produced the best flow results as well as a larger particle size and a greater bulk density. Tablets from co-processed extracts containing lactose as majority diluent showed appropriate physical-chemical characteristics and presented a more stable moisture sorption behaviour compared to commercial gelatine capsules.

  14. Tolerance induction to stress caused by lavender (Lavandula angustifolia extracts in the microalga Dunaliella salina through metabolic modifications and β-carotene production

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    Sahar Mazang-Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory or stimulatory effect of one plant on other plant species through the released chemical compounds into the environment, known as allelochemicals, is called allelopathy. In the present study, effect of aqueous extracts of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia leaves on growth pattern and ability of β-carotene production in unicellular green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated. Based on these results, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts was relatively low. Treated cultures with extract concentrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4 % showed that the process of cell division was ceased because of extracts phytotoxicity. However, the chlorophyll and β-carotene concentration pronouncedly increased in phytotoxin-treated cells, so that the highest of these values were detected in 3 % extracts-exposed cells. Percentage change of all three fresh weight, total sugar and protein between 0 and 48 h of phytotoxins treatment was significantly increased concurrently with increasing dose of extracts. These results suggest that D. salina tolerate allelochemicals-induced stress by metabolic modifications. Therefore, phytotoxins-tolerance mechanisms in D. salina are associated with physiological and metabolic adjustments by allocating the carbon flux to the synthesis of the sugars, chlorophyll and β-carotene, which induce phytotoxins stress tolerance in this alga.

  15. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

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    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  16. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  17. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  18. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  19. Plantas medicinais de um remascente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana, Urupema, Santa Catarina, Brasil Medicinal plants in a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest, Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    D. Martins-Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar dados químicos, biológicos e etnobotânicos na literatura científica de espécies medicinais de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Altomontana. A base para este estudo foi um levantamento florístico realizado na Fazenda das Nascentes, Urupema-SC entre agosto de 2007 e setembro de 2008. A partir da lista de espécies que resultou deste levantamento, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o potencial medicinal das espécies inventariadas. Para as espécies com dados de ação medicinal, foi elaborada chave de identificação vegetativa. Das 64 espécies listadas foram encontradas informações na bibliografia consultada sobre o potencial medicinal de 29. As principais familias foram Asteraceae (oito espécies e Myrtaceae (três espécies. O hábito que mais se destacou entre as plantas com potencial medicinal foi o arbóreo (13 espécies. O componente químico de maior ocorrência entre as espécies foi o óleo essencial (60% das espécies. As atividades terapêuticas mais citadas na literatura consultadas foram antimicrobiana, anti-oxidante, anti-inflamatória, antiviral, antifúngica e anestésica. Os resultados encontrados indicam o imenso potencial econômico da Floresta Ombrófila Mista e ambientes associados como fonte de recursos naturais que fazem parte da cultura e do patrimônio catarinense.The aim of this work was to search for chemical, biological and ethnobotanical data in the scientific literature on medicinal species from a remnant of High Montane Araucaria Moist Forest. This study was based on the floristics performed in "Fazenda das Nascentes", Urupema Municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between August 2007 and September 2008. From the list of species obtained in this survey, a review on the medicinal potential of these recorded species was done. A vegetative identification key was elaborated for species with medicinal action Information about medicinal

  20. Multiple use forest management: an alternative to the extinction of the Araucaria Forest? Manejo florestal de uso múltiplo: uma alternativa contra a extinção com Floresta com Araucária?

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    Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates the adoption of forest management methods that are consistent with the
    principles of sustainable development and respectful of multiple forest use as a means to efficiently revert the
    fragmentation process of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest (FOM or Araucaria Forest. The problems related to this endangered forest type are discussed within the context of progressive land use changes observed in its
    region of natural occurrence. Some concepts of forest management are presented, as well as the new approaches related to the paradigm of sustainability and the focus on other benefits provided by the forest, besides wood products solely. It is also discussed the present trend observed in society, which favors preservation policies, and the obstacles for adopting forest management practices in the FOM. The reasons for the inexpressive role played by the forest component in the incomes of small and medium landowners are analyzed and the rural poverty is considered a determinant factor. The management of the Araucaria Forest based on regulation methods
    is proposed as a means of enhancing forest conditions in what concerns its structure, species composition and
    reproductive capabilities, besides achieving sustainable yields of timber and non-timber products. The main
    characteristics of the use of the selection method are described.O artigo defende a adoção do manejo florestal de uso múltiplo como forma eficaz de reverter a
    tendência de fragmentação e degradação da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM ou Floresta de Araucária, considerada em perigo de extinção pela gradual conversão de uso do solo na sua região de ocorrência natural. Apresenta-se a evolução do conceito de manejo florestal com as mudanças de paradigma observadas na sociedade, como a sustentabilidade e o enfoque sobre múltiplos bens e serviços produzidos pela floresta, além dos madeireiros. São discutidas as tendências da

  1. Quantitative analysis of seed rain under natural and artificial perches in the Araucaria Forest Análise quantitativa da chuva de sementes sob poleiros naturais e artificiais em Floresta Ombrófila Mista

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    Sandra Bos Mikich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency in terms of number of seeds deposited under natural and artificial bird-perches set in degraded areas of Araucaria Forest. Six experimental units were used, each containing seed traps set under natural perches (NP, artificial perches (AP and under open sky (OS. After 12 months of weekly sampling 26880 zoochoric seeds were collected under AP, 5729 under NP, and only seven under OS. Thus, the presence of perches increases dramatically seed deposition and NP are more or as efficient as AP when the effect of deposition area is taken into account.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficiência de poleiros naturais e artificiais na deposição de
    sementes em áreas degradadas da Floresta com Araucária. Seis unidades experimentais foram utilizadas, cada qual constituída por coletores de sementes instalados sob poleiros naturais (PN, artificiais (PA e a céu aberto (CA. Após 12 meses de coletas semanais, foram recolhidas 26.880 sementes zoocóricas sob os PA, 5.729 sob os PN e 7 nos CA. Portanto, a presença de poleiros incrementa significativamente a chuva de sementes e os PN são tão ou mais eficientes que os PA quando o efeito da área de deposição é levado em consideração.

  2. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  3. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  4. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  5. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

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    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  6. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  7. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  8. Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Abuhamdah, Sawsan; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Dixon, Christine L; Elliot, Mark S J; Ballard, Clive; Holmes, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Perry, Elaine K; Francis, Paul T; Lees, George; Chazot, Paul L

    2008-11-01

    Both Melissa officinalis (Mo) and Lavandula angustifolia (La) essential oils have putative anti-agitation properties in humans, indicating common components with a depressant action in the central nervous system. A dual radioligand binding and electrophysiological study, focusing on a range of ligand-gated ion channels, was performed with a chemically validated essential oil derived from La, which has shown clinical benefit in treating agitation. La inhibited [35S] TBPS binding to the rat forebrain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor channel (apparent IC50 = 0.040 +/- 0.001 mg mL(-1)), but had no effect on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A 50:50 mixture of Mo and La essential oils inhibited [3H] flunitrazepam binding, whereas the individual oils had no significant effect. Electrophysiological analyses with rat cortical primary cultures demonstrated that La reversibly inhibited GABA-induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner (0.01-1 mg mL(-1)), whereas no inhibition of NMDA- or AMPA-induced currents was noted. La elicited a significant dose-dependent reduction in both inhibitory and excitatory transmission, with a net depressant effect on neurotransmission (in contrast to the classic GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin which evoked profound epileptiform burst firing in these cells). These properties are similar to those recently reported for Mo. The anti-agitation effects in patients and the depressant effects of La we report in neural membranes in-vitro are unlikely to reflect a sedative interaction with any of the ionotropic receptors examined here. These data suggest that components common to the two oils are worthy of focus to identify the actives underlying the neuronal depressant and anti-agitation activities reported.

  9. Silexan, an essential oil from flowers of Lavandula angustifolia, is not recognized as benzodiazepine-like in rats trained to discriminate a diazepam cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silenieks, Leo B; Koch, Egon; Higgins, Guy A

    2013-01-15

    Recently, an essential oil of selected quality produced from the flowering tops of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. by steam distillation (Silexan) has been approved in Germany for the treatment of restlessness in case of anxious mood. Based on the observed clinical effects, it has been speculated that lavender oil may exert benzodiazepine-like action including the known dependence and abuse potential of this class of drugs. Although no evidence for such an activity was generated during the long-standing medicinal use of lavender oil, further preclinical investigations were now conducted to evaluate this potential side effect in more detail. Twelve adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate the benzodiazepine drug diazepam (2 mg/kg i.p.) from saline using a two-lever operant procedure. After approximately 40 training sessions the majority of rats learned the discrimination and pre-treatment with ascending doses of diazepam (0.3-2 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose related generalization to the diazepam cue. In these same animals Silexan was administered to see if animals recognized the drug as "diazepam-like" i.e. generalized to diazepam or "saline-like". Silexan tested at doses 3-30 mg/kg i.p. produced almost exclusively (>90%) saline-like responding. Also there was no effect of Silexan on response rate, i.e. rate of lever pressing, at any dose suggesting that the test article is well tolerated and does not exert a sedating effect. In sum, Silexan has no diazepam-like interoceptive property in adult, male rats. This suggests that Silexan does not share the potential of benzodiazepines to induce the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. El mezcal en Sonora, México, más que una bebida espirituosa. Etnobotánica de Agave angustifolia Haw

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    Noemí Bañuelos Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo sería la vida de los sonorenses sin el mezcal? La interrogante guía el propósito general del trabajo, orientado a identificar la importancia que tradicionalmente ha revestido el Agave angustifolia en la vida cotidiana de los sonorenses. En su mayor parte, los estudios existentes en Sonora en torno a esta especie se enfocan, básicamente, en su uso para la elaboración industrial del licor, popularmente conocido como bacanora. La investigación pretende contribuir, en alguna medida, al mayor conocimiento del valor biológico y cultural de la planta. Con ese objetivo se recurre a la etnobotánica para obtener una mirada más completa de las formas en las que los hombres y mujeres se han relacionado con el agave. La región de estudio comprende dos zonas mezcaleras: la sierra orien-te, donde la mayor parte de la población es mestiza, y la zona sur, donde los grupos indígenas Mayo y Guarijío cohabitan con mestizos. Se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad a diversos pobladores, así como a investigadores y otros estudiosos de la planta. Se consultaron las fuentes históricas disponibles. Los resultados muestran la existencia de diferencias regionales en los usos del agave y técnicas de preparación, determinadas por un número de factores estrechamente vinculados con el grupo étnico de los pobladores y su historia.

  11. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

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    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  12. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

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    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  13. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

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    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  14. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

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    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  15. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1988-01-01

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  16. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  17. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  18. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

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    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  19. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  20. Compilation of woody species occurring in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Da Silva Duarte, Leandro; Marcilio-Silva, Vinicius; Dos Santos Seger, Guilherme Dubal; Liebsch, Dieter; Marques, Márcia C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity conservation because of its high levels of endemism and threatened areas. Three main forest types, differentiated by their floras, compose the Atlantic Forest: ‘Atlantic Forest’ sensu strictu, ‘Araucaria Mixed Forest’ and ‘Seasonal Forest’. The flora comprises taxa from the Amazon forest, Cerrado gallery forests and the Andean region, which makes the Atlantic Forest a relevant study system for ecologists and biogeographers. Here, we present da...

  1. Fenologia da floração e frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da floresta com araucária Phenology of blooming and fruiting of myrtaceae native species of araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de fenologia são importantes para definição de vários tratos culturais de espécies frutíferas. Assim, estudou-se a fenologia da floração e da frutificação de mirtáceas nativas da Floresta com Araucária, na região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram feitas observações fenológicas em pitangueira, cerejeira-do-mato, uvalheira, guabirobeira e araçazeiro, de julho de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008, em três plantas por espécie. Foram determinadas as curvas de crescimento dos frutos com base nos seus valores de massa da matéria seca, em duas avaliações semanais. A floração das espécies ocorreu entre o final de agosto e o início de novembro. A cerejeira-do-mato é a espécie mais precoce (ciclo de 43 dias, com maturação dos frutos entre meados e fim de outubro, enquanto o araçazeiro apresenta ciclo reprodutivo mais longo (98 dias, com maturação durante o mês de fevereiro. Há diferenças no comportamento do acúmulo de matéria seca nos frutos entre genótipos da mesma espécie.Studies of phenology are important for the development of various cultural treatments of fruit species. Therefore, it was studied the phenology of blooming and fruiting of Myrtaceae native species of Araucaria Forest, in the Southwest of Paraná state, Brazil. Observations about phenology of Eugenia uniflora, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia pyriformis, Campomanesia xantocarpa, and Psidium cattleyanum were conducted from July 2007 to February 2008, in three plants of each species. There to manufacture the curves of the fruits growth based in mass of dry matter, in two weekly ratings. The flowering of species occurred between late August and early November. The Eugenia involucrata is the earliest (cycle of 43 days, with ripening between mid and end of October, while the Psidium cattleyanum presents reproductive cycle longer (98 days, with maturity during the month of February. There are differences in behavior accumulation of mass of dry matter between

  2. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  3. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  4. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  5. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

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    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  6. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  7. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  8. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  9. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  10. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  11. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.

  12. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  13. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  14. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  15. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  17. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  18. Who owns the Brazilian carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Flavio L M; Englund, Oskar; Sparovek, Gerd; Berndes, Göran; Guidotti, Vinicius; Pinto, Luís F G; Mörtberg, Ulla

    2018-05-01

    Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed, and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation. We assess the total extent of public governance mechanisms protecting aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks. We constructed a land tenure dataset for the entire nation and modeled the effects and uncertainties of major land-use acts on protecting AGC stocks. Roughly 70% of the AGC stock in Brazil is estimated to be under legal protection, and an additional 20% is expected to be protected after areas in the Amazon with currently undesignated land undergo a tenure regularization. About 30% of the AGC stock is on private land, of which roughly two-thirds are protected. The Cerrado, Amazon, and Caatinga biomes hold about 40%, 30%, and 20% of the unprotected AGC, respectively. Effective conservation of protected and unprotected carbon will depend on successful implementation of the Forest Act, and regularization of land tenure in the Amazon. Policy development that prioritizes unprotected AGC stocks is warranted to promote conservation of native vegetation beyond the legal requirements. However, different biomes and land tenure structures may require different policy settings considering local and regional specifics. Finally, the fate of current AGC stocks relies upon effective implementation of command and control mechanisms, considering that unprotected AGC in native vegetation on private land only accounts for 6.5% of the total AGC stock. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. TECHNOLOGY REPRESENTATION IN SOME BRAZILIAN POEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel Maria Fanini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article analyses how the universe of technology and labour are depicted in literary terms in some Brazilian poems from the writers Castro Alves, Mario de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade. The poets portray this universe in the following approaches: modern technology dissociated from the Brazilian context painted as traditional and archaic; associated to industrial production and to workers’ exploitation; linked to high class entertainment and as an imported good subjected to central capitalistic economies, facing difficulties to be aggregated to local production.

  20. Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Brazilian emergency planning for radiological accidents is organized to respond promptly to any emergency at nuclear power plants or other installations utilizing nuclear fuel. It consists of several committees: a general coordination committee with representatives from several federal departments, with final decision with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (SEMA). Some committees conduct support activities. For example, the Operational Coordination Committee supervises the tasks undertaken by the Army, Navy, and Air Force in response to the needs and decisions of the general coordination committee

  1. A comunidade de peixes de um riacho de Floresta com Araucária, alto rio Iguaçu, sul do Brasil The fish community in an Araucaria Forest stream, upper Iguaçu River basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Abilhoa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a composição, a dieta, as táticas alimentares e ocupação espacial da ictiofauna em um pequeno riacho dentro de um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária. Seis espécies de peixes foram coletadas, pertencentes a três ordens e quatro famílias, totalizando 110 exemplares. No ambiente de corredeira foram coletados e observados apenas Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992 and Trichomycterus davisi Haseman, 1911, enquanto que no ambiente de remanso foram observados e capturados exemplares de Astyanax aff. scabripinnis (sensu Eigenmann, 1921, Astyanax totae Haluch & Abilhoa, 2005, Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992, T. davisi, Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 e Jenynsia eigenmanni Haseman, 1911. Dezoito itens alimentares de origem autóctone, seis de alóctone e três de origem incerta foram identificados e tiveram sua freqüência de ocorrência calculada. Uma grande quantidade de itens exclusivos foi registrada, todavia os insetos constituíram a base alimentar mais importante, principalmente na forma de fragmentos e estágios imaturos (larvas e pupas, o que permitiu inferências a respeito de sobreposição alimentar. As espécies registradas no riacho foram classificadas em quatro guildas tróficas e quatro grupos funcionais. As espécies estudadas são capazes de utilizar diversos recursos alimentares e microambientes, o que é favorecido provavelmente pelo seu pequeno porte. O remanescente florestal estudado exerce grande importância no fornecimento de alimento, hábitats e refúgios, fatores importantes para manutenção da biota aquática.The species composition, diet, feeding tactics, and spatial occupation of fishes in a headwater stream which flows within a remaining fragment of Araucaria Forest were studied. One hundred and ten fishes of six species were collected, members of three orders and four families. In riffle areas, only Trichomycterus castroi Pinna, 1992 and Trichomycterus davisi Haseman, 1911 were

  2. Brazilian energy statistics - 1988. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some information about the Brazilian Action Plan for the petroleum sector, nuclear energy, ecology and Chernobyl. Graphs, annual statistics and long range data of electric power, petroleum and derivates, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  3. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.) [pt

  4. Análisis cuantitativos de los principales constituyentes químicos de raíces de Echinacea purpurea y E. Angustifolia producidas en Costa Rica1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Loaiza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cuantificó los fenilpropanoides libres: ácido clorogénico y ácido cichórico, glicosídicos (equinacósido; así como las alcamidas presentes en extractos de raíces de las plantas medicinales Echinacea purpurea y E. angustifolia, producidas en 3 localidades de Costa Rica: Los Santos a 1650 msnm, Santa Bárbara de Heredia a 1250 msnm y Ojo de Agua a 850 msnm. Conforme disminuyó la altitud de las zonas de siembra, también disminuyó la concentración de los metabolitos analizados. La concentración de los fenilpropanoides y del equinacósido (sintetizado exclusivamente por E. angustifolia producidos en Costa Rica, fue 100 y 34% mayor, respectivamente, que la concentración reportada para una muestra control proveniente de EE.UU. Las alcamidas se produjeron en un rango de 0,89-2,31% comparado con 0,004-0,36% reportado en EE.UU. En Costa Rica la presencia de alcamidas fue similar para las 3 zonas en estudio. Sin embargo, 2 de ellas presentaron un grado de isomerismo diferente al reportado en muestras de EE.UU. Estos resultados indican que en condiciones tropicales, no solo se puede producir Echinacea en un menor tiempo, sino también que las cantidades de metabolitos secundarios son mayores a las producidas por la planta en sus áreas de origen. La presencia de compuestos con diferente grado de isomerismo podría presentar nuevas alternativas de uso de esos metabolitos.

  5. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  6. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  7. National Bioethics Council: a Brazilian proposal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrafa, V.; Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2010-01-01

    The number of national bioethics commissions has burgeoned since the establishment of the first one in 1983. They provide an arena in which stakeholders with widely differing moral views can discuss, interact and negotiate about controversial matters. The establishment of the Brazilian committee is

  8. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Denise

    1981-10-01

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA) [fr

  9. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  10. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  11. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  12. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Brazilian Development vs. the Amazonian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    We may be involved in a replay of the Indian genocide and dislocation characteristic of early U.S. history through the workings of international economics. This historical account briefly outlines the recent economic developments in the Brazilian Amazon, the effects that those policies have on the natives, and the United States' involvement in…

  14. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  15. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  16. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  17. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  18. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  19. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Ten years of Brazilian ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia Trindade; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Poggian, Cecília Fonseca; Fileman, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    In 2005, Brazil addressed the environmental challenges posed by ballast water through a unilateral regulation, called the Maritime Standard N° 20 (NORMAM-20), applied to all shipping in her waters. This world-leading decision was the culmination of a process that started during the 1990‧s. Here, we summarize how these ballast water regulations were brought in and adopted and present the findings of 10 years of enforcement (2005-2015) in 39 ports along the Brazilian coast. We show that compliance with the Brazilian standard has increased significantly since the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). After five years of implementation, non-compliance decreased probably reflecting an increase in awareness of the Brazilian Standard and a shift in the shipping industry commitment to minimize and control the spread of invasive species through ballast water. The Brazilian experience shows that very high levels (97%) of compliance with ballast water management regulations can be made to work in a region of global importance to the maritime industry. In the last decade, the rules governing ballast water in Brazil have evolved to address the demands from the maritime community and to provide updates such as imminent requirements for the use of ballast water management systems on board ships. These regulations are rarely cited when ballast water regulations are discussed internationally, yet there is much to learn from the proactive approach taken by Brazil such as what is feasible and enforceable.

  1. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  2. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-12-01

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  3. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  4. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  5. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  6. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  7. Litter dwelling mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Microstigmatidae, Nemesiidae from Araucaria forests in southern Brazil, with the description of five new species Aranhas migalomorfas que habitam a serapilheira (Araneae: Microstigmatidae, Nemesiidae de florestas de Araucária no sul do Brasil, com a descrição de cinco espécies novas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P. Indicatti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Six mygalomorph spiders species belonging to two families, were collected in the Centro de Pesquisa e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, São Francisco de Paula, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five of those species, five are new. Microstigmatidae: Xenonemesia araucaria sp. nov., males differ from those of X. platensis Goloboff, 1988 and X. otti Indicatti, Lucas & Brescovit, 2007 by the curved and very long embolus in the male palp. Females differ from the remaining species of the genus in the seminal receptacle very long and sinuous or twisted. Nemesiidae: Acanthogonatus ericae sp. nov. - males resemble those of A. tacuariensis (Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1982 and A. quilocura Goloboff, 1995 by the serrated, curved and long embolus but are distinguished by the presence of a flange on the apex of the embolus. Females differ from the remaining Acanthogonatus by the short copulatory ducts, arising from the apex of the basal dome. Stenoterommata arnolisei sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining species of the genus by the large sub-apical area of bulb, with a great number of keels, extending to the median region in the male palp and by the long copulatory ducts and spermathecae arising from internal border of basal dome in the female genitalia. S. grimpa sp. nov.: males resemble those of S. arnolisei sp. nov. by the shape of the palpal bulb and by the short embolus, but differ in the keels, restricted to the apical region. Females differ from remaining Stenoterommata by the presence of two spermathecae in the rounded fused basal dome. S. curiy sp. nov.: males resemble those of S. grimpa sp. nov. by the shape of palpal bulb and the very short embolus, but differ by the translucid keels restricted to the larger distal region. The presence of S. palmar Goloboff, 1995 is confirmed for Brazil. Males of S. palmar are distinguished from the remaining species of the genus by the long, slender and slightly distally curved embolus. Females are

  8. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  9. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  10. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  11. The determinants of credit rating: brazilian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    MurciaI,Flávia Cruz de Souza; Dal-Ri Murcia,Fernando; Rover,Suliani; Borba,José Alonso

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equa...

  12. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Maria Thereza da Silva Lopes; Souza, Marina Correa de; Flores, Tarcisio Santos; Cruz, Nathalia Gracielle da Silva; Diamantino, Hugo Duarte; Barroso, Livia Alves; Rocha, Bruna Almeida; Souza, Romulo Luiz Mendes; Ramos, Pedro Camilo; Macedo, Marcio Henrique Marques

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  13. RMB: the new Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto, E-mail: perrotta@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The Brazilian research reactors have a limited capacity for radioisotopes production, leading to a high dependence on external supply for radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In order to overcome this condition and due to the old age of these research reactors, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission decided, in 2008, to construct a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be part of a new nuclear research center, to be built on a site about 100 kilometers from São Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research center will have a 30 MW open pool type research reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and several associated laboratories in order to produce radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, to use neutron beams in scientific and technological research; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform materials and fuels irradiation tests. Regarding the neutron beams use, the RMB design provides thermal and cold neutron beams. From one side of the reactor, the neutron guides will extend to an experimental hall of instruments named Neutron Guide Hall where it will be installed the scattering instruments. In the initial stage of the reactor operation, the intent is to implement two neutron guides for thermal neutrons and another two for cold neutrons. The 2015 SBPMAT symposium has presented the technical overview of the RMB project and its main buildings, structures and components. At this year symposium, the RMB presentation updates some technical information and the development status of the project, discussing the negative results of the Brazilian political and economic crisis to the project development and its future perspectives. (author)

  14. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  15. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Soares, Abner Duarte; Nogueira, Tindyua de Moraes; Monteiro, Iara Arraes; Pitta, Maria Adelia Rocha; Bruno, Natanael Carvalho; Pereira, Enneite Souza; Pinto, Marvio dos S.; Lidington, Regina Marcia Rocha; Rocha, Marco Aurelio Toledo

    2011-01-01

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  16. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  17. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  18. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  19. Diagnosis of the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gomes, Rogerio dos; Magalhaes Ennes Ennes, Edson Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This work has the objective to present the diagnosis of the existing structure in the Brazilian Government to ensure the radioprotection and nuclear safety in the country, being compared the current situation with the conclusions presented in another studies, carried through in last 30 years, with special attention in the existence of the necessary available to support and independence of the national regulatory body for the development of the regulatory inspections activities in the radioprotection and nuclear safety. (author)

  20. Sorption of fomesafen in Brazilian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G.R.; D'Antonino,L.; Faustino,L.A.; Silva,A.A.; Ferreira,F.A.; Texeira,C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of a herbicide in the soil focus on the interactions with environmental components to obtain agronomic efficiency, ensuring selectivity to the culture and risk reduction of environmental impact. This study evaluated the sorption process of fomesafen in the Brazilian soils Ultisol, Cambisol, and Organosol. Besides soil, washed sand was used as an inert material for determination of the sorption ratio of fomesafen in the soil. The bioassay method was applied, using Sor...

  1. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Result...

  2. Sexuality education in Brazilian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Andrea Cronemberger; Madeiro, Alberto; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2014-05-01

    Sexuality education has been valued since the 1960s in medical schools worldwide. Although recent studies reaffirm the importance of incorporating sexuality into medical education, there are data gaps concerning how this happens in Brazil. To understand how Brazilian medical school professors teach sexuality in undergraduate courses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 207 professors from 110 Brazilian medical schools responded to an online semistructured questionnaire about the characteristics of the sexuality-related topics offered. The main variables assessed were contact hours devoted to sexuality, disciplines in which sexuality topics were taught, sexuality-related course titles, and sexuality-related topics addressed. Questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics for frequency distribution. The response rate to the questionnaire was 77.2%. Almost all professors (96.3%) addressed sexuality-related topics mainly in the third and fourth years as clinical disciplines, with a 6-hour load per discipline. Gynecology was the discipline in which sexuality-related topics were most often taught (51.5%), followed by urology (18%) and psychiatry (15%). Sexuality-related topics were addressed mainly in classes on sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (62.4%) and on the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system (55.4%). About 25% of the professors reported teaching courses with a sexuality-related title. There was emphasis on the impact of diseases and sexual habits (87.9%) and sexual dysfunction (75.9%). Less than 50% of professors addressed nonnormative sexuality or social aspects of sexuality. The teaching of sexuality in Brazilian medical schools occurred in a nonstandardized and fragmented fashion across several disciplines. The topic was incorporated with an organic and pathological bias, with a weak emphasis on the social aspects of sexuality and the variety of human sexual behaviors. The

  3. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  4. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. The impact of turn around time in Brazilian Navy inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Mauricio

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis analyzes how the operation of helicopters produced and supported by manufacturers in various countries affect Brazilian Navy repairable inventories levels and costs. The research is based on a scenario where the Brazilian Navy operates 68 helicopters, manufactured by contractors in USA, France, England and Italy, and the Brazilian Navy relies on these manufacturers for depot-level maintenance. We develop a simulation model...

  6. The Brazilian Public Health in Contemporary Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Virgínia; Mendes, Áquilas N

    2018-01-01

    This article examines some political and economic facts that led to an intensification of austerity measures by the Brazilian government, including ones against the Unified Health System (SUS) and its progressive dismantling. In a country where fundamental human rights were never fully respected, nowadays social and labor rights are under severe attacks. The deepening of the capital crisis and the rise of interest-bearing capital dominance have been causing unemployment, social insecurity growth, and resulting public fund appropriation by the private capital. The Brazilian governments in the 1990s and 2000s have implemented deeper cuts in social policy expenditure, freezing security benefits, privatizing services, and prioritizing the payment of public debt interests. The right wing's project involves the demoralization of not only the Workers' Party but also the left as a whole, so that the adoption of austerity measures could be achieved without popular resistance. It is the duty of the Brazilian left wing to denounce such a project and to provoke firm initiatives to rebuild its bonds with the working class.

  7. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  8. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  9. Resistance Stories of African-Brazilian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of the orixás [African-Brazilian deities] of the black culture and tell their personal histories using those experiences. This intervention was an attempt at invoking different subjective experiences, and made it possible to empower the women who took part in the research, contributing for the rescue of the individual and collective memory of this group.

  10. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  11. Pólen de gimnospermas e angiospermas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Gymnosperm and angiosperm pollen in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests on the Rio Grande do Sul State eastern plateau, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Scherer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Catálogos polínicos de material contido em sedimentos servem como referência em estudos de reconstituição paleoambiental dos últimos milênios. Nesse contexto, a análise palinológica de dois perfis sedimentares do interior de matas com Araucária do estado do Rio Grande do Sul foi realizada. São apresentadas descrições dos grãos de pólen e dados ecológicos dos respectivos táxons de gimnospermas e angiospermas. A análise envolveu amostras de dois perfis sedimentares do Quaternário Tardio de São Francisco de Paula (perfil 1: Alpes de São Francisco, 29º29'S-50º37'W, perfil 2: Banhado Amarelo, 29º18'S-50º08'W, coletados com o Amostrador de Hiller. O processamento químico das amostras seguiu o método padrão, com HCl, HF, KOH, acetólise e montagem das lâminas em gelatina-glicerinada. A análise foi realizada em microscopia óptica. A descrição de cada material é acompanhada de ilustrações. São apresentados palinomorfos de três gimnospermas e 65 angiospermas. A grande riqueza do espectro polínico mostra a potencialidade deste material em oferecer informações ambientais relevantes no estudo da gênese e dinâmica da mata com Araucária.Sedimentary pollen catalogues are aids in the study of paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last millennia. In this context, palynological analysis of two sedimentary profiles from inside Araucaria forests of Rio Grande do Sul state was done. Descriptions of gymnosperm and angiosperm pollen and ecological data of the respective taxa are presented. The analysis involved samples of two sedimentary profiles from the Late Quaternary of São Francisco de Paula (profile 1: Alpes de São Francisco, 29º29'S-50º37'W, profile 2: Banhado Amarelo, 29º18'S-50º08'W, collected with a Hiller Sampler. Chemical processing of the samples followed standard methodology, using HCl, HF, KOH, acetolysis and slide mounts in glycerol-jelly. The analysis was done by light microscopy. All material is

  12. Brazilian energy statistics - 1990. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of major importance in Brazil's energy scenario. The Brazilian Power Sector's Environmental Master Plan is also described including the expansion planning and the handling of socio-environmental issues; the power sector's evolution in the treatment of socio-environmental issues; the guidelines for socio-environmental planning and management and the institutional and technical development in the socio-environmental area. 15 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Brazilian energy statistics - 1998. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  14. Brazilian energy statistics - 2000. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  15. Brazilian energy statistics - 1999. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario

  16. Brazilian energy statistics - 1991. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 13 figs., 22 tabs

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1994. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. 10 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Brazilian energy statistics - 1996. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydroelectric energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It also contains data on ethyl alcohol derived of sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Domestic production, petroleum and petroleum product imports, as well as natural gas production statistics are furnished in this bulletin

  19. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  20. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  1. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Paulo César de Sousa; Lisboa, João Veríssimo de Oliveira; Augusto, Mário Gomes; Almeida, Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  2. DEA investment strategy in the Brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Newton da Costa, Jr.; Marcus Lima; Edgar Lanzer; Ana Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period investment strategy using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in the Brazilian stock market. Results show that the returns based on the DEA strategy were superior to the returns of a Brazilian stock index in most of the 22 quarters analyzed, presenting a significant Jensen's alpha.

  3. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  4. VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, N. S.; Figueiredo, W.; Plascak, J. A.; Santos, M.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 3rd to 8th August, 2015. This is the eighth such meeting, and the second one to have contributed papers published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (the other was the VII BMSP). The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais, in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal, and in the shores of Paraíba. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in Florianópolis, with its pleasing shores, the capital of Santa Catarina state. The VIII BMSP brought together about 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive conference. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementation of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, and out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to be an important occasion for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of the art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to put together this special issue, and are most appreciative of the efforts of the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the Florianopolis team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CAPES and CNPq, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFSC. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors for their written submissions. (paper)

  5. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  6. Smoking: what has been addressed in Brazilian journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Morais, Anna Miethke; Martins, Stella Regina; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula

    2012-12-01

    The topic of tobacco smoking, in its several aspects, has been receiving increasing attention among researchers over the past few years, which has been reflected in more data and more solid scientific literature on the subject in national journals. This article aims to review the studies that focused on smoking published between January 2010 and June 2012, in Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia (Brazilian Archives of Cardiology), Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Clinics (Sao Paulo), Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia (Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology), Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (Journal of the Brazilian Medical Association) and Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery). During the aforementioned period 58 articles were published, 52 of which were original ones, addressing several aspects of smoking, such as effects on health, epidemiology, cessation and experimental studies.

  7. Radiogenic heavy minerals in Brazilian beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO 2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)

  8. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  9. The Brazilian deindustrialization: financialization is not guilty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYLÈNE GAULARD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financialization of the Brazilian economy is often criticized as being responsible of the slowdown of capital accumulation in this country. Indeed, very high interest rates are maintained in order to finance the public debt, and this fosters capitalists to get more Treasury bonds rather than to invest in the productive area. Nevertheless, the evolution of the profit rate in this area also explains the particular relation existing between capitalists, finance and productive investment, as Marx showed it more than a century ago.

  10. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  11. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

    OpenAIRE

    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1) to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2) to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the...

  12. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  13. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  14. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  15. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  16. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  17. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  18. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  19. The status of the Brazilian spherical detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O D; Andrade, L A; Filho, L Camargo; Costa, C A; Araujo, J C N de; Neto, E C de Rey; Souza, S T de; Fauth, A C; Frajuca, C; Frossati, G; Furtado, S R; Furtado, V G S; Magalhaes, N S; Jr, R M Marinho; Matos, E S; Meliani, M T; Melo, J L; Miranda, O D; Jr, N F Oliveira; Ribeiro, K L; Salles, K B M; Stellati, C; Jr, W F Velloso

    2002-01-01

    The first phase of the Brazilian Graviton Project is the construction and operation of the gravitational wave detector Mario Schenberg at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo. This gravitational wave spherical antenna is planned to feature a sensitivity better than h = 10 -21 Hz -1/2 at the 3.0-3.4 kHz bandwidth, and to work not only as a detector, but also as a testbed for the development of new technologies. Here we present the status of this detector

  20. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  1. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  2. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovisolo,Hugo Jacob; Leal,Ricardo Pereira Câmara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined...

  3. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  4. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gho, C.J.; Mauricio, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  5. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  6. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  7. Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.S.; Borges, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

  8. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  9. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  10. Transcription co-activator Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) regulates water-use efficiency and drought tolerance by modulating stomatal density and improving root architecture by the transrepression of YODA (YDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Yao, Shun-Qiao

    2015-09-01

    One goal of modern agriculture is the improvement of plant drought tolerance and water-use efficiency (WUE). Although stomatal density has been linked to WUE, the causal molecular mechanisms and engineered alternations of this relationship are not yet fully understood. Moreover, YODA (YDA), which is a MAPKK kinase gene, negatively regulates stomatal development. BR-INSENSITIVE 2 interacts with phosphorylates and inhibits YDA. However, whether YDA is modulated in the transcriptional level is still unclear. Plants lacking ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) activity have high drought stress tolerance because of low stomatal densities and improved root architecture. Such plants also exhibit enhanced WUE through declining transpiration without a demonstrable reduction in biomass accumulation. AN3 negatively regulated YDA expression at the transcriptional level by target-gene analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that AN3 was associated with a region of the YDA promoter in vivo. YDA mutation significantly decreased the stomatal density and root length of an3 mutant, thus proving the participation of YDA in an3 drought tolerance and WUE enhancement. These components form an AN3-YDA complex, which allows the integration of water deficit stress signalling into the production or spacing of stomata and cell proliferation, thus leading to drought tolerance and enhanced WUE. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  12. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed by Brazilian small enterprises are characterized by having a lower or equal to R$ 3,600,000 (approximately 1,800,000 dollars gross annual income. To collect information regarding the diagnosis of the degree of knowledge of small entrepreneurs, it was used a structured questionnaire using gradual tracks in identification of the respondent and the firm. It was found that the majority of managers interviewed small enterprises does not use the operations management tools. Is because they do not know such tools or have no need for their use in their companies.

  13. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  14. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  15. Environemtnal benefits of the Brazilian Ethanol Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.; Audinet, P.

    1993-01-01

    After nearly twenty years since it was first launched, the Brazilian Ethanol Programme to data remains the largest commercial application of biomass for energy production and use in the world. It succeeded in demonstrating the technical feasibility of large scale ethanol production from sugar cane and its use to fuel car engines. On social and economic grounds, however, its evaluation is less positive. The purpose of this study is to provide an updated overview of the perspectives for the Ethanol Programme under the light of increasingly important local and global environmental concerns. Major results show that after oil prices supported upon the basis of its contribution to curb the increase of air pollution in Brazilian cities and of the greenhouse effect. It is concluded that the very survival of the Ethanol Programme, depends upon adequate economic compensation considering its global environmental benefits. These are appraised with two scenarios based on the use of a Markal-like model to define the range and costs of curbing greenhouse gases with a policy aiming at extending the Ethanol Programme

  16. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  17. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  18. International HR Strategy of Brazilian Technology Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Morilha Muritiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of Brazilian Multinationals from the information technology [IT] sector were compared in their international Human Resources strategy. The analysis is focused on the development and application of two research models. One analyzes the level of subsidiary autonomy in terms of strategic HR decisions, including difficult decisions regarding coordination in multinationals, following the theoretical approach of the autonomy of subsidiaries (Kidger, 2002; Nohria & Ghoshal, 1997. The other is related to the level of internationalization of HR strategies, defined as the capacity to take advantage of globalization, providing the best resources for the company regardless of where they are located (Sparrow, 2007. Both models were applied in a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and company reports, and analyzed through content analysis. The results show: (a a more centralizing characteristic of the multinational companies examined, despite the limitations of this choice as shown by the literature; and (b that Brazilian IT multinationals tend to rely more on their national competencies when managing human resources instead of going global to aggregate differentiated competencies.

  19. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  20. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. The Brazilian nuclear power manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalho, A.R.; Spitalnik, J.; Machado, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Since the early stages of decision making, manpower availability has been recognized to be a key factor for the implementation of Brazil's nuclear power programme. Though care has been given to securing an industrial base and financial resources, the consequences of a lack of sufficient qualified manpower could be critical for the success of the whole programme. The broad scope of the Brazilian nuclear power programme which, as a main concept, aimed at establishing in the country a complete fuel cycle industry together with the construction of nuclear power plants, added another burden to the already complex task of providing appropriate human resources when advanced technologies are introduced in a developing country. Thus, not only the work-force required for nuclear power plant operation but also that needed for plant design, component manufacture, fuel cycle plant design and operation, had to be made available in number and qualification in accordance with the standards of the nuclear industry. The feasibility of the Brazilian programme depended on a complete transfer of technology, essentially achieved through personnel training. Again, the process of manpower preparation for an efficient know-how transfer required careful planning, and the great difficulty in its implementation was the lack of reliable experience at the time. (author)

  2. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  3. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law no. 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to analyze Law no. 11.794. The legislation about the use of animals in teaching and in scientific research in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro State was identified and discussed. Until now, there was no updated general and systematizing rule regarding animal vivisection and experimentation for didactic or scientific purposes. The only specific law dates back to 1979 and was not regimented. More recent laws equated the practice of scientific experiments to acts of abuse and mistreatment of animals, when alternative technology was available. Municipal laws that restricted the scientific practice of vivisection and experimentation with animals were created in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Florianopolis. With the claim and collaboration of the scientific community, the sanction of Law no. 11.794 regarding the scientific use of animals represented an invaluable advance in spite of the presence of some points that eventually may require another type of treatment. The new Law states that it will be regimented within 180 (one-hundred-and-eighty) days, when some of these points could be better elucidated.

  4. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  5. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  6. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  7. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

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    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  8. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

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    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  9. Ticket consumption forecast for Brazilian championship games

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    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    Full Text Available Abstract For the efficiency of sales and marketing management of athletic clubs, it is crucial to find a way to appropriately estimate the level of demand for sporting events. More precise estimates allow for an appropriate financial and operational plan and a higher quality of service delivered to the fans. The focus of this study is to analyze and forecast the ticket consumption for soccer games in Brazilian stadiums. We compare the results of the regression model with normally distributed errors (benchmark, the TOBIT model and the Gamma generalized linear model. The models include explanatory variables related to the economic environment, product quality, as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives that people are given to attend sporting events at stadiums. We show that most of these variables are statistically significant to explain the amount of fans that go to stadiums. We used different measures of accuracy to evaluate the performance of demand forecasts and concluded that Gamma generalized linear model presented better results to forecast the ticket consumption for Brazilian championship games, when compared to a benchmark.

  10. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

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    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  11. Efecto nodriza intra-específico de Kageneckia angustifolia D. Don (Rosaceae sobre la germinación de semillas y sobrevivencia de plántulas en el bosque esclerófilo montano de Chile central Intra-specific nurse effect of Kageneckia angustifolia D. Don (Rosaceae and its effect on seed germination and seedling survival in the montane sclerophyllous forest of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO PEÑALOZA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available El bosque esclerófilo montano de Chile central (32-33° S, 1.500-2.100 m de altitud está dominado por poblaciones de Kageneckia angustifolia (Rosaceae, especie semidecidua de verano que forma un dosel muy abierto. Esto sugiere que, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en el matorral esclerófilo de menor altitud donde el cerrado dosel de árboles y arbustos generan condiciones microclimáticas diferentes a los espacios abiertos, en el bosque montano no existiría una marcada diferencia microclimática entre bajo el dosel y los espacios abiertos. Por otro lado, en el bosque montano, las precipitaciones ocurren principalmente en forma de nieve, la que se acumula preferentemente en los espacios entre los árboles, pudiendo facilitar el reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en este microhábitat, fenómeno que se conoce como efecto nodriza. Se estudió el probable efecto nodriza a nivel intra-específico de K. angustifolia comparando el microclima de los ambientes bajo dosel y los espacios abiertos, y el efecto de la acumulación de nieve en la germinación de semillas y sobrevivencia de plántulas de en un bosque esclerófilo montano ubicado en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca, 50 km al este de Santiago (33° S, 1.600 m de altitud. De acuerdo a las variables microclimáticas estudiadas (PAR, humedad del aire y suelo, y temperatura del aire y suelo, en el bosque montano no existen diferencias microclimáticas entre los espacios abiertos y bajo el dosel. Sólo la acumulación de nieve fue significativamente mayor en los espacios abiertos. La germinación fue menor y más tardía en los espacios abiertos, lo que estaría relacionado con la mayor acumulación de nieve. Las plántulas originadas más tempranamente tienen más tiempo para desarrollarse y pasar en forma exitosa la sequía estival en comparación con las plántulas que emergen más tardíamente. Esto explicaría la menor sobrevivencia de las plántulas en los espacios abiertosThe montane

  12. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

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    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  13. Is there publication bias towards brazilian articles on cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Callegaro, Donato; Rocha, Altieres de Arruda; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; del Giglio, Auro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether Brazilian articles on cancer are published in journals with an impact factor and/or repercussion (measured by the number of citations) inferior to those that come from foreign organizations. Methods: A search was carried out in PubMed for the MeSH term “neoplasm” with the limits clinical trial, affiliation of the Brazilian author(s), and interval from July 1st, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Selected for matching were non-Brazilian related articles published from three months prior to three months after the date of publication of the Brazilian study. The numbers of citations were obtained from two databases, as well as the impact factor for the journals in which the articles were published. Results: Fortythree national and 876 related international articles were identified. The Brazilian publications had a mean impact factor of 3.000 versus 3.430 of the international ones (p=0.041). There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of citations between the two groups. The affiliation of the first author with a Brazilian or foreign organization did not significantly influence the number of citations or the impact factor. Conclusion: Brazilian articles are significantly less accepted in journals with higher impact factors, although it does not compromise its repercussion on the scientific community. PMID:23579739

  14. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

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    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119 Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  15. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Maciel dos; Pellanda, Mateus; Tomazzoni, Ana Cristina; Hasenack, Heinrich; Hartz, Sandra Maria

    2004-01-01

    A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The Nation...

  16. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  17. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

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    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  18. Brazilian energy statistics - 1989. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane and some aspects about nuclear energy in Brazil. Graphs, annual statistics and historical data of electric power, petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, coal and alcohol are also included. 17 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Brazilian Feminism on the Rise : A case study on Brazilian feminist cyberactivism

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Debora

    2016-01-01

    The Women’s Spring movement started in 2015 in Brazil. It is a brand new phenomenon where Brazilian feminists are taking advantage of the potential of the Internet and social media to publicize sexism and demand respect. This thesis investigates this movement through a case study of #primeiroassedio and #meuamigosecreto, with the objective to discover who the cyberactivists are, how cyberactivism happens in that context and if it influences offline life. A Primavera das Mulheres começou e...

  20. Smoking or health: the Brazilian option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokschin, F; Barros, F C

    1984-01-01

    Tobacco plays a key role in both disease and the economy in Brazil. In 1981 about 135 billion cigarettes were smoked, and cigarette-related diseases far outnumber infections as the leading cause of death. Brazil is the 4th largest world producer and the 2nd largest exporter of tobacco. 2.1% of the total population -- 2.5 million people -- are maintained by tobacco-related activities. Cigarette sales taxes provide 11.6% of the country's total taxes. Involved in a deep economic crisis, Brazil depends on this revenue and has not introduced any measures to control or counteract the high pressure marketing of cigarette manufacturers. Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in Brazil, taking 90,000 lives in 1979. Based on World Health Organization estimates, at least 25% of these deaths could be ascribed to smoking. Cancer is the 2nd largest cause of death. In 1979, 10% of 60,000 cancer deaths were from lung cancer. Based on estimate that 30% of cancer deaths are provoked by smoking, more than 20,000 of those deaths were caused by tobacco. In Brazil, lung cancer is the 2nd highest cause of death from cancer in men and 3rd among women. Smoking in Brazil is definitely associated with low birth weight, the single most important predictive factor of perinatal and infant mortality. Rural workers giving up subsistence crops to grow tobacco may also affect their children's health. Also in such low-income populations, expenditures for cigarettes leave less money for essential goods. As a result of the high tax rate and the enormous number of cigarettes sold, 11.6% of all the country's revenue comes from the tobacco industry. The Brazilian Association of Tobacco Industries has been trying to link cigarette sales to Brazilian social development but does not mention the cost of disease, disability, and early death provoked by smoking. In Brazil tobacco companies have a huge market free of constraints, and the country lacks consistent smoking control policies. Recently

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  2. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  3. Aging, Gender and Sexuality in Brazilian Society

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    Guita Grin Debert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the interplay between gender, aging, and sexuality, the aim of this article is twofold: (1 to show how Brazilian gerontologists treat gender differences and sexual activity in old age; (2 to analyze the  ways  discourses regarding the aging body and sexuality are perceived and evaluated by older women and men . I argue that  attempts of gerontologists’ to eroticize old age have to contend with the widespread notion that the desire for sex is inevitably lost with age. Thus, in the retiree associations that were studied, men had a tendency to assume they are not ‘old’ because their erectile function was still in good condition, and divorced or widowed women, in senior citizen associations, tend to regard themselves as happy due to having freed themselves from the sexual obligations imposed by marriage. In both cases, the dominant belief that there is a loss of sexual desire in old age was reproduced.

  4. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises.

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    Letícia P D Mortoza

    Full Text Available Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL, that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index and the "dollar-real" parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy.

  5. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortoza, Letícia P D; Piqueira, José R C

    2017-01-01

    Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL), that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index) and the "dollar-real" parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy.

  6. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

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    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  7. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  8. Bidding strategies in Brazilian electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Erick M.; Correia, Paulo B.

    2006-01-01

    Double bilateral contract auctions for electric energy purchase and sale occur in Brazil. These auctions present incomplete information and possess some subjectivity in relation to the future scenario of the Brazilian electric system, inserted in the agent's bids. In this work, a model using Bayes' rule and the game theory is proposed to aid the agent in its bid definition. Through the existing relations between the Conditional probabilities of Bayes' Rule, the model transforms beliefs into information. In this way, the absence of information is supplied and the problem is transformed into a game with complete information. The present study has no worries in terms of transmission constraints, since they are not usually considered in the bilateral contract auctions in Brazil. At the end, Nash equilibrium (NE) can be found through the expected payoff matrix of each agent. (author)

  9. Brazilian energy balance 2004: calendar year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2003. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1970 to 2003; energy supply and demand by source, from 1988 to 2003; energy consumption by sector from 1988 to 2003; energy foreign trading also from 1988 to 2003; transformation centers balances in the same period; energy resources and reserves from 1973 to 2003; energy and socio-economy from 1988 to 2003; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances. It also presents analytical texts on the main energy numbers for 2003 and also energy evolution in Brazil and energy expansion all over the world

  10. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jacob Lovisolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined the outcome of the investment. Extreme values are at least ± 7%. Investors should assess whether they will keep their holdings when returns of such magnitude occur. The characteristics of empirical distributions of stock returns favor the passive investor and the use of weight constraints in portfolio allocation models.

  11. Progress toward Brazilian cesium fountain second generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Caio; Rodriguez Salas, Andrés; Torres Müller, Stella; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Varela Magalhães, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The operation of a Cesium fountain primary frequency standard is strongly influenced by the characteristics of two important subsystems. The first is a stable frequency reference and the second is the frequency-transfer system. A stable standard frequency reference is key factor for experiments that require high accuracy and precision. The frequency stability of this reference has a significant impact on the procedures for evaluating certain systematic biases in frequency standards. This paper presents the second generation of the Brazilian Cesium Fountain (Br-CsF) through the opto-mechanical assembly and vacuum chamber to trap atoms. We used a squared section glass profile to build the region where the atoms are trapped and colled by magneto-optical technique. The opto-mechanical system was reduced to increase stability and robustness. This newest Atomic Fountain is essential to contribute with time and frequency development in metrology systems.

  12. An acoustic study of the Brazilian cuica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    The cuica is a friction drum of African origin played in the batucada (an ensemble of instruments used for the samba) during the Brazilian carnival. It is played by rubbing a bamboo rod which is connected to the center of a drum head, giving a rhythmic grunting sound. Pitch is changed by applying pressure to the membrane. This paper discusses several acoustic aspects of a folk cuica (made of a gourd) including the waveforms, spectra, and time envelopes produced. Rubbing the bamboo rod gives a primitive saw-toothed excitation, similar to a bowed violin string. This is connected to the center of a membrane which modifies and radiates the sound. The body of the cuica contributes little to the sound.

  13. Small Nominals in Brazilian Portuguese Copular Constructions

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    Patrícia Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is copular clauses in Brazilian Portuguese like Mulher(es é complicado, in which the predicate exhibits an unmarked form for gender and number (masculine singular, despite the presence of the feminine and/or plural form of the noun in subject position. We reject the analyses that propose that (i there is a hidden infinitive clause in the subject position, (ii the agreement is an instance of semantic agreement, and (iii the DP subject is in A-bar position, and argue that the subject is a Small Nominal (they are not projected as full DPs which lacks index features that trigger external agreement (Pereltsvaig 2006.

  14. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  15. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Signorelli, Carla de A.; Conti, Claudio de C.; Lauria, Dejanira da C.; Ferreira, Ingryd M.; Carvalho, Laercio L. de; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Trindade Filho, Octavio Luiz; Gonzalez, Sergio de A.; Silva, Tadeu Augusto de A.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Cunha, Fernanda G. da

    2011-01-01

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  16. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina, Ligia M. Soto; Cabral, Arnoldo S.; Vieira, Wilson J.

    1999-01-01

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  17. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  18. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  19. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.) [pt

  20. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curado, J F; Radtke, M; Buzamcn, G; Reinnolz, U; Riesemeier, H; Guttler, R A S; Kizzutto, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.