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Sample records for brazilian amazon basin

  1. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

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    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  2. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

    2015-11-01

    The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

  3. Neotropical Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera: Empididae), a world of discovery I: new generic record and new species from Brazilian Amazon Basin.

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    Câmara, J T; Plant, A R; Rafael, J A

    2014-12-08

    Ten new species of Hemerodromia Meigen, 1822 are described and illustrated from the Brazilian state of Amazonas: H. amazonensis sp. nov., H. breviradia sp. nov., H. cercusdilatata sp. nov., H. collini sp. nov., H. epandriocurvialis sp. nov., H. jauensis sp. nov., H. lamellata sp. nov., H. longilamellata sp. nov., H. maturaca sp. nov., H. smithi sp. nov. This is the first record of the genus from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

  4. Prevalence and diversity of avian malaria parasites in migratory Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger, Laridae, Charadriiformes) from the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

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    Roos, F L; Belo, N O; Silveira, P; Braga, E M

    2015-10-01

    The Medium Solimões River region in the Brazilian Amazon Basin is an area utilized for reproduction and nesting by a variety of species of migratory aquatic birds such as Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger). These migratory birds form mixed-species reproductive colonies with high population densities and exhibit a large range of migration routes. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and diversity of the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in Black Skimmers, on the basis of the association between microscopic observation of blood smears and amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mtDNA cyt-b). The overall prevalence rates of the parasites for juvenile and adult bird specimens were 16% (5/31) and 22% (15/68), respectively. Sequencing the mtDNA cyt-b marker revealed two Plasmodium lineages, which had been previously described in different regions of the American continent, including a Neotropical region in Southeast Brazil, and one Haemoproteus lineage. The fact that avian malarial parasites have been found infecting the Black Skimmers in the Brazilian Amazon ecosystem, which exhibits considerable diversity, highlights the importance of these migratory birds as a potential source of infection and dispersion of pathogens to other susceptible birds of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.

  5. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

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    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  6. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  7. DNA barcodes of Rosy Tetras and allied species (Characiformes: Characidae: Hyphessobrycon) from the Brazilian Amazon basin.

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    Castro Paz, Francis Paola; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcoding can be an effective tool for fast and accurate species-level identification based on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI) gene. The diversity of this fragment can be used to estimate the richness of the respective species. In this study, we explored the use of DNA barcoding in a group of ornamental freshwater fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon. We sequenced the COI from 10 species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the "Rosy Tetra Clade" collected from the Amazon and Negro River basins and combined our results with published data. The average conspecific and congeneric Kimura 2-parameter distances were 2.3% and 19.3%, respectively. Six of the 10 species were easily distinguishable by DNA barcoding (H. bentosi, H. copelandi, H. eques, H. epicharis, H. pulchrippinis, and H. sweglesi), whereas the remaining species (H. erythrostigma, H. pyrrhonotus, H. rosaceus and H. socolofi) lacked reciprocal monophyly. Although the COI gene was not fully diagnostic, the discovery of distinct evolutionary units in certain Hyphessobrycon species under the same specific epithet as well as haplotype sharing between different species suggest that DNA barcoding is useful for species identification in this speciose genus.

  8. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

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    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of har

  9. An initial examination of the epidemiology of malaria in the State of Roraima, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

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    CHAVES Sandra S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study firstly describes the epidemiology of malaria in Roraima, Amazon Basin in Brazil, in the years from 1991 to 1993: the predominance of plasmodium species, distribution of the blood slides examined, the malaria risk and seasonality; and secondly investigates whether population growth from 1962 to 1993 was associated with increasing risk of malaria. Frequency of malaria varied significantly by municipality. Marginally more malaria cases were reported during the dry season (from October to April, even after controlling for by year and municipality. Vivax was the predominant type in all municipalities but the ratio of plasmodium types varied between municipalities. No direct association between population growth and increasing risk of malaria from 1962 to 1993 was detected. Malaria in Roraima is of the "frontier" epidemiological type with high epidemic potential.

  10. The Amazon basin in transition.

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    Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

    2012-01-18

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

  11. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  12. A rewiew of the subgenus Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962; with description of a new species from the brazilian Amazon Basin (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Jorge R. Arias

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Trichopygomyia Barreto, 1962 of the phlebotomine genus Lutzomyia França, 1924 is reviewed. This subgenus corresponds to the informal species group longispina of Theodor (1965. Lutzomyia (Trichopygomya ratcliffei n.sp. from the Brazilian Amazon Basin is described. Figures, keys, distribution maps and notes on ecology are presented for all the known forms. The better known species are most frequently encountered in armadillo burrows and, therefore, could well be vectors of Leishmania.O subgênero Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 do flebótomo Lutzomyia spp. França, 1924 é revisto e corresponde às espécies incomuns do grupo longispina de Theodor (1965. É também descrita Lutzomyia (Trichopygomyia ratcliffei n.sp. da Bacia Amazônica. Figuras, chaves, mapas de distribuição e notas sobre ecologia são apresentados para todas as formas conhecidas. As espécies mais conhecidas são freqüentemente encontradas em todas de tatu e, portanto, podem ser vetores de Leishmania.

  13. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

  14. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

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    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  15. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

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    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  16. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    V. Genovese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

  17. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  18. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Adalberto Veríssimo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

  19. Soybeans, Poverty and Inequality in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Weinhold, Diana; Killick, Evan; Reis, Eustaquio Jose

    2011-01-01

    The recent growth of soybean cultivation in the Brazilian Amazon has been unprecedented, even as the debate continues over its economic and environmental consequences. Based on contemporary datasets as well as our own field studies, this paper examines the social and economic costs and benefits of increases in soybean production for local populations. After presenting some background information on the rise of soybean cultivation in Brazil we examine the relationship between increases in soyb...

  20. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

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    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  1. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  2. Distribution of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Tapajós River Basin (Brazilian Amazon over the Past 40 Years and Relationship with Water Siltation

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    Felipe de Lucia Lobo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative remote sensing approach that combines land-use change and water quality information is proposed in order to investigate if Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM area extension is associated with water siltation in the Tapajós River Basin (Brazil, containing the largest small-scale gold mining district in the world. Taking advantage of a 40-year period of the multi-satellite imagery archive, the objective of this paper is to build a normalized time-series in order to evaluate the influence of temporal mining expansion on the water siltation data (TSS, Total Suspended Solids concentration derived from previous research. The methodological approach was set to deliver a full characterization of the ASGM expansion from its initial stages in the early 1970s to the present. First, based on IRS/LISSIII images acquired in 2012, the historical Landsat image database (1973–2001 was corrected for radiometric and atmospheric effects using dark vegetation as reference to create a normalized time-series. Next, a complete update of the mining areas distribution in 2012 derived from the TerraClass Project (an official land-use classification for the Brazilian Amazon was conducted having IRS/LISSIII as the base map with the support of auxiliary data and vector editing. Once the ASGM in 2012 was quantified (261.7 km2 and validated with photos, a reverse classification of ASGM in 2001 (171.7 km2, 1993 (166.3 km2, 1984 (47.5 km2, and 1973 (15.4 km2 with the use of Landsat archives was applied. This procedure relies on the assumption that ASGM changes in the land cover are severe and remain detectable from satellite sensors for decades. The mining expansion area over time was then combined with the (TSS data retrieved from the same atmospherically corrected satellite imagery based on the literature. In terms of gold mining expansion and water siltation effects, four main periods of ASGM activities were identified in the study area: (i 1958

  3. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  4. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon

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    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  5. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  6. From landless to forestless? : settlers, livelihoods and forest dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homero Diniz, F.

    2013-01-01

      Keywords: deforestation; remote sensing; mental models; stakeholders’ perceptions; agrarian reform   Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in projects in the Brazilian Amazon within the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP) framework, the rationale being

  7. From conflict to cooperation : international policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk

    1998-01-01

    When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation le

  8. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  9. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

  10. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

  11. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rubens Souza de; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Uieda, Wilson; Martorelli, Luzia Fátima Alves; Kataoka, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Carmo, Antônio Ismael Barros do; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2015-12-01

    The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.

  12. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Bursztyn, M.; Vilhena, A.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied drive

  13. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S; Verburg, R.W.; Bursztyn, M; Lindoso, D; Debortoli, N

    2015-01-01

    Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied drive

  14. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  15. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  16. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

  17. Environmental goods & services and rural livelihoods in the Congo and Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    approaches have shifted from command-and-control interventions, to integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), and are now increasingly focusing on more direct conservation approaches such as Payments for Environmental Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest......Environmental goods and services are increasingly valued for their contributions of food, resources and incomes to rural livelihoods of the poor in the developing world. Resources from tropical forests not only support current consumption but also provide valuable safety nets where limited...... with high rates of poverty – the Congo basin and the Brazilian Amazon – this dissertation presents empirical evidence on the importance of environmental goods and services to livelihoods of the rural poor. The objective of the dissertation is to examine various conservation intervention effects...

  18. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  19. Description of data reanalysis of daily discharge and gauge height over the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviercoski, R. F.; Travis, B. J.; Eggert, K.

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon River is the world's largest, discharging more water to the ocean than any other river. Study of the world's freshwater resources becomes more significant with increasing awareness of global climate change and its potential effect on those resources and atmospheric forcing. In this work, a reanalysis of the daily discharge and gauge height data for 87 active gauge stations throughout the Amazon River Basin is presented. The data was originally obtained from the web site maintained by ANEEL - Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency. We describe the problems encountered in trying to use the original data and the assumptions applied in the reanalysis procedure. The reanalysis consisted of filtering inconsistencies in the comma (decimal) notation, filling in missing data, and replacing inconsistent data values by applying the assumption of a stationary Markov process. The reanalyzed data is available to the community through an anonymous ftp-site.

  20. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M D Rosa

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1 it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2 the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3 deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia"-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy, annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  1. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  2. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

  3. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  5. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  6. Nitrogen mass balance in the Brazilian Amazon: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, L A; Pinto, A S; Nardoto, G B; Ometto, J P H B; Filoso, S; Coletta, L D; Ravagnani, E C

    2012-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to perform a nitrogen budget survey for the entire Brazilian Amazon region. The main inputs of nitrogen to the region are biological nitrogen fixation occurring in tropical forests (7.7 Tg.yr(-1)), and biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands mainly due to the cultivation of a large area with soybean, which is an important nitrogen-fixing crop (1.68 Tg.yr(-1)). The input due to the use of N fertilizers (0.48 Tg.yr(-1)) is still incipient compared to the other two inputs mentioned above. The major output flux is the riverine flux, equal to 2.80 Tg.yr(-1) and export related to foodstuff, mainly the transport of soybean and beef to other parts of the country. The continuous population growth and high rate of urbanization may pose new threats to the nitrogen cycle of the region through the burning of fossil fuel and dumping of raw domestic sewage in rivers and streams of the region.

  7. Nutrient retranslocation in forest species in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978. The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of non-pioneer and deciduous species.

  8. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  9. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Salinero

    Full Text Available The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international. The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%. Over half of the research study sites (52.91% were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for

  10. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

  11. Deforestation, Development, and Government Policy in the Brazilian Amazon: an Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lykke E.; Eustáquio J. Reis

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model of deforestation and economic development in the Amazon. It is based on the determinants of demand for agricultural land, i.e. on the interactions between population dynamics, urbanization and the growth of local markets, land prices, and government policies. The model is estimated using a panel data set covering 316 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 1970/85. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different policy instruments. The trade...

  12. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. A new species of the armored catfish Parotocinclus (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, from the Amazon basin in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lehmann A.

    Full Text Available A new species of hypoptopomatine cascudinho is described from a creek tributary to the Amazon River in Leticia, Amazonas Departament, Colombia. The new species of Parotocinclus is distinguished from congeners from northeastern to southeastern Brazilian rivers in having the cheek canal plate elongated posteriorly on the ventral surface of head and contacting the cleithrum. It is diagnosed from P. collinsae (Essequibo River basin, Guiana and P. halbothi (rio Trombetas basin, Brazil and Marowijne River, Suriname, by having a triangular patch of dark pigmentation on the anterior portion of the dorsal-fin membrane, by the absence of unicuspid accessory teeth on both the premaxilla and dentary, and by having a Y-shaped light mark on the snout. The new species of Parotocinclus is distinguished from all remaining congeners by having a pigmentation pattern consisting of conspicuous dark dots smaller than a pupil diameter, broadly distributed dorsally and ventrally.

  14. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  15. Tuberculosis in indigenous children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assess the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in Brazilian indigenous children and actions to control it. METHODS: An epidemiological study was performed with 356 children from 0 to 14 years of age in Rondônia State, Amazon, Brazil, during the period 1997-2006. Cases of TB reported to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System were divided into indigenous and non-indigenous categories and analyzed according to sex, age group, place of residence, clinical form, diagnostic tests and treatment outcome. A descriptive analysis of cases and hypothesis test (χ² was carried out to verify if there were differences in the proportions of illness between the groups investigated. RESULTS: A total of 356 TB cases were identified (125 indigenous, 231 non-indigenous of which 51.4% of the cases were in males. In the indigenous group, 60.8% of the cases presented in children aged 0-4 years old. The incidence mean was much higher among indigenous; in 2001, 1,047.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants were reported in children aged < 5 years. Pulmonary TB was reported in more than 80% of the cases, and in both groups over 70% of the cases were cured. Cultures and histopathological exams were performed on only 10% of the patients. There were 3 cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the non-indigenous group and none in the indigenous group. The case detection rate was classified as insufficient or fair in more than 80% of the indigenous population notifications, revealing that most of the diagnoses were performed based on chest x-ray. CONCLUSIONS: The approach used in this study proved useful in demonstrating inequalities in health between indigenous and non-indigenous populations and was superior to the conventional analyses performed by the surveillance services, drawing attention to the need to improve childhood TB diagnosis among the indigenous population.

  16. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

  17. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2014-07-15

    Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

  18. A New Species of Living Peccary (Mammalia: Tayassuidae) from the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, M.G.M.; Frenz, L.; Hooft, van W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.; Leirs, H.

    2007-01-01

    Here we report on the existence of a new species of even-toed ungulate in the Brazilian Amazon, which we name Pecari maximus, the giant peccary. It represents the largest of living peccary species. One complete mitochondrial D-loop and two nuclear SINE PRE-1 DNA sequences of giant peccary compared w

  19. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  20. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  1. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

  2. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  3. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region predicted from satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Potter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon are highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris are more rapid and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct carbon emissions from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from year to year during the period 2000

  4. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio; André Alexandre Gomes; Iran Mendonça Silva; Jacqueline Sachett; Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira; Sâmella Oliveira; Meritxell Sabidò; Hipócrates Chalkidis; Maria Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra; Jorge Luis Salinas; Fan Hui Wen; Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda; Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with se...

  5. An explicit GIS-based river basin framework for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venticinque, Eduardo; Forsberg, Bruce; Barthem, Ronaldo; Petry, Paulo; Hess, Laura; Mercado, Armando; Cañas, Carlos; Montoya, Mariana; Durigan, Carlos; Goulding, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Despite large-scale infrastructure development, deforestation, mining and petroleum exploration in the Amazon Basin, relatively little attention has been paid to the management scale required for the protection of wetlands, fisheries and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. This is due, in part, to the enormous size, multinational composition and interconnected nature of the Amazon River system, as well as to the absence of an adequate spatial model for integrating data across the entire Amazon Basin. In this data article we present a spatially uniform multi-scale GIS framework that was developed especially for the analysis, management and monitoring of various aspects of aquatic systems in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon GIS-Based River Basin Framework is accessible as an ESRI geodatabase at doi:10.5063/F1BG2KX8.

  6. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  8. Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Hugo A; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Alves, Eliane C; Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Sachett, Jacqueline A G; Tavares, Antonio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Fan, Hui Wen; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2017-03-01

    Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome. Thus, availability of Lonomia antivenom as well as early antivenom therapy administration should be addressed across remote areas in the Amazon.

  9. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  10. Patterns of land-cover transitions from satellite imagery of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L.; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land-use systems in tropical regions, including deforestation, are a key challenge for global sustainability because of their huge impacts on green-house gas emissions, local climate and biodiversity. However, the dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in regions of frontier expansion such as the Brazilian Amazon is not yet well understood because of the complex interplay of ecological and socio-economic drivers. In this paper, we combine Markov chain analysis and complex ne...

  11. Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wild rice Oryza glumaepatula (Poaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Júnior,Paulo Ivan; Duarte Pereira, Gilmara Maria; Perin, Liamara; da Silva, Luana Mesquita; Cardoso Baraúna, Alexandre; Muniz Alves, Francilene; Ribeiro Passos, Samuel; Édson Zilli, Jerri

    2013-01-01

    The association of wild grasses with diazotrophic bacteria in Brazilian biomes is poorly understood. The isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with wild grasses can contribute to understand the diazotrophic ecology as well as to identify bacteria with biotechnological applications. In this study, we isolated and characterized diazotrophic bacterial isolates from Oryza glumaepatula collected in Cerrado and Forest areas of the Amazon in Roraima State, Brazil. Healthy O. glumepat...

  12. Assessing the Amazon Basin Circulation with Stable Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffie, K.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    2004-05-01

    The isotopic abundances of Oxygen-18 (δ 18O) and Deuterium (δ D) over the Amazon are used to constrain simulations of the water cycle in this, the largest river basin in the world. Tracking the two stable but rare isotopes of water (1HD16O and 1H218O) makes it possible to trace Amazonian regional evaporative and condensation processes. This offers isotopic constraints on regional to global-scale atmospheric moisture budgets. Based on data in the Global Network on Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, we analyse the simulation of the land surface hydrology and water cycling. Temporal changes between 1965 and 2000 in stable water isotopic signatures in the Amazon have been used to evaluate global climate model (GCM) predictions revealing notable anomalies. For example, the differences in the wet season deuterium excess between Belem and Manaus are consistent with recent GCM simulations only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. Despite earlier predictions that land-use change signals would be found, late twentieth century data reveal no significant change in dry season isotopic characteristics. On the other hand, more recent isotopic data do show trends at stations in the Andes, where as much as 88% of the rainfall is thought to be derived from recycled moisture. At Izobamba the wet season depletions are enhanced (greater depletion) and the dry season ones decreased (less depletion). At Bogota only the wet months show statistically significant changes - also an enhancement. More depletion in the wet months is consistent with reductions in non-fractioning recycling such as through transpiration and in full re-evaporation of canopy-intercepted rainfall. These data might be linked to deforestation impacts. Results of GCM and simpler model simulations of the Amazon suggest that the recent stable isotope record is consistent with the predicted effects of forest removal, perhaps combined with

  13. Full-genome sequences of hepatitis B virus subgenotype D3 isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Natália Spitz; Francisco CA Mello; Natalia Motta Araujo

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as...

  14. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

  15. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  16. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2015-01-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  17. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  18. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

  19. Estimating return periods for daily precipitation extreme events over the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to model the occurrence of daily precipitation extreme events and to estimate the return period of these events through the extreme value theory (generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD)). The GEV and GPD were applied in precipitation series of homogeneous regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The GEV and GPD goodness of fit were evaluated by quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, which compares the cumulated empirical distributions with the theoretical ones. The Q-Q plot suggests that the probability distributions of the studied series are appropriated, and these results were confirmed by the KS test, which demonstrates that the tested distributions have a good fit in all sub-regions of Amazon, thus adequate to study the daily precipitation extreme event. For all return levels studied, more intense precipitation extremes is expected to occur within the South sub-regions and the coastal area of the Brazilian Amazon. The results possibly will have some practical application in local extreme weather forecast.

  20. Use of Poisson spatiotemporal regression models for the Brazilian Amazon Forest: malaria count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Achcar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a serious problem in the Brazilian Amazon region, and the detection of possible risk factors could be of great interest for public health authorities. The objective of this article was to investigate the association between environmental variables and the yearly registers of malaria in the Amazon region using Bayesian spatiotemporal methods. METHODS: We used Poisson spatiotemporal regression models to analyze the Brazilian Amazon forest malaria count for the period from 1999 to 2008. In this study, we included some covariates that could be important in the yearly prediction of malaria, such as deforestation rate. We obtained the inferences using a Bayesian approach and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods to simulate samples for the joint posterior distribution of interest. The discrimination of different models was also discussed. RESULTS: The model proposed here suggests that deforestation rate, the number of inhabitants per km², and the human development index (HDI are important in the prediction of malaria cases. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to conclude that human development, population growth, deforestation, and their associated ecological alterations are conducive to increasing malaria risk. We conclude that the use of Poisson regression models that capture the spatial and temporal effects under the Bayesian paradigm is a good strategy for modeling malaria counts.

  1. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

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    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  2. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Hyman, Glenn, E-mail: navin.ramankutty@mcgill.ca [International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali (Colombia)

    2010-04-15

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  3. The Scope for Reducing Emissions from Forestry and Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Sven Wunder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land uses is considered an essential ingredient of an effective strategy to mitigate global warming. Required changes in land use and forestry, however, often imply foregoing returns from locally more attractive resource use strategies. We assess and compare the prospects of mitigating climate change through emission reductions from forestry and agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon. We use official statistics, literature, and case study material from both old and new colonization frontiers to identify the scope for emission reductions, in terms of potential additionality, opportunity costs, technological complexity, transaction costs, and risks of economic and environmental spillover effects. Our findings point to a comparative advantage in the Brazilian Amazon of forest conservation-based over land-use modifying mitigation options, especially in terms of higher potential additionality in emission reductions. Low-cost mitigation options do exist also in use-modifying agriculture and forestry, but tend to be technologically complex thus requiring more costly intervention schemes. Our review points to a series of regional development deficits that may come to hamper attempts to tap into the large-scale climate change mitigation potential often associated with the Amazon. Low-hanging fruits for mitigation do exist, but must be carefully identified based on the performance indicators we discuss.

  4. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2016-07-01

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

  5. Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Pedro A; Figueiredo, Poliana O; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Lima, Danillo H S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Silva, Natália S; Campos, Karinny F; Oliveira, Carlos Magno C; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Kroon, Erna G; de Souza Trindade, Giliane

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. The results of molecular diagnostics, followed by sequencing data demonstrated the circulation of both viruses (PCPV and BVDV-1) in an area previously affected by another poxvirus, as Vaccinia virus.The cocirculation between PCPV and BVDV-1 indicates a major concern for animal health because the clinical presentation can be a severe disease. This is the first detection of PCPV in the Brazilian Amazon.

  6. A social-ecological database to advance research on infrastructure development impacts in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Valle, Denis; Moretto, Evandro Mateus; Pulice, Sergio Mantovani Paiva; Zuca, Nadia Lucia; Roquetti, Daniel Rondinelli; Beduschi, Liviam Elizabeth Cordeiro; Praia, Amanda Salles; Okamoto, Claudia Parucce Franco; da Silva Carvalhaes, Vinicius Leite; Branco, Evandro Albiach; Barbezani, Bruna; Labandera, Emily; Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2016-08-01

    Recognized as one of the world’s most vital natural and cultural resources, the Amazon faces a wide variety of threats from natural resource and infrastructure development. Within this context, rigorous scientific study of the region’s complex social-ecological system is critical to inform and direct decision-making toward more sustainable environmental and social outcomes. Given the Amazon’s tightly linked social and ecological components and the scope of potential development impacts, effective study of this system requires an easily accessible resource that provides a broad and reliable data baseline. This paper brings together multiple datasets from diverse disciplines (including human health, socio-economics, environment, hydrology, and energy) to provide investigators with a variety of baseline data to explore the multiple long-term effects of infrastructure development in the Brazilian Amazon.

  7. The Scenario of Brazilian Amazon Transportation Infrastructure in the Natural Hazards Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a region is related, in part, to its ability to establish relations with other regions and the efficiency with which it operates internally and streamlines their intra relations. The study of the impacts in the availability of transport infrastructure in regional development interests by the influence it has on the location decisions of investment. The network of transport infrastructure in the Brazilian Amazon region is susceptible to interruptions in its functioning by pressures arising from the interaction of coupled human and natural systems, impacting regional development mainly by isolating regions raising concerns about human security of local residents and the economic development to the extent that regional production does not circulates temporarily, eliminating one of the economy dynamics main stages. The susceptibility indicators of transport infrastructure system in the Amazon are unclear and this study presents disruptions causes, frequency, potential risks and impacts in this system functioning.

  8. On the footprints of a major Brazilian Amazon earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO V. VELOSO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining historical accounts and seismological studies, three hundred years of dormant information emerged as a source of the largest known seismic event that rocked Brazil since the beginning of our colonization. The probable epicenter location of the 1690 tremor lies on the left bank of the Amazon River, about 45 km downstream from the modern day Manaus. A year later, while passing this area, a missionary met witnesses of the tremor and observed remarkable changes in the topography and vegetation along the margin of the river. By 1692 another priest confirmed this event and the occurrence of large waves in the river, which led to the flooding of the Native Indians' terrains. The tremor spread seismic waves throughout the forest and shook indigenous constructions as far as one thousand kilometers away. A calculation of the seismic parameters shows an estimated magnitude of 7, a maximum intensity of IX MM and a felt area of about 2 million km2. Due to the long recurrence period for this type of tremor, the discovery of one of these events is valuable for seismic global intraplate studies. As for Brazil, it unravels the myth that the country was never hit by severe earthquakes.

  9. First report of Rhodnius stali (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in the State of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius stali in the state of Acre and in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Specimens of R. stali were collected by the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco. RESULTS: The number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from five to six. This was also the first report of R. stali in the Brazilian Amazon. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of R. stali is worrisome, since this species has been found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and there has been evidence of its domiciliation capabilities.

  10. Seasonality and interannual variability of CH4 fluxes from the eastern Amazon Basin inferred from atmospheric mole fraction profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luana S.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel; Miller, John B.; Domingues, Lucas G.; Correia, Caio S. C.; Borges, Viviane F.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin is an important region for global CH4 emissions. It hosts the largest area of humid tropical forests, and around 20% of this area is seasonally flooded. In a warming climate it is possible that CH4 emissions from the Amazon will increase both as a result of increased temperatures and precipitation. To examine if there are indications of first signs of such changes we present here a 13 year (2000-2013) record of regularly measured vertical CH4 mole fraction profiles above the eastern Brazilian Amazon, sensitive to fluxes from the region upwind of Santarém (SAN), between SAN and the Atlantic coast. Using a simple mass balance approach, we find substantial CH4 emissions with an annual average flux of 52.8 ± 6.8 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over an area of approximately 1 × 106 km2. Fluxes are highest in two periods of the year: in the beginning of the wet season and during the dry season. Using a CO:CH4 emission factor estimated from the profile data, we estimated a contribution of biomass burning of around 15% to the total flux in the dry season, indicating that biogenic emissions dominate the CH4 flux. This 13 year record shows that CH4 emissions upwind of SAN varied over the years, with highest emissions in 2008 (around 25% higher than in 2007), mainly during the wet season, representing 19% of the observed global increase in this year.

  11. Multiple relationships between fire and land-use types in the Brazilian Amazon - rethinking the fire-deforestation paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Crespo, Ana; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cardoso, Manoel; Oliveira, Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities alter the spatial extent of wildfires. Land conversions outweigh climatic drivers of wildfire burned area in South America. In the Amazon, fire is widely used for the initial conversion of extensive areas of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture areas, and for the subsequent maintenance of deforested areas. Natural fire occurrences are extremely rare, with the vast majority of burning events resulting from deliberate fire use. So how does fire occurrence and extent relate to land-use type in the Brazilian Amazon? Our study area comprised the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia, with similar hot-humid climate. Temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall and burned area was analysed in 2008 and 2010, and processes taking place in the forest that can induce burning incidents were also examined. Predictably, the peak of burned area coincided with the months of lowest rainfall at the end of the dry season (August-September), showing a marked annual periodicity. In 2010, the fire season was longer and a larger amount of burned area was detected, as a consequence of the drought that struck the Amazon basin in that year. However, the satellite-derived standardized anomalies for dry-season rainfall showed that there were spatial disparities in the influence of the 2010's extreme drought. Moreover, we observed that the areas with the largest rainfall anomaly did not match the burned area distribution, which is a sign of fire connection to anthropogenic factors in the study area. The proportion of burned area in the different land-use types is presented, indicating large variation depending on the state under evaluation. We found that the largest proportion of burning was not happening in deforested areas, but in pasture and forest or secondary vegetation (excluding savannah-like ecosystems). While land-use distribution in the states remained similar in 2010, significant differences were noted in the burned area location

  12. Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, L.J.; Libecap, G.D.; Mueller, B.

    2000-03-01

    The authors examine land reform policies and their implications for violent conflict and resource use in the Brazilian Amazon. They identify the protagonists (land owners and squatters), derive their incentives to use violence, and show the role of legal inconsistencies as a basis for conflict. The authors describe the government agency involved in land reform, INCRA, and show that its intervention critically affects the actions of both squatters and land owners. Further, they point out the incentives for deforestation under land reform and associated insecure property rights to land. Forested lands are vulnerable to invasion by squatters and redistribution by INCRA. Using data from the Brazilian census and the Pastoral Land Commission, the authors examine the characteristics of regions where violent conflict predominates.

  13. Full-genome sequences of hepatitis B virus subgenotype D3 isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Spitz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as belonging to subgenotype D3, subtypes ayw2 (n = 3 and ayw3 (n = 2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Brazilian sequences are not likely to be closely related to European D3 sequences. Such results will contribute to further epidemiological and evolutionary studies of HBV.

  14. Full-genome sequences of hepatitis B virus subgenotype D3 isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Natália; Mello, Francisco C A; Araujo, Natalia Motta

    2015-02-01

    The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as belonging to subgenotype D3, subtypes ayw2 (n = 3) and ayw3 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Brazilian sequences are not likely to be closely related to European D3 sequences. Such results will contribute to further epidemiological and evolutionary studies of HBV.

  15. Micrometeorological Conditions at the ATTO - Site in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokankunku, Anywhere; Sörgel, Matthias; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Araùjo, Alessandro; Berger, Martina; de Abreu Sá, Leonardo D.; de Oliveira Sá, Marta; Dias, Nelson L.; Dlugi, Ralph; Manzi, Antonio O.; Oliveira, Pablo E. S.; Zelger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The ATTO site is located in a pristine rainforest environment in the Amazon basin about 150 km north east of Manaus. The site is currently equipped with two walk-up towers (325 m and 80 m) and an 80 m high mast. The canopy height is about 35 m. A detailed description of the site and the ongoing measurements is given in the overview paper by Andreae et al. (2015). The 325 m tower was completed in 2015 and will be equipped in 2016. The 80 m walk-up tower is operational since 2012 with a full set of micrometeorological measurements (e.g. wind and temperature profile, radiation, and a few levels for flux measurements). Measurements of vertical profiles of wind velocity components, temperature, humidity, and energy fluxes, together with 3d sonic anemometer measurements at 150 m on the ATTO tower, are analysed to determine characteristics of momentum, heat and water vapour exchange. In addition, the day time influences of secondary circulation on energy fluxes is described, together with the interaction of these circulations with cloud development. The diurnal cycle of stability and the onset and development of convection is shown to be strongly dependent on the onset of cloud formation. Implications on trace gas transport are discussed.

  16. Influence of Deforestation, Logging, and Fire on Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Barcellos, Christovam; Asner, Gregory P.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0–7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18–2.51), and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.67). We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance. PMID:24404206

  17. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  18. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies.

  19. Influence of deforestation, logging, and fire on malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah B Hahn

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0-7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18-2.51, and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23-0.67. We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance.

  20. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez,Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of thi...

  1. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, G, Andres M.; Baldeviano, Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Paul C F Graf; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Article Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time ...

  2. Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloor, M.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Malhi, Y; Baker, T. R.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; J. Peacock; Almeida, S; Alves de Oliveira, Atila Cristina; Alvarez, E; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Positive aboveground biomass trends have been reported from old-growth forests across the Amazon basin and hypothesized to reflect a large-scale response to exterior forcing. The result could, however, be an artefact due to a sampling bias induced by the nature of forest growth dynamics. Here, we characterize statistically the disturbance process in Amazon old-growth forests as recorded in 135 forest plots of the RAINFOR network up to 2006, and other independent research programmes, and explo...

  3. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  4. Evolution of Land Use in the Brazilian Amazon: From Frontier Expansion to Market Chain Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S. Soler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural census data and fieldwork observations are used to analyze changes in land cover/use intensity across Rondônia and Mato Grosso states along the agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. Results show that the development of land use is strongly related to land distribution structure. While large farms have increased their share of annual and perennial crops, small and medium size farms have strongly contributed to the development of beef and milk market chains in both Rondônia and Mato Grosso. Land use intensification has occurred in the form of increased use of machinery, labor in agriculture and stocking rates of cattle herds. Regional and national demands have improved infrastructure and productivity. The data presented show that the distinct pathways of land use development are related to accessibility to markets and processing industry as well as to the agricultural colonization history of the region. The data analyzed do not provide any indication of frontier stagnation, i.e., the slowdown of agricultural expansion, in the Brazilian Amazon. Instead of frontier stagnation, the data analyzed indicate that intensification processes in consolidated areas as well as recent agricultural expansion into forest areas are able to explain the cycle of expansion and retraction of the agricultural frontier into the Amazon region. The evolution of land use is useful for scenario analysis of both land cover change and land use intensification and provides insights into the role of market development and policies on land use.

  5. Livelihood strategies in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Determining drivers and factors within the Agrarian Reform Program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the ma

  6. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  7. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  8. Surface freshwater storage and dynamics in the Amazon basin during the 2005 exceptional drought

    OpenAIRE

    Frappart, Frédéric; Papa, Fabrice; Santos Da Silva, Joecila; Ramillien, Guillaume; Prigent, Catherine; Seyler, Frédérique; Calmant, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Amazon river basin has been recently affected by extreme climatic events, such as the exceptional drought of 2005, with significant impacts on human activities and ecosystems. In spite of the importance of monitoring freshwater stored and moving in such large river basins, only scarce measurements of river stages and discharges are available and the signatures of extreme drought conditions on surface freshwater dynamics at the basin scale are still poorly known. He...

  9. Validation and analysis of MOPITT CO observations of the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. C.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze satellite retrievals of carbon monoxide from the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument over the Amazon Basin, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The possible influence of smoke aerosol as a source of retrieval bias is investigated using collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements at two sites but does not appear to be significant. Finally, we exploit the MOPITT record to analyze both the mean annual cycle and the interannual variability of CO over the Amazon Basin since 2002.

  10. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  11. The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge; As bacias marginais brasileiras: estagio atual de conhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Francisco Celso; Asmus, Haroldo Erwin

    2004-11-01

    Based on distinctive stratigraphic and/or structural characteristics, the brazilian continental margin can be divided into two main provinces : (1)The southeastern-eastern province, extending from the Pelotas to the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin, presents a tensional tectonic style of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous age, paralleling the structural alignments of the Precambrian basement, except in the northeastern segment where the Mesozoic faults of the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin cut across the east west basement directions. The basin-fill, Upper Jurassic through Recent, consists, where complete, of three stratigraphic sequences, each of a distinct depositional environment: (a) a lower clastic non-marine sequence; (b) a middle evaporitic sequence, and (c) an upper clastic paralic and open marine sequence. (2)The northern province, extending from the Potiguar Basin to the Amazon Submarine Basin, displays both tensional and compressional tectonic styles of Upper Jurassic (?) to Upper Cretaceous age either paralleling or cutting transversally the basement alignments. The stratigraphic column differs from the southeastern - eastern province in lacking the Lower Cretaceous evaporitic rocks. The integration of the stratigraphic and structural data allows one to determine in the eastern Brazilian marginal basins the main evolutionary stages of a typical pull-apart continental margin: a continental pre-rift and rift stage, an evaporitic proto-ocean stage, and a normal open ocean stage. In the northern province it is possible to infer a continental rift valley stage, a marine transform - movement stage and an open ocean stage. The relationship between the rift valley and transform movement stages is not clear. (author)

  12. Mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon: temporal and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Vila Real Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulatory Diseases (CD are the major cause of death among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon. OBJECTIVE: to analyze standardized mortality rates of diseases of the circulatory system (DCS, according to the main causes of death among the elderly, in microregions of the Brazilian Amazon, in the period of 1998 - 2007. METHODS: ecological study of mortality rates distribution standardized by CD and corrected by deaths from poorly defined causes among the elderly (> 65 years of age who lived in Brazilian Amazon in the period of 1998 - 2007. The analysis were carried out by the linear regression, trend, and spatial distribution of Kernel. RESULTS: We verified an increasing trend in mortality by CD (β1 = 28.34 p = 0.01, due to the increasing trend in the States of Maranhão and Tocantins. The central region of Mato Grosso, Northern Tocantins, Eastern Pará and Southwestern Maranhão present hot spots with the highest mortality rates. Males present higher rates when compared to females all over the region; rates of mortality due to acute myocardial infarction and hypertensive disease present the same spatial standard of the CD group and the rates of cerebrovascular diseases present a different spatial distribution standard. Increment in mortality rates according to age was observed: the greater the age, the higher is mortality by CD. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Amazon presents an increasing trend with high rates of mortality by the circulatory diseases, and the geographic areas with the highest rates are around the Brazilian Amazon, in the states of Tocantins, Maranhão and Mato Grosso.

  13. Source area and seasonal Sr-87/Sr-86 variations in rivers of the Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Santos; Sondag, Francis; Cochonneau, Gérard; Lagane, C.; Brunet, P.; Hattingh, K.; Chaves, J. G. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a detailed study of dissolved Sr isotopes in the Solimoes and Beni-Madeira Rivers of the Amazon basin. This study developed data collected over 8years indicating large spatial and temporal variations in dissolved Sr isotopes among the rivers of the Amazon basin. The large Sr-87/Sr-86 variations were found to be correlated with the geology of the source areas of the suspended sediments. The Beni-Madeira River displays a high average Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio and large Sr-87/Sr...

  14. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Queiroz

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon.This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261 regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%, followed by moderate (26.8%, and severe (4.6%. The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47-4.55; p = 0.001], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18-3.29; p = 0.033 and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17-2.93; p = 0.008] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity.Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus, the mapping of scorpions fauna in different Amazon localities

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  17. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from the Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ribeiro da Silva Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study compares virulence markers of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in 2 cities in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods The study analyzed 168 patients with chronic gastritis from Belém and 151 from Bragança, State of Pará, Brazil. Levels of bacterial DNA associated with cagA and vacA alleles were checked by PCR, and hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for histologic diagnosis. Results In Bragança 87% of patients were genotype s1m1 cagA-positive (s1m1 cagA+, compared with 76% in Belém. In samples from patients in both cities, there was an association between s1m1 cagA+ strains and gastric mucosal damage. Conclusions Both cities have a high frequency of s1m1 cagA+ strains of H. pylori.

  18. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  19. Integration of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Change Detection in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; Moran, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Traditional change detection approaches have been proven to be difficult in detecting vegetation changes in the moist tropical regions with multitemporal images. This paper explores the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data for vegetation change detection in the Brazilian Amazon. A principal component analysis was used to integrate TM and HRG panchromatic data. Vegetation change/non-change was detected with the image differencing approach based on the TM and HRG fused image and the corresponding TM image. A rule-based approach was used to classify the TM and HRG multispectral images into thematic maps with three coarse land-cover classes: forest, non-forest vegetation, and non-vegetation lands. A hybrid approach combining image differencing and post-classification comparison was used to detect vegetation change trajectories. This research indicates promising vegetation change techniques, especially for vegetation gain and loss, even if very limited reference data are available.

  20. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcos; Keller, Michael; dos-Santos, Maiza N.; Leitold, Veronika; Pinagé, Ekena R.; Baccini, Alessandro; Saatchi, Sassan; Nogueira, Euler M.; Batistella, Mateus; Morton, Douglas C.

    2016-11-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha) assembled to date for the Brazilian Amazon. We developed statistical models relating inventory ACD estimates to lidar metrics that explained 70% of the variance across forest types. Airborne lidar-ACD estimates for intact forests ranged between 5.0 ± 2.5 and 31.9 ± 10.8 kg C m-2. Degradation carbon losses were large and persistent. Sites that burned multiple times within a decade lost up to 15.0 ± 0.7 kg C m-2 (94%) of ACD. Forests that burned nearly 15 years ago had between 4.1 ± 0.5 and 6.8 ± 0.3 kg C m-2 (22-40%) less ACD than intact forests. Even for low-impact logging disturbances, ACD was between 0.7 ± 0.3 and 4.4 ± 0.4 kg C m-2 (4-21%) lower than unlogged forests. Comparing biomass estimates from airborne lidar to existing biomass maps, we found that regional and pantropical products consistently overestimated ACD in degraded forests, underestimated ACD in intact forests, and showed little sensitivity to fires and logging. Fine-scale heterogeneity in ACD across intact and degraded forests highlights the benefits of airborne lidar for carbon mapping. Differences between airborne lidar and regional biomass maps underscore the need to improve and update biomass estimates for dynamic land use frontiers, to better characterize deforestation and degradation carbon emissions for regional carbon budgets and Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+).

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Letícia; Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in nonhuman primates (NHP). The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of and assess the phylogenetic position of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma species infecting neotropical NHP from Brazilian Amazon. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 98 blood samples from NHP belonging to the Family Cebidae were collected in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, of which 87 NHP were from Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) in the municipality of São Luís, and 11 (9 Sapajus sp. and 2 Saimiri sciureus) were from NHP caught in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve. DNA samples were screened by previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. based on nuoG, gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Purified amplicons were submitted to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Bacteremia with one or more Bartonella spp. was not detected in NHP. Conversely, 35 NHP were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The Blastn analysis of seven positive randomly selected sequencing products showed percentage of identity ranging from 95% to 99% with other primates hemoplasmas. The Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on a 1510 bp of 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of two distinct clusters, positioned within Mycoplasma haemofelis and Mycoplasma suis groups. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the presence of a novel hemoplasma species in NHP from the Brazilian Amazon.

  2. Land use change emission scenarios: anticipating a forest transition process in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Assis, Talita Oliveira; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L; Toledo, Peter Mann; Santos-Junior, Roberto Araújo Oliveira; Batistella, Mateus; Coelho, Andrea Santos; Savaget, Elza Kawakami; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; Nobre, Carlos Afonso; Ometto, Jean Pierre H

    2016-05-01

    Following an intense occupation process that was initiated in the 1960s, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, stabilizing around 6000 km(2) yr(-1) in the last 5 years. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Nevertheless, other threats remain, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We propose three updated qualitative and quantitative land-use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazon, including a normative 'Sustainability' scenario in which we envision major socio-economic, institutional, and environmental achievements in the region. We developed an innovative spatially explicit modelling approach capable of representing alternative pathways of the clear-cut deforestation, secondary vegetation dynamics, and the old-growth forest degradation. We use the computational models to estimate net deforestation-driven carbon emissions for the different scenarios. The region would become a sink of carbon after 2020 in a scenario of residual deforestation (~1000 km(2) yr(-1)) and a change in the current dynamics of the secondary vegetation - in a forest transition scenario. However, our results also show that the continuation of the current situation of relatively low deforestation rates and short life cycle of the secondary vegetation would maintain the region as a source of CO2 - even if a large portion of the deforested area is covered by secondary vegetation. In relation to the old-growth forest degradation process, we estimated average gross emission corresponding to 47% of the clear-cut deforestation from 2007 to 2013 (using the DEGRAD system data), although the aggregate effects of the postdisturbance regeneration can partially offset these emissions. Both processes (secondary

  3. Expanding the knowledge of the geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcV/TcVI genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Valdirene Dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Maldonado, Irene Fabíola Roman; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a complex sylvatic enzooty involving a wide range of animal species. Six discrete typing units (DTUs) of T. cruzi, named TcI to TcVI, are currently recognized. One unanswered question concerning the epidemiology of T. cruzi is the distribution pattern of TcII and hybrid DTUs in nature, including their virtual absence in the Brazilian Amazon, the current endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil. Herein, we characterized biological samples that were collected in previous epizootiological studies carried out in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We performed T. cruzi genotyping using four polymorphic genes to identify T. cruzi DTUs: mini-exon, 1f8, histone 3 and gp72. This analysis was conducted in the following biological samples: (i) two T. cruzi isolates obtained by culturing of stools from the triatomine species Rhodnius picttipes and (ii) five serum samples from dogs in which trypomastigotes were observed during fresh blood examination. We report for the first time the presence of TcII and hybrid DTUs (TcV/TcVI) in the Amazon region in mixed infections with TcI. Furthermore, sequencing of the constitutive gene, gp72, demonstrated diversity in TcII even within the same forest fragment. These data show that TcII is distributed in the five main Brazilian biomes and is likely more prevalent than currently described. It is very probable that there is no biological or ecological barrier to the transmission and establishment of any DTU in any biome in Brazil.

  4. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  5. Metagenome Sequencing of Prokaryotic Microbiota Collected from Rivers in the Upper Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Toyama, Danyelle; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Souza; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical freshwater environments, like rivers, are important reservoirs of microbial life. This study employed metagenomic sequencing to survey prokaryotic microbiota in the Solimões, Purus, and Urucu Rivers of the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We report a rich and diverse microbial community. PMID:28082494

  6. Forecasting terrestrial water storage changes in the Amazon Basin using Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Linage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts frequently affect the Amazon River basin, impacting transportation, river navigation, agriculture, and ecosystem processes within several South American countries. Here we examined how sea surface temperatures (SSTs influence interannual variability of terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSAs in different regions within the Amazon basin and propose a modeling framework for inter-seasonal flood and drought forecasting. Three simple statistical models forced by a linear combination of lagged spatial averages of central Pacific (Niño 4 index and tropical North Atlantic (TNAI index SSTs were calibrated against a decade-long record of 3°, monthly TWSAs observed by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission. Niño 4 was the primary external forcing in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin whereas TNAI was dominant in central and western regions. A combined model using the two indices improved the fit significantly (p < 0.05 for at least 64% of the grid cells within the basin, compared to models forced solely with Niño 4 or TNAI. The combined model explained 66% of the observed variance in the northeastern region, 39% in the central and western regions, and 43% for the Amazon basin as a whole with a 3 month lead time between the SST indices and TWSAs. Model performance varied seasonally: it was higher than average during the rainfall wet season in the northeastern Amazon and during the dry season in the central and western regions. The predictive capability of the combined model was degraded with increasing lead times. Degradation was smaller in the northeastern Amazon (where 49% of the variance was explained using an 8 month lead time vs. 69% for a 1 month lead time compared to the central and western Amazon (where 22% of the variance was explained at 8 months vs. 43% at 1 month. These relationships may enable the development of an early warning system for flood and drought risk. This work also

  7. Statistical confirmation of indirect land use change in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Eugenio Y.; Richards, Peter; Walker, Robert; Caldas, Marcellus M.

    2011-04-01

    Expansion of global demand for soy products and biofuel poses threats to food security and the environment. One environmental impact that has raised serious concerns is loss of Amazonian forest through indirect land use change (ILUC), whereby mechanized agriculture encroaches on existing pastures, displacing them to the frontier. This phenomenon has been hypothesized by many researchers and projected on the basis of simulation for the Amazonian forests of Brazil. It has not yet been measured statistically, owing to conceptual difficulties in linking distal land cover drivers to the point of impact. The present article overcomes this impasse with a spatial regression model capable of linking the expansion of mechanized agriculture in settled agricultural areas to pasture conversions on distant, forest frontiers. In an application for a recent period (2003-2008), the model demonstrates that ILUC is significant and of considerable magnitude. Specifically, a 10% reduction of soy in old pasture areas would have decreased deforestation by as much as 40% in heavily forested counties of the Brazilian Amazon. Evidently, the voluntary moratorium on primary forest conversions by Brazilian soy farmers has failed to stop the deforestation effects of expanding soy production. Thus, environmental policy in Brazil must pay attention to ILUC, which can complicate efforts to achieve its REDD targets.

  8. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  9. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Erik J. Jhonston; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  10. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

    2013-11-01

    During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

  11. A Decision Support System for Land Allocation under Multiple Objectives in Public Production Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Marco W. Lentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. However, illegal and unplanned logging is exhausting forests rapidly. In 2006, a new forestry law in Brazil (Lei 11,284/2006 established the legal framework to develop state and national public forests for multiple uses. To support public forest planning efforts, we combine spatially explicit data on logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for community use for use within a forest planning optimization model. While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. We demonstrate the model's use for Faro State Forest, a 636,000 ha forest embedded within a large mosaic of conservation units recently established in the state of Pará. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region.

  12. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru.

  13. Progress in Remote Sensing of Photosynthetic Activity over the Amazon Basin

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    Celio Helder Resende de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantifying the massive exchange of carbon that takes place over the Amazon Basin remains a challenge, progress is being made as the remote sensing community moves from using traditional, reflectance-based vegetation indices, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, to the more functional Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI. This new index, together with satellite-derived estimates of canopy light interception and Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, provide improved estimates of Gross Primary Production (GPP. This paper traces the development of these new approaches, compares the results of their analyses from multiple years of data acquired across the Amazon Basin and suggests further improvements in instrument design, data acquisition and processing. We demonstrated that our estimates of PRI are in generally good agreement with eddy-flux tower measurements of photosynthetic light use efficiency (ε at four sites in the Amazon Basin: r2 values ranged from 0.37 to 0.51 for northern flux sites and to 0.78 for southern flux sites. This is a significant advance over previous approaches seeking to establish a link between global-scale photosynthetic activity and remotely-sensed data. When combined with measurements of Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, PRI provides realistic estimates of seasonal variation in photosynthesis over the Amazon that relate well to the wet and dry seasons. We anticipate that our findings will steer the development of improved approaches to estimate photosynthetic activity over the tropics.

  14. The size distribution of organic carbon in headwater streams in the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Joana D'Arc; Luizão, Flávio Jesus; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2016-06-01

    Despite the strong representativeness of streams in the Amazon basin, their role in the accumulation of coarse particulate organic carbon (CPOC), fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in transport, an important energy source in these environments, is poorly known. It is known that the arboreal vegetation in the Amazon basin is influenced by soil fertility and rainfall gradients, but would these gradients promote local differences in organic matter in headwater streams? To answer this question, 14 low-order streams were selected within these gradients along the Amazon basin, with extensions that varied between 4 and 8 km. The efficiency of the transformation of particulate into dissolved carbon fractions was assessed for each stream. The mean monthly benthic organic matter storage ranged between 1.58 and 9.40 t ha(-1) month(-1). In all locations, CPOC was the most abundant fraction in biomass, followed by FPOC and DOC. Rainfall and soil fertility influenced the distribution of the C fraction (p = 0.01), showing differentiated particulate organic carbon (POC) storage and DOC transportation along the basin. Furthermore, the results revealed that carbon quantification at the basin level could be underestimated, ultimately influencing the global carbon calculations for the region. This is especially due to the fact that the majority of studies consider only fine particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter, which represent less than 50 % of the stored and transported carbon in streambeds.

  15. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A.

    2007-12-01

    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  16. Modes of Extraction, Unequal Exchange, and the Progressive Underdevelopment of an Extreme Periphery: The Brazilian Amazon, 1600-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Stephen G.

    1984-01-01

    A model organized around the predominance of specific commodities at different times is used in a case study of the sequence of extractive export economies in the Amazon basin from the colonial period to the present. Such a model highlights the differences between extractive and productive economies. (Author/IS)

  17. EXPANDING THE AREA OF DISTRIBUTION OF EUFRIESEA FRAGROCARA KIMSEY (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. S. Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agriculture in the Arc of Deforestation causes deforestation and habitat loss. Euglossines sampling was done near Juruena River, Cotriguaçu municipality, northern Mato Grosso State. The bees were collected on understory and canopy using different baits. A total of 41 males of Eufriesea fragrocara Kimsey were collected. This is a rare species in collections and catalogued only in Huánuco (Peru, Napo (Ecuador, Ouro Preto D’Oeste and Ariquemes, Rondônia, Brazil. This new records increase the geographic distribution of E. fragrocara in 500 km to the western Amazon Basin, reducing the filling gaps in their distribution range in the Neotropics.

  18. Reactive and dissolved meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Hella; Dannhaus, Nadine; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Suessenberger, Annette; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Maurice, Laurence; Filizola, Naziano; Gaillardet, Jerome; Christl, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the ratio of the meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be to stable 9Be has been established as a weathering and erosion proxy where meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in reactive phases of secondary weathering products leached from detrital Amazonian river sediment were measured[1]. For this dataset, we derived a new 10Be-based mass balance, which compares the fluxes exported during erosion and weathering, Fout, calculated by the sum of [10Be]reac multiplied by gauging-derived sediment discharge and [10Be]dissmultiplied by water discharge, to the meteoric depositional flux Fin. This assessment allows evaluating the weathering state of the Amazon basin. Further, in order to assess equilibration of reactive phases in the water column, we measured (10Be/9Be)reac ratios leached from suspended sediments for two depth profiles of the Amazon (55m depth) and Madeira (12m depth) Rivers, their corresponding surface dissolved 10Be/9Be ratios, as well as dissolved ratios of smaller Amazon tributaries (Beni, Madre de Dios) to compare with published reactive ratios[1]. In these rivers, modest pH and salinity fluctuations help to constrain a 'simple' system that might however still be affected by seasonally changing isotopic compositions between water and suspended sediment[2] and seasonal fluctuations of TSS and TDS[3]. The 10Be-based mass balance shows that in Andean source areas Fout/Fin ≡1, indicating a balance between ingoing and exported flux, whereas in the Shield headwaters, Fout/Fin=0.3, indicating a combination of decay of 10Be during storage and little export of 10Be associated with particulate and dissolved loads. In central Amazonia, the export of 10Be decreases slightly relative to its atmospheric flux as evidenced by Fout/Fin=0.8 for the Amazon and Madeira Rivers. This value is interpreted as being close to steady state, but its modification could be due to additions of Shield-derived sediment to sediment carried in the main river[4]. Regarding the depth profiles, our

  19. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

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    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  20. Fish contamination with DDT due to malaria control in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.P.M.; Meire, R.; Azeredo, A.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radiosotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, IBCCF - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); D' Amato, C. [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias dos Alimentos, IQ-UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Saldanha, G.; Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L. [International Training Environmental Medicine, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Community and Preventive Medicine Dept., NY (United States); Markowitz, S. [Center for Biology of the Natural Systems, Queens Coll. New York (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The DDT, a term used to refer to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an organochlorine pesticide first synthesized in 1874, but its properties as insecticide were discovered only in the late 1930's by the chemist Paul Muller, who won the Nobel Prize in 1948. Since its discovery, DDT use revolutionized the control concepts against malaria and other tropical insect-borne diseases. A large-scale industrial production started in 1943 and it was used in great quantities mainly for the agricultural and forest pest control. A smaller quantity of the world production (20-30%) was used in tropical disease control. In 1946 it was established a regular system of DDT applications in Amazon houses. Its use became common in malaria vector control and other tropical diseases, like leishmaniasis. DDT began to be restricted after the discovery of its toxicity against wild animals, especially top predators and due to potential toxic effects against humans. The DDT restrictive measures in Brazil started in 19714. In 1985 DDT was prohibited for agricultural purposes, but continued to be use for Public Health Campaigns, under the responsibility of FUNASA, the Brazilian National Health Foundation. An investigation conducted by Vieira et al. detected {sigma}ODDT in soil, sediments and chicken eggs from an area seven and nine years after its last application for leishmaniasis vector control near the sprayed sites. Today DDT is recognized as one of the twelve Persistent Organic Pollutants - POPs. Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 20008 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme9 have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3}mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}DDT contaminated fish, accomplished by

  1. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

  2. The Effects of Soybean Cultivation on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southeast of Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, A. S.; Davidson, E. A.; Hayhoe, S.; Porder, S.; Neill, C.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities, including agricultural expansion, have greatly changed the nitrogen dynamics in tropical systems. The expanding soybean frontier in Brazil is a reality, and investigations of the processes driving N dynamics in these systems are needed to minimize environmental impacts and promote sustainability of agricultural systems. In order to understand the effects of soybean cultivation on the nitrogen cycle, we investigated physical and chemical properties of soils, soil N stocks, and soil δ15N in old growth forest, pasture, and along a chronosequence of soybean fields (2, 5, and 6 year-old) in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, which is at the southern limit of the Amazon forest. An increase in N stocks in the first 10cm depth of soil was observed along the following sequence of land-uses: pasture, soybean, and forest. We also observed differences in physical and chemical soil properties between forest and soybean sites. There was no difference in the soil δ15N among the chronosequence of soybean fields, although values were lower than the values found in the pasture and higher than those found in the forest soil. These preliminary results showed a pattern of nitrogen accumulation in the soil along the chronosequence of soybean fields, indicating a possible return to the levels of N cycling occurring in the forest soil before the conversion to pasture and soybean

  3. Poverty dynamics, ecological endowments, and land use among smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Gilvan R; VanWey, Leah K; Hull, James R; Antigo, Mariangela; Barbieri, Alisson F

    2014-01-01

    Rural settlement in previously sparsely occupied areas of the Brazilian Amazon has been associated with high levels of forest loss and unclear long-term social outcomes. We focus here on the micro-level processes in one settlement area to answer the question of how settler and farm endowments affect household poverty. We analyze the extent to which poverty is sensitive to changes in natural capital, land use strategies, and biophysical characteristics of properties (particularly soil quality). Cumulative time spent in poverty is simulated using Markovian processes, which show that accessibility to markets and land use system are especially important for decreasing poverty among households in our sample. Wealtheir households are selected into commercial production of perennials before our initial observation, and are therefore in poverty a lower proportion of the time. Land in pasture, in contrast, has an independent effect on reducing the proportion of time spent in poverty. Taken together, these results show that investments in roads and the institutional structures needed to make commercial agriculture or ranching viable in existing and new settlement areas can improve human well-being in frontiers.

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis of land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of land use and land cover (LULC) changes among three study areas with different biophysical environments in the Brazilian Amazon at multiple scales, from per-pixel, polygon, census sector, to study area. Landsat images acquired in the years of 1990/1991, 1999/2000, and 2008/2010 were used to examine LULC change trajectories with the post-classification comparison approach. A classification system composed of six classes - forest, savanna, other-vegetation (secondary succession and plantations), agro-pasture, impervious surface, and water, was designed for this study. A hierarchical-based classification method was used to classify Landsat images into thematic maps. This research shows different spatiotemporal change patterns, composition and rates among the three study areas and indicates the importance of analyzing LULC change at multiple scales. The LULC change analysis over time for entire study areas provides an overall picture of change trends, but detailed change trajectories and their spatial distributions can be better examined at a per-pixel scale. The LULC change at the polygon scale provides the information of the changes in patch sizes over time, while the LULC change at census sector scale gives new insights on how human-induced activities (e.g., urban expansion, roads, and land use history) affect LULC change patterns and rates. This research indicates the necessity to implement change detection at multiple scales for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change patterns and rates.

  5. The Fortune of the Commons: Participatory Evaluation of Small-Scale Fisheries in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Antonio F. P.; Bursztyn, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    This paper applies a participatory approach in evaluating small-scale fisheries, focusing on the Arapaima gigas fishery in the Brazilian Amazon. The evaluation uses the social-ecological system (SES) framework, adopted to explain the conditions needed for sustainability and user cooperation in natural resources management, as a more suitable alternative to the `blueprint' or `panaceas' approaches, based only on property rights or governmental intervention. However, managers and users often do not have the necessary information compiled and available for a specific SES while some actions need to be taken immediately. Thus, consensus and negotiation among stakeholders about SES variables may be useful to evaluate system performance and indicate actions to promote sustainability. In the case study, using a consensus-building model, we found that arapaima SES leads to sustainability and is far from being a case of `tragedy of the commons.' More investments in suitable monitoring and enforcement for adaptive management are recommended. Adopting an SES framework based on stakeholders' prospects may be useful until complete interdisciplinary studies become available so as to seek of sustainability in the long term.

  6. Annual Cash Income from Community Forest Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Community forest management (CFM is considered an alternative way to protect forests while providing income for smallholders. Since the mid-1990s, the number of CFM projects has rapidly increased in the Brazilian Amazon, although most of them still face several difficulties. In this paper, we discuss the obstacles to the financial viability of CFM in this region and propose some ways to overcome them. Based on evidence from five case studies, we assess the extent to which sustainable forest management for commercial timber production contributes to smallholder income. We show that harvesting timber only provides a limited cash income to smallholders, even though forest covers 80% of their landholding. Market access to timber is very uncertain and smallholder communities often fail to make a profit from their timber. Minimum remunerative public prices and support for timber marketing are thus needed. Simpler and more flexible procedures are required to reduce the high transaction costs of obtaining a permit and increase smallholder involvement in legal forest management for commercial purposes. Finally, a better assessment of timber potential in smallholder forest reserves through systematic inventories would be useful to avoid arousing false expectations.

  7. Screening of antibacterial extracts from plants native to the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini I.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 20% of the world's biodiversity is located in Brazilian forests and only a few plant extracts have been evaluated for potential antibacterial activity. In the present study, 705 organic and aqueous extracts of plants obtained from different Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic Forest plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 100 µg/ml, using a microdilution broth assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. One extract, VO581, was active against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 140 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 160 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems and two extracts were active against E. faecalis, SM053 (MIC = 80 µg/ml and MBC = 90 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from aerial parts, and MY841 (MIC = 30 µg/ml and MBC = 50 µg/ml, organic extract obtained from stems. The most active fractions are being fractionated to identify their active substances. Higher concentrations of other extracts are currently being evaluated against the same microorganisms.

  8. Scoping Adaptation Needs for Smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon: A Municipal Level Case Study

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    Osuna Vanesa Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several climate extreme events have caused considerable economic damage and hardship in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially for small-scale producers. Based on household surveys and focus group interviews in the Municipality of Alenquer as well as secondary data analyses and a literature review at the regional level, this study seeks to assess rural small-scale producers’ vulnerability to climate and non-climate related shocks and identify entry points for government action to support adaptation at the local level. In our case study area, small-scale producers with similar wealth, self-sufficiency, and resource use specialisation levels exhibited stark variation in levels of sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate and nonclimate related shocks. Our findings indicate that this variation is partly driven by cultural, historical, and environmental resource use specialisation strategies and partly by differences in local governance capacity and the level of social organisation. Emerging governmentled initiatives to promote climate change adaptation in the region would benefit from taking these factors into account when designing local implementation strategies and priorities.

  9. Morphological Features of Trypanosomes from Squirrel Monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Mariangela Ziccardi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphometric analysis of blood trypomastigotes identified as Trypanosoma minasense, T. saimirii, and T. rangeli harbored by squirrel monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon was performed. Additionally, morphological and biological comparative analyses were conducted of T. saimirii-like and T. rangeli development forms from haemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Illustrations are given of blood trypomastigotes as well as of developing flagellates in triatomine and axenic culture. Mean values of blood trypomastigotes of T. saimirii differ statistically from those of T. rangeli in only two out of ten morphological characters measured, and ranges overlapped. The developing forms of T. saimrii-like parasites were essentially identical in both xenodiagnosis and haemoculture to those of T. rangeli. Trypanosomes confirmed as T. rangeli were transmitted to mice by the bites of the great majority of triatomines that fed on T. saimirii-like infected monkeys. We conclude that, based on morphology and on the development in triatomine bugs and haemoculture, T. saimirii should not be considered a distinct species. We therefore propose T. saimirii to be a junior synonym of T. rangeli

  10. Endophytic fungi from Myrcia guianensis at the Brazilian Amazon: distribution and bioactivity

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    Elissandro Fonseca dos Banhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms have been investigated under different ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. However, the systematic exploration of biomolecules with potential for biotechnological products from this interaction still is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aimed the evaluation of the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi obtained from roots, stems and leafs of Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae from the Brazilian Amazon. 156 endophytic fungi were isolated and above 80% were identified by morphological examination as belonging to the genera Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Xylaria, Nectria, Penicillium and Fusarium. Fermented broth of those fungi were assayed for antimicrobial activity and four inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Penicillium avellaneum. As the strain named MgRe2.2.3B (Nectria haematococca had shown the most promising results against those pathogenic strains, its fermented broth was fractioned and only its two low polar fractions demonstrated to be active. Both fractions exhibited a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 µg.mL-1 against S. aureus and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 µg.mL-1 against P. avellaneum. These results demonstrate the diversity of fungal genera in M. guianensis and the potential of these endophytic fungi for the production of new antibiotics.

  11. Phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters in adults admitted to hospital in the Western Brazilian Amazon

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    Sandra Maria Sampaio Enes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the presence of phlebitis and the factors that influence the development of this complication in adult patients admitted to hospital in the western Brazilian Amazon. METHOD Exploratory study with a sample of 122 peripheral intravenous catheters inserted in 122 patients in a medical unit. Variables related to the patient and intravenous therapy were analyzed. For the analysis, we used chi-square tests of Pearson and Fisher exact test, with 5% significance level. RESULTS Complication was the main reason for catheter removal (67.2%, phlebitis was the most frequent complication (31.1%. The mean duration of intravenous therapy use was 8.81 days in continuous and intermittent infusion (61.5%, in 20G catheter (39.3%, inserted in the dorsal hand vein arc (36.9 %, with mean time of usage of 68.4 hours. The type of infusion (p=0.044 and the presence of chronic disease (p=0.005 and infection (p=0.007 affected the development of phlebitis. CONCLUSION There was a high frequency of phlebitis in the sample, being influenced by concomitant use of continuous and intermittent infusion of drugs and solutions, and more frequent in patients with chronic diseases and infection.

  12. Endophytic fungi from Myrcia guianensis at the Brazilian Amazon: distribution and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Banhos, Elissandro Fonseca; de Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima; de Andrade, Juliano Camurça; de Souza, Afonso Duarte Leão; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms have been investigated under different ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. However, the systematic exploration of biomolecules with potential for biotechnological products from this interaction still is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aimed the evaluation of the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi obtained from roots, stems and leafs of Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Amazon. 156 endophytic fungi were isolated and above 80% were identified by morphological examination as belonging to the genera Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Xylaria, Nectria, Penicillium and Fusarium. Fermented broth of those fungi were assayed for antimicrobial activity and four inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Penicillium avellaneum. As the strain named MgRe2.2.3B (Nectria haematococca) had shown the most promising results against those pathogenic strains, its fermented broth was fractioned and only its two low polar fractions demonstrated to be active. Both fractions exhibited a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg.mL(-1) against S. aureus and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 μg.mL(-1) against P. avellaneum. These results demonstrate the diversity of fungal genera in M. guianensis and the potential of these endophytic fungi for the production of new antibiotics.

  13. Post-crackdown effectiveness of field-based forest law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Jan Börner

    Full Text Available Regulatory enforcement of forest conservation laws is often dismissed as an ineffective approach to reducing tropical forest loss. Yet, effective enforcement is often a precondition for alternative conservation measures, such as payments for environmental services, to achieve desired outcomes. Fair and efficient policies to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD will thus crucially depend on understanding the determinants and requirements of enforcement effectiveness. Among potential REDD candidate countries, Brazil is considered to possess the most advanced deforestation monitoring and enforcement infrastructure. This study explores a unique dataset of over 15 thousand point coordinates of enforcement missions in the Brazilian Amazon during 2009 and 2010, after major reductions of deforestation in the region. We study whether local deforestation patterns have been affected by field-based enforcement and to what extent these effects vary across administrative boundaries. Spatial matching and regression techniques are applied at different spatial resolutions. We find that field-based enforcement operations have not been universally effective in deterring deforestation during our observation period. Inspections have been most effective in reducing large-scale deforestation in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, where average conservation effects were 4.0 and 9.9 hectares per inspection, respectively. Despite regional and actor-specific heterogeneity in inspection effectiveness, field-based law enforcement is highly cost-effective on average and might be enhanced by closer collaboration between national and state-level authorities.

  14. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  15. Gold mining as a source of mercury exposure in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, O

    1998-05-01

    Amalgamation has been used for more than 4500 years in mining processes. Mercury has been extensively used in South America by Spanish colonizers for precious metal recovery. It is estimated that between 1550 and 1880, nearly 200,000 metric tonnes of mercury was released to the environment. During the present gold rush, Brazil is first in South America and second in the world in gold production (with 90% coming from informal mining or garimpos). At least 2000 tonnes of mercury has been released to the environment in the present gold rush. From the mid 1980s, environmental research has been carried out in impacted Amazon rivers, later followed by human exposure studies. The river basins studied were the Tapajós, Madeira, and Negro, but also some man-made reservoirs and areas in central Brazil. The analyses mainly involved sediments, soil, air, fish, human hair, and urine. The results show high variability, perhaps related to biological diversity, biogeochemical differences in the river basins, and seasonal changes. High mercury values also occur in some areas with no known history of gold mining. The results available document a considerable impact on environmental mercury concentrations and frequent occurrence of human exposure levels that may lead to adverse health effects.

  16. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  17. Pfatp6 molecular profile of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the western Brazilian Amazon

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    Brasil Larissa W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-malarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the biggest challenges confronting the worldwide effort to control malaria. The appearance of chloroquine and multi-drug resistance had devastating effects on therapeutic efficacy of former first-line agents. Artemisinin has proven to be an excellent therapeutic alternative to fill the void in chemotherapeutic options left by resistance mechanisms. At the time of introduction, no resistance to artemisinins had been recorded, and artemisinins demonstrated excellent parasite reduction rates. In an attempt to protect artemisinin efficacy, the World Health Organization (WHO made artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT its official first-line treatment recommendation for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in 2006. In Brazil, artemether/lumefantrine became the Brazilian Malaria Control Programme's official treatment recommendation in 2007. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ - ATPase ortholog of P. falciparum (pfatp6 has been suggested as one of the targets of artemisinins. Consequently, pfatp6 gene polymorphisms are being investigated as markers of artemisinin resistance elsewhere. The goal of this work was to describe the molecular profile of pfatp6 in P. falciparum isolates from different localities in the Amazonas State. Methods DNA polymorphisms of the pfatp6 gene in 80 P. falciparum isolates from 11 municipalities of the Amazonas State (Western Brazilian Amazon, before and after the introduction of ACT in the Brazilian anti-malarial guidelines, were analysed by automatic sequencing. Mutations in the pfatp6 gene were searched using Mutation Surveyor v3.25 software. Results The P. falciparum pfatp6 gene presented polymorphisms at codons 37, 630 and 898. The R37K mutation was found in 16% of the samples, A630S in 32% and I898I in 52%. No S769N mutation, however, was detected in the analysed samples. Conclusion Despite the small number of samples, data presented here

  18. Use of GNSS Data for Hydrological Surveys in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Perosanz, Félix; Rotunno, Otto; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Santos, Andre

    2016-04-01

    GNSS data are constantly being used in hydrology. The key applications are the levelling of hydrological gauge stations, that of ADCP profiles for discharge and bathymetry of the cross-sections, and characterization of river's longitudinal slope of the free . These information are required to develop hydrological and hydrodynamic studies and to assess the quality of water level data obtained through space altimetry techniques. Establishing quality altimetry data from GNSS receivers to obtain gauge levelling and rivers profiles in the Amazon Basin is challenging. The GNSS reference network is sparse, the distance between survey points and reference stations is large, the major part of the basin can be only accessed by boat and rivers can have an extension of several thousands of kilometres. All these factors limit the efficiency of classical techniques of GNSS data processing like those based on double differences (DD). In addition, the Amazon Basin is strongly affected by loading effects, mainly caused by the hydrological cycle. In this basin, vertical displacements of these effects can reach more than 10 cm of amplitude. In the present work, we discuss the capability of calculating thousands of kilometres long altimetric profiles along the major rivers of the Amazon basin. GNSS data coming from receivers installed on-board boats are used together with GNSS stations fixed on gauges. First, differential techniques implemented in the GINS-PC software developed at the CNES-CLS IGS AC are used. These results are compared to those obtained with the Precise Point Position (PPP) technique. The impacts of fixing ambiguities to integer values in PPP technique are discussed as the use of Glonass data. We point on the specific corrections and cautions that are necessary during the data collection and the data processing. The accuracy of the profiles is assessed by comparing the results with fix points at gauge stations. The base application of the method is to enable fast

  19. Land-Cover and Land-Use Change in the Brazilian Amazon: Smallholders, Ranchers and Frontier Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Stephen P.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Browder, John O.; Perz, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is a significant driver of global environmental change, given its impacts on the carbon cycle and biodiversity. Loss of the Amazon forest, the focus of this article, is of particular concern because of the size and the rapid rate at which the forest is being converted to agricultural use. In this article, we identify what has been the most important driver of deforestation in a specific colonization frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. To this end, we consider (1) the land-use dynamics of smallholder households, (2) the formation of pasture by large-scale ranchers, and (3) structural processes of land aggregation by ranchers. Much has been written about relations between smallholders and ranchers in the Brazilian Amazon, particularly those involving conflict over land, and this article explicates the implications of such social processes for land cover. Toward this end, we draw on panel data (1996-2002) and satellite imagery (1986-1999) to show the deforestation that is attributable to small- and largeholders, and the deforestation that is attributable to aggregations of property arising from a process that we refer to as frontier stratification. Evidently, most of the recent deforestation in the study area has resulted from the household processes of smallholders, not from conversions to pasture pursuant to the appropriations of smallholders' property by well-capitalized ranchers or speculators.

  20. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  1. Two Preliminary SRTM DEMs Within the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Hess, L.; Melack, J.; Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.; Ballantine, A.; Biggs, T.; Holmes, K.; Sheng, Y.; Hendricks, G.

    2002-12-01

    Digital topography provides important measures, such as hillslope lengths and flow path networks, for understanding hydrologic and geomorphic processes (e.g., runoff response to land use change and floodplain inundation volume). Two preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models of Manaus (1S to 5S and 59W to 63W) and Rondonia (9S to 12S and 61W to 64W) were received from NASA JPL in August 2002. The "PI Processor" produced these initial DEM segments and we are using them to assess the initial accuracy of the interferometrically derived heights and for hydrologic research. The preliminary SRTM derived absolute elevations across the Amazon floodplain in the Cabaliana region generally range from 5 to 15 m with reported errors of 1 to 3 m. This region also includes some preliminary elevations that are erroneously negative. However, topographic contours on 1:100,000 scale quadrangles of 1978 to 1980 vintage indicate elevations of 20 to 30 m. Because double-bounce travel paths are possible over the sparsely vegetated and very-flat 2400 sq-km water surface of the Balbina reservoir near Manaus, it serves to identify the relative accuracy of the SRTM heights. Here, cell-to-cell height changes are generally 0 to 1 m and changes across a ~100 km transect rarely exceed 3 m. Reported errors throughout the transect range from 1 to 2 m with some errors up to 5 m. Deforestation in Rondonia is remarkably clear in the C-band DEM where elevations are recorded from the canopy rather than bare earth. Here, elevation changes are ~30 m (with reported 1 to 2 m errors) across clear-cut areas. Field derived canopy heights are in agreement with this change. Presently, we are deriving stream networks in the Amazon floodplain for comparison with our previous network extraction from JERS-1 SAR mosaics and for hydrologic modeling.

  2. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region.

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    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. METHODOLOGY: We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal. Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01. Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26-6.59; p<0.0001. Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3% lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8% were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5% showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8% were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide

  3. Comparisons of observed and modeled elastic responses to hydrological loading in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, D. M.; Calmant, S.; Perosanz, F.; Xavier, L.; Rotunno Filho, O. C.; Seyler, F.; Monteiro, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    In large hydrological basins, water mass loading can produce significant crustal deformation. We compare the monthly vertical component of 18 GPS sites located in the Amazon basin, with the deflection models derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations on the one hand and derived from HYDL, a global hydrological model, on the other hand. The GPS data set includes the largest deflections by hydrological loading ever recorded at two stations located in the center of the basin. The main result of the study is that the GRACE solution produced by GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en Géodesie Spatiale, Toulouse, France) produces the best agreement with the Global Navigation Satellite Systems series with a correlation coefficient up to 0.9 in the center of the basin, although 70% at best of the RMS variation in the GPS series is accounted for.

  4. Severe convection features in the Amazon Basin: a TRMM-based 15-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Nunes, Ana; Silva Dias, Maria; Anselmo, Evandro; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall in the Amazon Basin is very heterogeneous, mainly because the area encompassed is quite large. Among the systems responsible for rainfall, some stand out as extreme storm events. This study presents a criterion for identifying potentially severe convection in the Amazon region from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) database, specifically from Precipitation Features (PF) - 1998-2012 - generated and stored by the University of Utah. The seasonal and spatial distributions are similar to distributions of Mesoscale Convective Systems already catalogued in previous studies based on GOES satellite images. The seasons with the highest number of cases are austral spring, winter, and fall. With the Amazon region divided into six subregions and cases accumulated by quarter (JFM, AMJ, JAS, OND) the south of the Amazon subregion (SA) accounts for the largest number of cases with the OND quarter with higher occurrence and the lowest in AMJ. Different diurnal cycles of potentially severe convection are observed across the region with the more western areas, closer to the Andes, favoring nighttime cases, especially in the austral spring and summer. The diurnal cycle of the number of the most extreme cases is more pronounced than the diurnal cycle when a large collection of deep convection cases are included.

  5. Modeling investigation of light-absorbing aerosols in the Amazon Basin during the wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoqiao; Saturno, Jorge; Chi, Xuguang; Walter, David; Lavric, Jost V.; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Ditas, Florian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-11-01

    We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to interpret observed light-absorbing aerosols in Amazonia during the wet season. Observed aerosol properties, including black carbon (BC) concentration and light absorption, at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) site in the central Amazon have relatively low background levels but frequently show high peaks during the study period of January-April 2014. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in fine/coarse aerosol and BC concentrations as well as aerosol light absorption and its wavelength dependence over the Amazon Basin. The source attribution in the model indicates the important influence of open fire on the observed variances of aerosol concentrations and absorption, mainly from regional sources (northern South America) and from northern Africa. The contribution of open fires from these two regions is comparable, with the latter becoming more important in the late wet season. The analysis of correlation and enhancement ratios of BC versus CO suggests transport times of fossil fuel combustion in the southern part of the basin (AAE ˜ 1) but more open fire and dust influence in the northern part (AAE > 1.8). Uncertainty analysis shows that accounting for absorption due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles could result in differences of < 8 and 5-40 % in total absorption, respectively.

  6. Moving Frontiers in the Amazon: Brazilian Small-Scale Gold Miners in Suriname

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    Marjo de Theije

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the national, local, and personal frontiers that Brazilian small-scale gold miners – called garimpeiros – cross in their quest for gold in the larger Amazon region. Ethnographic research was conducted among garimpeiros and mining service providers in Suriname. In the past three decades, thousands of Brazilian migrants have entered Suriname and consequently affected its society, economy, and culture. It is argued that in the absence of strong state control, these garimpeiros, along with local forest peoples and legal title holders, are traversing the fluctuating boundaries. These boundaries include national borders, customary and legal regulations, technological limitations, and personal livelihood goals. The continuous reformulation of these multiple boundaries drives the development of local mining cultures. Social networks increase the volatility of formal and informal borders, and are the key to these mining cultures as well. The authors conclude that while entering Suriname and its gold mines is relatively easy, financial and conceptual barriers often prevent miners from leaving.Resumen: Fronteras fluctuantes en el Amazonas: los mineros artesanales de oro en SurinameEste artículo explora las fronteras nacionales, locales y personales que cruzan los garimpeiros (como se llama a los mineros brasileños que trabajan explotaciones auríferas a pequeña escala en su búsqueda de oro en la región amazónica. La investigación etnográfica en que se basa este artículo se realizó entre garimpeiros y proveedores de servicios para la minería en Suriname. En las últimas tres décadas, miles de inmigrantes brasileños han llegado a Suriname y afectado su sociedad, economía y cultura. En el artículo se sostiene que en ausencia de un control estatal fuerte, los garimpeiros, junto con grupos indígenas locales y tenedores de tierra legítimos, cruzan estas fronteras fluctuantes, que incluyen las fronteras nacionales, las

  7. Erosion of particulate organic material from an Andean river and its delivery to the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn; Hilton, Robert; West, A. Joshua; Robles Caceres, Arturo; Grocke, Darren; Marthews, Toby; Asner, Greg; New, Mark; Mahli, Yadvinder

    2016-04-01

    Organic carbon and nutrients discharged by mountainous rivers can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles from regional to global scales. The eastern Andes host productive forests on steep, rapidly eroding slopes, a combination that is primed to deliver sediment, carbon and nutrients to the lowland Amazon River. We quantify clastic sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge for the Kosñipata River, Peru, an Andean tributary of the Madre de Dios River, using suspended sediment samples and discharge measurements over one year at two gauging stations. Calculations of sediment yield on the basis of this data suggest that the Madre de Dios basin may have erosion rates ˜10 times greater than the Amazon Basin average. The total POC yield over the sampling period was up to five times higher than the yield in the lowland Amazon Basin, with most POC (70-80%) exported between December and March in the wet season. We use radiocarbon, stable C isotopes and C/N ratios to distinguish between the erosion and discharge of POC from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic POC) and POC eroded from the modern terrestrial biosphere, from vegetation and soil (biospheric POC). We find that biospheric POC discharge was significantly enhanced during flood events, over that of clastic sediment and petrogenic POC. The ultimate fate of the eroded POC may play a central role in the net carbon budget of Andean forest. In these forests, net productivity minus heterotrophic respiration is close to zero at the scale of forest plots, and the erosion of biospheric POC by this Andean river is sufficiently rapid that its fate downstream (sedimentary burial/preservation versus oxidation/degradation) may determine whether the mountain forest is a carbon sink or source to the atmosphere. In addition, the measured discharge of petrogenic POC suggests that fluxes from the Andes may be considerably higher than measured downstream in the Madeira River. If this petrogenic POC is oxidised rather

  8. Growth curve of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu raised in captivity in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    A.D.V. Garnero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to determine the most suitable nonlinear model to describe the growth of female collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. The monthly records of the weight of 10 captive female collared peccaries over a period of two years in the Brazilian Amazon Region were used. The growth models used were the Von Bertalanffy, Brody, Gompertz and Logistic. The parameters were estimated by using the NLIN procedure from the SAS application. The criteria used to verify the adjustment of the models were: asymptotic standard deviation (ASD; coefficient of determination (R²; average absolute residual deviation (ARD and the asymptotic rate (AR. The Brody model and the Logistic model estimated the highest (19.44kg and the lowest (19.18kg asymptotic weight (A, indicating the lowest (0.0070kg/day and the highest (0.0121kg/day maturation rate (K. These results and the coefficients of phenotypic correlation that varied from -0.75 and -0.47 confirmed the antagonistic nature between these parameters. The Brody model estimated the lower value for ARD, a limiting factor for describing the lowest value for AR through this model. The Brody model showed the best adjustment for AR, although the other models also showed a suitable adjustment to the weight data of said species/gender. Based on the AR obtained in this work, the Brody model is recommended for adjusting the growth curve of the female collared peccaries. Depending on the estimated values, especially for K, this trait can be included in a selection index.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection in an indigenous population in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Jocieli Malacarne

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Recent studies have shown a high incidence and prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in indigenous populations around the World. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and annual risk of infection (ARI as well as to identify factors associated with LTBI in an indigenous population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2011. We performed tuberculin skin tests (TSTs, smears and cultures of sputum samples, and chest radiographs for individuals who reported cough for two or more weeks. Associations between LTBI (TST ≥5mm and socio-demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics were investigated using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence ratio (PR was used as the measure of association. RESULTS We examined 263 individuals. The prevalence of LTBI was 40.3%, and the ARI was 2.4%. Age ≥15 years [PR=5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.5-8.6], contact with tuberculosis (TB patients (PR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-11.9, previous TB history (PR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.7, and presence of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar (PR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9 were associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS Although some adults may have been infected years prior, the high prevalence of infection and its strong association with age ≥15 years, history of TB, and recent contact with TB patients suggest that the TB transmission risk is high in the study area.

  10. Deforestation modifying terrestrial organic transport in the Rio Tapajos, Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M. [University of Quebec, Montreal (Canada); Louchouarn, P. [Texas A& M University, Corpus Christi (United States). Department of Physical and Life Sciences; Roulet, M. [IRD-Bolivia, Miraflores La Paz (Bolivia)

    2001-07-01

    The concentration and biomarker compositions of sedimentary organic matter (OM) as well as fine and coarse suspended particles were analysed to identify the impact of deforestation on the transport of terrigenous organic matter (OM) in the Rio Tapajos, a major tributary to the Amazon. Substantial shifts in the concentration and composition of recently deposited sedimentary OM suggest that intensive deforestation over the last few decades has considerably modified the natural inputs of sedimentary materials to the aquatic ecosystems by disrupting the terrigenous fluxes of humus and soil and materials from the drainage basin. The observed compositional changes of bulk OM and land derived biomarkers (e.g. lignin) in recent sediments illustrate a sedimentary enrichment in OM from soil horizons that, under normal forest cover, tend to be retained in the drainage basin. On average, the recently accumulated OM is nitrogen-rich ((C/N)a=12-15) and more highly degraded ((Ac/Al)v=0.4-0.6 and DHBA/V=0.15-0.20) than deep materials ((C/N)a=20-30, (Ac/Al)v=0.25-0.4, and DHBA/V=0.05-0.10), showing that this recently accumulated material is more humified than original inputs to the aquatic system, and consistent with increased exportation if fine eroded mineral and organic particles from surface soils along river banks. The present study illustrates the relevance of using OM oxidation products in sediment profiles to evaluate deforestation impacts on aquatic ecosystems and to characterize the nature of eroded soil materials, complementing studies on mineral/metal cycling. (author)

  11. Variability of continental water storage and its relationship to extreme hydrological events in the Amazon basin

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    Ana Emília Diniz Silva Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the variability of total continental water storage derived from estimates of balance water using satellite data in association with hydro-meteorological data. The occurrence of extreme hydrological events such as drought and flood in the Amazon basin was related to the variability of total storage of continental water. Both estimation methods (PER- Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff and GRACE show a strong decrease in water storage during the 2005 drought and a strong recovery during the 2009 flood. The results show that there is strong relationship between the occurrences of extreme hydrological events and water storage in the Amazon. Local and deep measurements of continental water storage can provide more precise indications of the dynamics of the hydrological system and its response to climate variability.

  12. Potential Negative Effects of Groundwater Dynamics on Dry Season Convection in the Amazon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lo, M. H.; Chou, C.

    2014-12-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation because the additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focused on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River Basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. In addition, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation resulting from downward transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, which have implications for precipitation changes during the dry season observed in most current climate models.

  13. Potential negative effects of groundwater dynamics on dry season convection in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia

    2016-02-01

    Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.

  14. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  15. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  16. Crinoids columnals (Echinodermata) of the Ererê Formation (late Eifelian-early Givetian, Amazon Basin), State of Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, S. M.; Fernandes, A. C. S. F.; da Fonseca, V. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The faunal composition of stalked echinoderms in the Brazilian Devonian is still largely unknown despite the great abundance of crinoids in the shallow epicontinental seas of the Paleozoic. The first Devonian crinoids of Brazil, recorded in the literature in 1875 and 1903, were from the sedimentary rocks of the Ererê Formation in the Amazon Basin. Since then, the echinoderms of this formation have not been studied. This study, based on isolated pluricolumnals and columnals, described and identified Botryocrinus meloi n. sp., the first record for this genus in Brazil. In addition to this species, two other morphological patterns were identified: Tjeecrinus sp. and Morphotype AM/Er-01. The form of occurrence of the crinoid material and the paleoautoecology of B. meloi allow preliminary characterization of the habitat as a moderately deep water with weak to moderate currents and soft substrate. The similarity between B. meloi and Botryocrinus montguyonensis and of Tjeecrinus? sp. and T. crassijugatus, from the Devonian of the Armorican and Rhenan Massif, represents new evidence for the existence of contact between the faunas of the Amazon Basin with those of northern Gondwana and Armorica during the Middle Devonian.

  17. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; Vicente, A.C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

  18. Water balance in the Amazon basin from a land surface model ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getirana, Augusto; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hongyi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Mounirou Toure, Ally; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi Rae; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-12-06

    Despite recent advances in modeling and remote sensing of land surfaces, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. The objective of this study is to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-of-the-art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables [total water storage (TWS), evapotranspiration (ET), surface runoff (R) and baseflow (B)] are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Fourteen LSMs were run using meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 1-degree spatial resolution. Three experiments are performed using precipitation which has been rescaled to match monthly global GPCP and GPCC datasets and the daily HYBAM dataset for the Amazon basin. R and B are used to force the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration, and GRACE TWS estimates in different catchments. At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39mm.d-1 to 3.26mm.d-1 and a low spatial correlation between ET and P indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget variables vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation used, but simulated TWS generally agree at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using the HYBAM dataset, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network the daily rescaling.

  19. Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Change in the Amazon Basin Based on a 50,000 Year Pollen Record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Simon G.; Maslin, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Hemipelagic sediments from the Amazon deep-sea fan, ODP Site 932 (5° 12.7‧N, 47° 1.8‧W), and continental shelf provide a 50,000-yr-long pollen record of Amazon Basin vegetation. The age model for Hole 932A is constrained by eight magnetic remanence intensity features, one paleomagnetic excursion, and three AMS14C dates.Alchornea,Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Moraceae/Urticaceae are dominant taxa in the pollen record between 40,200 and 19,800 cal yr B.P. Andean taxa, such asPodocarpusandHedyosmum,increase in abundance between 19,800 and 11,000 cal yr B.P. and prior to 40,200 cal yr B.P. The Holocene pollen assemblage, derived from Amazon River and continental shelf sediments, is dominated by secondary growth taxa, such asCecropia.Climatic factors influencing the development of glacial and interglacial tropical vegetation are considered by comparing marine with terrestrial records of vegetation change. This comparison shows that the Amazon Basin forests were not extensively replaced by savanna vegetation during the glacial period, contradicting the refugia hypothesis.

  20. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  1. A new Hyphessobrycon (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) from the middle Amazon basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flávio C T; Coutinho, Daniel P; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2014-10-08

    Hyphessobrycon montagi, new species, is described from tributaries of the Rio Arapiuns, a left margin affluent of the lower Rio Tapajós, Amazon basin, Pará, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed from all its congeners by the possession of a combination of two well-defined humeral blotches, connected by a narrow stripe, and a caudal peduncle blotch. A putatively monophyletic Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group, restricted to H. heterorhabdus, H. amapaensis, and H. eschwartzae, is herein proposed based on shared derived features of color pattern. Alternative proposals of a "Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus group" presented in the recent literature are evaluated and criticized.

  2. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Change: The Peasant Economy of Colonization in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Marcellus; Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Aldrich, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses deforestation processes in the Amazon basin. It deploys a methodology combining remote sensing and survey-based fieldwork to examine, with regression analysis, the impact household structure and economic circumstances on deforestation decisions made by colonist farmers in the forest frontiers of Brazil. Unlike most previous regression-based studies, the methodology implemented analyzes behavior at the level of the individual property. The regressions correct for endogenous relationships between key variables, and spatial autocorrelation, as necessary. Variables used in the analysis are specified, in part, by a theoretical development integrating the Chayanovian concept of the peasant household with spatial considerations stemming from von Thuenen. The results from the empirical model indicate that demographic characteristics of households, as well as market factors, affect deforestation in the Amazon. Thus, statistical results from studies that do not include household-scale information may be subject to error. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that environmental policies in the Amazon based on market incentives to small farmers may not be as effective as hoped, given the importance of household factors in catalyzing the demand for land. The paper concludes by noting that household decisions regarding land use and deforestation are not independent of broader social circumstances, and that a full understanding of Amazonian deforestation will require insight into why poor families find it necessary to settle the frontier in the first place.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Neto Vitaliano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin. M METHODS: The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231. IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3% and IgM by 14 (10.7% of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05; however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05 community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.

  4. Cytogenetic damage related to low levels of methyl mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazon

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    MARÚCIA I. M. AMORIM

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The mercury rejected in the water system, from mining operations and lixiviation of soils after deforestation, is considered to be the main contributors to the contamination of the ecosystem in the Amazon Basin. The objectives of the present study were to examine cytogenetic functions in peripheral lymphocytes within a population living on the banks of the Tapajós River with respect to methylmercury (MeHg contamination, using hair mercury as a biological indicator of exposure. Our investigation shows a clear relation between methylmercury contamination and cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes at levels well below 50 micrograms/gram, the level at which initial clinical signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning occur. The first apparent biological effect with increasing MeHg hair level was the impairment of lymphocyte proliferation measured as mitotic index (MI. The relation between mercury concentration in hair and MI suggests that this parameter, an indicator of changes in lymphocytes and their ability to respond to culture conditions, may be an early marker of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in humans and should be taken into account in the preliminary evaluation of the risks to populations exposed in vivo. This is the first report showing clear cytotoxic effects of long-term exposure to MeHg. Although the results strongly suggest that, under the conditions examined here, MeHg is both a spindle poison and a clastogen, the biological significance of these observations are as yet unknown. A long-term follow-up of these subjects should be undertaken.

  5. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation.We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%. Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%. The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%. A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30-0.71; pmedian [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39-0.75; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28-2.40; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.53 (95%CI = 1.15-2.02; p = 0.003] and living in a municipality with a MHSPI 300 km away from the state capital Manaus could be contributing factors to higher severity of spider envenomings in this area, as well as to antivenom underdosage.

  6. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Gomes, André Alexandre; Silva, Iran Mendonça; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima; Oliveira, Sâmella; Sabidò, Meritxell; Chalkidis, Hipócrates; Barbosa Guerra, Maria Graças Vale; Salinas, Jorge Luis; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%). Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%). A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30–0.71; pmedian [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39–0.75; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28–2.40; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.53 (95%CI = 1.15–2.02; p = 0.003)] and living in a municipality with a MHSPI 300 km away from the state capital Manaus could be contributing factors to higher severity of spider envenomings in this area, as well as to antivenom underdosage. PMID:27227455

  7. Water Balance in the Amazon Basin from a Land Surface Model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getirana, Augusto C. V.; Dutra, Emanuel; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Kam, Jonghun; Li, Hong-Yi; Decharme, Bertrand; Zhang, Zhengqiu; Ducharne, Agnes; Boone, Aaron; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Rodell, Matthew; Toure, Ally M.; Xue, Yongkang; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Arsenault, Kristi; Drapeau, Guillaume; Leung, L. Ruby; Ronchail, Josyane; Sheffield, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in land surfacemodeling and remote sensing, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. This study aims to evaluate the water budget of the Amazon basin based on several state-ofthe- art land surface model (LSM) outputs. Water budget variables (terrestrial water storage TWS, evapotranspiration ET, surface runoff R, and base flow B) are evaluated at the basin scale using both remote sensing and in situ data. Meteorological forcings at a 3-hourly time step and 18 spatial resolution were used to run 14 LSMs. Precipitation datasets that have been rescaled to matchmonthly Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) andGlobal Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) datasets and the daily Hydrologie du Bassin de l'Amazone (HYBAM) dataset were used to perform three experiments. The Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme was forced with R and B and simulated discharges are compared against observations at 165 gauges. Simulated ET and TWS are compared against FLUXNET and MOD16A2 evapotranspiration datasets andGravity Recovery and ClimateExperiment (GRACE)TWSestimates in two subcatchments of main tributaries (Madeira and Negro Rivers).At the basin scale, simulated ET ranges from 2.39 to 3.26 mm day(exp -1) and a low spatial correlation between ET and precipitation indicates that evapotranspiration does not depend on water availability over most of the basin. Results also show that other simulated water budget components vary significantly as a function of both the LSM and precipitation dataset, but simulated TWS generally agrees with GRACE estimates at the basin scale. The best water budget simulations resulted from experiments using HYBAM, mostly explained by a denser rainfall gauge network and the rescaling at a finer temporal scale.

  8. Contribution of regional sources to atmospheric methane over the Amazon Basin in 2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Chris; Gloor, Manuel; Gatti, Luciana V.; Miller, John B.; Monks, Sarah A.; McNorton, Joey; Bloom, A. Anthony; Basso, Luana S.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.

    2016-03-01

    We present an assessment of methane (CH4) atmospheric concentrations over the Amazon Basin for 2010 and 2011 using a 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model, two wetland emission models, and new observations made during biweekly flights made over four locations within the basin. We attempt to constrain basin-wide CH4 emissions using the observations, and since 2010 was an unusually dry year, we assess the effect of this drought on Amazonian methane emissions. We find that South American emissions contribute up to 150 ppb to concentrations at the sites, mainly originating from within the basin. Our atmospheric model simulations agree reasonably well with measurements at three of the locations (0.28 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.63, mean bias ≤ 9.5 ppb). Attempts to improve the simulated background CH4 concentration through analysis of simulated and observed sulphur hexafluoride concentrations do not improve the model performance, however. Through minimisation of seasonal biases between the simulated and observed atmospheric concentrations, we scale our prior emission inventories to derive total basin-wide methane emissions of 36.5-41.1 Tg(CH4)/yr in 2010 and 31.6-38.8 Tg(CH4)/yr in 2011. These totals suggest that the Amazon contributes significantly (up to 7%) to global CH4 emissions. Our analysis indicates that factors other than precipitation, such as temperature variations or tree mortality, may have affected microbial emission rates. However, given the uncertainty of our emission estimates, we cannot say definitively whether the noncombustion emissions from the region were different in 2010 and 2011, despite contrasting meteorological conditions between the two years.

  9. Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Forsberg, Bruce Rider [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Entomologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia [Univ. de Brasilia, Dept. de Ecologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: While environmental risks associated with petroleum extraction such as oil spills or leaks are relatively well known, little attention has been given to the impacts of silt. The increase in petroleum exploitation in Amazonia has resulted in sediment input to aquatic systems, with impacts on their biodiversity. Here we use a combination of field measurements and statistical analyses to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic silt derived from the construction of roads, borrow pits, and wells during the terrestrial development of gas and oil, on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of the Urucu Petroleum Province in the Central Brazilian Amazon. Material and methods: Ten impacted and nine non-impacted streams were sampled in January, April, and November of 2007. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along a 100-m continuous reach in each stream at 10-m intervals using a dip net. Abiotic variables including, a siltation index (SI), suspended inorganic sediment (SIS), sediment color index (SCI), suspend organic sediment (SOS), pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, water velocity, channel width, and depth, were measured at three equidistant points in each stream ({proportional_to}30-m intervals). Results and discussion: SI did not differ between impacted and undisturbed streams. SIS was higher and SCI lower (more reddish) in impacted than in non-impacted streams. SCI had a positive and SIS a negative effect on both macroinvertebrate richness and density. SIS and SCI also influenced macrophyte taxonomic composition. In impacted streams, taxonomic richness and density were 1.5 times lower than in non-impacted streams. No taxon was significantly associated with impacted streams. SIS was positively correlated with SOS and electrical conductivity while SCI was negatively correlated with SOS, electrical conductivity, and pH. The lack of difference in SI between impacted and nonimpacted streams suggests that anthropogenic sediment does not accumulate

  10. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  11. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Abril, G.; Lima Sobrinho, R.; Dorhout, D.; Moreiro-Turcq, P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl gly

  12. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.

  13. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel da Costa e Silva; Roxo, Fábio F; Claudio Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pseudancistrus , a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistrus kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrus asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners ( Pseudancistrus barbatus , Pseudancistrus corantijniensis , Pseudancistrus depressus , Pseudancistrus nigrescens , Pseudancistrus ...

  14. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  15. Amazon dams and waterways: Brazil's Tapajós Basin plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Brazil plans to build 43 "large" dams (>30 MW) in the Tapajós Basin, ten of which are priorities for completion by 2022. Impacts include flooding indigenous lands and conservation units. The Tapajós River and two tributaries (the Juruena and Teles Pires Rivers) are also the focus of plans for waterways to transport soybeans from Mato Grosso to ports on the Amazon River. Dams would allow barges to pass rapids and waterfalls. The waterway plans require dams in a continuous chain, including the Chacorão Dam that would flood 18,700 ha of the Munduruku Indigenous Land. Protections in Brazil's constitution and legislation and in international conventions are easily neutralized through application of "security suspensions," as has already occurred during licensing of several dams currently under construction in the Tapajós Basin. Few are aware of "security suspensions," resulting in little impetus to change these laws.

  16. Beyond the model democracy: observational constraints indicate risk of drying in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiogama, Hideo; Emori, Seita; Hanasaki, Naota; Abe, Manabu; Masutomi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Nozawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Climate warming due to human activities will be accompanied by hydrological cycle changes. Economies, societies and ecosystems in South America (SA) are vulnerable to such water resource changes. Hence, water resource impact assessments for SA, and corresponding adaptation and mitigation policies, have attracted increased attention. However, substantial uncertainties remain in the current water resource assessments that are based on multiple coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation models. This uncertainty varies from significant wetting to catastrophic drying. By applying a statistical method, we characterised the uncertainty and identified global-scale metrics for measuring the reliability of water resource assessments in SA. Here we show that, whereas the ensemble mean assessment suggested wetting across most of SA, the observational constraints indicate a higher probability of drying in the Amazon basin. Naive over-reliance on the consensus of models can lead to inappropriate decision making. Reference: Shiogama, H. et al. Observational constraints indicate risk of drying in the Amazon basin. Nature Communications 2:253 doi: 10.1038/ncomms1252 (2011).

  17. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Jones, J W; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; Watts, D M; Fernandez, R; Travassos da Rosa, A; Guzman, H; Tesh, R; Rossi, C A; Ludwig, V; Mangiafico, J A; Kondig, J; Wasieloski, L P; Pecor, J; Zyzak, M; Schoeler, G; Mores, C N; Calampa, C; Lee, J S; Klein, T A

    2005-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive study on the ecology of arthropod-borne viruses in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, we assayed 539,694 mosquitoes captured in Loreto Department, Peru, for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were captured either by dry ice-baited miniature light traps or with aspirators while mosquitoes were landing on human collectors, identified to species, and later tested on Vero cells for virus. In total, 164 virus isolations were made and included members of the Alphavirus (eastern equine encephalomyelitis, Trocara, Una, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses), Flavivirus (Ilheus and St. Louis encephalitis), and Orthobunyavirus (Caraparu, Itaqui, Mirim, Murutucu, and Wyeomyia viruses) genera. In addition, several viruses distinct from the above-mentioned genera were identified to the serogroup level. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, whereas Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was associated primarily with Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira. Most isolations of Ilheus virus were made from Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Although species of the Culex subgenus Melanoconion accounted for only 45% of the mosquitoes collected, 85% of the virus isolations were made from this subgenus. Knowledge of the viruses that are being transmitted in the Amazon Basin region of Peru will enable the development of more effective diagnostic assays, more efficient and rapid diagnoses of clinical illnesses caused by these pathogens, risk analysis for military/civilian operations, and development of potential disease control measures.

  18. A Behavioral Model of Landscape Change in the Amazon Basin: The Colonist Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. A.; Drzyzga, S. A.; Li, Y. L.; Wi, J. G.; Caldas, M.; Arima, E.; Vergara, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a predictive model capable of describing both magnitudes of deforestation and its spatial articulation into patterns of forest fragmentation. In a departure from other landscape models, it establishes an explicit behavioral foundation for algorithm development, predicated on notions of the peasant economy and on household production theory. It takes a 'bottom-up' approach, generating the process of land-cover change occurring at lot level together with the geography of a transportation system to describe regional landscape change. In other words, it translates the decentralized decisions of individual households into a collective, spatial impact. In so doing, the model unites the richness of survey research on farm households with the analytical rigor of spatial analysis enabled by geographic information systems (GIs). The paper describes earlier efforts at spatial modeling, provides a critique of the so-called spatially explicit model, and elaborates a behavioral foundation by considering farm practices of colonists in the Amazon basin. It then uses, insight from the behavioral statement to motivate a GIs-based model architecture. The model is implemented for a long-standing colonization frontier in the eastern sector of the basin, along the Trans-Amazon Highway in the State of Para, Brazil. Results are subjected to both sensitivity analysis and error assessment, and suggestions are made about how the model could be improved.

  19. Women's reproductive rights in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: challenges for transforming policy into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; San Sebastián, Miguel; Wulff, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances made by Ecuador in developing policies on reproductive and sexual rights, implementation, and oversight remain a challenge, affecting in particular those living in the Amazon basin. This paper reports on an evaluation of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in Orellana, Ecuador, the basis of which was the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument, which was altered to focus on government obligations, the reality of access and utilization of services, and the inequities and implementation challenges between the two. A community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006 served to document the current status of SRHR Local female field workers interviewed 2025 women on three areas of womens reproductive health: delivery care, family planning, and pregnancy among adolescent girls age 10-19. The results suggest a reality more dismal than that of the official information for the area. Skilled delivery care, modern contraceptive use, and wanted pregnancies were conspicuously lower among indigenous women living in rural areas. Access to reproductive health services varied between rural and urban women. These significant differences in care--amongst others documented--raise concerns over the utility of national-level data for addressing inequities. The gaps evident in the validity of available information for monitoring policies and programs, and between national policy and action reveal that much still needs to be done to realize SRHR for women in the Amazon basin, and that current accountability mechanisms are inadequate.

  20. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  1. Large-scale circulation patterns and related rainfall in the Amazon Basin: a neuronal networks approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo [LOCEAN - IPSL (IRD, CNRS, MNHN, UPMC), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universidad Agraria La Molina UNALM, Lima (Peru); Lengaigne, Matthieu; Janicot, Serge [LOCEAN - IPSL (IRD, CNRS, MNHN, UPMC), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ronchail, Josyane [LOCEAN - IPSL (IRD, CNRS, MNHN, UPMC), Paris Cedex 05 (France); Universite Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2012-01-15

    This study describes the main circulation patterns (CP) in the Amazonian Basin over the 1975-2002 period and their relationship with rainfall variability. CPs in the Amazonian Basin have been computed for each season from the ERA-40 daily 850 hPa winds using an approach combining artificial neural network (Self Organizing Maps) and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification. A 6 to 8 cluster solutions (depending on the season considered) is shown to yield an integrated view of the complex regional circulation variability. For austral fall, winter and spring the temporal evolution between the different CPs shows a clear tendency to describe a cycle, with southern wind anomalies and their convergence with the trade winds progressing northward from the La Plata Basin to the Amazon Basin. This sequence is strongly related to eastward moving extra tropical perturbations and their incursion toward low latitude that modulate the geopotential and winds over South America and its adjoining oceans. During Austral summer, CPs are less spatially and temporally organized compared to other seasons, principally due to weaker extra tropical perturbations and more frequent shallow low situations. Each of these CPs is shown to be associated with coherent northward moving regional rainfall patterns (both in in situ data and ERA-40 reanalysis) and convective activity. However, our results reveals that precipitation variability is better reproduced by ERA-40 in the southern part of the Amazonian Basin than in the northern part, where rainfall variability is likely to be more constrained by local and subdaily processes (e.g. squall lines) that could be misrepresented in the reanalysis dataset. This analysis clearly illustrates the existing connections between the southern and northern part of the Amazonian Basin in terms of regional circulation/rainfall patterns. The identification of these CPs provide useful information to understand local rainfall variability and could hence be used to

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-11-25

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  3. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Pedro F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  4. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Frazão, Gleycianne Furtado; Dos Reis Borges, Nathalia Danielly; Dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F(ST) coefficients) to the present database ranged from F(ST) = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F(ST) = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.

  6. Squamasnema amazonica n. gen. n. sp. (Heligmonellinae): A new parasite of Proechimys roberti (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Helrik da Costa; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Maldonado, Arnaldo; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2015-08-01

    A new species of nematode, Squamasnema amazonica n. gen. n. sp., is described based on specimens found parasitizing the small intestine of Proechimys roberti (Rodentia: Echimyidae) collected during a survey of the fauna of Tapirapé-Aquirí National Forest (Brazil, Eastern Brazilian Amazon). The nematodes were fixed and processed for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nematodes were classified under the family Heligmonellidae and the subfamily Heligmonellinae. Although several species in the family Heligmonellidae exhibit discontinuous ridges, Squamasnema n. gen. and Trichotravassosia are the only genera with columns of scales along their entire body, as an apomorphy of the synlophe. Squamasnema n. gen. has columns of cuticular cells along its body, except for on the left flank, and exhibits a synlophe with no size gradient or inclination and does not present chitinized structures supporting the synlophe. Therefore, due to these morphological differences of Squamasnema n. gen., the creation of a new genus was necessary.

  7. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available A total of 187 different species of arboviruses and other viruses in vertebrates were identified at the Evandro Chagas Institute (IEC from 1954 to 1998, among more than 10,000 arbovirus strains isolated from humans, hematophagous insects, and wild and sentinel vertebrates. Despite intensive studies in the Brazilian Amazon region, especially in Pará State, very little is known about most of these viruses, except for information on date, time, source, and method of isolation, as well as their capacity to infect laboratory animals. This paper reviews ecological and epidemiological data and analyzes the impact of vector and host population changes on various viruses as a result of profound changes in the natural environment. Deforestation, mining, dam and highway construction, human colonization, and urbanization were the main manmade environmental changes associated with the emergence and/or reemergence of relevant arboviruses, including some known pathogens for humans.

  8. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Frazão, Gleycianne Furtado; dos Reis Borges, Nathalia Danielly; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (FST coefficients) to the present database ranged from FST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to FST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21637540

  9. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Abdon da Costa Francez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (F ST coefficients to the present database ranged from F ST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to F ST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae susceptibility to pyrethroids in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Anopheles darlingi Root (1926 and Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (1942 to pyrethroids used by the National Malaria Control Program in Brazil. METHODS: Mosquitoes from Amapá, Brazilian Amazon, were assessed for resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin. Insecticide-impregnated bottles were used as suggested by the CDC/Atlanta. RESULTS: Diagnostic dose for Anopheles darlingi was 12.5µg/bottle during 30 min of exposure. Concentrations for Anopheles marajoara were 20µg/bottle of cypermethrin and deltamethrin and 12.5µg/bottle of alpha-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS : No resistance was recorded for Anopheles darlingi , but Anopheles marajoara requires attention.

  11. Carotenoid composition in oils obtained from palm fruits from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F.G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The oils obtained from native palm fruits are considered new sources of high added value phytochemicals, making it necessary to know the composition of the less studied species in order to evaluate their economic potential. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the arotenoids in palm fruit oils from the Brazilian Amazon: bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare, by means of liquid phase extraction and HPLC-UV-vis. analysis. The results showed an extremely variable carotenoid content, from 13 mg·kg−1 in bacaba oil to more than 1000 mg·kg−1 in the tucumã one. The oils obtained from buriti, pupunha and tucumã displayed high concentrations of ß-carotene, corresponding to fruits with the series ß, ß dominant metabolism. Upon analyzing the carotenoid profile in bacaba oil for the first time, an extraordinary dominance of the ß, ε pathway was observed, proving them to be oils with high lutein and α-carotene contents. Although the ß, ß pathway dominates in inajá oil, the exclusive and high lycopene content implies that LCY-E is barely active in these fruits, in contrast to what has been evidenced so far. It is therefore of the utmost importance to characterize these new potential sources of carotenoids.Los aceites obtenidos a partir de frutos de palmeras nativas son considerados nuevas fuentes de fitoquímicos con alto valor añadido siendo necesario conocer la composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio es identificar y cuantificar los carotenoides en aceites defrutos de palmeras provenientes de la Amazonia Brasileña: bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, uriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes y tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare, mediante extracción líquido:líquido y análisis por HPLC UV-vis. Los resultados mostraron un

  12. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  13. Endemic hepatitis b and c virus infection in a brazilian eastern amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo El Khouri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection has been an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. However there are few investigations regarding the prevalence and possible risk factors for these diseases in Brazil, particularly in Amazon region, where there are some endemic focus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the city of Buriticupu, MA, located in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon region, and try to explore the risk factors for these infections in that area. METHODS: Two hundred forty three subjects (46.5% male and 53.5% female were investigated. RESULTS: The prevalence of past or current infection of hepatitis B and C virus was, respectively, 40.74% and 5.76%. Positivity for HBsAg was found in 2.88% of the subjects. The prevalence of current infection or chronic virus carriers found was 2.88% (HBsAg. There was a statistically significant relationship between the sera-prevalence of anti-HBc and the distance of the residence from the city center which may reflect an indirect association between the infection and precarious conditions of existence. Individuals with age equal or greater than 60 years were also more likely to be anti-HBc positive which could only reflect that older people have a longer history of exposure to hepatitis B infection. The prevalence of hepatitis C is higher than the worldwide estimate. CONCLUSION: Buriticupu may be considered endemic for hepatitis B and C. Hepatitis B infection could be related to precarious living conditions and old age. Hepatitis C was not associated with the variables investigated in the present investigation.CONTEXTO: Infecção por hepatites B e C tem sido causa importante de morbimortalidade em todo o mundo. Entretanto, há poucas investigações sobre a prevalência e possíveis fatores de risco relacionados a tais doenças no Brasil, especialmente na região amazônica, onde há algumas regiões endêmicas para tais quadros cl

  14. Pioneer hydraulic fracturing intervention on Brazilian Amazon Forest; Operacao pioneira de fraturamento hidraulico na selva Amazonica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cledeilson; Silva, Luis A.; Duque, Luis H.; Steffan, Rodolfo H.P.; Guimaraes, Zacarias [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States); Sabino, Afonso H. dos S.; Corregio, Fabio; Ferreira, Jose Carlos da Silva; Melo, Marcelo Moura; Ludovice, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique where fluid is pumped with enough energy to create a fracture in the reservoir and to propagate it filling the broken zone with proppant agent. To the end of the treatment the proppant agent will support the fracture creating a production flow path, once it will have permeability higher than the original formation. Since a long time it was desired to use that technique to explore tight reservoirs in the Solimoes basin. However the lack of information on the interest zones, the great amount of equipment and fluids volumes involved hindered the application in an area that withholds a environmental certification. In November 10th of 2011 these challenges were surpassed. This article describes the technique, job details and results of the pioneering hydraulic fracturing intervention in the heart of the Amazon forest that became economically viable the gas production in tight reservoirs of the Solimoes basin with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  15. Central nervous system tumours profile at a referral center in the Brazilian Amazon region, 1997–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semblano, Aluízio Augusto Pereira; Moreira, Matheus Acácio; de Lemos, Manuela Nascimento; de Mello, Vanessa Jóia; Hamoy, Moisés; Nazareth Junior, Mario Hermes; Paschoal Junior, Fernando Mendes; Adami, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are an important cause of mortality from cancer. Epidemiological data on neoplams affecting the CNS are scarce in Brazil, especially in the Amazon region. The study aims at describing the histopathological profile of CNS tumours cases at a high-complexity referral cancer center. This study has described a 17-year-series profile of CNS tumours, registered at a high-complexity referral cancer center in Pará state, from January 1997 until July 2014 in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Data was gathered from histopathology reports kept in the hospital’s cancer registry and 949 cases of CNS tumours were analyzed. The most common histopathology were neuroepithelial tumours (approx. 40%) and meningioma was the most frequent especific tumor histologic subtype (22.2%). Neuroepithelial tumours were more frequent in patients with ages ranging from less than a year to 19 years, whereas metastatic tumours were prevalent in patients over 40 years of age. It was not found temporal trends during the studied period. The knowledge of these tumours profile is valuable for the understanding of cancer epidemiology in the region, since its prevalence is currently underreported and more awareness on the disease is needed. PMID:28369089

  16. Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Victoria J; Almeida, Morgana C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Deus, Claudia P; Vale, Rozeilza; Klein, Gilmar; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives.

  17. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  18. Influence of age on the haemoglobin concentration of malaria-infected patients in a reference centre in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M Siqueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is amongst the major complications of malaria, a major public health problem in the Amazon Region in Latin America. We examined the haemoglobin (Hb concentrations of malaria-infected patients and compared it to that of malaria-negative febrile patients and afebrile controls. The haematological parameters of febrile patients who had a thick-blood-smear performed at an infectious diseases reference centre of the Brazilian Amazon between December 2009-January 2012 were retrieved together with clinical data. An afebrile community control group was composed from a survey performed in a malaria-endemic area. Hb concentrations and anaemia prevalence were analysed according to clinical-epidemiological status and demographic characteristics. In total, 7,831 observations were included. Patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection had lower mean Hb concentrations (10.5 g/dL followed by P. vivax-infected individuals (12.4 g/dL, community controls (12.8 g/dL and malaria-negative febrile patients (13.1 g/dL (p < 0.001. Age, gender and clinical-epidemiological status were strong independent predictors for both outcomes. Amongst malaria-infected individuals, women in the reproductive age had considerably lower Hb concentrations. In this moderate transmission intensity setting, both vivax and falciparum malaria are associated with reduced Hb concentrations and risk of anaemia throughout a wide age range.

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus markers among malaria-exposed gold miners in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Dutra Souto

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C virus markers were assessed during a survey on malaria in gold mine camps in southern Brazilian Amazon in order to identify risk factors associated to these viral diseases. The study comprised 520 subjects, most of them were gold miners. Missing subjects totaled 49 (8.6%. Among these 520, 82.9% had HBV markers and 7.1% were HBsAg positive. Previous hospitalization, surgery, sexually transmitted diseases and incarceration were quite common among surveyed people, but there is no association between total HBV markers and these factors. On other hand, HBsAg was independently associated to history of sexually transmitted diseases and history of surgery after adjustment. The most frequent HBsAg subtypes identified, adw2 (59%, predominates in populations of Northeast Brazil. The most surveyed people were immigrants coming from that area suggesting that immigrants carried HBV themselves to the study area. Immunoblot (RIBA confirmed-anti-HCV were found in 2.1%. The only variable associated to anti-HCV in multivariate analysis was illicit intravenous drug. Lack of HCV infection in subjects with such a high HBV markers prevalence reinforces the opinion that HCV is transmitted by restricted routes when compared to HBV. Furthermore, gold miners in Amazon may be considered as a risk group for HBV infection, but not for HCV.

  20. Mapping future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability based on perceptions of small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio H. Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is a widely recognized problem in the Brazilian Amazon. Small farmers play a key role in this process in that they earn their livelihood by ranching and farming. Many studies have addressed the link between deforestation and livelihood strategies adopted by small farmers. Most have focused on advanced monitoring systems, simulation models, and GIS approaches to analyze the interaction of both dimensions, i.e., livelihoods and forest cover change. Although the current toolbox of methods has proved successful in increasing our understanding of these interactions, the models and approaches employed do not consider small farmers' perspectives. On the assumption that local small farmers are agents of land-cover change, understanding how they perceive their own situation is essential to elucidate their actions. Our objective is to explore future changes in livelihood security and environmental sustainability as envisaged by local small farmers in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous livelihood cluster analysis of small farmers located in southeast Pará was integrated with fuzzy cognitive mapping to determine present perceptions and to explore future changes, using global scenarios downscaled to the local situation. Overall, system description differs only on details; all results indicate a strong trade-off between livelihood security and environmental sustainability in all livelihood systems, as identified by the small farmers. However, fundamentally different outcomes are obtained from the future analysis, depending on the livelihood strategy cluster. Achieving win-win outcomes does not necessarily imply a positive scenario, especially if small farmers are dependent on income transfers from the government to provide their livelihood.

  1. Land Use Change Impacts to Flows and Hydropower at the Southern Fringe of the Brazilian Amazon: A Regional, Empirical Study of Land-Water-Energy Nexus Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.; Cohn, A.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) has occurred extensively in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest-savanna transition. Agricultural development-driven LUCC at regional scales can alter surface energy budgets, evapotranspiration (ET) and rainfall; these hydroclimatic changes impact streamflows, and thus hydropower. To date, there is only limited empirical understanding of these complex land-water-energy nexus dynamics, yet understanding is important to developing countries where both agriculture and hydropower are expanding and intensifying. To observe these changes and their interconnections, we synthesize a novel combination of ground network, remotely sensed, and empirically modeled data for LUCC, rainfall, flows, and hydropower potential. We connect the extensive temporal and spatial trends in LUCC occurring from 2000-2012 (and thus observable in the satellite record) to long-term historical flow records and run-of-river hydropower generation potential estimates. Changes in hydrologic condition are observed in terms of dry and wet season moments, extremes, and flow duration curves. Run-of-river hydropower generation potential is modeled at basin gauge points using equation models parameterized with literature-based low-head turbine efficiencies, and simple algorithms establishing optimal head and capacity from elevation and flows, respectively. Regression analyses are used to demonstrate a preliminary causal analysis of LUCC impacts to flow and energy, and discuss extension of the analysis to ungauged basins. The results are transferable to tropical and transitional forest regions worldwide where simultaneous agricultural and hydropower development potentially compete for coupled components of regional water cycles, and where policy makers and planners require an understanding of LUCC impacts to hydroclimate-dependent industries and ecosystems.

  2. Space-Time Controls on Carbon Sequestration Over Large-Scale Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.; Gu, Jiujing; Grose, Andrew; Norman, John; daRocha, Humberto R.; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major research focus of the LBA Ecology Program is an assessment of the carbon budget and the carbon sequestering capacity of the large scale forest-pasture system that dominates the Amazonia landscape, and its time-space heterogeneity manifest in carbon fluxes across the large scale Amazon basin ecosystem. Quantification of these processes requires a combination of in situ measurements, remotely sensed measurements from space, and a realistically forced hydrometeorological model coupled to a carbon assimilation model, capable of simulating details within the surface energy and water budgets along with the principle modes of photosynthesis and respiration. Here we describe the results of an investigation concerning the space-time controls of carbon sources and sinks distributed over the large scale Amazon basin. The results are derived from a carbon-water-energy budget retrieval system for the large scale Amazon basin, which uses a coupled carbon assimilation-hydrometeorological model as an integrating system, forced by both in situ meteorological measurements and remotely sensed radiation fluxes and precipitation retrieval retrieved from a combination of GOES, SSM/I, TOMS, and TRMM satellite measurements. Brief discussion concerning validation of (a) retrieved surface radiation fluxes and precipitation based on 30-min averaged surface measurements taken at Ji-Parana in Rondonia and Manaus in Amazonas, and (b) modeled carbon fluxes based on tower CO2 flux measurements taken at Reserva Jaru, Manaus and Fazenda Nossa Senhora. The space-time controls on carbon sequestration are partitioned into sets of factors classified by: (1) above canopy meteorology, (2) incoming surface radiation, (3) precipitation interception, and (4) indigenous stomatal processes varied over the different land covers of pristine rainforest, partially, and fully logged rainforests, and pasture lands. These are the principle meteorological, thermodynamical, hydrological, and biophysical

  3. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity. Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

  4. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge H.; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Lescano, Andres G.

    2015-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (∼ 70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries. PMID:26078320

  5. Incidence of childhood leukemia and oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there was any difference in childhood leukemia incidence rates between populations living in the proximity to oil fields and those living in areas free from oil exploitation in the Amazon basin of Ecuador, 91 cancer cases among children (0-14 years) from the provinces of Sucumbios, Orellana, Napo, and Pastaza during the period 1985-2000 were studied. The relative risks for all leukemias indicated significantly elevated levels in the youngest age group (0-4 years), both genders combined (RR 3.48, 95% CI 1.25-9.67), and in all age groups (0-14 years) combined for females (RR 2.60, 95% CI 1.11-6.08) and both genders combined (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.35-4.86). There was no significant difference between the two groups in all other cancer sites combined. Study results are compatible with a relationship between childhood leukemia incidence and living in the proximity of oil fields in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  6. Mercury contamination in humans linked to river chemistry in the Amazon basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Forsberg, M.C. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). CIPEC-Center for the study of Institutions, Populations and Environmental Change; Forsberg, B.R.; Zeidemann, V.K. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Ecologia

    1999-09-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH are key variables influencing mercury levels in freshwater biota. DOC complexes with mercury, facilitates its transport to and accumulation in aquatic ecosystems. Low pH favors the methylation and bioaccumulation of mercury in aquatic food chains. Mercury concentrations in predatory fish tend to be positively correlated with DOC and negatively correlated with pH. We encountered a similar pattern for fish-eating human populations in the upper Rio Negro, a black water tributary of the Amazon river. The highest levels of human contamination were encountered in effluents with exceptionally high DOC and low pH. When data from other Amazonian tributaries were included, a general pattern emerged. Hair mercury was positively correlated with river DOC and negatively correlated with pH. No clear effect of gold-mining activities was encountered. The results demonstrate the importance of river chemistry in determining the pattern of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin 15 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Lucas, Carmen M; Núñez, Jorge H; Edgel, Kimberly A; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M; Baldeviano, G Christian; Arrasco, Juan C; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-08-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2-36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (~70%; P < 0.001). After emphasizing pre-deployment education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries.

  8. Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggi, Christoph; Sawakuchi, André O.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Baker, Paul A.; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-11-01

    Paleoenvironmental studies based on terrigenous biomarker proxies from sediment cores collected close to the mouth of large river systems rely on a proper understanding of the processes controlling origin, transport and deposition of biomarkers. Here, we contribute to the understanding of these processes by analyzing long-chain n-alkanes from the Amazon River system. We use the δD composition of long-chain n-alkanes from river bed sediments from the Amazon River and its major tributaries, as well as marine core-top samples collected off northeastern South America as tracers for different source areas. The δ13C composition of the same compounds is used to differentiate between long-chain n-alkanes from modern forest vegetation and petrogenic organic matter. Our δ13C results show depleted δ13C values (-33 to -36‰) in most samples, indicating a modern forest source for most of the samples. Enriched values (-31 to -33‰) are only found in a few samples poor in organic carbon indicating minor contributions from a fossil petrogenic source. Long-chain n-alkane δD analyses show more depleted values for the western tributaries, the Madeira and Solimões Rivers (-152 to -168‰), while n-alkanes from the lowland tributaries, the Negro, Xingu and Tocantins Rivers (-142 to -154‰), yield more enriched values. The n-alkane δD values thus reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of precipitation, which is most deuterium-depleted in the western Amazon Basin and more enriched in the eastern sector of the basin. Samples from the Amazon estuary show a mixed long-chain n-alkane δD signal from both eastern lowland and western tributaries. Marine core-top samples underlying the Amazon freshwater plume yield δD values similar to those from the Amazon estuary, while core-top samples from outside the plume showed more enriched values. Although the variability in the river bed data precludes quantitative assessment of relative contributions, our results indicate that long

  9. Trend and uncertainty in spatial-temporal patterns of hydrological droughts in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A. V.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Thompson, S. A.; Dracup, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    Spatial-temporal patterns of hydrological droughts in the Amazon basin are derived from drought indices computed from existing streamflow data. Principal component analysis and Monte Carlo simulations are employed to account for the uncertainty and overcome the limitations of missing data in streamflow records. Results show that northern and southern subbasins differ in drought trends and in patterns of correlation between drought indices and climate anomalies originating from the Pacific (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) and Atlantic (differences in sea surface temperature across the equator) Oceans. A significant trend toward more intense droughts is found in the southern subbasins, which is highly correlated to tropical Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies. That drying trend might have distinct causes in each subbasin and can lead to potential intensification of regional impacts.

  10. Canopy-scale biophysical controls on transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Trebs, Ivonne; Bøgh, Eva

    2016-01-01

    to directly quantify the canopy-scale biophysical controls on λET and λEE over multiple plant functional types (PFTs) in the Amazon Basin. Combining data from six LBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) eddy covariance tower sites and a TR-driven physically based modeling approach, we...... predominantly radiation driven and net radiation (RN) determines 75 to 80 % of the variances of λET. However, biophysical control on λET is dramatically increased during the dry seasons, and particularly the 2005 drought year, explaining 50 to 65 % of the variances of λET, and indicates λET to be substantially...

  11. Optical imaging of cloud-to-stratosphere/mesosphere lightning over the Amazon Basin (CS/LAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, Davis D.; Wescott, Eugene M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the CS/LAB project was to obtain images of cloud to stratosphere lightning discharges from aboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory while flying in the vicinity of thunderstorms over the Amazon Basin. We devised a low light level imaging package as an add-on experiment to an airborne Laboratory deployment to South America during May-June, 1993. We were not successful in obtaining the desired images during the South American deployment. However, in a follow up flight over the American Midwest during the night of July 8-9, 1993 we recorded nineteen examples of the events over intense thunderstorms. From the observations were estimated absolute brightness, terminal altitudes, flash duration, horizontal extents, emission volumes, and frequencies relative to negative and positive ground strokes.

  12. Chromosomal diversity in three species of electric fish (Apteronotidae, Gymnotiformes) from the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando Henrique Ramos; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Cardoso, Adauto Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Corrêa; de Oliveira, Jonas Alves; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2014-10-01

    Cytogenetic studies were carried out on samples of Parapteronotus hasemani, Sternarchogiton preto and Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Apteronotidae, Gymnotiformes) from the Amazon basin. The first two species exhibited both a 2n = 52 karyotype, but differed in their karyotypic formulae, distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, and chromosomal location of the NOR. The third species, Sternarchorhamphus muelleri, was found to have a 2n = 32 karyotype. In all three species the DAPI and chromomycin A3 staining results were consistent with the C-banding results and nucleolar organizer region (NOR) localization. The 18S rDNA probe confirmed that there was only one pair of ribosomal DNA cistron bearers per species. The telomeric probe did not reveal interstitial telomeric sequences (ITS). The karyotypic differences among these species can be used for taxonomic identification. These data will be useful in future studies of these fishes and help understanding the phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution of the Apteronotidae.

  13. Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Vivax Malaria: Reduction of Malaria Incidence in an Open Cohort Study in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc, currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC, was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT. The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon.

  14. Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Vivax Malaria: Reduction of Malaria Incidence in an Open Cohort Study in Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23577276

  15. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistruskayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrusasurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrusbarbatus, Pseudancistruscorantijniensis, Pseudancistrusdepressus, Pseudancistrusnigrescens, Pseudancistrusreus, and Pseudancistruszawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistruskayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrusreus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrusasurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  16. Soil organic matter and fertility of anthropogenic dark earths (Terra Preta de Índio in the Brazilian Amazon basin Matéria orgânica e fertilidade de solos antropogênicos (Terra Preta De Índio da Bacia Amazônica brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Jarbas Ferreira Cunha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility properties, total C (Ctot, and chemical soil organic matter fractions (fulvic acid fraction - FA, humic acid fraction - HA, humin fraction - H of anthropogenic dark earths (Terra Preta de Índio of the Amazon basin were compared with those of Ferralsols with no anthropogenic A horizon. Terra Preta soils had a higher fertility (pH: 5.1-5.4; Sum of bases, SB: 8.93-10.33 cmol c kg-1 , CEC: 17.2-17.5 cmol c kg-1 , V: 51-59 %, P: 116-291 mg kg-1 and Ctot (44.6-44.7 g kg-1 than adjacent Ferralsols (pH: 4.4; SB: 2.04 cmol c kg-1, CEC: 9.5 cmol c kg-1, V: 21 %, P 5 mg kg-1, C: 37.9 g kg-1. The C distribution among humic substance fractions (FA, HA, H in Terra Preta soils was also different, as shown by the ratios HA:FA and EA/H (EA=HA+FA (2.1-3.0 and 1.06-1.08 for Terra Preta and 1.2 and 0.72 for Ferralsols, respectively. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC, of Ferralsols correlated with FA (r = 0.97, the CEC of Terra Preta correlated with H (r = 0.82. The correlation of the fertility of Terra Preta with the highly stable soil organic matter fraction (H is highly significant for the development of sustainable soil fertility management models in tropical ecosystems.Propriedades de fertilidade, carbono total (Ctot e frações químicas da matéria orgânica (fração ácidos fúlvicos - FA, fração ácidos húmicos - HA e fração humina - HUM foram comparados entre solos antrópicos (Terra Preta de Índio e Latossolos sem horizonte A antrópico. Os solos antrópicos apresentaram maior fertilidade (pH: 5,1-5,4; S: 8,93-10,33 cmol c kg-1 ; CEC: 17,2-17,5 cmol c kg-1 ; V: 51-59 %; P: 116-291 mg kg-1 e maiores teores de carbono total (44,6-44,7 g kg-1 que os Latossolos (pH: 4,4; S: 2,04 cmol c kg-1; CEC: 9,5 cmol c kg-1; V: 21 %, P: 5 mg kg-1, Ctot: 37,9 g kg-1. Os solos antrópicos também tiveram distribuição diferenciada de C entre as frações das substâncias húmicas (FA, HÁ e HUM, expressa pelas razões HA:FA e EA:HUM (EA = HA + FA

  17. Brazilian Amazon Traditional Medicine and the Treatment of Difficult to Heal Leishmaniasis Wounds with Copaifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Kelly Cristina Oliveira; da Veiga, Andreza do Socorro Silva; Silva, João Victor da Silva e; Brigido, Heliton Patrick Cordovil; Ferreira, Erica Patrícia dos Reis; Costa, Erica Vanessa Souza; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosário; Percário, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the use of the traditional species Copaifera for treating wounds, such as ulcers scarring and antileishmanial wounds. It also relates phytochemical studies, evaluation of the leishmanicidal activity, and toxicity. The species of Copaifera with a higher incidence in the Amazon region are Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera reticulata, Copaifera multijuga Hayne. The copaiba oil is used in the Amazon's traditional medicine, especially as anti-inflammatory ingredient, in ulcers healing, and in scarring and for leishmaniasis. Chemical studies have shown that these oils contain diterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The copaiba oil and terpenes isolated have antiparasitic activity, more promising in the amastigote form of L. amazonensis. This activity is probably related to changes in the cell membrane and mitochondria. The oil showed low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Furthermore, it may interfere with immune response to infection and also has a healing effect. In summary, the copaiba oil is promising as leishmanicidal agent.

  18. Two soil hydrology formulations of ORCHIDEE (version Trunk.rev1311 tested for the Amazon basin

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    M. Guimberteau

    2014-01-01

    to a satellite-based dataset. The dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon basin was found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil models. Overall, the 11 layer soil diffusion scheme provided little improvement in simulated hydrology on average over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins but a more significant improvement over the drier sub-basins. However, the use of the 11 layer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon basin where longer dry season and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

  19. Water discharge estimates from large radar altimetry datasets in the Amazon basin

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    A. C. V. Getirana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the use of a large radar altimetry dataset as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions within the Amazon basin. A rating-curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by Envisat at 444 virtual stations (VS. The stage-discharge relations at VS are built based on radar altimetry and outputs from a global flow routing scheme. In order to quantify the impact of modeling uncertainties on rating-curve based discharges, another experiment is performed using simulated discharges derived from a simplified data assimilation procedure. Discharge estimates at 90 VS are evaluated against observations during the curve fitting calibration (2002–2005 and evaluation (2006–2008 periods, resulting in mean relative RMS errors as high as 52% and 12% for experiments without and with assimilation, respectively. Without data assimilation, uncertainty of discharge estimates can be mostly attributed to forcing errors at smaller scales, generating a positive correlation between performance and drainage area. Mean relative errors (RE of altimetry-based discharges varied from 15% to 92% for large and small drainage areas, respectively. Rating curves produced a mean RE of 54% versus 68% from model outputs. Assimilating discharge data decreases the mean RE from 68% to 12%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying the proposed methodology to the regional or global scales. Also, it is shown the potential of satellite altimetry for predicting water discharge in poorly-gauged and ungauged river basins.

  20. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

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    Juliana Paola Corrêa da SILVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective: In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods: Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results: EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm, as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae (15.04±2.29 mm. EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLAmazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries.

  1. Malaria during pregnancy in a reference centre from the Brazilian Amazon: unexpected increase in the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum infections

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    Martínez-Espinosa Flor Ernestina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains globally the most important parasitic disease of man. Data on its deleterious effects during pregnancy have been extensively documented in hyperendemic, holoendemic, and mesoendemic areas from Africa and Asia where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for almost all infections. However, knowledge about malaria during pregnancy in areas where transmission is unstable and P. vivax is the most prevalent species, such as the Brazilian Amazon, is scarce. Here, we report a preliminary cross sectional descriptive study, carried out at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas, a reference centre for diagnosis and treatment of tropical diseases in the west-Amazon (Manaus, Brazil. A total of 1699 febrile childbearing age women had positive thick blood smears to Plasmodium species, between January and November 1997: 1401 (82.5% were positive for P. vivax , 286 (16.8% for P. falciparum and 12 (0.07% carried mixed infections. From the malarious patients, 195 were pregnant. The ratio of P. falciparum to P. vivax infections in the group of non-pregnant infected women was 1:5.6 while it was 1:2.3 in that of pregnant infected ones. Similar rates or even proportionally more vivax infections during pregnancy were expected to occur, in function of the contraindication of primaquine with the resulting increased P. vivax relapse rates. Such an observation suggests that the mechanism of resistance/susceptibility to infection and/or malaria pathogenesis in pregnant women may differ according to Plasmodium species and that the extensively described increase in the frequencies of malaria infection during pregnancy may be specifically due to P. falciparum infection.

  2. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

    2013-08-01

    Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

  3. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years.

  4. A Multi-Resolution Multi-Temporal Technique for Detecting and Mapping Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

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    Nandamudi L. Vijaykumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of rapid environment changes requires orbital sensors with high frequency of data acquisition to minimize cloud interference in the study of dynamic processes such as Amazon tropical deforestation. Moreover, a medium to high spatial resolution data is required due to the nature and complexity of variables involved in the process. In this paper we describe a multiresolution multitemporal technique to simulate Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The proposed method preserves the spectral resolution and increases the spatial resolution for mapping Amazon Rainfores deforestation using low computational resources. To evaluate this technique, sample images were acquired in the Amazon rainforest border (MODIS tile H12-V10 and ETM+/Landsat 7 path 227 row 68 for 17 July 2002 and 05 October 2002. The MODIS-based simulated ETM+ and the corresponding original ETM+ images were compared through a linear regression method. Additionally, the bootstrap technique was used to calculate the confidence interval for the model to estimate and to perform a sensibility analysis. Moreover, a Linear Spectral Mixing Model, which is the technique used for deforestation mapping in Program for Deforestation Assessment in the Brazilian Legal Amazonia (PRODES developed by National Institute for Space Research (INPE, was applied to analyze the differences in deforestation estimates. The results showed high correlations, with values between 0.70 and 0.94 (p < 0.05, student’s t test for all ETM+ bands, indicating a good assessment between simulated and observed data (p < 0.05, Z-test. Moreover, simulated image showed a good agreement with a reference image, originating commission errors of 1% of total area estimated as deforestation in a sample area test. Furthermore, approximately 6% or 70 km² of deforestation areas were missing in simulated image classification. Therefore

  5. Genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Amazon basin of Peru

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    Lucas Carmen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic and could render a vaccine ineffective if their antigenic sites were not represented in the vaccine. In this study, characterization of genetic variability was performed in major B and T-cell epitopes within vaccine candidate antigens in isolates of P. falciparum from Peru. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was completed on 139 isolates of P. falciparum collected from endemic areas of the Amazon basin in Loreto, Peru from years 1998 to 2006. Genetic diversity was determined in immunological important regions in circumsporozoite protein (CSP, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1, apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1, liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1 and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the vaccine strain 3D7 and DNA polymorphism analysis and FST study-year pairwise comparisons were done using the DnaSP software. Multilocus analysis (MLA was performed and average of expected heterozygosity was calculated for each loci and haplotype over time. Results Three different alleles for CSP, seven for MSP-1 Block 2, one for MSP-1 Block 17, three for AMA-1 and for LSA-1 each and one for TRAP were identified. There were 24 different haplotypes in 125 infections with complete locus typing for each gene. Conclusion Characterization of the genetic diversity in Plasmodium isolates from the Amazon Region of Peru showed that P. falciparum T and B cell epitopes in these antigens have polymorphisms more similar to India than to Africa. These findings are helpful in the formulation of a vaccine considering restricted repertoire populations.

  6. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin: the Boto, Inia geoffrensis, and the Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatelli Marina; Carvalho Ana F; Ambrosio Carlos E; Carter Anthony M; da Silva Vera MF; Lima Marcelo C; Miglino Maria

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to supply a bilobed allantoic sac. Small blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles were found within the stroma of the cord. Foci of squamous metaplasia occurred in the allanto-amnion and allan...

  7. Palm oil production in Peruvian Amazon Basin. A case study of current effects and emerging localized alternatives in Loreto district

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Charlotte Bratberget

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of palm oil production in the Peruvian Amazon basin was carried out in a systemic way, as part of a whole, with its complexities. With an agroecological perspective, the social, ecological and economic effects of this production are discussed. Additionally, alternatives that could better fulfil the necessities of farmers were explored. The oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, originally from West Africa, is a common plant in an enormous industry that is extensive in South East Asia, ma...

  8. Species structure of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna in the Brazilian western Amazon

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    Luiz Herman Soares Gil

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed areas of the state of Rondônia in western Amazon for phlebotomine, which are potential vectors of leishmaniasis. A total of 5,998 specimens were captured, resulting in the identification of 48 species within the Lutzomyia (99.98% and Brumptomyia (0.02% genera. The predominant species was Lutzomyia davisi, followed by Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi, Lutzomyia c. carrerai, Lutzomyia dendrophyla, Lutzomyia nevesi and Lutzomyia whitmani. All sand flies identified as vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, i.e., Lu. davisi, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. c. carrerai and Lu. whitmani, were found in the surveyed areas.

  9. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a brazilian Amazon estuary

    OpenAIRE

    HEBERT A. SAMPAIO; Jussara M. Martinelli-Lemos

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature) and...

  10. A new "Bat-Voiced" species of Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura, Hylidae) from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Victor G D; Peloso, Pedro L V; Sturaro, Marcelo J; Da Silva-Filho, Heriberto F; Neckel-Oliveira, Selvino; Gordo, Marcelo; Faivovich, Julián; Haddad, Célio F B

    2014-11-06

    We describe Dendropsophus ozzyi sp. nov., a new species of treefrog, tentatively included in the Dendropsophus microcephalus Group and most notably diagnosed by the presence of pointed fingers and an advertisement call with a very high dominant frequency. The new species is known from three localities in the Brazilian Amazon forest, two on western State of Pará and one (the type locality) in eastern State of Amazonas (03°56'50"S and 58°26'36"W, 45 m a.s.l.).

  11. The role of spatial mobility in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of Porto Velho municipality, Rondônia, Brazil (2010-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; de Carvalho, Lino Augusto Sander; Nobre, Carlos Afonso

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. Methodology/Principal findings This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil. Our dataset was obtained from the official health database, the population census and an environmental database. During 2000–2007 and 2007–2010, the Porto Velho municipality had an annual population growth of 1.42% and 5.07%, respectively. This population growth can be attributed to migration, which was driven by the construction of the Madeira River hydroelectric complex. From 2010 to 2012, 63,899 malaria-positive slides were reported for residents of Porto Velho municipality; 92% of the identified samples were autochthonous, and 8% were allochthonous. The flow map of patients' movements between residential areas and areas of suspected infection showed two patterns of malaria transmission: 1) commuting between residential areas and the Jirau hydropower dam reservoir, and 2) movements between urban areas and farms and resorts in rural areas. It was also observed that areas with greater occurrences of malaria were characterized by a low rate of deforestation. Conclusions The Porto Velho municipality exhibits high malaria endemicity and plays an important role in disseminating the parasite to other municipalities in the Amazon and even to non-endemic areas of the country. Migration remains an important factor for the occurrence of malaria. However, due to recent changes in human occupation of the Brazilian Amazon, characterized by intense expansion of transportation networks, commuting has also become an important factor in malaria transmission. The magnitude of this change necessitates a new model to

  12. Seasonal and spatial contrasts of sedimentary organic carbon in floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Zell, Claudia; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Mortillaro, Jean-Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Damsté, Jaap; Bernardes, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    Three-quarters of the area of flooded land in the world are temporary wetlands (Downing, 2009), which play a significant role in the global carbon cycle(Einsele et al., 2001; Cole et al., 2007; Battin et al., 2009; Abril et al., 2013). Previous studies of the Amazonian floodplain lakes (várzeas), one important compartment of wetlands, showed that the sedimentation of organic carbon (OC) in the floodplain lakes is strongly linked to the periodical floods and to the biogeography from upstream to downstream(Victoria et al., 1992; Martinelli et al., 2003). However, the main sources of sedimentary OC remain uncertain. Hence, the study of the sources of OC buried in floodplain lake sediments can enhance our understanding of the carbon balance of the Amazon ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal and spatial pattern of sedimentary organic matter in five floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin (Cabaliana, Janauaca, Canaçari, Miratuba, and Curuai) which have different morphologies, hydrodynamics and vegetation coverage. Surface sediments were collected in four hydrological seasons: low water (LW), rising water (RW), high water (HW) and falling water (FW) in 2009 and 2010. We investigated commonly used bulk geochemical tracers such as C:N ratio and stable isotopic composition of organic carbon (δ13COC). These results were compared with lignin-phenol parameters as an indicator of vascular plant detritus (Hedges and Ertel, 1982) and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) to trace the soil OC from land to the aquatic settings (Hopmans et al., 2004). Our data showed that during the RW and FW seasons, the concentration of lignin and brGDGTs were higher in comparison to other seasons. Our study also indicated that floodplain lake sediments primarily consisted of a mixture of C3 plant detritus and soil OC. However, a downstream increase in C4 plant-derived OC contribution was observed along the gradient of increasingly open waters, i

  13. Molecular characterization of the hepatitis B virus in autochthonous and endogenous populations in the Western Brazilian Amazon

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    Ádila Liliane Barros Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus is classified into eight genotypes, varying from A to H, with distinct geographical distributions. In Brazil, the most frequent genotypes are A, D, and F. METHODS: This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotypes in cases of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV co-infections in an endemic area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. We analyzed 86 serum samples reactive for HBsAg from indigenous and non-indigenous populations obtained from previous serological surveys. RESULTS: Of the 86 reactive serum samples, 39 were found to be HBV-DNA-positive by semi-nested PCR. The genotypes were established by sequencing the amplified S gene region. We obtained 20 sequences classified into three genotypes: A, D, and F. Genotype A was the most frequent (60%, followed by D (35% and F (5%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the HBV genotypes reflected the pattern of historical occupation of the region.

  14. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

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    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  15. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  16. Multi-level Governance of Land Use Changes in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from Paragominas, State of Pará

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    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use governance in the Brazilian Amazon has undergone significant changes in the last decade. At the national level, law enforcement capacity has increased and downstream industries linked to commodity chains responsible for deforestation have begun to monitor some of their suppliers’ impacts on forests. At the municipal level, local actors have launched a Green Municipality initiative, aimed at eliminating deforestation and supporting green supply chains at the territorial level. In this paper, we analyze the land use transition since 2001 in Paragominas—the first Green Municipality—and discuss the limits of the governance arrangements underpinning these changes. Our work draws on a spatially explicit analysis of biophysical variables and qualitative information collected in interviews with key private and public stakeholders of the main commodity chains operating in the region. We argue that, up to now, the emerging multi-level scheme of land governance has not succeeded in promoting large-scale land use intensification, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Moreover, private governance mechanisms based on improved product standards, fail to benefit from potential successful partnerships between the public and private sector at the territorial level. We propose a governance approach that adopts a broader territorial focus as a way forward.

  17. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  18. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries.

  19. Parasite communities of the predatory fish, Acestrorhynchus falcatus and Acestrorhynchus falcirostris, living in sympatry in Brazilian Amazon

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    Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the parasite communities of wild Acestrorhynchus falcatus and Acestrorhynchus falcirostris populations living in sympatry in Brazilian Amazon. In these two hosts, a total of 12 parasite species e 1-9 parasite species were found per fish, and 10 of these species are metazoans. Eight species of parasites were common to both host species and four of them exhibited differences in abundance and/or prevalence. Parasite communities of the hosts were taxonomically similar (83% and composed of both ectoparasites and endoparasites, and characterized by high prevalence and high abundance of endoparasites and an aggregated dispersion pattern. For A. falcirostris, the dominant parasite was Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and for A. falcatus, it was Piscinoodinium pillulare. Shannon diversity and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for both hosts, while the parasites species richness and evenness showed differences influenced by the ectoparasites species. These two populations of hosts that inhabited the same geographical area had different sizes, but were exposed to the same infective stages, and acquired qualitatively and quantitatively similar endoparasites community, thus indicating that the amounts and types of prey congeneric that they were eating were similar. Therefore, the overlap in the same occurrence area play an important role in the parasite communities to these phylogenetically related hosts.

  20. Impacts of urban life on water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Claíde Lorena Reis de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of anthropogenic activities in Belém City, Brazilian Amazon, by comparing water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks that flow into the Guamá River. One creek crossed a poor and crowded suburb of Belém while the other was located in an island section that was declared an Environmental Protected Area in 1997. Two sampling points were set in each creek and monitored over eight hours once every three months over a one–year period. Strong variations of water quality were registered all year long and at all tides in Belém’s mainland creek, along with, among other things, a very high number of thermotolerant coliforms. Few larvae were found. The water was considered unsuitable for human use and activities as well as for aquatic life. The island creek presented early signs of bacterial and nutrient contaminations during the rainy season, probably partly related to non-point source pollution. In both creeks, larvae communities were almost exclusively composed of clupeiforms. All larval development stages were encountered. Higher densities and proportion of newly hatched larvae were registered during the dry season and associated with the presence of nitrate. The results of the study show that adequate sewage and drainage systems must be developed in the city and suggest that it would be useful to conduct an integrated ambient monitoring study in Combú Creek.

  1. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

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    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  2. A comparison of the driving forces behind deforestation in the Peruvian and the Brazilian Amazon

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    Imbernon, J. [CIRAD, Montpellier (France)

    1999-09-01

    On two Brazilian sites (Acre and Rondonia), and on two Peruvian sites (Yurimaguas and Pucallpa), deforestation rates and patterns are very different. To illustrate these differences, two major factors contributing to deforestation are selected: how accessible the frontier is for people including access to markets; and land abundance and land rights and markets. Even if there are commonalties between Brazil and Peru, major differences are identified. Road access to the frontier is much greater in Brazil, linking the forest to the rest of the country; most of the Brazilian farmers have gained legal title through colonization projects or by claiming land after clearing. However, access to good land in Brazil is limited and land speculation is high, whereas, in Peru there is plenty of room for expansion and land access is free 23 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  3. Matis and Korubo, Contact, and Isolated Indigenous Peoples: Native Narratives and Ethnography in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Barbara Maisonnave Arisi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about isolation, contact, and relations between two Amazonian indigenous peoples: the Matis and the Korubo. Both groups, of the Panoan linguistic family, live in the Vale do Javari Indigenous Land, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. The Matis were contacted by the Funai (the Brazilian agency for indigenous affairs in 1976, and they worked as intermediaries helping the Brazilian government to make contact with the Korubo in 1996. Since then, the Matis have been the main translators and mediators between the Korubo and the rest of the world (indigenous and non-indigenous. Based on my investigation, I propose to classify “isolation” in different ways and to relate the Matis’ own narratives about their contact with their neighbors the Korubo in order to approximate a native conception of what “isolation” and “isolated peoples” mean—if they mean anything at all.

  4. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952

  5. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for F ST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2-2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2-2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin.

  6. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

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    Gabriel da Costa e Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: P. kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin and P. asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus, P. nigrescens, P. reus, and P. zawadzkii by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of P. reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  7. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  8. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2012-01-01

    The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages. PMID:22481873

  9. Mucosal Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis is a parasite recognized as the most important etiologic agent of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML in the New World. In Amazonia, seven different species of Leishmania, etiologic agents of human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, have been described. Isolated cases of ML have been described for several different species of Leishmania: L. (V. panamensis, L. (V. guyanensis and L. (L. amazonensis. METHODOLOGY: Leishmania species were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR of tissues taken from mucosal biopsies of Amazonian patients who were diagnosed with ML and treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas (FMTAM in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Samples were obtained retrospectively from the pathology laboratory and prospectively from patients attending the aforementioned tertiary care unit. RESULTS: This study reports 46 cases of ML along with their geographical origin, 30 cases caused by L. (V. braziliensis and 16 cases by L. (V. guyanensis. This is the first record of ML cases in 16 different municipalities in the state of Amazonas and of simultaneous detection of both species in 4 municipalities of this state. It is also the first record of ML caused by L. (V. guyanensis in the states of Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and cases of ML caused by L. (V. braziliensis in the state of Rondônia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: L. (V. braziliensis is the predominant species that causes ML in the Amazon region. However, contrary to previous studies, L. (V. guyanensis is also a significant causative agent of ML within the region. The clinical and epidemiological expression of ML in the Manaus region is similar to the rest of the country, although the majority of ML cases are found south of the Amazon River.

  10. Mucosal Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Prestes, Suzane Ribeiro; Silveira, Henrique; Coelho, Leila Inês de Aguiar Raposo Câmara; Gama, Pricila; Moura, Aristoteles; Amato, Valdir; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is a parasite recognized as the most important etiologic agent of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in the New World. In Amazonia, seven different species of Leishmania, etiologic agents of human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, have been described. Isolated cases of ML have been described for several different species of Leishmania: L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (L.) amazonensis. Methodology Leishmania species were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of tissues taken from mucosal biopsies of Amazonian patients who were diagnosed with ML and treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas (FMTAM) in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Samples were obtained retrospectively from the pathology laboratory and prospectively from patients attending the aforementioned tertiary care unit. Results This study reports 46 cases of ML along with their geographical origin, 30 cases caused by L. (V.) braziliensis and 16 cases by L. (V.) guyanensis. This is the first record of ML cases in 16 different municipalities in the state of Amazonas and of simultaneous detection of both species in 4 municipalities of this state. It is also the first record of ML caused by L. (V.) guyanensis in the states of Pará, Acre, and Rondônia and cases of ML caused by L. (V.) braziliensis in the state of Rondônia. Conclusions/Significance L. (V.) braziliensis is the predominant species that causes ML in the Amazon region. However, contrary to previous studies, L. (V.) guyanensis is also a significant causative agent of ML within the region. The clinical and epidemiological expression of ML in the Manaus region is similar to the rest of the country, although the majority of ML cases are found south of the Amazon River. PMID:21408116

  11. Ticks and rickettsial infection in the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Barbieri, Amália R M; Martins, Thiago F; Minervino, Antonio H H; de Lima, Júlia T R; Marcili, Arlei; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals and their ticks were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues, blood, and ticks were molecularly tested for Rickettsia and Coxiella DNA. A total of 182 wild animals were sampled, comprising 28 mammalian, five avian, and three reptilian species. Animal tissues or blood were all negative for Rickettsia or Coxiella DNA. A total of 454 ticks (22 larvae, 226 nymphs, 127 males, 79 females) were collected from 52 (28.6%) animals, and identified into 15 species: Amblyomma cajennense, A. naponense, A. humerale, A. nodosum, A. goeldii, A. oblongoguttatum, A. longirostre, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. pacae, A. geayii, A. rotundatum, A. auricularium, A. ovale, and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi. While no Coxiella DNA was identified in ticks, six Rickettsia species were detected in the ticks. "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" was the most common agent, detected in four tick species, A. cajennense, A. auricularium, A. longirostre, and A. humerale. The second most common agent, R. bellii, was detected in A. humerale and A. naponense. Rickettsia rhipicephali was detected in H. juxtakochi, and R. felis in A. humerale. Two possible new Rickettsia species were detected in A. naponense ticks, namely, a novel spotted fever group agent close-related to R. africae in Pará, and a novel Canadensis group agent in Mato Grosso. Results of the present study expand our knowledge on the tick fauna, and on the yet infantile knowledge of tick-borne rickettsiae in the Amazon biome.

  12. Biogenic Aerosols Over the Amazon Basin: Optical Properties and Relationship With Elemental and Ionic Composition

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    Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.; Godoy, J. M.; Godoy, M. L.; Rizzo, L. V.; Paixao, M.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the optical properties of natural biogenic aerosol particles over the central Amazon Basin near Manaus during the wet season in February and March 2008. The measurements were conducted as part of the AMAZE-08 (Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment) sampling campaign. Light absorption was determined with the use of an Aethalometer and an MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). Light scattering was measured with a 3 wavelength TSI nephelometer and an Ecotech nephelometer. The elemental composition was measured trough PIXE and IC. Single scattering albedo shows relatively low values varying from 0.86 to 0.95. Very low fine mode aerosol mass was measured, and coarse mode particles are responsible for a significant fraction of scattering and absorption. Sulfur was observed in very low concentrations, and most of the aerosol mass was organic. Long range transport of soil dust from Sahara were observed and reflected in the light scattering coefficient. Wavelength dependence of absorption indicates the strong influence of coarse mode aerosol. Aerosol optical thickness shows low values, but with significant single scattering albedo values, showing strong absorption properties of these biogenic aerosols. Size distribution measurements shows consistence with the scattering coefficients measured, if the coarse mode particles are taken into account.

  13. Widespread Amazon forest tree mortality from a single cross-basin squall line event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Guimaraes, Giuliano; Zeng, Hongcheng; Raupp, Carlos F. M.; Marra, Daniel M.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Higuchi, Niro

    2010-08-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of extreme precipitation events in Amazonia that in turn might produce more forest blowdowns associated with convective storms. Yet quantitative tree mortality associated with convective storms has never been reported across Amazonia, representing an important additional source of carbon to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that a single squall line (aligned cluster of convective storm cells) propagating across Amazonia in January, 2005, caused widespread forest tree mortality and may have contributed to the elevated mortality observed that year. Forest plot data demonstrated that the same year represented the second highest mortality rate over a 15-year annual monitoring interval. Over the Manaus region, disturbed forest patches generated by the squall followed a power-law distribution (scaling exponent α = 1.48) and produced a mortality of 0.3-0.5 million trees, equivalent to 30% of the observed annual deforestation reported in 2005 over the same area. Basin-wide, potential tree mortality from this one event was estimated at 542 ± 121 million trees, equivalent to 23% of the mean annual biomass accumulation estimated for these forests. Our results highlight the vulnerability of Amazon trees to wind-driven mortality associated with convective storms. Storm intensity is expected to increase with a warming climate, which would result in additional tree mortality and carbon release to the atmosphere, with the potential to further warm the climate system.

  14. Bioaccumulation of methylmercury in fish tissue from the Roosevelt River, Southwestern Amazon basin

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    Marcelo Rodrigues dos Anjos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a major pollutant in the Amazon River system, and its levels in fish and human hair are usually above the limit recommended by health agencies. The objective of this study was to analyze the methylmercury (MeHg concentration in fish tissue from the Roosevelt River. The river's water velocity, depth, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and substrate type were measured, and fifty specimens distributed in 14 fish species were collected. A total of 64.3% of the sampled species were of the order Characiform and 71.4% of the species were carnivores. Fifty percent of the species had MeHg concentrations above threshold limit (Hg-T 0.5 mg kg-1 established for food by the World Health Organization. Cichla monoculus had the highest value of MeHg (2.45 mg kg-1. The MeHg concentration in fish varied according to dietary habits. The study also found bioaccumulation of MeHg in fish tissue in the following descending order: carnivorous > detritivorous > frugivore. Low significant correlations were found between fish weight or length and MeHg. Further studies on MeHg contamination are recommended in tissues of fish consumed in human riverine communities in the Roosevelt River Basin.

  15. Rivers, refuges and population divergence of fire-eye antbirds (Pyriglena) in the Amazon Basin.

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    Maldonado-Coelho, M; Blake, J G; Silveira, L F; Batalha-Filho, H; Ricklefs, R E

    2013-05-01

    The identification of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that might account for the elevated biotic diversity in tropical forests is a central theme in evolutionary biology. This issue is especially relevant in the Neotropical region, where biological diversity is the highest in the world, but where few studies have been conducted to test factors causing population differentiation and speciation. We used mtDNA sequence data to examine the genetic structure within white-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) populations along the Tocantins River valley in the south-eastern Amazon Basin, and we confront the predictions of the river and the Pleistocene refuge hypotheses with patterns of genetic variation observed in these populations. We also investigated whether these patterns reflect the recently detected shift in the course of the Tocantins River. We sampled a total of 32 individuals east of, and 52 individuals west of, the Tocantins River. Coalescent simulations and phylogeographical and population genetics analytical approaches revealed that mtDNA variation observed for fire-eye populations provides little support for the hypothesis that populations were isolated in glacial forest refuges. Instead, our data strongly support a key prediction of the river hypothesis. Our study shows that the Tocantins River has probably been the historical barrier promoting population divergence in fire-eye antbirds. Our results have important implications for a better understanding of the importance of large Amazonian rivers in vertebrate diversification in the Neotropics.

  16. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-05-09

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system.

  17. Rate of kaolinite transformation in lateritic soils of the middle Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, E.; Allard, T.; Fritsch, E.; Selo, M.; Falgueres, C.; Chabaux, F.; Pierret, M.; Calas, G.

    2006-05-01

    The rate of kaolinite transformation in lateritic soils is a key parameter to understand the dynamics of tropical environments. Slow rates may support the use of the isotopic composition of kaolinite in paleoclimatic reconstructions. In contrast, high rates of dissolution and precipitation support a significant contribution of kaolinite to the biogeochemical cycles of Si and Al. We have investigated the kaolinite transformation in a lateritic profile of the middle Amazon basin using infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. The upward decrease of kaolinite structural order indicates the dissolution of underlying sedimentary kaolinites and the more recent precipitation of soil kaolinites. A direct assessment of the age of kaolinites was obtained using their concentration in radiation induced defects (RID), which accumulate in the mineral structure over the course of time. The underlying sedimentary kaolin provides apparent ages older than 20 Ma, whereas kaolinite samples from the lateritic soil provide apparent ages ranging from 10 to 6 Ma. The high RID content of these lateritic kaolinites implies that they cannot be representative of present day weathering conditions. Their contribution to the rapid biogeochemical cycling of silica in lateritic topsoils is thus questionable.

  18. Basin-wide variations in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by both soils and climate

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    C. A. Quesada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest structure and dynamics vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient coincident with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates.

    Soil samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin and analysed for exchangeable cations, carbon, nitrogen and pH, with several phosphorus fractions of likely different plant availability also quantified. Physical properties were additionally examined and an index of soil physical quality developed. Bivariate relationships of soil and climatic properties with above-ground wood productivity, stand-level tree turnover rates, above-ground wood biomass and wood density were first examined with multivariate regression models then applied. Both forms of analysis were undertaken with and without considerations regarding the underlying spatial structure of the dataset.

    Despite the presence of autocorrelated spatial structures complicating many analyses, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic as well as climatic conditions. Basin-wide differences in stand-level turnover rates are mostly influenced by soil physical properties with variations in rates of coarse wood production mostly related to soil phosphorus status. Total soil P was a better predictor of wood production rates than any of the fractionated organic- or inorganic-P pools. This suggests that it is not only the immediately available P forms, but probably the entire soil phosphorus pool that is interacting with forest growth on longer timescales.

    A role for soil potassium in modulating Amazon forest dynamics through its effects on stand-level wood density was also detected. Taking this into account, otherwise enigmatic variations in stand-level biomass across the

  19. Basin-wide variations in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by both soils and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, C. A.; Phillips, O. L.; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I.; Baker, T. R.; Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Hodnett, M. G.; Herrera, R.; Almeida, S.; Alvarez Dávila, E.; Arneth, A.; Arroyo, L.; Chao, K. J.; Dezzeo, N.; Erwin, T.; di Fiore, A.; Higuchi, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Jimenez, E. M.; Killeen, T.; Lezama, A. T.; Lloyd, G.; López-González, G.; Luizão, F. J.; Malhi, Y.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Núñez Vargas, P.; Paiva, R.; Peacock, J.; Peñuela, M. C.; Peña Cruz, A.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Ramírez, H.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schmerler, J.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Vásquez, R.; Vieira, I.; Terborgh, J.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-06-01

    Forest structure and dynamics vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient coincident with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Soil samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin and analysed for exchangeable cations, carbon, nitrogen and pH, with several phosphorus fractions of likely different plant availability also quantified. Physical properties were additionally examined and an index of soil physical quality developed. Bivariate relationships of soil and climatic properties with above-ground wood productivity, stand-level tree turnover rates, above-ground wood biomass and wood density were first examined with multivariate regression models then applied. Both forms of analysis were undertaken with and without considerations regarding the underlying spatial structure of the dataset. Despite the presence of autocorrelated spatial structures complicating many analyses, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic as well as climatic conditions. Basin-wide differences in stand-level turnover rates are mostly influenced by soil physical properties with variations in rates of coarse wood production mostly related to soil phosphorus status. Total soil P was a better predictor of wood production rates than any of the fractionated organic- or inorganic-P pools. This suggests that it is not only the immediately available P forms, but probably the entire soil phosphorus pool that is interacting with forest growth on longer timescales. A role for soil potassium in modulating Amazon forest dynamics through its effects on stand-level wood density was also detected. Taking this into account, otherwise enigmatic variations in stand-level biomass across the Basin were then accounted for through the

  20. Three-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in a Brazilian Amazon Woman with Situs Inversus Totalis: Surgical Approach

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    Mauro Neiva Fernandes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus totalis (SIT is an uncommon anomaly characterized by transposition of organs to the opposite side of the body in a mirror image of normal. We report on an adult woman, born and resident in Brazilian Amazonia, presenting acute pain located at the left hypochondrium and epigastrium. During clinical and radiological evaluation, the patient was found to have SIT and multiple stones cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was safely performed with the three-port technique in a reverse fashion. In conclusion, this case confirms that three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible surgical approach to treat cholelithiasis even in rare and challenging conditions like SIT.

  1. Three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a brazilian Amazon woman with situs inversus totalis: surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Mauro Neiva; Neiva, Ivan Nazareno Campos; de Assis Camacho, Francisco; Meguins, Lucas Crociati; Fernandes, Marcelo Neiva; Meguins, Emília Maíra Crociati

    2008-05-24

    Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is an uncommon anomaly characterized by transposition of organs to the opposite side of the body in a mirror image of normal. We report on an adult woman, born and resident in Brazilian Amazonia, presenting acute pain located at the left hypochondrium and epigastrium. During clinical and radiological evaluation, the patient was found to have SIT and multiple stones cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was safely performed with the three-port technique in a reverse fashion. In conclusion, this case confirms that three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible surgical approach to treat cholelithiasis even in rare and challenging conditions like SIT.

  2. Surface Freshwater Storage and Variability in the Amazon Basin from Multi-Satellite Observations, 1993-2007

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    Papa, Fabrice; Frappart, Frederic; Guntner, Andreas; Prigent, Catherine; Aires, Filipe; Getirana, Augusto; Maurer, Raffael

    2013-01-01

    The amount of water stored and moving through the surface water bodies of large river basins (river, floodplains, wetlands) plays a major role in the global water and biochemical cycles and is a critical parameter for water resources management. However, the spatio-temporal variations of these freshwater reservoirs are still widely unknown at the global scale. Here, we propose a hypsographic curve approach to estimate surface freshwater storage variations over the Amazon basin combining surface water extent from a multi-satellite-technique with topographic data from the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) from Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Monthly surface water storage variations for 1993-2007 are presented, showing a strong seasonal and interannual variability, and are evaluated against in situ river discharge and precipitation. The basin-scale mean annual amplitude of approx. 1200 cu km is in the range of previous estimates and contributes to about half of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) total water storage variations. For the first time, we map the surface water volume anomaly during the extreme droughts of 1997 (October-November) and 2005 (September-October) and found that during these dry events the water stored in the river and flood-plains of the Amazon basin was, respectively, approx. 230 (approx. 40%) and 210 (approx. 50%) cu km below the 1993-2007 average. This new 15year data set of surface water volume represents an unprecedented source of information for future hydrological or climate modeling of the Amazon. It is also a first step toward the development of such database at the global scale.

  3. Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times

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    van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major

  4. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

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    Alexander Pfaff

    Full Text Available Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  5. Diet, energy expenditure, and body composition of lactating Ribeirinha women in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Piperata, Barbara A; Dufour, Darna L

    2007-01-01

    Lactation is the most energetically demanding part of human reproduction; yet, compared with pregnancy, we know little about the strategies women in different settings employ to cope with these increased energy demands. This paper takes a biocultural approach and reports longitudinal data on the anthropometry, dietary intakes and energy expenditure of a sample of 23 rural, lactating Ribeirinha women living in subsistence-based communities in the eastern Amazon. The dietary intakes of these lactating women were insufficient to meet their lactating energy needs and were least sufficient during resguardo, a 40-day period in the immediate postpartum when the women observed a series of food taboos and work restrictions. Instead, the women in this study met the increased energy demands of lactation by drawing on their energy reserves and reducing their energy expenditure in physical activity. The women showed a significant reduction in weight (Penergy expenditure (TDEE) was lowest during resguardo and increased as lactation progressed (P=0.01). While the practice of resguardo reduced maternal energy expenditure and allowed women more time to spend with their newborn infants, it came at a cost (low dietary intake), which appears to be related to the loss of the adult woman from subsistence activities. By taking a biocultural approach this study illustrates the role the social environment plays in shaping the experience of lactating women.

  6. Spatiotemporal NDVI, LAI, albedo, and surface temperature dynamics in the southwest of the Brazilian Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Beneditti, Cristina Aparecida; Machado, Nadja Gomes; da Silva, Marcelo José Gama; da Silva Querino, Juliane Kayse Albuquerque; dos Santos Neto, Luiz Alves; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, the Amazon rainforest underwent uncontrolled exploitation that modified its environmental variables. The current paper analyzes the spatiotemporal dynamics of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and surface albedo, and temperature in two different vegetation covers, preserved and deforested areas. We calculated the remote-sensing products using Landsat 5 TM images obtained during the dry season 1984, 1991, 2000, and 2011 of the central region of the State of Rondônia, Brazil. The results showed a reduction of vegetation indexes NDVI (˜0.70 in 1984 to ˜0.27 in 2011) and LAI (˜1.8 in 1984 to ˜0.3 in 2011), with an increase of surface albedo (0.12 in 1984 to 0.20 in 2011) and temperature (˜24°C in 1984 to 30°C in 2011) as the effect of the rainforest converted in grassland during the study period. No changes in any variables were observed in the protected area. Forest conversion into grassland resulted in a decrease of 69% in NDVI and 110% in LAI and a rise of 59% and 24% in albedo and surface temperature, respectively.

  7. Hepatitis B infection is associated with asymptomatic malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Bruno B Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas that are endemic for malaria are also highly endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether HBV infection modifies the clinical presentation of malaria. This study aimed to address this question. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: An observational study of 636 individuals was performed in Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil between 2006 and 2007. Active and passive case detections identified Plasmodium infection by field microscopy and nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. HBV infections were identified by serology and confirmed by real-time PCR. Epidemiological information and plasma cytokine profiles were studied. The data were analyzed using adjusted multinomial logistic regression. Plasmodium-infected individuals with active HBV infection were more likely to be asymptomatic (OR: 120.13, P<0.0001, present with lower levels of parasitemia and demonstrate a decreased inflammatory cytokine profile. Nevertheless, co-infected individuals presented higher HBV viremia. Plasmodium parasitemia inversely correlated with plasma HBV DNA levels (r = -0.6; P = 0.0003. CONCLUSION: HBV infection diminishes the intensity of malaria infection in individuals from this endemic area. This effect seems related to cytokine balance and control of inflammatory responses. These findings add important insights to the understanding of the factors affecting the clinical outcomes of malaria in endemic regions.

  8. Watershed services payments to smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon: challenges and perspectives

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    Ricardo de Oliveira Figueiredo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several hydrobiogeochemical research activities have been conducted in the Eastern Amazon, contributing to the understanding of how changes in forests and agro-ecosystems affect the provision of services to ecosystems. The findings have demonstrated that good agricultural practices and the presence of natural secondary vegetation favored by the management of small family farms are important factors for hydrobiogeochemical cycling, aquatic ecosystem conservation, soil conservation, and mitigation of trace gases emissions from biomass burning in Amazonian small catchments. Two challenges for watershed service management arise in this context. First, low population densities and the relatively flat landscape mean that a critical mass of downstream beneficiaries of such services - a prerequisite for public intervention is more difficult to identify than in more densely populated mountainous areas. Second, although watershed service providers (farmers are also to a considerable extent service beneficiaries, conflicts over land and cultural heterogeneities among settlers inhibit local collective action to safeguard the quality of stream water. Including small landholders in carbon payment schemes that compensate for the maintenance of riverbank vegetation would appear to be a cost-effective means to secure watershed services as additional benefits of forest-based mitigation of climate change.

  9. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda in a brazilian Amazon estuary

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    HEBERT A. SAMPAIO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature and measured the area (m2 and volume (m3 of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation, 35.45 (± 3, 29.49 °C (± 2.32, 27.41 m2 (± 41.18, and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01, respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36% (marine followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76% (estuarine, Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45% and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43% predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  10. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a Brazilian Amazon estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Hebert A; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara M

    2014-03-01

    The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature) and measured the area (m2) and volume (m3) of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation), 35.45 (± 3), 29.49 °C (± 2.32), 27.41 m2 (± 41.18), and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01), respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36%) (marine) followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76%) (estuarine), Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45%) and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43%) predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  11. In vivo and in vitro Plasmodium falciparum Resistance to Chloroquine, Amodiaquine and Quinine in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Aluisio Augusto Cotrim SEGURADO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum to commonly used antimalarial drugs in Brazil the authors have studied ten patients with falciparum malaria, acquired in the Brazilian Amazon region. Patients were submitted to in vivo study of drug sensitivity, after chemotherapy with either 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine or amodiaquine or quinine. Adequate drug absorption was confirmed by standard urine excretion tests for antimalarials. Eight patients could be followed up to 28 days. Among these in vivo resistance (R I and R II responses was seen in all patients who received 4-amino-quinolines. One patient treated with quinine exhibited a R III response. Peripheral blood samples of the same patients were submitted to in vitro microtests for sensitivity to antimalarials. Out of nine successful tests, resistance to chloroquine and amodiaquine was found in 100% and resistance to quinine in 11.11% of isolates. Probit analysis of log dose-response was used to determine effective concentrations EC50, EC90 and EC99 to the studied drugs. Good correlation between in vivo and in vitro results was seen in six patients. The results emphasize high levels of P. falciparum resistance to 4- aminoquinolines and suggest an increase in resistance to quinine in the Brazilian Amazon region, reinforcing the need for continuous monitoring of drug sensitivity to adequate chemotherapy according to the most efficacious drug regimensResistência in vivo e in vitro do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina, amodiaquina e quinino na Amazônia Brasileira. Com o propósito de avaliar a resistência do Plasmodium falciparum às drogas antimaláricas, rotineiramente empregadas no Brasil, os autores acompanharam dez pacientes com malária falciparum adquirida na Amazônia brasileira. Os pacientes foram submetidos a estudo in vivo de sensibilidade a drogas, após tratamento com derivados 4-aminoquinoleínicos (cloroquina e amodiaquina ou quinino. A absorção das

  12. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture.

  13. Tree Regeneration Under Different Land-Use Mosaics in the Brazilian Amazon's "Arc of Deforestation".

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    Do Vale, Igor; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Mitja, Danielle; Grimaldi, Michel; Nelson, Bruce Walker; Desjardins, Thierry; Costa, Luiz Gonzaga Silva

    2015-08-01

    We studied the tree-regeneration patterns in three distinct agricultural settlements in the Eastern Amazon to test the influence of land-use mosaics. The following questions are addressed: are the floristic structure and composition of regenerating trees affected by the various land-use types applied in the agricultural settlements? Do tree-regeneration patterns respond similarly to distinct land-use mosaics? Is there a relationship between tree regeneration and soil characteristics among the land-use types? The regeneration was inventoried at 45 sampling points in each settlement. At each sampling point, fourteen soil variables were analyzed. Nine different land-use types were considered. The floristic structure and composition of the settlements showed differences in the density of individuals and species and high species heterogeneity among the land-use types. The maximum Jaccard similarity coefficient found between land-use types was only 29%. Shade-tolerant species were the most diverse functional group in most land-use types, including pasture and annual crops, ranging from 91% of the number of species in the conserved and exploited forests of Travessão 338-S to 53% in the invaded pastures of Maçaranduba. The land-use types influenced significantly the floristic structure and composition of regenerating trees in two agricultural settlements, but not in third the settlement, which had greater forest cover. This finding demonstrates that the composition of each land-use mosaic, established by different management approaches, affects regeneration patterns. Tree regeneration was related to soil characteristics in all mosaics. Preparation of the area by burning was most likely the determining factor in the differences in soil characteristics between forests and agricultural areas.

  14. Improving the modeling of disease data from the government surveillance system: a case study on malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Denis Valle

    Full Text Available The study of the effect of large-scale drivers (e.g., climate of human diseases typically relies on aggregate disease data collected by the government surveillance network. The usual approach to analyze these data, however, often ignores a changes in the total number of individuals examined, b the bias towards symptomatic individuals in routine government surveillance, and; c the influence that observations can have on disease dynamics. Here, we highlight the consequences of ignoring the problems listed above and develop a novel modeling framework to circumvent them, which is illustrated using simulations and real malaria data. Our simulations reveal that trends in the number of disease cases do not necessarily imply similar trends in infection prevalence or incidence, due to the strong influence of concurrent changes in sampling effort. We also show that ignoring decreases in the pool of infected individuals due to the treatment of part of these individuals can hamper reliable inference on infection incidence. We propose a model that avoids these problems, being a compromise between phenomenological statistical models and mechanistic disease dynamics models; in particular, a cross-validation exercise reveals that it has better out-of-sample predictive performance than both of these alternative models. Our case study in the Brazilian Amazon reveals that infection prevalence was high in 2004-2008 (prevalence of 4% with 95% CI of 3-5%, with outbreaks (prevalence up to 18% occurring during the dry season of the year. After this period, infection prevalence decreased substantially (0.9% with 95% CI of 0.8-1.1%, which is due to a large reduction in infection incidence (i.e., incidence in 2008-2010 was approximately one fifth of the incidence in 2004-2008.We believe that our approach to modeling government surveillance disease data will be useful to advance current understanding of large-scale drivers of several diseases.

  15. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  16. Tree-fall gaps and carbon cycling in the Brazilian Amazon: results from two large forest plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito-Santo, F.; Keller, M.; Linder, E.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Pereira, C.; Oliveira, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of gaps play a role in the regimes of tree mortality and production of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. Few studies have attempted to map the distribution of gaps in tropical forest and the production of CWD, a large pool of ecosystem carbon. Here we linked gap formation with carbon cycling through analysis of the CWD inside of gaps. We surveyed two large forest inventory plots of 114 and 53 ha of the Tapajós National Forest (TNF) in the Brazilian Amazon during 2008 and 2009, respectively. We mapped all gaps and collected data on light availability, CWD stocks and tree mortality in the field. Gap location, canopy opening (CO) and leaf area index (LAI) estimated in the field were compared with two IKONOS-2 high-resolution satellite images acquired approximately at the time of the field measurements. We provide the first statistics of CWD production based on gap size in the tropical forest literature. In the two large plots (167 ha total area) we found 96 gaps. The gaps represented 1.42% of the total area and gaps TNF, the production of CWD in recent gaps was 0.76 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and the mean tree mortality was 2.38 stems ha-1 year 1. The area of gaps estimated by using thresholds of light intensity measured by remote sensing optical instruments was twice as large as the gap areas measured on the ground. We found no significant correlation between spectral remote sensing images and CO and LAI, likely because the high faction of shadow in high-resolution satellite images. We conclude that less than 30% of the annual tree mortality and CWD flux was associated with gaps and the detection of gaps with high resolution optical remote sensing remains a challenge because of the high proportion of shadow in the those images. These results highlight the need for permanent plots for long-term carbon studies.

  17. A Comparative Study of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Classification in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; de Miranda, Evaristo E; Moran, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Complex forest structure and abundant tree species in the moist tropical regions often cause difficulties in classifying vegetation classes with remotely sensed data. This paper explores improvement in vegetation classification accuracies through a comparative study of different image combinations based on the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data, as well as the combination of spectral signatures and textures. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the different image combinations into thematic maps. This research indicated that data fusion based on HRG multispectral and panchromatic data slightly improved vegetation classification accuracies: a 3.1 to 4.6 percent increase in the kappa coefficient compared with the classification results based on original HRG or TM multispectral images. A combination of HRG spectral signatures and two textural images improved the kappa coefficient by 6.3 percent compared with pure HRG multispectral images. The textural images based on entropy or second-moment texture measures with a window size of 9 pixels × 9 pixels played an important role in improving vegetation classification accuracy. Overall, optical remote-sensing data are still insufficient for accurate vegetation classifications in the Amazon basin.

  18. Monoterpene Compositions of Three Forested Ecosystems in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A.; Fuentes, J. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Jardine, K.

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes play fundamental roles as secondary metabolites in forested ecosystems and as gas and liquid phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in their surrounding atmospheres. While the chemical pathways involved in ozonolysis driven SOA formation from individual monoterpene precursors is known, local and regional chemical transport models are still lacking observations of speciated monoterpenes from forested atmospheres. Here, we present high vertically resolved mixing ratio profiles of speciated monoterpenes from the ambient air of three neighboring forested ecosystems in the central Amazon Basin. Two well-drained plateau primary forests and one seasonally flooded valley forest were sampled during the afternoon hours (13:00 - 16:30) on walkup towers from the initiation of the 2013-14 wet season through the onset of the 2014 dry season (Nov 2013 - Jul 2014). Ambient mixing ratios in all three ecosystems were greatest in the upper canopy with secondary sources of some monoterpenes within the sub-canopies. Relative vertical compositions of monoterpenes did not change significantly throughout the seasons for either ecosystem type. Both ecosystem types were dominated by d-limonene (up to 1.6 ppb) with equally strong mixing ratios of alpha-pinene in the valley compared to the much weaker a-pinene mixing ratios on the plateaus (up to 200 ppt). The highly reactive cis- and trans-beta-ocimene were consistently present in both ecosystems (up to 250 ppt) with the addition of equally high camphene mixing ratios in the valley forest (up to 200 ppt) which is present in the plateau ecosystems in low quantities (50 ppt). With respect to clean atmosphere mixing ratios of 10 ppb ozone, lifetimes are below 2 hours for camphene and below 30 minutes for ocimene, suggesting a potentially large impact on local and possibly regional ozonolysis and subsequent SOA composition.

  19. SSR characterization of Oryza glumaepatula populations from the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Rosa, Thalita Marra; Borba, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The level and distribution of the genetic variability in 18 natural populations of Oryza glumaepatula that were collected from two Brazilian states were estimated using a set of 23 highly informative SSR markers. Samples comprising 78 and 117 individuals from populations of the states of Tocantins and Roraima, respectively, were evaluated in order to integrate and support previous studies that were carried out with populations of O. glumaepatula from Brazil. A total of 189 alleles were identified with an average of 8.22 alleles per locus. The 11 populations from Roraima presented, in combination, a higher genetic diversity (HE = 0.245) compared with that of the seven populations from Tocantins (HE = 0.212). All of the populations showed high and significant inbreeding values (mean f = 0.59); however, the mean was higher in Tocantins populations, indicating a higher gene flow in Roraima populations. The overall coefficient of genetic differentiation (FST) among the populations was high and significant (0.59) and was higher in Tocantins due to the isolation of each population, in contrast to Roraima, where gene flow occurred more frequently. The SSR panel used in this work resulted to be informative (polymorphism information content = 0.201) for assessing genetic structure in O. glumaepatula populations.

  20. Potential trajectories of the upcoming forest trading mechanism in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, the Brazilian government revised the federal Forest Code that governs the use of forest resources on rural properties. The revisions included a forest trading mechanism whereby landowners who deforested more than what is legally allowed before 2008 could absolve their deforestation "debts" by purchasing Environmental Reserve Quotas (CRA) from landowners who conserved more forest than legally required. CRA holds promise as a tool to complement command-and-control initiatives to reduce deforestation and incentivize restoration. However, the success of this instrument depends on how its implementation is governed. This study builds on a few recent assessments of the potential of the CRA in Brazil-but that are focused on biophysical potential-by assessing how a few key implementation decisions may influence the CRA market development. Specifically, this study estimates how decisions on who can participate will likely influence the potential forest surplus and forest debt for the CRA market, and takes into account governance characteristics relevant to the State of Pará, eastern Amazonia. In particular, the study evaluates the effects in the CRA market eligibility after simulating a validation of properties in the environmental rural registry (CAR) and assessing different scenarios surrounding land tenure status of properties. Results show how regulatory decisions on CRA market eligibility will determine the extent to which CRA will serve as a tool to support forest conservation or as a low-cost path to help illegal deforesters to comply with legislation, but with limited additional environmental benefits. The study reviews regulatory options that would reduce the risk of forest oversupply, and thereby increase the additionality of the areas eligible for CRA. Overall, the study demonstrates the importance of including governance as well as biophysical characteristics in assessing the potential of forest trading tools to deliver additional environmental

  1. The challenge to explore the Brazilian interior basins; O desafio da exploracao das bacias interiores brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)

  2. Asymptomatic infection in individuals from the municipality of Barcelos (Brazilian Amazon is not associated with the anti-Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol antibody response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI antibodies (Abs may reflect and mediate, at least partially, anti-disease immunity in malaria by neutralising the toxic effect of parasitic GPI. Thus, we assessed the anti-GPI Ab response in asymptomatic individuals living in an area of the Brazilian Amazon that has a high level of malaria transmission. For comparative purposes, we also investigated the Ab response to a crude extract prepared from Plasmodium falciparum, the merozoite surface protein (MSP3 antigen of P. falciparum and the MSP 1 antigen of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1-19 in these individuals and in Angolan patients with acute malaria. Our data suggest that the Ab response against P. falciparum GPI is not associated with P. falciparum asymptomatic infection in individuals who have been chronically exposed to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. However, this Ab response could be related to ongoing parasitaemia (as was previously shown in the Angolan patients. In addition, our data show that PvMSP1-19may be a good marker antigen to reflect previous exposure to Plasmodium in areas that have a high transmission rate of P. vivax.

  3. Urban malaria in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region I: high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an urban riverside district is associated with a high level of clinical malaria

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    Mauro Shugiro Tada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross sectional studies on malaria prevalence was performed in 2001, 2002, and 2004 in Vila Candelária, an urban riverside area of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Western Amazon, followed by longitudinal surveys on malaria incidence. Vila Candelária is a working class district, provided with electricity, water supply, and basic sanitation. Previous preliminary surveys indicated high malaria incidence in this community. At the end of year 2000 regular diagnostic and treatment measures for malaria were introduced, with active search of febrile cases among residents. Despite of both rapid treatment of cases and relative good sanitary and housing conditions, the malaria incidence persisted at high levels during the following years with an annual parasite index of 150 to 300/1000 inhabitants. Parasite surveys in 2001, 2002, and 2004 achieved through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to diagnose malaria showed a constant high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It was concluded that asymptomatic carriers represent an important reservoirs of parasites and that the carriers might contribute to maintaining the high level of transmission. Comparing our findings to similar geo-demographic situations found in other important urban communities of the Brazilian Amazon, we propose that asymptomatic carriers could explain malaria's outbreaks like the one recently observed in Manaus.

  4. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Silvana Gomes Benzecry

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence linking micronutrient deficiencies and malaria incidence arising mostly from P. falciparum endemic areas. We assessed the impact of micronutrient deficiencies on malaria incidence and vice versa in the Brazilian state of Amazonas.We evaluated children <10 years old living in rural communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from May 2010 to May 2011. All children were assessed for sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, including vitamin A, beta-carotene, zinc and iron serum levels at the beginning of the study (May 2010 and one year later (May 2011. Children were followed in between using passive surveillance for detection of symptomatic malaria. Those living in the study area at the completion of the observation period were reassessed for micronutrient levels. Univariate Cox-proportional Hazards models were used to assess whether micronutrient deficiencies had an impact on time to first P. vivax malaria episode. We included 95 children median age 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3-6.6, mostly males (60.0% and with high maternal illiteracy (72.6%. Vitamin A deficiencies were found in 36% of children, beta-carotene deficiency in 63%, zinc deficiency in 61% and iron deficiency in 51%. Most children (80% had at least one intestinal parasite. During follow-up, 16 cases of vivax malaria were diagnosed amongst 13 individuals. Micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with increased malaria incidence: vitamin A deficiency [Hazard ratio (HR: 1.51; P-value: 0.45]; beta-carotene [HR: 0.47; P-value: 0.19]; zinc [HR: 1.41; P-value: 0.57] and iron [HR: 2.31; P-value: 0.16]. Upon reevaluation, children with al least one episode of malaria did not present significant changes in micronutrient levels.Micronutrient serum levels were not associated with a higher malaria incidence nor the malaria episode influenced micronutrient levels. Future studies targeting larger populations to assess

  5. Adherence to Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Pereira Elza A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' adherence to malaria treatment is an important factor in determining the therapeutic response to anti-malarial drugs. It contributes to the patient's complete recovery and prevents the emergence of parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Brazil, the low compliance with malaria treatment probably explains the large number of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses observed in the past years. The goal of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients adhering to the P. vivax malaria treatment with chloroquine + primaquine in the dosages recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods Patients who were being treated for P. vivax malaria with chloroquine plus primaquine were eligible for the study. On the seventh day of taking primaquine, they were visited at their home and were interviewed. The patients were classified as probably adherent, if they reported having taken all the medication as prescribed, in the correct period of time and dosage, and had no medication tablets remaining; probably non-adherent, if they reported not having taken the medication, in the correct period of time and dosage, and did not show any remaining tablets; and certainly non-adherent, if they showed any remaining medication tablets. Results 242 of the 280 patients reported having correctly followed the prescribed instructions and represented a treatment adherence frequency (CI95% of 86.4% (81.7%-90.1%. Of the 38 patients who did not follow the recommendations, 27 (9.6% were still taking the medication on the day of the interview and, therefore, still had primaquine tablets left in the blister pack. These patients were then classified as certainly non-adherent to treatment. Although 11 patients did not show any tablets left, they reported incorrect use of the prescribed therapy regimen and were considered as probably non-adherent to treatment. Conclusions Compliance with the P. vivax malaria treatment is a characteristic of

  6. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Plasmodium vivax Malaria among Children in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzecry, Silvana Gomes; Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Vítor-Silva, Sheila; Salinas, Jorge Luis; de Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Marinho, Helyde Albuquerque; Paes, Ângela Tavares; de Siqueira, André Machado; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Leite, Heitor Pons

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence linking micronutrient deficiencies and malaria incidence arising mostly from P. falciparum endemic areas. We assessed the impact of micronutrient deficiencies on malaria incidence and vice versa in the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated children <10 years old living in rural communities in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, from May 2010 to May 2011. All children were assessed for sociodemographic, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, including vitamin A, beta-carotene, zinc and iron serum levels at the beginning of the study (May 2010) and one year later (May 2011). Children were followed in between using passive surveillance for detection of symptomatic malaria. Those living in the study area at the completion of the observation period were reassessed for micronutrient levels. Univariate Cox-proportional Hazards models were used to assess whether micronutrient deficiencies had an impact on time to first P. vivax malaria episode. We included 95 children median age 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.3–6.6), mostly males (60.0%) and with high maternal illiteracy (72.6%). Vitamin A deficiencies were found in 36% of children, beta-carotene deficiency in 63%, zinc deficiency in 61% and iron deficiency in 51%. Most children (80%) had at least one intestinal parasite. During follow-up, 16 cases of vivax malaria were diagnosed amongst 13 individuals. Micronutrient deficiencies were not associated with increased malaria incidence: vitamin A deficiency [Hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; P-value: 0.45]; beta-carotene [HR: 0.47; P-value: 0.19]; zinc [HR: 1.41; P-value: 0.57] and iron [HR: 2.31; P-value: 0.16]). Upon reevaluation, children with al least one episode of malaria did not present significant changes in micronutrient levels. Conclusion Micronutrient serum levels were not associated with a higher malaria incidence nor the malaria episode influenced micronutrient levels. Future studies

  7. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  8. Functional trophic composition of the ichthyofauna of forest streams in eastern Brazilian Amazon

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    Gabriel Lourenco Brejao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the functional organization of the ichthyofauna of forest streams from northeastern Pará State, Brazil, based on behavioral observation of species' feeding tactics. Seven streams were sampled between June and November, 2010, during snorkeling sessions, totaling 91h 51min of visual censuses at day, dusk, and night periods. Seventy three species distributed in six orders, 26 families and 63 genera were observed, with dominance of Characiformes, followed by Siluriformes. From information gathered by ad libitum observations, each species was included in one of 18 functional trophic groups (FTGs, according to two main characteristics: (1 its most frequently observed feeding tactic; and (2 its spatial distribution in the stream environment, considering their horizontal (margins or main channel and vertical (water column dimensions. The most frequent FTGs observed were Nocturnal invertebrate pickers (9 species, Diurnal channel drift feeders (8 spp., Diurnal surface pickers (7 spp., and Ambush and stalking predators (6 spp.. The FTGs herein defined enable a comparative analysis of the structure and composition of ichthyofauna in different basins and environmental conditions, which presents an alternative approach to the use of taxonomic structure in ecological studies. The ichthyofauna classification based in FTGs proposed in this study is compared to three other classifications, proposed by Sazima (1986, Sabino & Zuanon (1998 and Casatti et al. (2001.

  9. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., a new species of freshwater stingray from the upper Madeira River system, Amazon basin (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, João Pedro; Da Silva, João Paulo C B; De Carvalho, Marcelo R

    2014-02-18

    Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is described from the Jamari River, upper Madeira River system (Amazon basin), state of Rondônia, Brazil. This new species differs from congeners by presenting unique polygonal or concentric patterns formed by small whitish spots better defined over the posterior disc and tail-base regions. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., can be further distinguished from congeners in the same basin by other characters in combination, such as two to three rows of midtail spines converging to a single irregular row at level of caudal sting origin, proportions of head, tail and disc, patterns of dermal denticles on rostral, cranial and tail regions, among other features discussed herein. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is most similar to, and occurs sympatrically with, P. scobina, and is distinguished from it by lacking ocellated spots on disc, by its characteristic polygonal pattern on posterior disc, a comparatively much shorter and broader tail, greater intensity of denticles on disc, more midtail spine rows at tail-base, and other features including size at maturity and meristic characters. Potamotrygon limai, sp. nov., is also distinguished from other species of Potamotrygon occurring in the Amazon region, except P. scobina, by presenting three angular cartilages (vs. two or one). This new species was discovered during a detailed taxonomic and morphological revision of the closely related species P. scobina, and highlights the necessity for thorough and all-embracing taxonomic studies, particularly in groups with pronounced endemism and morphological variability.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia, Blastocystis and Cryptosporidium among Indigenous Children from the Colombian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angie; Munoz, Marina; Gómez, Natalia; Tabares, Juan; Segura, Laura; Salazar, Ángela; Restrepo, Cristian; Ruíz, Miguel; Reyes, Patricia; Qian, Yuchen; Xiao, Lihua; López, Myriam C.; Ramírez, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of intestinal parasites in children is most likely due to lack of natural or acquired resistance and differences in behavior and habits closely related to environmental and socioeconomic determinants. The most important protozoa that parasitize humans are Giardia, Entamoeba, Blastocystis, and Cryptosporidium. These parasites present wide intraspecific genetic diversity and subsequently classified into assemblages and subtypes. The Amazon basin is the largest in the world and is the fifth freshwater reserve on the planet. Contradictorily, people living in these areas (Indigenous populations) have poor quality of life, which favors the infection of diseases of fecal-oral transmission. The aim of this work was to unravel the molecular epidemiology of Giardia, Blastocystis and Cryptosporidium across four communities (Puerto Nariño, San Juan del Soco, Villa Andrea and Nuevo Paraíso). We obtained 284 fecal samples from children under 15 years old that were analyzed by direct microscopy (261 samples) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) (284 samples). The positive samples for these protozoa were further characterized by several molecular markers to depict assemblages and subtypes. We observed a frequency of Giardia infection by microscopy of 23.7% (62 samples) and by qPCR of 64.8% (184 samples); for Blastocystis by microscopy of 35.2% (92 samples) and by qPCR of 88.7% (252 samples) and for Cryptosporidium only 1.9% (5 samples) were positive by microscopy and qPCR 1.8% (5 samples). Regarding the Giardia assemblages, using the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) marker we observed AI, BIII and BIV assemblages and when using triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) we observed assemblages AI, AII, BIII and BIV. In contrast, Blastocystis STs detected were 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Lastly, the species C. viatorum, C. hominis (with the subtypes IdA19 and IaA12R8) and C. parvum (with the subtype IIcA5G3c) were identified. We observed a high profile of zoonotic transmission

  11. Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the eastern Brazilian marginal basins: Implications in their petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, N.F.; Azambuja, N.C.; Mello, M.R. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1993-02-01

    A geological survey of eastern Brazilian marginal basins using sedimentological, tectonic and geochemical data has been carried out. The almost 4000 km long set of basins can be classified as component of a typical divergent, mature Atlantic-continental margin. Based on their tectonic-sedimentary sequence, they can be linked to a single evolutionary history, which can be divided in three main stages: pre-rift, rift, and drift. The integration of all data allowed the characterization of two major petroleum systems that represent about 90% of the known Brazilian hydrocarbons reserves: (1) the rift (Early Cretaceous) and the drift (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene). With respect to the oil-in-place volume and production, the most significant one is the drift system associated with the siliciclastic deep water turbidites reservoirs deposited in bathyal environments. Such reservoirs are clearly controlled by a favorable relationship of stratigraphic and tectonic settings.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of tropical deforestation and forest degradation in response to the operation of the Tucuruí hydroelectricdam in the Amazon basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Gang; Powers, Ryan P.; Carvalho, de Luis M.T.; Mora, Brice

    2015-01-01

    The planned construction of hundreds of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon basin has the potential to provide invaluable ‘clean’ energy resources for aiding in securing future regional energy needs and continued economic growth. These mega-structures, however, directly and indirectly interfere with na

  13. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and mefloquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Amazon basin of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magill Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo antimalarial drug efficacy studies of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at an isolated site in the Amazon basin of Peru bordering Brazil and Colombia showed >50% RII/RIII resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but no evidence of resistance to mefloquine.

  14. Some Key Issues in Intercultural Bilingual Education Teacher Training Programmes--as Seen from a Teacher Training Programme in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapnell, Lucy A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a critical reflection of the author's 14-year experience in the Teacher Training Program for Intercultural Bilingual Education in the Peruvian Amazon Basin, developed by a national Peruvian indigenous confederation and the Loreto state teacher training college. Focuses on ethical, political, and pedagogical challenges that intercultural…

  15. Functional trophic composition of the ichthyofauna of forest streams in eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lourenço Brejão

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the functional organization of the ichthyofauna of forest streams from northeastern Pará State, Brazil, based on behavioral observation of species' feeding tactics. Seven streams were sampled between June and November, 2010, during snorkeling sessions, totaling 91h 51min of visual censuses at day, dusk, and night periods. Seventy three species distributed in six orders, 26 families and 63 genera were observed, with dominance of Characiformes, followed by Siluriformes. From information gathered by ad libitum observations, each species was included in one of 18 functional trophic groups (FTGs, according to two main characteristics: (1 its most frequently observed feeding tactic; and (2 its spatial distribution in the stream environment, considering their horizontal (margins or main channel and vertical (water column dimensions. The most frequent FTGs observed were Nocturnal invertebrate pickers (9 species, Diurnal channel drift feeders (8 spp., Diurnal surface pickers (7 spp., and Ambush and stalking predators (6 spp.. The FTGs herein defined enable a comparative analysis of the structure and composition of ichthyofauna in different basins and environmental conditions, which presents an alternative approach to the use of taxonomic structure in ecological studies. The ichthyofauna classification based in FTGs proposed in this study is compared to three other classifications, proposed by Sazima (1986, Sabino & Zuanon (1998 and Casatti et al. (2001.Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a organização funcional da fauna de peixes de riachos do nordeste do estado do Pará, Brasil, com base em observações comportamentais das táticas alimentares das espécies. Sete igarapés foram amostrados entre junho e novembro de 2010 por técnicas de observações diretas durante sessões de mergulho livre, totalizando 91h 51min de observação, nos períodos diurno, crepuscular vespertino e noturno. Foram observadas 73 esp

  16. Methane emissions from floodplains in the Amazon Basin: towards a process-based model for global applications

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    B. Ringeval

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical wetlands are estimated to represent about 50% of the natural wetland emissions and explain a large fraction of the observed CH4 variability on time scales ranging from glacial-interglacial cycles to the currently observed year-to-year variability. Despite their importance, however, tropical wetlands are poorly represented in global models aiming to predict global CH4 emissions. This study documents the first regional-scale, process-based model of CH4 emissions from tropical floodplains. The LPX-Bern Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX hereafter was modified to represent floodplain hydrology, vegetation and associated CH4 emissions. The extent of tropical floodplains was prescribed using output from the spatially-explicit hydrology model PCR-GLOBWB. We introduced new Plant Functional Types (PFTs that explicitly represent floodplain vegetation. The PFT parameterizations were evaluated against available remote sensing datasets (GLC2000 land cover and MODIS Net Primary Productivity. Simulated CH4 flux densities were evaluated against field observations and regional flux inventories. Simulated CH4 emissions at Amazon Basin scale were compared to model simulations performed in the WETCHIMP intercomparison project. We found that LPX simulated CH4 flux densities are in reasonable agreement with observations at the field scale but with a~tendency to overestimate the flux observed at specific sites. In addition, the model did not reproduce between-site variations or between-year variations within a site. Unfortunately, site informations are too limited to attest or disprove some model features. At the Amazon Basin scale, our results underline the large uncertainty in the magnitude of wetland CH4 emissions. In particular, uncertainties in floodplain extent (i.e., difference between GLC2000 and PCR-GLOBWB output modulate the simulated emissions by a factor of about 2. Our best estimates, using PCR-GLOBWB in combination with GLC2000, lead to

  17. Chagas' disease in the Brazilian Amazon: I - a short review Doença de Chagas na Amazônia Brasileira: I. revisão

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    José Rodrigues Coura

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available At least eighteen species of triatominae have been found in the Brazilian Amazon, nine of them naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi or "cruzi-like" trypanosomes and associated with numerous wild reservoirs. Despite the small number of human cases of Chagas' disease described to date in the Brazilian Amazon the risk that the disease will become endemic in this area is increasing for the following reasons: a uncontrolled deforestation and colonization altering the ecological balance between reservoir hosts and wild vectors; b the adaptation of reservoir hosts of T.cruzi and wild vectors to peripheral and intradomiciliary areas, as the sole feeding alternative; c migration of infected human population from endemic areas, accompanied by domestic reservoir hosts (dogs and cats or accidentally carrying in their baggage vectors already adapted to the domestic habitat. In short, risks that Chagas' disease will become endemic to the Amazon appear to be linked to the transposition of the wild cycle to the domestic cycle in that area or to transfer of the domestic cycle from endemic areas to the Amazon.Pelo menos dezoito espécies de triatomíneos foram encontradas na Amazônia brasileira, nove das quais infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi ou semelhante ("cruzi-like", associadas com numerosos reservatórios silvestres. A despeito do pequeno número de casos humanos da doença de Chagas descritos até agora na Amazônia brasileira, o risco que essa doença se torne endêmica é cada vez maior, pelas seguintes razões: a desmatamentos e colonização descontrolados, alterando o balanço entre reservatórios e vetores; b adaptação de reservatórios e vetores silvestres com T.cruzi ao peridomicílio, como única alternativa alimentar; c migração de populações humanas infectadas com T.cruzi acompanhadas de reservatórios domésticos (cães e gatos ou de vetores de suas regiões de origem na bagagem, já adaptados ao domicílio. Em resumo, o risco de que

  18. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

    2009-01-01

    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present sha

  19. Outcomes of pregnancy among women living in the proximity of oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Armstrong, Ben; Stephens, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Oil companies have released billions of gallons of untreated wastes and oil directly into the environment of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This cross-sectional study investigated the environmental conditions and reproductive health of women living in rural communities surrounded by oil fields in the Amazon basin and in unexposed communities. Water from local streams was analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The women, aged 17 to 45 years, had resided for at least three years in the study communities. Socioeconomic and reproductive histories of the last three pregnancies were obtained from interviews. Information from the questionnaire was available for 365 exposed and 283 non-exposed women. The study was conducted from November 1998 to April 1999. Streams of exposed communities had TPH concentrations above the allowable limit. After adjustment for potential confounders, the pregnancies of women in exposed communities were more likely to end in spontaneous abortion (OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.61-3.79; p pollution in the area is needed.

  20. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana C. de, E-mail: lcamargo@ufscar.br [Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Botero, Wander G. [Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Felipe A. [Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Sargentini Junior, Ezio [National Amazon Research Institute (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos [Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  1. AMS radiocarbon dating on Campos Basin, Southeast Brazilian Continental Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Figueiredo, A.G.; Lacerda de Souza, C.; Barbosa, C.F.; Coimbra, M.M.; Elmore, D

    2004-08-01

    We present results on radiocarbon dating of foraminifera shell samples, collected on the upper slope of Campos Basin, in Southern Brazil. This is the first time that the sedimentation rate of this area is measured with a fine scale (cm) stratigraphy. {sup 14}C ages vary from (2560 {+-} 80) years. BP at the top to (7260 {+-} 80) years. BP at the bottom of the sediment column. The mean accumulation ratio for the whole column is (6.2 {+-} 0.7) cm/kyears.

  2. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Abril, Gwenaël; Sobrinho, Rodrigo Lima; Dorhout, Denise; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), i.e., the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization of brGDGTs (CBT), were seen in the Amazon main stem. The highest concentration of core lipid (CL) brGDGTs normalized to particulate organic carbon (POC) was found during the HW season. During the HW season the MBT and CBT in the Amazon main stem was also most similar to that of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils, indicating that the highest input of soil-derived brGDGTs occurred due to increased water runoff. During the other seasons the MBT and CBT indicated an increased influence of in situ production of brGDGTs even though soils remained the main source of brGDGTs. Our results reveal that the influence of seasonal variation is relatively small, but can be clearly detected. Crenarchaeol was mostly produced in the river. Its concentration was lower during the HW season compared to that of the other seasons. Hence, our study shows the complexity of processes that influence the GDGT distribution during the transport from land to ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a detailed study of a river basin to interpret the MBT/CBT and BIT records for paleo reconstructions in adjacent marine setting.

  3. Canopy-scale biophysical controls of transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Trebs, Ivonne; Boegh, Eva; Giustarini, Laura; Schlerf, Martin; Drewry, Darren T.; Hoffmann, Lucien; von Randow, Celso; Kruijt, Bart; Araùjo, Alessandro; Saleska, Scott; Ehleringer, James R.; Domingues, Tomas F.; Ometto, Jean Pierre H. B.; Nobre, Antonio D.; Leal de Moraes, Osvaldo Luiz; Hayek, Matthew; Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2016-10-01

    Canopy and aerodynamic conductances (gC and gA) are two of the key land surface biophysical variables that control the land surface response of land surface schemes in climate models. Their representation is crucial for predicting transpiration (λET) and evaporation (λEE) flux components of the terrestrial latent heat flux (λE), which has important implications for global climate change and water resource management. By physical integration of radiometric surface temperature (TR) into an integrated framework of the Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models, we present a novel approach to directly quantify the canopy-scale biophysical controls on λET and λEE over multiple plant functional types (PFTs) in the Amazon Basin. Combining data from six LBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) eddy covariance tower sites and a TR-driven physically based modeling approach, we identified the canopy-scale feedback-response mechanism between gC, λET, and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (DA), without using any leaf-scale empirical parameterizations for the modeling. The TR-based model shows minor biophysical control on λET during the wet (rainy) seasons where λET becomes predominantly radiation driven and net radiation (RN) determines 75 to 80 % of the variances of λET. However, biophysical control on λET is dramatically increased during the dry seasons, and particularly the 2005 drought year, explaining 50 to 65 % of the variances of λET, and indicates λET to be substantially soil moisture driven during the rainfall deficit phase. Despite substantial differences in gA between forests and pastures, very similar canopy-atmosphere "coupling" was found in these two biomes due to soil moisture-induced decrease in gC in the pasture. This revealed the pragmatic aspect of the TR-driven model behavior that exhibits a high sensitivity of gC to per unit change in wetness as opposed to gA that is marginally sensitive to surface wetness variability

  4. Delimiting Evolutionarily Significant Units of the Fish, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae), from the Orinoco and Amazon River Basins with Insight on Routes of Historical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria Doris; Andrade-López, Juana; Farias, Izeni P; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Piaractus brachypomus is an economically important for human consumption both in commercial fisheries and aquaculture in all South American countries where it occurs. In recent years the species has decreased in abundance due to heavy fishing pressure. The species occurs in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, but lack of meristic differences between fishes from the 2 basins, and extensive migration associated with reproduction, have resulted in P. brachypomus being considered a single panmictic species. Analysis of 7 nuclear microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and COI), and body shape variables demonstrated that each river basin is populated by a distinct evolutionarily significant unit (ESU); the 2 groups had an average COI divergence of 3.5% and differed in body depth and relative head length. Historical connection between the 2 basins most probably occurred via the Rupununi portal rather than via the Casiquiare canal. The 2 ESUs will require independent fishery management, and translocation of fisheries stocks between basins should be avoided to prevent loss of local adaptations or extinction associated with outbreeding depression. Introductions of fishes from the Orinoco basin into the Putumayo River basin, an Amazon basin drainage, and evidence of hybridization between the 2 ESUs have already been detected.

  5. Evaluation of drought indices at interannual to climate change timescales: a case study over the Amazon and Mississippi river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Joetzjer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares three meteorological drought indices (scPDSI, SPI and SPEI respectively and their ability to account for the variations of annual mean river discharge on both interannual and climate change timescales. The Standardized Runoff Index (SRI is used as a proxy of river discharge. The Mississippi and Amazon river basins provide two contrasted testbeds for this analysis. All meteorological drought indices are derived from monthly 2-meter temperature and/or precipitation, using either gridded observations or outputs of a global climate model. The SPI based solely on precipitation is not outperformed by the SPEI (accounting for potential evapotranspiration and the scPDSI (based on a simplified water balance at detecting interannual SRI variations. Under increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, the simulated response of the areal fraction in drought is highly index-dependent, suggesting that more physical water balance models are needed to account for the impact of global warming on hydrological droughts.

  6. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin: the Boto, Inia geoffrensis, and the Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E; Carvalho, Ana F; Bonatelli, Marina; Lima, Marcelo C; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2007-06-28

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to supply a bilobed allantoic sac. Small blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles were found within the stroma of the cord. Foci of squamous metaplasia occurred in the allanto-amnion and allantochorion. The interhemal membrane of the placenta was of the epitheliochorial type. Two different types of trophoblastic epithelium were seen. Most was of the simple columnar type and indented by fetal capillaries. However, there were also areolar regions with tall columnar trophoblast and these were more sparsely supplied with capillaries. The endometrium was well vascularised and richly supplied with actively secreting glands. These findings are consistent with the current view that Cetacea are nested within Artiodactyla as sister group to the hippopotamids.

  7. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin: the Boto, Inia geoffrensis, and the Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonatelli Marina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched to supply a bilobed allantoic sac. Small blood vessels and smooth muscle bundles were found within the stroma of the cord. Foci of squamous metaplasia occurred in the allanto-amnion and allantochorion. The interhemal membrane of the placenta was of the epitheliochorial type. Two different types of trophoblastic epithelium were seen. Most was of the simple columnar type and indented by fetal capillaries. However, there were also areolar regions with tall columnar trophoblast and these were more sparsely supplied with capillaries. The endometrium was well vascularised and richly supplied with actively secreting glands. These findings are consistent with the current view that Cetacea are nested within Artiodactyla as sister group to the hippopotamids.

  8. Reproductive ecology and behavior of Eleutherodactylus aureolineatus (Anura, Brachycephalidae in the canopy of the Upper Amazon Basin, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn F. McCracken

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and investigation of the anuran fauna in the canopies of the Upper Amazon Basin has led to the recent discoveries of new species of the genus Eleutherodactylus utilizing the microhabitat within bromeliads. Detailed information on the ecology and natural history of these communities are scarce due, in part, to the difficulty of accessing their habitat. New sampling methods for rainforest canopies have allowed for the collection and observation of the herpetofauna utilizing this habitat. Sexual size dimorphism in Eleutherodactylus aureolineatus, confirms placement in the E. unistrigatus species group and E. lacrimosus assemblage. The described microhabitat, vocalization characteristics, reproductive behavior and egg deposition of E. aureolineatus provides significant ecological background on this poorly documented group of frogs and their important “wetlands in the sky”. The data and observationsherein contribute to the overall understanding of the characters and ecological factors which define the E. lacrimosus assemblage.

  9. Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 from the upper Amazon basin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neild, Andrew F E; Nakahara, Shinichi; Zacca, Thamara; Fratello, Steven; Lamas, Gerardo; Le Crom, Jean-François; Dolibaina, Diego R; Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Espeland, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 are described from the upper Amazon basin: Euptychia attenboroughi Neild, Nakahara, Fratello & Le Crom, sp. n. (type locality: Amazonas, Venezuela), and Euptychia sophiae Zacca, Nakahara, Dolibaina & Dias, sp. n. (type locality: Acre, Brazil). Their unusual facies prompted molecular and phylogenetic analyses of one of the species resulting in support for their classification in monophyletic Euptychia. Diagnostic characters for the two species are presented based on wing morphology, wing pattern, presence of androconial patches on the hindwing, and genitalia. Our results indicate that the projection of the tegumen above the uncus, previously considered a synapomorphy for Euptychia, is not shared by all species in the genus. The adults and their genitalia are documented, and distribution data and a map are provided.

  10. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  11. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Ortega, E; Bergier, I; Silva, J S V

    2012-08-01

    The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch), fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km(-2).yr(-1)) in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2) that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation.

  12. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Watanabe

    Full Text Available The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch, fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km-2.yr-1 in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2 that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation.

  13. Past terrestrial water storage (1980–2008 in the Amazon Basin reconstructed from GRACE and in situ river gauging data

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    M. Becker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial water storage (TWS composed of surface waters, soil moisture, groundwater and snow where appropriate, is a key element of global and continental water cycle. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE space gravimetry mission provides a new tool to measure large-scale TWS variations. However, for the past few decades, direct estimate of TWS variability is accessible from hydrological modeling only. Here we propose a novel approach that combines GRACE-based TWS spatial patterns with multi-decadal-long in situ river level records, to reconstruct past 2-D TWS over a river basin. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin for the period 1980–2008, focusing on the interannual time scale. Results are compared with past TWS estimated by the global hydrological model ISBA-TRIP. Correlations between reconstructed past interannual TWS variability and known climate forcing modes over the region (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation are also estimated. This method offers new perspective for improving our knowledge of past interannual TWS in world river basins where natural climate variability (as opposed to direct anthropogenic forcing drives TWS variations.

  14. Population Genetics of GYPB and Association Study between GYPB*S/s Polymorphism and Susceptibility to P. falciparum Infection in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Daphne R. T.; Costa, Daiane C.; Furlani, Natália G.; Zuccherato, Luciana W.; Machado, Moara; Reid, Marion E.; Zalis, Mariano G.; Rossit, Andréa R.; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Machado, Ricardo L.; Lustigman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. Methods Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases); and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls). The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. Results GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02). Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. Conclusion Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is

  15. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases; and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls. The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. RESULTS: GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02. Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this

  16. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies.

  17. Long-term deforestation dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon-Uncovering historic frontier development along the Cuiabá-Santarém highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hannes; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    The great success of the Brazilian deforestation programme "PRODES digital" has shown the importance of annual deforestation information for understanding and mitigating deforestation and its consequences in Brazil. However, there is a lack of similar information on deforestation for the 1990s and 1980s. Such maps are essential to understand deforestation frontier development and related carbon emissions. This study aims at extending the deforestation mapping record backwards into the 1990s and 1980s for one of the major deforestation frontiers in the Amazon. We use an image compositing approach to transform 2224 Landsat images in a spatially continuous and cloud free annual time series of Tasseled Cap Wetness metrics from 1984 to 2012. We then employ a random forest classifier to derive annual deforestation patterns. Our final deforestation map has an overall accuracy of 85% with half of the overall deforestation being detected before the year 2000. The results show for the first time detailed patterns of the expanding deforestation frontier before the 2000s. The high degree of automatization exhibits the great potential for mapping the whole Amazon biome using long-term and freely accessible remote sensing collections, such as the Landsat archive and forthcoming Sentinel-2 data.

  18. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.

  19. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae: comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Renan Gabriel Gomes Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939, O. bicolor (Tomes, 1860 and O. rutilus (Anthony, 1921. COI sequence analysis grouped O. auyantepui, O. bicolor and O. rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for O. auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while O. bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and O. rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in O. auyantepui. The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  20. Contributions of fallow lands in the Brazilian Amazon to CO2 balance, deforestation and the agrarian economy: Inequalities among competing land use trajectories

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    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of regulations limiting greenhouse gas emissions is creating demands and new markets for land-based carbon sinks. Expectations of development of clean technologies and new sources of clean energy are affecting the supply side, creating opportunities for remuneration for sustainable development of natural resources. This paper[1] presents a model developed to gain a realistic understanding of the heterogeneous roles of capoeira (fallow agricultural land in land use dynamics and CO2 balance in the Brazilian Amazon. The model estimates the areas and CO2 balance of different types of capoeira in association with different farming activities and also monitors carbon intensity over time in the context of technological trajectories (distinct farming systems. Modeling with agricultural census data compared six different, competing technological trajectories of capoeira for changes in major land use variables and impacts on CO2 balance from 1990 to 2011. Results revealed that: a technological trajectories contribute differently to net emissions of CO2, with livestock for meat enterprises being the highest net emitters and peasant agroforestry and plantation enterprises the lower emitters; b carbon intensity tends to diminish over time because of increased weight of trajectories with lower carbon intensity, in combination with reduced carbon intensity of trajectories with higher carbon intensity; and c for most trajectories, reuse of “old land” becomes increasingly more important for explaining the essence of agricultural dynamics, including CO2 balance, than is deforestation for opening up new agricultural land. These results draw attention to the role of capoeiras in modernization and intensification of the agricultural sector through renovation of deforested land. The model allows evaluation of deforestation and CO2 emissions as functions of the evolution of markets for agricultural products and of deforestation dynamics

  1. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  2. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

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    Boischio Ana Amélia Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks following forest conversion to pasture in the Western Brazilian Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We examined two chronosequences of forest, 8-and 20-year-old pasture in Rondônia-Brazil, to investigate how land use change affects the soil carbon and nitrogen stocks and organic matter dynamics of surface soil (0 to 30 cm). Soil total carbon and nitrogen stocks increased in 20-year-old pasture compared with the original forest in one chronosequence but no changes were detected in the other chronosequence. Calculations of the contributions of forest - and pasture-derived carbon from soil &et...

  4. Estimates of forest height in the Amazon basin using radar altimeter data of SARIN mode onboard Cryosat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Forest height is an important parameter for global carbon cycle studies. New technologies are required since the end of the operation ofGeoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (IceSat) in 2009. CryoSat-2 is a European Space Agencyenvironmental research satellite which was launched in April 2010.The SIRAL (SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter) on board CryoSat-2 provides three operational modes for different observational requirements. Before the launch of Icesat2 around July 2016, CryoSat data represents a unique source of information on regional-to-global scale forest canopy height.We propose to use radar altimetry waveforms from the synthetic aperture/interferometric (SARin) mode to estimate canopy height in the Amazon basin. To understand the relation between canopy structure and the SIRAL waveform in Ku band, a 3D model was developed and implemented based on a Lidar model by introducingthe scattering items from crown, trunk and ground surface at Ku band. The vertical distribution of tree crown volume within a SIRAL footprint was calculated from its 3-D stand model by summing the volumes of all tree crown cells at the same height from the ground. The preliminary comparisons between simulated and measured SIRAL waveforms show that the model captures the major characteristics of the SIRAL signature. Cryosat waveform data of SARin mode and from June, 2011 to June, 2012 (cycle 04) is used to retrieve canopy height at Amazon basin under Cryosat groundtrack. The canopy height is derived by extracting the key points of vegetation and ground returns after noise estimation. Because of lack of field tree height measurement in 2012 at Amazon, we validated the results using the field measurements at four areas (the km 67 camp, the km 77 camp, Ruropolis, the Taoajos river) of Tapajos National Forest, Brazil in November 1999, and compared the results with the canopy height estimation from previous studies using Laser

  5. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the Amazon Basin during the wet and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of airborne measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and aerosol particle number concentration (CN made during the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA program. The primary goal of BARCA is to address the question of basin-scale sources and sinks of CO2 and other atmospheric carbon species, a central issue of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA program. The experiment consisted of two aircraft campaigns during November–December 2008 (BARCA-A and May–June 2009 (BARCA-B, which covered the altitude range from the surface up to about 4500 m, and spanned most of the Amazon Basin.

    Based on meteorological analysis and measurements of the tracer, SF6, we found that airmasses over the Amazon Basin during the late dry season (BARCA-A, November 2008 originated predominantly from the Southern Hemisphere, while during the late wet season (BARCA-B, May 2009 low-level airmasses were dominated by northern-hemispheric inflow and mid-tropospheric airmasses were of mixed origin. In BARCA-A we found strong influence of biomass burning emissions on the composition of the atmosphere over much of the Amazon Basin, with CO enhancements up to 300 ppb and CN concentrations approaching 10 000 cm−3; the highest values were in the southern part of the Basin at altitudes of 1–3 km. The ΔCN/ΔCO ratios were diagnostic for biomass burning emissions, and were lower in aged than in fresh smoke. Fresh emissions indicated CO/CO2 and CN/CO emission ratios in good agreement with previous work, but our results also highlight the need to consider the residual smoldering combustion that takes place after the active flaming phase of deforestation fires.

    During the late wet season, in contrast, there was little evidence for a significant presence of biomass smoke. Low CN concentrations (300–500 cm−3 prevailed basinwide, and CO mixing ratios were enhanced

  6. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION BASED ON CHAIN-NETWORK LOGIC TO PROMOTE THE EXPLORATION OF NATIVE AÇAÍ IN WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

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    Mariluce Paes-de-Souza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the objective to expose a proposition of organization within a chain and network logic, aiming to potentiate the extraction of the Native Açaí Berry at the Western Brazilian Amazon rainforest. This exploratory study involves the municipalities of Porto Velho, Guajará-Mirim and Machadinho D’Oeste, at the Brazilian state of Rondônia, with primary data originating mostly from conservation areas at the lower Madeira River region. As a result, it was possible to infer that from the native Açai Berry, derives food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for both local consumption and international markets. It was found that beyond Açai Berry plantations availability, the lower Madeira River provides better transport logistic, consumer market and greater possibility of interaction with middleman than most Açai production areas. As a conclusion, it is made a proposition of an organizational arrangement to strengthen the extrativist productive chain of the Native Açaí Berry, based on the network and chain logic, oriented towards an organization based upon social organizations, manufacturing regularization and marketing.

  7. Impacts of climate variability and extreme events on the terrestrial carbon cycle of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, A. B.; Cox, P.; Wiltshire, A.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.; Mercado, L.; Groenendijk, M.; Sitch, S.

    2013-12-01

    Several climate models predict reduced dry season rainfall in the Amazon region as a consequence of climate change. Drier dry seasons could have profound negative consequences for the forest, since soil moisture levels are already near their lower limit during this time of the year. Two recent dry season droughts (during 2005 and 2010) could provide insight into the future of the region. These droughts were associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, El Niño-related temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean can lead to drought in the northern Amazon. In this work, we use a land surface model with updated physiology and vegetation dynamics to investigate responses of the Amazon terrestrial carbon cycle to recent droughts. JULES (the Joint UK Land-Environment Simulator) is the land surface model in the Hadley Centre Earth System Model. Several recent model developments have improved its ability to replicate seasonal cycles of land fluxes in tropical forests, such as new plant functional types, plant trait-based physiological parameters, and a multi-layer canopy with two-stream radiation and sunfleck penetration. In addition, several non-standard updates to JULES can improve the model in this region: including a representation of deeper soils and efficient roots, and parameter optimization. The soil and rooting adjustments are based on previous work with the Simple Biosphere (SiB3) model, which has been tested extensively in the Amazon. SiB3 can include a climate-derived, spatially varying predictor of forest drought resistance, which enabled it to simulate forest response to persistent soil moisture deficits during two rainfall exclusion projects in the Amazon. We ran JULES from pre-industrial to present day, forced with observed climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use. A mixture of satellite- and ground-based observations was used to validate JULES seasonal cycles of surface fluxes, phenology

  8. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis; Villela, André Luis Oliveira; Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado; Wendroth, Ole

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0-30 and the 0-100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km(2) and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m(-2), respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock.

  9. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  10. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  11. Assessing the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin using a probabilistic monitoring design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valencia, Juliana; Kaufmann, Philip R; Sattamini, Ana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodiversity and habitat. We assessed the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin. We quantified the percentage of stream length in good, fair, and poor ecological condition according to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. We assessed the risk of finding degraded ecological condition associated with degraded aquatic riparian physical habitat condition, watershed condition, and water quality. We describe field sampling and implementation issues encountered in our survey and discuss design options to remedy them. Survey sample sites were selected using a spatially balanced, stratified random design, which enabled us to put confidence bounds on the ecological condition estimates derived from the stream survey. The benthic condition index indicated that 62 % of stream length in the basin was in poor ecological condition, and 13 % of stream length was in fair condition. The risk of finding degraded biological condition when the riparian vegetation and forests in upstream catchments were degraded was 2.5 and 4 times higher, compared to streams rated as good for the same stressors. We demonstrated that the GRTS statistical sampling method can be used routinely in Brazilian rain forests and other South American regions with similar conditions. This survey establishes an initial baseline for monitoring the condition and trends of streams in the region.

  12. Assessment of chloroquine single dose treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Brazilian Amazon Cloroquina em dose simples no tratamento da malária por Plasmodium vivax na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Yecê das Neves Pinto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria regions of the Amazon basin have been characterized by difficult access and non-compliance of the patients to treatment. In an attempt to assess the schizonticide efficacy of chloroquine in a single dose of 600 mg, the authors realized a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 132 outpatients with vivax malaria. Patients were distributed into two groups: group CPLA, given chloroquine 600 mg (single dose on the first day of treatment, and two doses of placebo on second and third days. Group CHLO, given chloroquine 600 mg on first day and 450 mg on second and third day. Geometric means of the parasite density during the follow-up was similar in both groups. No differences were observed in the parasitological cure between the two groups (p = 0.442. There was clinical and parasitological efficacy in treatment of patients given a single-dose of chloroquine. This suggests that its restricted use could be indicated in remote areas of Brazilian Amazon Region, nevertheless the inadequate response of three patients indicates the need for further studies.As regiões malarígenas da Amazônia brasileira têm se caracterizado por dificuldades no acesso ao tratamento e não aceitação das drogas pelos doentes. Com objetivos de avaliar a eficácia da cloroquina em dose simples de 600 mg, os autores realizaram um ensaio clínico duplo cego, placebo controlado em 132 pacientes portadores de malária por P. vivax. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo CPLA que recebia 600 mg de cloroquina em dose simples no primeiro dia de tratamento e duas doses de placebo no segundo e terceiro dias de tratamento. Grupo CLO que recebia 600 mg de cloroquina no primeiro dia e 450 mg no segundo e terceiro dias. A média geométrica da densidade parasitária durante o seguimento foi similar em ambos os grupos. Não houve diferenças de cura parasitológica em ambos os grupos (p = 0,442. Observou-se eficácia clínica e parasitológica nos indivíduos que

  13. Spatial variability of soil carbon stock in the Urucu river basin, Central Amazon-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceddia, Marcos Bacis, E-mail: marcosceddia@gmail.com [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Villela, André Luis Oliveira [Colégio Técnico da UFRRJ, RJ, Seropédica 23890-000 (Brazil); Pinheiro, Érika Flávia Machado [Department of Soil, Institute of Agronomy, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, RJ 23890-000 (Brazil); Wendroth, Ole [Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Amazon Forest plays a major role in C sequestration and release. However, few regional estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in this ecoregion exist. One of the barriers to improve SOC estimates is the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution, which hampers the application of new methods for mapping SOC stock. The aims of this work were: (i) to quantify SOC stock under undisturbed vegetation for the 0–30 and the 0–100 cm under Amazon Forest; (ii) to correlate the SOC stock with soil mapping units and relief attributes and (iii) to evaluate three geostatistical techniques to generate maps of SOC stock (ordinary, isotopic and heterotopic cokriging). The study site is located in the Central region of Amazon State, Brazil. The soil survey covered the study site that has an area of 80 km{sup 2} and resulted in a 1:10,000 soil map. It consisted of 315 field observations (96 complete soil profiles and 219 boreholes). SOC stock was calculated by summing C stocks by horizon, determined as a product of BD, SOC and the horizon thickness. For each one of the 315 soil observations, relief attributes were derived from a topographic map to understand SOC dynamics. The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm soil depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively, which is, 34 and 16%, lower than other studies. The SOC stock is higher in soils developed in relief forms exhibiting well-drained soils, which are covered by Upland Dense Tropical Rainforest. Only SOC stock in the upper 100 cm exhibited spatial dependence allowing the generation of spatial variability maps based on spatial (co)-regionalization. The CTI was inversely correlated with SOC stock and was the only auxiliary variable feasible to be used in cokriging interpolation. The heterotopic cokriging presented the best performance for mapping SOC stock. - Highlights: • The SOC stocks across 30 and 100 cm depth were 3.28 and 7.32 kg C m{sup −2}, respectively. • SOC stocks were 34 and 16

  14. Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new gonad-infecting parasite from the freshwater fish Cichla mirianae (Cichlidae) in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben

    2015-05-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra mirabilis sp. n. (Philometridae), is described based on a subgravid female specimen recovered from the ovary of the freshwater perciform fish Cichla mirianae Kullander and Ferreira (Cichlidae) in the Juruena River (Amazon River basin), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species is morphologically very different from congeners parasitizing fishes in South America, being mainly characterized by the markedly elongate, narrow body 171 mm long (maximum width/body length 1:598), the presence of three small cone-shaped oesophageal teeth protruding out of the mouth and an onion-shaped oesophageal inflation distinctly separated from the posterior part of the oesophagus, the relative length of the oesophagus, and the rounded posterior end of the body without any caudal projections. It is the third known valid species of Philometra Costa, 1845 parasitizing a freshwater fish in South America and the second species of this genus reported from fishes of the family Cichlidae.

  15. Towards SWOT data assimilation for hydrology : automatic calibration of global flow routing model parameters in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouffe, M.; Getirana, A.; Ricci, S. M.; Lion, C.; Biancamaria, S.; Boone, A.; Mognard, N. M.; Rogel, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is a swath mapping radar interferometer that will provide global measurements of water surface elevation (WSE). The revisit time depends upon latitude and varies from two (low latitudes) to ten (high latitudes) per 22-day orbit repeat period. The high resolution and the global coverage of the SWOT data open the way for new hydrology studies. Here, the aim is to investigate the use of virtually generated SWOT data to improve discharge simulation using data assimilation techniques. In the framework of the SWOT virtual mission (VM), this study presents the first results of the automatic calibration of a global flow routing (GFR) scheme using SWOT VM measurements for the Amazon basin. The Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) is used along with the MOCOM-UA multi-criteria global optimization algorithm. HyMAP has a 0.25-degree spatial resolution and runs at the daily time step to simulate discharge, water levels and floodplains. The surface runoff and baseflow drainage derived from the Interactions Sol-Biosphère-Atmosphère (ISBA) model are used as inputs for HyMAP. Previous works showed that the use of ENVISAT data enables the reduction of the uncertainty on some of the hydrological model parameters, such as river width and depth, Manning roughness coefficient and groundwater time delay. In the framework of the SWOT preparation work, the automatic calibration procedure was applied using SWOT VM measurements. For this Observing System Experiment (OSE), the synthetical data were obtained applying an instrument simulator (representing realistic SWOT errors) for one hydrological year to HYMAP simulated WSE using a "true" set of parameters. Only pixels representing rivers larger than 100 meters within the Amazon basin are considered to produce SWOT VM measurements. The automatic calibration procedure leads to the estimation of optimal parametersminimizing objective functions that formulate the difference

  16. Rainfall and flow of the Riozinho do Rôla Basin on Western Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Hall de Souza; Elias Silva; Edson Alves de Araújo; Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias; France Maria Gontijo Coelho; Maria de Nazaré Costa de Macêdo

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the factors influencing the hydrological behavior of the Riozinho do Rôla hydrographic basin, and was based on descriptive analysis tools. Fourteen pluviometers were set up in order to conduct a representative analysis of the rainfall in the basin. Residents of the area voluntarily participated in collection of the rainfall data in the years 2007 and 2008; the residents were trained to collect the data before the pluviometers were installed. ArcGis 9...

  17. Interaction between Smoking and HLA-DRB1*04 Gene Is Associated with a High Cardiovascular Risk in Brazilian Amazon Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechat, Narjara de Oliveira; Ogusku, Mauricio Morish; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Sadahiro, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. The HLA-DRB1 gene locus plays a major role in genetic susceptibility to RA, a condition that has been associated with a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in many studies. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this work was to investigate which types of HLA class II genes are associated with RA in patients from the Brazilian Amazon and their influence on high cardiovascular risk status in this population. For this purpose, a case-control study was carried out with a total of 350 non-Indian individuals made up of a cohort of 132 consecutive RA sufferers and 218 healthy controls. A χ2 test showed that HLADRB1*04 (p<0.0016; OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.29–2.79) and HLADRB1*10 (p = 0.0377; OR = 3.81; 95% CI = 1.16–12.50) are the major HLA genes associated with susceptibility to RA. A logistic regression model also showed that the interaction between HLADRB1*04 (p = 0.027; OR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.21–29.7), age (p = 0.0001; OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.13–1.39) and smoking (p = 0.0001; OR = 23.6; 95% CI = 4.25–32.1) is associated with a probability of a high cardiovascular risk status at an early age. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study show for the first time that HLA class II type is associated with RA in Brazilian Amazon populations and that a specific interaction between the HLA-DRB1*04 gene and smoking is associated with a high cardiovascular risk status, as initially reported in the European population. This study therefore contributes to an understanding of gene-environment interactions in RA patients. PMID:22912672

  18. Deforestation and the Social Impacts of Soy for Biodiesel: Perspectives of Farmers in the South Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa; Margaret Skutsch; Mendelson Lima

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of soy for human and animal food has been growing rapidly in Brazil in the last thirty years, and the recent emergence of a biodiesel market in Brazil has stimulated this further. Soy occupies large parts of the Cerrado biome and has now reached the Amazon, and concerns have been raised about both the environmental and social impacts of this. This study combined data from literature with interview surveys in three areas in the soy belt: Sorriso, in the Cerrado; Guarantã do Norte a...

  19. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: Implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lima Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Abril Abril, Gwenaël; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the effects of hydrodynamical variations on the distributions and sources of branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs and isoGDGTs, respectively) transported by the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin. Particulate suspended matter was collected in the Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes at four different seasons (rising water, high water, falling water, and low water) at 6 stations along the main stem of the Amazon River, 3 tributaries (Negro, Madeira, and Tapajós) and 5 floodplain lakes (Manacapuru, Janauacá, Mirituba, Canaçari and Curuai). The concentration and distribution of brGDGTs of both core lipid (CL) and intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived fractions were investigated applying IPL-derived brGDGTs as an indicator of brGDGTs derived from recently-living cells. The organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of CL brGDGTs mimicked the trend of the hydrological variation with highest concentrations during the high water season. The CL brGDGT distributions were most alike those of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils during the high water season, indicating that input of soil-derived, allochthonous brGDGTs to the Amazon River was highest at that period. Accordingly, the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) varied corresponding to the hydrological changes, with the increasing influence of in situ produced brGDGTs in rivers and floodplain lakes during the low water season. The concentrations of CL crenarchaeol were highest during the low water season, due to increased autochthonous production. The concentration changes of both brGDGTs and crenarchaeol lead to a variation of the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index between 0.4 (low water) and 0.9 (high water). Hence, our study hints at the effect of hydrodynamical variations on the source of brGDGTs and isoGDGTs transported by rivers to the ocean and emphasized the importance of a detailed

  20. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  1. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, M.C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  2. Impacts of future deforestation and climate change on the hydrology of the Amazon Basin: a multi-model analysis with a new set of land-cover change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu; Ciais, Philippe; Ducharne, Agnès; Boisier, Juan Pablo; Dutra Aguiar, Ana Paula; Biemans, Hester; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Galbraith, David; Kruijt, Bart; Langerwisch, Fanny; Poveda, German; Rammig, Anja; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Tejada, Graciela; Thonicke, Kirsten; Von Randow, Celso; Von Randow, Rita C. S.; Zhang, Ke; Verbeeck, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Deforestation in Amazon is expected to decrease evapotranspiration (ET) and to increase soil moisture and river discharge under prevailing energy-limited conditions. The magnitude and sign of the response of ET to deforestation depend both on the magnitude and regional patterns of land-cover change (LCC), as well as on climate change and CO2 levels. On the one hand, elevated CO2 decreases leaf-scale transpiration, but this effect could be offset by increased foliar area density. Using three regional LCC scenarios specifically established for the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon, we investigate the impacts of climate change and deforestation on the surface hydrology of the Amazon Basin for this century, taking 2009 as a reference. For each LCC scenario, three land surface models (LSMs), LPJmL-DGVM, INLAND-DGVM and ORCHIDEE, are forced by bias-corrected climate simulated by three general circulation models (GCMs) of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4). On average, over the Amazon Basin with no deforestation, the GCM results indicate a temperature increase of 3.3 °C by 2100 which drives up the evaporative demand, whereby precipitation increases by 8.5 %, with a large uncertainty across GCMs. In the case of no deforestation, we found that ET and runoff increase by 5.0 and 14 %, respectively. However, in south-east Amazonia, precipitation decreases by 10 % at the end of the dry season and the three LSMs produce a 6 % decrease of ET, which is less than precipitation, so that runoff decreases by 22 %. For instance, the minimum river discharge of the Rio Tapajós is reduced by 31 % in 2100. To study the additional effect of deforestation, we prescribed to the LSMs three contrasted LCC scenarios, with a forest decline going from 7 to 34 % over this century. All three scenarios partly offset the climate-induced increase of ET, and runoff increases over the entire Amazon. In the south-east, however, deforestation amplifies the decrease of ET at the end of dry season

  3. An outbreak of fulminant hepatitis delta in the Waorani, an indigenous people of the Amazon basin of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manock, S R; Kelley, P M; Hyams, K C; Douce, R; Smalligan, R D; Watts, D M; Sharp, T W; Casey, J L; Gerin, J L; Engle, R; Alava-Alprecht, A; Martínez, C M; Bravo, N B; Guevara, A G; Russell, K L; Mendoza, W; Vimos, C

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of delta hepatitis occurred during 1998 among the Waorani of the Amazon basin of Ecuador. Among 58 people identified with jaundice, 79% lived in four of 22 Waorani communities. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was found in the sera of 54% of the jaundiced persons, and 14% of asymptomatic persons. Ninety-five percent of 105 asymptomatic Waorani had hepatitis B core (HBc) IgG antibody, versus 98% of 51 with jaundice. These data confirm that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic among the Waorani. Sixteen of 23 (70%) HBsAg carriers identified at the onset of the epidemic had serologic markers for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. All 16 were jaundiced, where as only two of seven (29%) with negative HDV serology were jaundiced (P = .0006). The delta cases clustered in families, 69% were children and most involved superinfection of people chronically infected with HBV. The data suggest that HDV spread rapidly by a horizontal mode of transmission other than by the sexual route.

  4. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health

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    Isabel Goicolea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school. Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore Aps. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted. The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender–power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  5. Adolescent pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: a rights and gender approach to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel

    2010-06-24

    In the Andean region of Latin America over one million adolescent girls get pregnant every year. Adolescent pregnancy (AP) has been associated with adverse health and social outcomes, but it has also been favorably viewed as a pathway to adulthood. AP can also be conceptualized as a marker of inequity, since it disproportionately affects girls from the poorest households and those who have not been able to attend school.Using results from a study carried out in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador, this paper explores APs and adolescents' sexual and reproductive health from a rights and gender approach. The paper points out the main features of a rights and gender approach, and how it can be applied to explore APs. Afterward it describes the methodologies (quantitative and qualitative) and main results of the study, framing the findings within the rights and gender approach. Finally, some implications that could be generalizable to global reserach on APs are highlighted.The application of the rights and gender framework to explore APs contributes to a more integral view of the issue. The rights and gender framework stresses the importance of the interaction between rights-holders and duty-bearers on the realization of sexual and reproductive rights, and acknowledges the importance of gender-power relations on sexual and reproductive decisions. A rights and gender approach could lead to more integral and constructive interventions, and it could also be useful when exploring other sexual and reproductive health matters.

  6. XX/XO, a rare sex chromosome system in Potamotrygon freshwater stingray from the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Valentim, Francisco Carlos; Porto, Jorge Ivan Rebelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Gross, Maria Claudia; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-09-01

    Potamotrygonidae is a representative family of South American freshwater elasmobranchs. Cytogenetic studies were performed in a Potamotrygon species from the middle Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil, here named as Potamotrygon sp. C. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes were analyzed using conventional staining techniques, C-banding, and detection of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) with Silver nitrate (Ag-NOR). The diploid number was distinct between sexes, with males having 2n = 67 chromosomes, karyotype formula 19m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and fundamental number (FN) = 104, and females having 2n = 68 chromosomes, karyotype formula 20m + 8sm + 10st + 30a, and FN = 106. A large chromosome, corresponding to pair number two in the female karyotype, was missing in the male complement. Male meiotic cells had 33 bivalents plus a large univalent chromosome in metaphase I, and n = 33 and n = 34 chromosomes in metaphase II. These characteristics are consistent with a sex chromosome system of the XX/XO type. Several Ag-NOR sites were identified in both male and female karyotypes. Positive C-banding was located only in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes. This sex chromosome system, which rarely occurs in fish, is now being described for the first time among the freshwater rays of the Amazon basin.

  7. Using satellite data to study the relationship between rainfall and diarrheal diseases in a Southwestern Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Paula Andrea Morelli; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Reis, Vera Lúcia; Costa, Duarte; Brown, Irving Foster

    2016-03-01

    The North region is the second region in Brazil with the highest incidence rate of diarrheal diseases in children under 5 years old. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between rainfall and water level during the rainy season principally with the incidence rate of this disease in a southwestern Amazon basin. Rainfall estimates and the water level were correlated and both of them were correlated with the diarrheal incidence rate. For the Alto Acre region, 2 to 3 days' time-lag is the best interval to observe the impact of the rainfall in the water level (R = 0.35). In the Lower Acre region this time-lag increased (4 days) with a reduction in the correlation value was found. The correlation between rainfall and diarrheal disease was better in the Lower Acre region (Acrelândia, R = 0.7) and rainfall upstream of the city. Between water level and diarrheal disease, the best results were found for the Brasiléia gauging station (Brasiléia, R = 0.3; Epitaciolândia, R = 0.5). This study's results may support planning and financial resources allocation to prioritize actions for local Civil Defense and health care services before, during and after the rainy season.

  8. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

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    Matthew R. Thomas

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  9. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

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    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  10. The spatial extent of change in tropical forest ecosystem services in the Amazon delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Barbosa, C. C.; Atkinson, P.; Dearing, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas hold major economic potential due their strategic location, close to seas and inland waterways, thereby supporting intense economic activity. The increasing pace of human development activities in coastal deltas over the past five decades has also strained environmental resources and produced extensive economic and sociocultural impacts. The Amazon delta is located in the Amazon Basin, North Brazil, the largest river basin on Earth and also one of the least understood. A considerable segment of the population living in the Amazon delta is directly dependent on the local extraction of natural resources for their livelihood. Areas sparsely inhabited may be exploited with few negative consequences for the environment. However, increasing pressure on ecosystem services is amplified by large fluxes of immigrants from other parts of the country, especially from the semi-arid zone in Northeast Brazil to the lowland forests of the Amazon delta. Here we present partial results from a bigger research project. Therefore, the focus will be on presenting an overview of the current state, and the extent of changes on forest related ecosystem services in the Amazon delta over the last three decades. We aggregated a multitude of datasets, from a variety of sources, for example, from satellite imagery such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climate datasets at meteorological station level from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) and social and economic statistics data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA). Through analysis of socioeconomic and satellite earth observation data we were able to produce and present spatially-explicit information with the current state and transition in forest cover and its impacts to forest

  11. How does Diversity Matter? The Case of Brazilian River Basin Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Lemos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity as a concept has often been perceived as a positive system attribute to pursue and protect. However, in some social settings, the way different kinds of diversity shape outcomes can vary significantly. Diversity of ideas and individuals sometimes can lead to disagreement and conflict, which in turn can lead to both positive and negative outcomes. In this study, we examine identity diversity, i.e., age, income, education, worldviews, etc., within the context of Brazilian water governance. We find that within the basins studied in this project, first, the more diversity in organizations and the sectors represented on the council, the more council members participate in council activities, perceive decision making to be democratic, and perceive technical information to facilitate decision making. Second, diversity in what members perceive to be the most pressing problems facing the basin and also diversity in worldviews often correlate negatively with some measures of participation and the perceived importance of technical knowledge. Third, diversity in the level of experience with water issues negatively correlates with some measures of participation and perceived democratic decision making. Fourth, diversity in the perception of the most important problem facing the basin leads to poorer outcomes in the council. Our work provides an argument for supporting broad sectoral representation of interests within deliberative decision making bodies; however, it also illustrates that it is critical for these bodies to explore ways to resolve basic disagreements about the most important problems that need to be addressed and where their collective efforts should be focused.

  12. Oil development and health in the Amazon basin of Ecuador: the popular epidemiology process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastián, Miguel; Hurtig, Anna Karin

    2005-02-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an increasing corporate access to and control over natural resources resulting in environmental degradation, inequalities and ill health. Since 1972, oil companies have extracted more than two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon. During this process, millions of gallons of untreated toxic wastes, gas and oil have been released into the environment. Indigenous federations, peasant's movements and environmental groups have claimed that contamination has caused widespread damage to both people and the environment. This article tells the story of how the relationship between local organisations and research institutions developed around an epidemiological study constructed to address communities' concerns. Local organisations set the agenda of the research: they were involved in the hypothesis formulation, consulted in each step during the study and responsible of the dissemination of the findings. This process is known as popular epidemiology. Practical and personal issues and dilemmas faced during the research process are discussed with emphasis on the communication and dissemination of the findings. The article concludes the need of alliances between communities and researchers in order to protect health and environment. Popular epidemiology is an essential approach for public health researchers to reaffirm their roots in improving public health as a primary value.

  13. Assumed white blood cell count of 8,000 cells/μL overestimates malaria parasite density in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Alves-Junior

    Full Text Available Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/μL and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/μL to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/μL, and 5,500 cells/μL in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/μL could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

  14. Identifying drought-induced correlations in the satellite time series of hot pixels recorded in the Brazilian Amazon by means of the detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic, Tatijana; Telesca, Luciano; Lemos da Costa, Simara Lúcia; Stosic, Borko

    2016-02-01

    In this work we study the long-term correlations in the satellite daily number of hot pixels recorded in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 1999-2012. While the highest peak in daily hot pixel frequencies occurred in 2007, coincident with a severe drought, for other intense droughts such as that occurred in 2005 (one-in-a-hundred year event for its high severity) and 2010, the corresponding number of hot pixels recorded was compatible or lower than that reached during e.g. 2004, with no reported severe drought. On the other hand, we find that the most severe droughts coincide with the peaks of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) scaling exponent of the time series of the daily anomalies in hot pixels. This finding is striking because it highlights the effectiveness of the DFA in disclosing that long-term hot pixel anomaly correlations are clearly associated with the drought events, that were not identifiable by examining hot pixel frequencies of the original time series. The dynamics of the time series of daily anomalies in hot pixels is, therefore, influenced by drought events. The coincidence of the peaks of the scaling exponent with drought events suggests the increase of the persistence of the hot pixel time series during the driest periods.

  15. Influence of early life factors on body mass index trajectory during childhood: a population-based longitudinal analysis in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Villamor, Eduardo; Augusto, Rosângela A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2015-04-01

    Low- to middle-income countries may experience the occurrence of a dual burden of under and overnutrition. To better understand the overall progression of body mass index (BMI) during childhood, we estimated average BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves in a population-based longitudinal study of 255 children living in the Brazilian Amazon. Children were aged 0.1-5.5 years at recruitment (2003). We collected data on socio-economic and maternal characteristics, children's birthweight and infant feeding practices. Child anthropometric measurements were taken in 2003, 2007 and 2009. BAZ differences among categories of exposure variables were calculated at 6 and 12 months, and 2, 7 and 10 years. At baseline, the mean (standard deviation) age was 2.6 (1.4) years; 12.9% were overweight and 3.9% thin. After adjustment, mean BAZ estimates were mostly negative. Boys were close to the median value for BAZ until 12 months, whereas girls were below the median (P=0.05). Children from households above the wealth median were 0.36 z- and 0.49 z-less underweight than poorer children at 7 and 10 years, respectively (Pchildhood. Although excessive weight gain is a public health concern, it is critical to restrict inequities, while promoting healthier growth in developing countries.

  16. Environmental changes during the last millennium based on multi-proxy palaeoecological records in a savanna-forest mosaic from the northernmost Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Maria Ecilene N S; Costa, Marcondes L; Enters, Dirk; Behling, Hermann

    2015-09-01

    The environmental changes and the dynamics of the savanna-forest mosaic, over the last 1050 years, have been reconstructed by pollen, charcoal, radiocarbon dating mineralogical and geochemical analyses of sediment cores taken from three different Mauritia flexuosapalm swamps in the northernmost part of the Brazilian Amazon region (northern state of Roraima). Studies on the relationship between the modern pollen rain and the regional vegetation provide additional information for the interpretation of the fossil pollen records. The fossil pollen assemblages and geochemical results indicate relatively wet climatic conditions throughout the recorded period. Despite these moist conditions, fires were frequent and are one of the reasons for the dominance of a grassy savanna instead of forest expansion in the study area. Considering the generally wet climatic conditions, these fires were most likely caused by human activities. Even today, fires hinder forest expansion into savanna areas. Sandy hydromorphic soils may also act as an edaphic control to maintain the current sharp boundary between forest and savanna ecosystems.

  17. Some Observations on Gold in the Weathering Profile at Garimpo Porquinho, an Artisanal Mine in the Tapajós Region, Brazilian Amazon

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    Sonia Maria Barros de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available At Garimpo Porquinho (Tapajós Province, Brazilian Amazon gold-bearing quartz veins containing sulfides occur in anarrow zone affected by hydrothermal alteration. The artisanally mined veins are exposed in a saprolite zone extending downat least 9 m to the fresh rock and are covered by a 1 m thick residual soil. Lateral gold dispersion in the saprolite is notnoticeable whereas in the soil gold dispersion has been observed as far as 2 m from the vein. Trace metals associated with goldinclude Ag, Bi, As and Sb. Copper and lead, present in sulfides, can also indicate the presence of gold. The study of goldparticles in different levels of the profile shows that gold has been affected by weathering. In the upper levels of the profile,particles are smaller, more rounded and pitted by dissolution. Grains of primary gold containing up to 20% Ag are commonlyexhibit silver-poor rims which may penetrate deep into the grain. The interface between the Ag-poor rims and the interior isvery sharp. Such gold-rich rims likely formed by self-electrorefining of electrum grains during weathering

  18. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

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    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  19. Deforestation and the Social Impacts of Soy for Biodiesel: Perspectives of Farmers in the South Brazilian Amazon

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    Mendelson Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of soy for human and animal food has been growing rapidly in Brazil in the last thirty years, and the recent emergence of a biodiesel market in Brazil has stimulated this further. Soy occupies large parts of the Cerrado biome and has now reached the Amazon, and concerns have been raised about both the environmental and social impacts of this. This study combined data from literature with interview surveys in three areas in the soy belt: Sorriso, in the Cerrado; Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta, in the transitional zone between the Cerrado and the Amazon biome, and Santarém, which is fully in the Amazon biome, to understand these impacts from the perspective of the soy farmers, the other farmers, and the laborers. From the literature it is clear that at least 80% of the direct deforestation is due to clearance for cattle rearing, and we estimate that 13-18% is due to soy, although less than 6% can be attributed to biodiesel, since most soy is used for other products. In the Amazon biome, the Forest Law, the Soy Moratorium, improved monitoring and the general unsuitability of the land have combined to keep soy cultivation at a low level so far despite the construction of a port at Santarém, which makes this area much more accessible. In the site in the transition area little soybean is cultivated due to unsuitable configuration of land and to transportation costs. In the Cerrado, however, soy has proved itself to be a viable alternative to timber, as well as replacing grazing, which is most likely causing indirect deforestation elsewhere, although this effect could not be measured in this study. More than half of the soy farmers interviewed claimed to have converted grazing land as opposed to forest, although grazing land often contains some secondary forest as well as grassland. In the transition areas, the expectation of farmers is that when transport costs fall due to road improvements, soy will be cultivated in an integrated

  20. Cooperatives for “fair globalization”? Indigenous people, cooperatives, and corporate social responsibility in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Cooperatives and socially responsible corporations are being hailed as possible correctives to the socioeconomic and ecological exploitation of transnational capitalism. AmazonCoop—a cooperative linking indigenous Brazil nut harvesters and the multinational firm The Body Shop through trade and development projects—capitalized on indigenous symbolism to generate significant material benefits for both parties. At the same time, however, it made indigenous people more vulnerable and dependent, failed to promote participatory development, masked the effects of unfavorable state policies, and perpetuated discriminatory distinctions among indigenous people. Furthermore, the cooperative did not provide an organizational framework to ameliorate the vulnerabilities of indigenous identity politics or transform symbolic capital into enduring political-economic change. This case strongly supports arguments that cooperatives must be rooted in participation, democratic member control, and autonomy if they are to promote “fair globalization” or social transformation rather than institutionalize existing patterns of exploitation.

  1. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

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    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5 image (30m spatial resolution. High-spatial-resolution CBERS-HRC (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite-High-Resolution Camera images (5 m merged with CBERS-CCD (Charge Coupled Device images (20 m were used to map spatial arrangements inside each populated unit, describing intra-urban characteristics. Fieldwork data validated and refined the classification maps that supported the categorization of the units. A total of 133 spatial units were individualized, comprising population centers as municipal seats, villages and communities, and units of human activities, such as sawmills, farmhouses, landing strips, etc. From the high-resolution analysis, 32 population centers were grouped in four categories, described according to their level of urbanization and spatial organization as: structured, recent, established and dependent on connectivity. This multi-resolution approach provided spatial information about the urbanization process and organization of the territory. It may be extended into other areas or be further used to devise a monitoring system, contributing to the discussion of public policy priorities for sustainable development in the Amazon.

  2. Impacts of extreme events of drought and flood on local communities of Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borma, L. D.; Roballo, S.; Zauner, M.; Nascimento, V. F.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of drought events of 1997/98, 2005 and 2010 in terms of discharge anomalies in the Amazon region confirmed previous findings, such as: a) the influence of the El Niño in more than one hydrological year; b) the increase of the influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation of 1998, 2005 and 2010 drought events; c) the low levels of discharge observed in the 2010 drought are attributed to the association of discharge anomalies of the northern and southern tributaries of the Amazon river, and d) the 2010 drought lasted around 1 month (August to November) more than the other drought events analized here. The riverine communities located along the river banks of Solimões/Amazonas suit their economic activities to the oscillation of the water level. In general, low water periods favor the access to important sources of food such as fish and livestock, still allowing crop cultivation on fertile agricultural areas of the floodplain. Conversely, periods of drought increases the difficulties of transport and drinking water supply. During the high water, access to the main food supply (described above) are greatly hampered. However, the floods are recognized as an importance process of natural fertilization. Thus, despite the political, social and economic shortcomings, the local community has, since the pre-colonial period, learned to get the best of each season, providing local, regional and national markets with varzea products. During periods of extreme weather, however, the advantages of each season appear to be reduced, and the drawbacks increased. In fact, during flooding extremes, the access to primary sources of food is hampered by a long period of time and families find themselves forced to leave their homes, eventually losing them. Analysis of flow data to the extreme flooding of 2009, indicate a period of about 6 months of positive anomalies discharge (occurring mainly during high water). At the same time, Civil Defense data points to a

  3. Emission and deposition of accumulation and coarse mode particles in the Amazon basin

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    L. Ahlm

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved vertical aerosol number fluxes of particles in the diameter range 0.25–2.5 μm were measured with the eddy covariance method from a 53 m high tower over the Amazon rain forest, 60 km NNW of Manaus, Brazil. This study focuses on data measured during the relatively clean wet season, but a shorter measurement period from the more polluted dry season is used as a comparison.

    Size-resolved net particle fluxes of the five lowest size bins, representing 0.25–0.45 μm in diameter, pointed downward in more or less all wind sectors in the wet season. This is an indication that the source of primary biogenic aerosol particles may be small in this particle size range. In the diameter range 0.5–2.5 μm, vertical particle fluxes were highly dependent on wind direction. In wind sectors where anthropogenic influence was low, net emission fluxes dominated. However, in wind sectors associated with higher anthropogenic influence, net deposition fluxes dominated. The net emission fluxes were interpreted as primary biogenic aerosol emission, but deposition of anthropogenic particles seems to have masked this emission in wind sectors with higher anthropogenic influence. The emission fluxes were at maximum in the afternoon when the mixed layer is well developed, and these emissions were best correlated with horizontal wind speed by the equation

    log10F=0.47·U+2.26

    where F is the emission number flux of 0.5–2.5 μm particles [m−2s−1] and U is the horizontal wind speed [ms−1] at the top of the tower.

  4. A test of the cosmogenic 10Be(meteoric)/9Be proxy for simultaneously determining basin-wide erosion rates, denudation rates, and the degree of weathering in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, H.; Blanckenburg, F.; Dannhaus, N.; Bouchez, J.; Gaillardet, J.; Guyot, J. L.; Maurice, L.; Roig, H.; Filizola, N.; Christl, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present an extensive investigation of a new erosion and weathering proxy derived from the 10Be(meteoric)/9Be(stable) ratio in the Amazon River basin. This new proxy combines a radioactive atmospheric flux tracer, meteoric cosmogenic 10Be, with 9Be, a trace metal released by weathering. Results show that meteoric 10Be concentrations ([10Be]) and 10Be/9Be ratios increase by >30% from the Andes to the lowlands. We can calculate floodplain transfer times of 2-30 kyr from this increase. Intriguingly however, the riverine exported flux of meteoric 10Be shows a deficit with respect to the atmospheric depositional 10Be flux. Most likely, the actual area from which the 10Be flux is being delivered into the mainstream is smaller than the basin-wide one. Despite this imbalance, denudation rates calculated from 10Be/9Be ratios from bed load, suspended sediment, and water samples from Amazon Rivers agree within a factor of 2 with published in situ 10Be denudation rates. Erosion rates calculated from meteoric [10Be], measured from depth-integrated suspended sediment samples, agree with denudation rates, suggesting that grain size-induced variations in [10Be] are minimized when using such sampling material instead of bed load. In addition, the agreement between erosion and denudation rates implies minor chemical weathering intensity in most Amazon tributaries. Indeed, the Be-specific weathering intensity, calculated from mobilized 9Be comprising reactive and dissolved fractions that are released during weathering, is constant at approximately 40% of the total denudation from the Andes across the lowlands to the Amazon mouth. Therefore, weathering in the Amazon floodplain is not detected.

  5. Variability of streamflow under climate change: A study for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Tiezzi, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is entirely dependent on water resources, thus highly vulnerable to the effects of rainfall variability. This work aims to analyse the impact of rainfall variability on streamflow for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments. Records form 83-years of observations (1931-2013) were compared with the results of simulations for the 2011-2100 (90-year) period. Two rainfall-runoff hydrological models were used for the numerical simulations: Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure-SMAP (process-based) and Stochastic Linear Model-MEL (stochastic). Very significant impacts were found, namely the increase in streamflow in the Southern basins that may reach almost 100%, while in the Northern and Northeastern basins, streamflow may decrease about 90%. These major changes can aggravate the history of flooding in the Southern basins and of droughts in several regions of the North and Northeast basins.

  6. Mapping Aboveground Biomass in the Amazon Basin: Exploring Sensors, Scales, and Strategies for Optimal Data Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S.; Baccini, A.

    2013-05-01

    Information on the distribution and density of carbon in tropical forests is critical to decision-making on a host of globally significant issues ranging from climate stabilization and biodiversity conservation to poverty reduction and human health. Encouraged by recent progress at both the international and jurisdictional levels on the design of incentive-based policy mechanisms to compensate tropical nations for maintaining their forests intact, governments throughout the tropics are moving with urgency to implement robust national and sub-national forest monitoring systems for operationally tracking and reporting on changes in forest cover and associated carbon stocks. Monitoring systems will be required to produce results that are accurate, consistent, complete, transparent, and comparable at sub-national to pantropical scales, and satellite-based remote sensing supported by field observations is widely-accepted as the most objective and cost-effective solution. The effectiveness of any system for large-area forest monitoring will necessarily depend on the capacity of current and near-future Earth observation satellites to provide information that meets the requirements of developing monitoring protocols. However, important questions remain regarding the role that spatially explicit maps of aboveground biomass and carbon can play in IPCC-compliant forest monitoring systems, with the majority of these questions stemming from doubts about the inherit sensitivity of satellite data to aboveground forest biomass, confusion about the relationship between accuracy and resolution, and a general lack of guidance on optimal strategies for linking field reference and remote sensing data sources. Here we demonstrate the ability of a state-of-the-art satellite radar sensor, the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR, and a venerable optical platform, Landsat 5, to support large-area mapping of aboveground tropical woody biomass across a 153,000-km2 region in the southwestern Amazon

  7. Emission and dry deposition of accumulation mode particles in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ahlm

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Size-resolved vertical aerosol number fluxes of particles in the diameter range 0.25–2.5 μm were measured with the eddy covariance method from a 53 m high tower over the Amazon rain forest, 60 km NNW of Manaus, Brazil. This study focuses on data measured during the relatively clean wet season, but a shorter measurement period from the more polluted dry season is used as a comparison.

    Size-resolved net particle fluxes of the five lowest size bins, representing 0.25–0.45 μm in diameter, were in general dominated by deposition in more or less all wind sectors in the wet season. This is an indication that the source of primary biogenic aerosol particles may be small in this particle size range. Transfer velocities within this particle size range were observed to increase linearly with increasing friction velocity and increasing particle diameter.

    In the diameter range 0.5–2.5 μm, vertical particle fluxes were highly dependent on wind direction. In wind sectors where anthropogenic influence was low, net upward fluxes were observed. However, in wind sectors associated with higher anthropogenic influence, deposition fluxes dominated. The net upward fluxes were interpreted as a result of primary biogenic aerosol emission, but deposition of anthropogenic particles seems to have masked this emission in wind sectors with higher anthropogenic influence. The net emission fluxes were at maximum in the afternoon when the mixed layer is well developed, and were best correlated with horizontal wind speed according to the equation

    log10 F=0.48 · U+2.21

    where F is the net emission number flux of 0.5–2.5 μm particles [m−2 s−1] and U is the horizontal wind speed [ms−1] at the top of the tower.

  8. Automatic calibration of a global flow routing model in the Amazon basin using virtual SWOT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel, P. Y.; Mouffe, M.; Getirana, A.; Ricci, S. M.; Lion, C.; Mognard, N. M.; Biancamaria, S.; Boone, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) wide swath altimetry mission will provide a global coverage of surface water elevation, which will be used to help correct water height and discharge prediction from hydrological models. Here, the aim is to investigate the use of virtually generated SWOT data to improve water height and discharge simulation using calibration of model parameters (like river width, river depth and roughness coefficient). In this work, we use the HyMAP model to estimate water height and discharge on the Amazon catchment area. Before reaching the river network, surface and subsurface runoff are delayed by a set of linear and independent reservoirs. The flow routing is performed by the kinematic wave equation.. Since the SWOT mission has not yet been launched, virtual SWOT data are generated with a set of true parameters for HyMAP as well as measurement errors from a SWOT data simulator (i.e. a twin experiment approach is implemented). These virtual observations are used to calibrate key parameters of HyMAP through the minimization of a cost function defining the difference between the simulated and observed water heights over a one-year simulation period. The automatic calibration procedure is achieved using the MOCOM-UA multicriteria global optimization algorithm as well as the local optimization algorithm BC-DFO that is considered as a computational cost saving alternative. First, to reduce the computational cost of the calibration procedure, each spatially distributed parameter (Manning coefficient, river width and river depth) is corrupted through the multiplication of a spatially uniform factor that is the only factor optimized. In this case, it is shown that, when the measurement errors are small, the true water heights and discharges are easily retrieved. Because of equifinality, the true parameters are not always identified. A spatial correction of the model parameters is then investigated and the domain is divided into 4 regions

  9. Factors affecting Hg (II adsorption in soils from the Rio Negro basin (Amazon

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    Patricia Miretzky

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (II adsorption studies in top soils (top 10 cm from the Rio Negro basin show this process depends strongly on some selected parameters of the aqueous phase in contact with the soils. Maximum adsorption occurred in the pH range 3.0-5.0 (>90%. Dissolved organic matter shows an inhibitory effect on the availability of Hg (II to be adsorbed by the soils, whereas a higher chloride content of the solution resulted in a lower adsorption of Hg (II at pH 5.0. Soils with higher organic matter content were less affected by changes in the salinity. An increase in the initial Hg (II concentration increased the amount of Hg (II adsorbed by the soil and decreased the time needed to reach equilibrium. A Freundlich isotherm provided a good model for Hg (II adsorption in the two types of soil studied. The kinetics of Hg (II adsorption on Amazonian soils showed to be very fast and followed pseudo-second order kinetics. An environmental implication of these results is discussed under the real scenario present in the Negro River basin, where acidic waters are in contact with a soil naturally rich in mercury.

  10. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  11. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Valencia, Jorge H.; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J.; Ron, Santiago R.; Cannatella, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species—Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.—originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83–100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75–98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central–southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  12. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  13. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Valencia, Jorge H; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Alejandro; Morrone, Juan J; Ron, Santiago R; Cannatella, David C

    2015-01-01

    Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis) are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs) to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males) were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly underestimated

  14. Species richness and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across distinct land uses in western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2011-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were surveyed for species richness and abundance in sporulation in six distinct land uses in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Areas included mature pristine forest and sites converted to pasture, crops, agroforestry, young and old secondary forest. A total of 61 AMF morphotypes were recovered and 30% of them could not be identified to known species. Fungal communities were dominated by Glomus species but Acaulospora species produced the most abundant sporulation. Acaulospora gedanensis cf., Acaulospora foveata, Acaulospora spinosa, Acaulospora tuberculata, Glomus corymbiforme, Glomus sp15, Scutellospora pellucida, and Archaeospora trappei sporulated in all land use areas. Total spore numbers were highly variable among land uses. Mean species richness in crop, agroforestry, young and old secondary forest sites was twice that in pristine forest and pasture. fungal communities were dominated in all land use areas except young secondary forest by two or three species which accounted for 48% to 63% of all sporulation. Land uses influenced AMF community in (1) frequency of occurrence of sporulating AMF species, (2) mean species diversity, and (3) relative spore abundance. Conversion of pristine forest into distinct land uses does not appear to reduce AMF diversity. Cultural practices adopted in this region maintain a high diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  15. Isotopically constrained soil carbon and nitrogen budgets in a soybean field chronosequence in the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Adelaine M. e. Silva; Davidson, Eric A.; Nagy, R. Chelsea; Riskin, Shelby H.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of large-scale conversion of cattle pastures to cropland on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks are poorly understood in the Amazon region. The objective of this research was to determine whether soybean cultivation on a previously deforested and pastured soil has changed C and N stocks and dynamics. We sampled a chronosequence of soybean fields in 2009 and again in 2013. We hypothesized that detecting statistically significant changes in total soil C and N stocks would be difficult but that fluxes of C and N through the soil would be sufficiently large to significantly decrease the stable isotope ratios of soil organic matter. We observed statistically significant decreases in the 13C and 15N enrichments and C:N ratio. When combined with estimates of crop biomass production, harvest yield, and biological nitrogen fixation, these measurements provided sufficient constraints for C and N budgets to infer modest rates of net change in soil N (+15 to +27 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and soil C (-0.15 to -0.30 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) in the top 10 cm of soil. These results indicate that this intensive soybean cropping system is having minimal impacts on N loss to the environment but likely is a small net source of C to the atmosphere.

  16. Antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells by symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratus, Alessandra Sampaio Bassi; Cabral, Fernanda Janku; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Medeiros, Márcia Melo; Carlos, Bianca Cechetto; Martha, Rosimeire dalla; da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon Region, there is a virtual absence of severe malaria and few fatal cases of naturally occurring Plasmodium falciparum infections; this presents an intriguing and underexplored area of research. In addition to the rapid access of infected persons to effective treatment, one cause of this phenomenon might be the recognition of cytoadherent variant proteins on the infected red blood cell (IRBC) surface, including the var gene encoded P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. In order to establish a link between cytoadherence, IRBC surface antibody recognition and the presence or absence of malaria symptoms, we phenotype-selected four Amazonian P. falciparum isolates and the laboratory strain 3D7 for their cytoadherence to CD36 and ICAM1 expressed on CHO cells. We then mapped the dominantly expressed var transcripts and tested whether antibodies from symptomatic or asymptomatic infections showed a differential recognition of the IRBC surface. As controls, the 3D7 lineages expressing severe disease-associated phenotypes were used. We showed that there was no profound difference between the frequency and intensity of antibody recognition of the IRBC-exposed P. falciparum proteins in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic infections. The 3D7 lineages, which expressed severe malaria-associated phenotypes, were strongly recognised by most, but not all plasmas, meaning that the recognition of these phenotypes is frequent in asymptomatic carriers, but is not necessarily a prerequisite to staying free of symptoms. PMID:25099336

  17. The drought of the century in the Amazon Basin: an analysis of the regional variation of rainfall in South America in 1926

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Earle; Dall' Antonia,Alaor; Dall' Antonia,Vitoria; Almeida,Jorge Mathias de; Suarez, Francisco; Liebmann,Brant; Malhado,Ana Claudia Mendes

    2005-01-01

    The most severe drought in tropical South America during the 20th century occurred in 1926. This extreme El Nino year is further documented anecdotally, in an update of the river stage observations at Manaus, and in annual rainfall records. The annual rainfall anomaly is an east-west dipole over tropical South America, with drought to the west over the Amazon basin whose discharge is documented at Manaus, and with a surplus to the east and including the Nordeste region of Brazil. Speculations...

  18. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

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    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88% were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12% off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967. The latter (pink shrimp was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8. Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  19. Study on Chagas disease occurrence in the municipality of Monte Negro, State of Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon

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    Elaine Oliveira Costa de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies on Chagas disease deal with the perspective of its occurrence in the Amazon region, which is directly correlated to the population growth and the spread of the bug biotope. The state of Rondônia has an immense source of vectors (Triatomine and reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi. Environmental changes brought forth by the deforestation in the region may cause vector behavior changes and bring these vectors to a closer contact with humans, increasing the probability of vector infection. METHODS: This study was carried out to check the occurrence of Chagas disease in the municipality of Monte Negro, Rondônia, Brazil, based on a random sampling of the farms and people wherein blood collection from the population and capturing triatomines were done. The blood samples were submitted to serologic tests to detect antibodies of the IgG class against T. cruzi. The triatomines that were collected had their digestive tract checked for the presence of trypanosomatidae with morphology resembling that of the T. cruzi. RESULTS: The population examined was mostly from other states. From the 322 bugs examined on the microscope, 50% showed parasites with morphology compatible with T. cruzi. From the serology of 344 random samples of human blood, 1.2% was found positive, 6% showed inconclusive results, and 92.8% were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Monte Negro shows low prevalence of human infection by T. cruzi and none active vector transmission; however, preventive and surveying measures, which are not performed until now, shall be taken due to the abundance of vectors infected by trypanosomatidae.

  20. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Figueiredo, Regina Maria Pinto de; Gimaque, João Bosco de Lima; Alves, Valquíria do Carmo Rodrigues; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Figueiredo, Mário Luis Garcia; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-01-01

    The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon), is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF) were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42) were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  1. The short-term impacts of development-induced displacement on wealth and subjective well-being in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    RANDELL, HEATHER

    2017-01-01

    Summary Displacement due to development projects such as dams, mines, and urban infrastructure often leads to livelihood decline among affected communities. The challenge, therefore, lies in implementing projects that achieve national or regional development goals while also generating positive social and economic outcomes for displaced populations. This paper uses a longitudinal, mixed-methods design to understand the short-term changes in wealth and subjective well-being of households displaced due to construction of the Belo Monte Dam in the Brazilian Amazon. The households were compensated by either cash or credit for their lost land and assets, and were then responsible for finding and purchasing new property. Using pre- and post-displacement household survey and semi-structured interview data, as well as data from a small comparison group, I find that wealth increased for the majority of the study population and that socioeconomic inequality decreased, as poorer households experienced greater improvements in housing conditions, assets, and property ownership. In addition, subjective well-being improved for most households, particularly among those who did not own land at baseline, those who gained assets such as vehicles, those who remained closer to the original study area, and those who remained in close proximity to other households from the study population. Moving to an urban destination was strongly associated with declines in well-being, as was moving far from family or friends. These results suggest that investing sufficient resources in a compensation-based resettlement program can benefit households displaced by large infrastructure projects in the short term, but additional data collection is needed after the completion of dam construction to determine whether these benefits are sustained over the longer term.

  2. The role of strong-tie social networks in mediating food security of fish resources by a traditional riverine community in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are a significant way through which rural communities that manage resources under common property regimes obtain food resources. Previous research on food security and social network analysis has mostly focused on egocentric network data or proxy variables for social networks to explain how social relations contribute to the different dimensions of food security. Whole-network approaches have the potential to contribute to former studies by revealing how individual social ties aggregate into complex structures that create opportunities or constraints to the sharing and distribution of food resources. We used a whole-network approach to investigate the role of network structure in contributing to the four dimensions of food security: food availability, access, utilization, and stability. For a case study of a riparian community from the Brazilian Amazon that is dependent on fish as a key element of food security, we mapped the community strong-tie network among 97% of the village population over 14 years old (n = 336 by integrating reciprocated friendship and occupational ties, as well as close kinship relationships. We explored how different structural properties of the community network contribute to the understanding of (1 the availability of fish as a community resource, (2 community access to fish as a dietary resource, (3 the utilization of fish for consumption in a way that allows the villagers to maximize nutrition while at the same time minimizing toxic risks associated with mercury exposure, and (4 the stability of the fish resources in local ecosystems as a result of cooperative behaviors and community-based management. The contribution of whole-network approaches to the study of the links between community-based natural resource management and food security were discussed in the context of recent social-ecological changes in the Amazonian region.

  3. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Brazilian Amazon and the Risk Factors Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Descriptive Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bôtto-Menezes

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW.Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54% were between 20-29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503 reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001 were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16-0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10-0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively. The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19-0.95]; p = 0.037 and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15-0.70]; p = 0.005.This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance.

  4. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  5. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  6. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    da Amazonia (Brazilian Regional Commander of Amazon), about Ŕ Exercito na Amazonia " ("The Army in the Amazon) . Manaus, AM, 1996. 3 Instituto...accessed 23 Dec 97. 6 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 205. 7 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 8 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 9...Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. 10 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 98. 11 Gelio Fregapani, Amazonia 1996 - Soberania Ameacada (Amazon

  7. Karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Tapajós River basin, Southern Amazon: occurrence of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) and their evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L C; Ribeiro, M O; Dutra, E S; Zawadzki, C H; Portela-Castro, A L B; Martins-Santos, I C

    2015-06-18

    Hypostomus is a group of fish with numerical and struc-tural karyotypic variability. Among them, only six species, three of which belong to the Amazon basin, show a sex chromosome. In this study, we present the karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecos-tomus from the Teles Pires river basin in the municipality of Alta Flo-resta, MT. The species has 2n = 68 and the karyotype formula 14m+ 24sm+ 14st+ 16a [fundamental number (FN) = 120] in males and 15m+ 24sm+14st+15a (FN = 121) in females and sex chromosomes ZZ/ZW. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were identified in two pairs of chromosomes at different positions: short arm of the pair 21and long arm of the pair 27, matching the signals displayed by 18S FISH and indicating multiple NORs. Analysis of band C detected few blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and the telomeric regions of some pairs, includ-ing the nucleolar pair 21. However, large blocks on the long arm of the nucleolar pair 27 still stood out. GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA3) was visualized only coincidently with nucleolar sites. Mapping of 5S rDNA sites with FISH revealed markings in eight chromosomes, demonstrat-ing synteny between the 18S and 5S sites. The data obtained for H. cf. plecostomus are important for taxonomic studies of this Amazon com-plex "H. plecostomus group". The occurrence of sex chromosomes in Amazon species of Hypostomus suggests an evolutionary event that is independent of other species in the group.

  8. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based calculation on hydrocarbon generated volume: Amazon Basin example; O uso de SIG no calculo de hidrocarbonetos gerados: exemplo da Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)

  9. A new species of Lycengraulis Günther, 1868 (Clupeiformes: Engraulinae) from the Amazon basin, Brazil, with comments on Lycengraulis batesii (Günther, 1868).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Marina Vianna; Alcântara, Ayda Vera

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Lycengraulis from the Amazon basin is described. Lycengraulis figueiredoi can be distinguished from L. grossidens by a short upper maxilla, its posterior margin not reaching the lower maxilla joint (vs. upper maxilla longer, its posterior margin reaching to or a little past of mandible joint). Lycengraulis figueiredoi can be distinguished also from L. poeyi by 26 to 31 anal-fin rays (vs. 21 to 23 anal-fin rays) and by 44 to 46 vertebrae (vs. 42 vertebrae), and from L. batesii by having the anal-fin origin at vertical through base of second to fifth dorsal-fin ray (vs. anal-fin origin at vertical through base of sixth to 10th dorsal-fin ray) and by 17-21 gill rakers on the lower branch of first gill arch (vs. 12-15 gill rakers on the lower branch of first gill arch). The new species occurs in the rio Purus, Negro, Trombetas and Solimões, in the Amazon basin, Brazil.

  10. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions.

  11. Seasonal effects of wastewater to the water quality of the Caeté river estuary, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci C.C. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bragança's socioeconomic situation is highly dependent on estuarine and marine biological resources that are influenced by tidal cycles and climatology. Field measurements (hydrological, hydrodynamic and microbiological variables were taken in the most urbanized zone from Caeté estuary to characterise the quality of the local environment. During the dry period, the estuary was more eutrophic and presented the highest temperature (30.5 °C in Oct./06, salinity (17 psu in Feb./07, pH (8.24 in Feb./07 and fecal coliform (> 1000 MPN/100 ml in Dec./06 and Feb./07 values. The phytoplankton Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus centralis and other r-strategist species were observed. The lack of basic hydric canalization was responsible for the local contamination, especially during the dry period when more concentrated wastewater from the city was emitted into the estuary, showing the human influence on the reduction of local estuarine water quality. In Bragança, the fishery is considered one of the main economic activities so, this contamination is worrisome because a large part of the local economy depends on biological resources and, thus, the contamination could negatively affect the environmental health of this Amazon ecosystem.A situação socioeconômica de Bragança depende principalmente dos recursos biológicos estuarinos e marinhos, que são influenciados pelos ciclos de marés e climatologia. Coletas oceanográficas (com medidas de variáveis hidrológicas, hidro-dinâmicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas na área mais urbanizada do estuário do Caeté, para caracterizar a qualidade das águas no setor estudado. Durante o período seco, o estuário foi mais eutrófico e apresentou os maiores valores de temperatura (30,5°C em Out./06, salinidade (17 psu em Fev./07, pH (8,24 em Fev./07 e coliformes fecais (>1000 MNP/ 100 ml em Dez./06 e Fev./07. As espécies fitoplanctô-nicas Cyclotella meneghiniana, Coscinodiscus centralis e outras

  12. Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Quartier, Marion; Romaña, Christine A; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Harry, Myriam

    2010-12-01

    A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective of Chagas disease diagnosis in the Tapajós region, an anteater and 31 triatomines were found inhabiting in the same Attalea phalerata palm tree crown. Collected triatomines were identified as R. robustus with morphological and molecular procedures. The analysis of infection by T. rangeli using the repetitive ARN nucleolar Cl1 (sno-RNA-Cl1) gene showed that 25 triatomines of all stages were infected by T. rangeli (total infection rate of 80.6%). Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon markers was not identified. Examination of the digestive content of the triatomines demonstrated that the only feeding source found was the anteater. These results demonstrate that T. tetradactyla can be an important reservoir for T. rangeli and a good vehicle of the parasite within the Brazilian Amazon region.

  13. The NH4+-NO3--Cl--SO42--H2O aerosol system and its gas phase precursors at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin: How relevant are mineral cations and soluble organic acids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.; Metzger, S.; Meixner, F.X.; Helas, G.N.; Hoffer, A.; Rudich, Y.; Falkovich, A.H.; Moura, M.A.L.; Silva, da R.S.; Artaxo, P.; Slanina, J.; Andreae, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and the water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate were performed at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). The measurements were made during the late dry season (

  14. Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ledayane Mayana Costa; Souto, Raimundo Nonato Picanço; Dos Anjos Ferreira, Ricardo Marcelo; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

    2016-12-01

    The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Collections of four hours for three consecutive nights each month and four 12-h collections, comprising two in the rainy season and two in the dry season, were performed. Furthermore, to infer the anthropophily and zoophily indexes, four additional four-hour collections were performed. The samples were also evaluated for parity rate and natural infectivity for Plasmodium spp. A total of 1689 anophelines were captured, comprising of nine species and two subgenera (Nyssorhynchus - six species, and Anopheles - three species). Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant and widely distributed species in the area, followed by A. braziliensis and A.marajoara. Anopheles darlingi and A. marajoara were the only species present in the four collections of 12-h, but only A. darlingi showed activity throughout night. Anopheles darlingi was the most anthropophilic species (AI=0.40), but the zoophily index was higher (ZI=0.60), revealing an eclectic and opportunistic behavior. Of the six most frequent species, A. nuneztovari s.l. was the most zoophilic species (ZI=1.00). All captured species showed predominance towards biting in outdoor environments. Anopheles darlingi and A. braziliensis showed multimodal biting peaks, whereas A. marajoara revealed a stable pattern, with the biting peak after sunset. Using the PCR technique, no anopheline was found infected with the malaria parasite. Since A. darlingi and A. marajoara are recognized as important vectors in this region, the district of Coração may be considered as

  15. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon basin Baixa prevalência do vírus da hepatite B, vírus da hepatite D e vírus da hepatite C entre pacientes com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana ou síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wornei Silva Miranda Braga

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities in human immunodeficiency virus infection are of great interest due to their association with unfavorable outcomes and failure of antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of coinfection by human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in an endemic area for hepatitis B in the Western Amazon basin. Serological markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis D virus were tested in a consecutive sample of all patients referred for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The variables sex, age, origin and exposure category were obtained from medical records and from the sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance database. Among 704 subjects, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B carriage was 6.4% and past infection 40.2%. The presence of hepatitis B was associated with birth in hyperendemic areas of the Amazon basin, male sex and illegal drug use. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C was 5% and was associated with illegal drug use. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in the Western Amazon basin was lower than seen elsewhere and is probably associated with the local epidemiology of these viruses and the degree of overlap of their shared risk factors. An opportunity presents itself to evaluate the prevention of hepatitis C through harm reduction policies and hepatitis B through vaccination programs among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.Co-morbidades na infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana são de grande interesse devido à associação com desfechos desfavoráveis e falhas na terapia anti-retroviral. Este estudo avalia a prevalência de co-infecção entre o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e hepatites virais, em uma área endêmica de hepatite B, na Amazônia Ocidental. Marcadores

  16. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2015-01-01

    as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived...

  17. A scaling approach to Budyko's framework and the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration in humid environments: case study of the Amazon River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a 3-D generalization of Budyko's framework designed to capture the mutual interdependence among long-term mean actual evapotranspiration (E, potential evapotranspiration (Ep and precipitation (P. For this purpose we use three dimensionless and dependent quantities: Ψ = E/P, Φ = Ep/P and Ω = E/Ep. This 3-D space and its 2-D projections provide an interesting setting to test the physical soundness of Budyko's hypothesis. We demonstrate analytically that Budyko-type equations are unable to capture the physical limit of the relation between Ω and Φ in humid environments, owing to the unfeasibility of Ep/P → 0 at E/Ep = 1. Using data from 146 sub-catchments in the Amazon River basin we overcome this inconsistency by proposing a physically consistent power law: Ψ = k Φe, with k = 0.66, and e = 0.83 (R2 = 0.93. This power law is compared with two other Budyko-type equations. Taking into account the goodness of fits and the ability to comply with the physical limits of the 3-D space, our results show that the power law is better suited to model the coupled water and energy balances within the Amazon River basin. Moreover, k is found to be related to the partitioning of energy via evapotranspiration in terms of Ω. This suggests that our power law implicitly incorporates the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration into the Budyko curve, which is a consequence of the dependent nature of the studied variables within our 3-D space. This scaling approach is also consistent with the asymmetrical nature of the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration. Looking for a physical explanation for the parameters k and e, the inter-annual variability of individual catchments is studied. Evidence of space–time symmetry in Amazonia emerges, since both between-catchment and between-year variability follow the same Budyko curves. Finally, signs of co-evolution of catchments are explored by linking spatial patterns of the power

  18. A scaling approach to Budyko's framework and the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration in humid environments: case study of the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, A. M.; Poveda, G.; Sivapalan, M.; Vallejo-Bernal, S. M.; Bustamante, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies a 3-D state space representation of Budyko's framework designed to capture the mutual interdependence among long-term mean actual evapotranspiration (E), potential evapotranspiration (Ep) and precipitation (P). For this purpose we use three dimensionless and dependent quantities: Ψ = E ⁄ P, Φ = Ep ⁄ P and Ω = E ⁄ Ep. This 3-D space and its 2-D projections provide an interesting setting to test the physical soundness of Budyko's hypothesis. We demonstrate analytically that Budyko-type equations are unable to capture the physical limit of the relation between Ω and Φ in humid environments, owing to the unfeasibility of Ep ⁄ P = 0 when E ⁄ Ep → 1. Using data from 146 sub-catchments in the Amazon River basin we overcome this inconsistency by proposing a physically consistent power law: Ψ = kΦe, with k = 0.66, and e = 0.83 (R2 = 0.93). This power law is compared with two other Budyko-type equations. Taking into account the goodness of fits and the ability to comply with the physical limits of the 3-D space, our results show that the power law is better suited to model the coupled water and energy balances within the Amazon River basin. Moreover, k is found to be related to the partitioning of energy via evapotranspiration in terms of Ω. This suggests that our power law implicitly incorporates the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration into the Budyko curve, which is a consequence of the dependent nature of the studied variables within our 3-D space. This scaling approach is also consistent with the asymmetrical nature of the complementary relationship of evapotranspiration. Looking for a physical explanation for the parameters k and e, the inter-annual variability of individual catchments is studied. Evidence of space-time symmetry in Amazonia emerges, since both between-catchment and between-year variability follow the same Budyko curves. Finally, signs of co-evolution of catchments are explored by linking spatial

  19. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odont

  20. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin

  1. Magmatism in the brazilian sedimentary basins and the petroleum geology; Magmatismo nas bacias sedimentares brasileiras e sua influencia na geologia do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz Filho, Antonio; Antonioli, Luzia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia]. E-mails: antoniothomaz@globo.com; antonioli@novanet.com.br; Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: ana.mizusaki@ufrgs.br

    2008-06-15

    In the recent years, the researches on the magmatic events that occurred in the Brazilian sedimentary basins had shown the importance of these episodes for the hydrocarbons exploration. The generation (heating), migration (structural and petrographic alterations), accumulation (basalt fractures) and migrations barriers (sills and dykes) of the hydrocarbons, produced for these rocks, are cited in the marginal and intra continental Brazilian basins. The magmatism produce the temperature increase in the sedimentary basin, around its intrusion, and this propitiate the maturation of the organic matter contained in the hydrocarbons generating rocks of the basin. At the same time, has been verified that the contacts dykes/sedimentary rocks can represent important ways for the hydrocarbons migrations. Recent studies have shown that the magmatism, in its extrusive manifestations, can be analyzed in view of the possibility of having acted as effective hydrocarbon seals and, in consequence, making possible the accumulation of hydrocarbons generated in the underlying sediments. The magmatism of predominantly basic to intermediary character is generated in the asthenosphere, that is, below the lithosphere. The dykes that had introduced in the basement of our sedimentary basins are good heat conductors and we can expect the geothermal gradients increase in the overlapped sedimentary deposits. The more detailed study of the magmatic processes in the Brazilian sedimentary basins must lead to new forms of hydrocarbons exploration in our sedimentary basins, also in those basins where the traditional exploration activities have not occasioned the waited expected successes. (author)

  2. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabíola Araújo Dos; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R

    2016-03-01

    Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments.

  3. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

    2006-07-01

    In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

  4. Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA campaign provided the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of O3 during both the dry-to-wet (November and December 2008 and wet-to-dry (May 2009 transition seasons. Extremely low background values (3 levels (40–60 ppb were seen during the dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry simulations with the CCATT-BRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within the error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer (0–3 km a.s.l. in polluted conditions. However, the models overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower than BARCA observations in mid-levels (3–5 km a.s.l., indicating that the models do not represent the free troposphere – boundary layer gradient in O3. Total tropospheric O3 retrieved from OMI/MLS was higher than that simulated by the models, suggesting that the satellite observations are dominated by the middle troposphere and long-range processes and are not a~good indication of O3 conditions in the PBL. Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed that the model O3 production is very sensitive to both the O3 deposition velocities, which were about one half of observed values, and the NOx emissions. These results have implications for the monitoring and prediction of increases in O3 production in the Amazon Basin as the regional population grows.

  5. Climate variability and extreme drought in the upper Solimoes River (western Amazon Basin) : Understanding the exceptional 2010 drought

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Espinoza; Ronchail, J.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Junquas, C.; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, W.; Drapeau, G; Pombosa, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an initial overview of climate features and their related hydrological impacts during the recent extreme droughts (1995, 1998, 2005 and 2010) in the upper Solimoes River (western Amazon), using comprehensive in situ discharge and rainfall datasets. The droughts are generally associated with positive SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic and weak trade winds and water vapor transport toward the upper Solimoes, which, in association with increased subsidence over centr...

  6. Modeling surface water dynamics in the Amazon Basin using MOSART-Inundation v1.0: impacts of geomorphological parameters and river flow representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiangyu; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung; Tesfa, Teklu K.; Getirana, Augusto; Papa, Fabrice; Hess, Laura L.

    2017-03-23

    Surface water dynamics play an important role in water, energy and carbon cycles of the Amazon Basin. A macro-scale inundation scheme was integrated with a surface-water transport model and the extended model was applied in this vast basin. We addressed the challenges of improving basin-wide geomorphological parameters and river flow representation for large-scale applications. Vegetation-caused biases embedded in the HydroSHEDS DEM data were alleviated by using a vegetation height map of about 1-km resolution and a land cover dataset of about 90-m resolution. The average elevation deduction from the DEM correction was about 13.2 m for the entire basin. Basin-wide empirical formulae for channel cross-sectional geometry were adjusted based on local information for the major portion of the basin, which could significantly reduce the cross-sectional area for the channels of some subregions. The Manning roughness coefficient of the channel varied with the channel depth to reflect the general rule that the relative importance of riverbed resistance in river flow declined with the increase of river size. The entire basin was discretized into 5395 subbasins (with an average area of 1091.7 km2), which were used as computation units. The model was driven by runoff estimates of 14 years (1994 – 2007) generated by the ISBA land surface model. The simulated results were evaluated against in situ streamflow records, and remotely sensed Envisat altimetry data and GIEMS inundation data. The hydrographs were reproduced fairly well for the majority of 13 major stream gauges. For the 11 subbasins containing or close to 11 of the 13 gauges, the timing of river stage fluctuations was captured; for most of the 11 subbasins, the magnitude of river stage fluctuations was represented well. The inundation estimates were comparable to the GIEMS observations. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that refining floodplain topography, channel morphology and Manning roughness coefficients, as

  7. Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2011-06-03

    Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and

  8. Length variation of Gravity-Driven systems in the Amazon River Mouth Basin: a history of carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation and post-rift subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alberto; Gorini, Christian; Letouzey, Jean; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Reis, Tadeu; Silva, Cleverson; Le Bouteiller, Pauline; Granjeon, Didier; Haq, Bilal; Delprat-Jannaud, Florence

    2016-04-01

    This study address the post-rift sedimentary record of the Amazon River Mouth Basin with a focus on gravity tectonics. We investigate shale detachment layers and the timing of different gravity deformation phases. Our study was based on more than 20,000 km of 2D multi-channel seismic data, 4,453 km2 of 3D multi-channel seismic data and 40 exploratory well data. A reliable age model was constructed based on biostratigraphic data. Five industry wells on the shelf/upper slope region and seven scientific wells drilled by DSDP and ODP in the distal Ceará Rise region were used for platform and deep environments correlations. This allowed us to calibrate the seismic lines and compare the sedimentation rates in different domains of the basin (e.g. shelf, slope, deep basin). In the Basin's shelf a widespread carbonate sequence dated as Late Paleocene grew up over a Latest Albian to Early Paleocene prograding clastic sequence. From the Eocene to the Late Miocene a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate aggrading megasequence developed. The first gravitational deformation event took place during the Eocene. The proximal limit (normal faults) of this this gravity-deformation system occurs along the hinge line. The major and deeper detachment layer was identified within the previously deposed Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene stratigraphic sequence (Cenomanian-Turonian deep shale source rock?). Further downslope, during the same period a stack of thrust sheets was created. In the central part of the Basin, a second gravitational deformation phase took place from Late Oligocene to early Late Miocene. During this period the basal detachment layer (Late Cretaceous?) was reactivated and the frontal thrust sheet created ridges and piggy-back basins. From the Late Miocene to present time, a major increase in the siliciclastic sedimentation rates was evidenced in the axis of the modern Amazon Delta. A huge aggrading-prograding mega-sequence forced the expansion of a third gravitational system

  9. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2009-11-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  10. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  11. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

  12. Karyotype characterization and ZZ/ZW sex chromosome heteromorphism in two species of the catfish genus Ancistrus Kner, 1854 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renildo R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available We present karyotypic characteristics and report on the occurrence of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Ancistrus ranunculus (rio Xingu and Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" (rio Purus, of the Brazilian Amazon. Ancistrus ranunculus has a modal number of 2n=48 chromosomes, a fundamental number (FN of 82 for both sexes, and the karyotypic formula was 20m+8sm+6st+14a for males and 19m+9sm+6st+14a for females. Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" presented 2n=52 chromosomes, FN= 78 for males and FN= 79 for females. The karyotypic formula was 16m+8sm+2st+26a for males and 16m+9sm+2st+25a for females. The high number of acrocentric chromosomes in karyotype of Ancistrus sp. "Piagaçu" differs from the majority of Ancistrini genera studied so far, and may have resulted from pericentric inversions and translocations. The lower number of chromosomes in A. ranunculus indicates that centric fusions also occurred in the evolution of Ancistrus karyotypes. We conclude that karyotypic characteristics and the presence of sex chromosomes can constitute important cytotaxonomic markers to identify cryptic species of Ancistrus. However, sex chromosomes apparently arose independently within the genus and thus do not constitute a reliable character to analyze phylogenetic relations among Ancistrus species.

  13. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques; Caracterizacao, analise e datacao de ceramicas arqueologicas da Bacia Amazonica atraves de tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  14. Interagency Command and Control Approaches in Amazon Environment to Include, Trust, Cultural and Personal Relationship into a C2 Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    makes the interpersonal trust among the officers play a greater role than a simple institutional relationship. AMAZON BRAZILIAN CULTURE...There is a duality in the concept of warmth . The most actions of the Brazilian people are directed by the heart than by reason, and...exchange in Brazilian Amazon environment is stronglly affected by the interpersonal relationship amongthe people involved in

  15. Synthesis of the hydrogeological studies in the sedimentary basins Amazon and Solimões: the Aquifers Systems Içá-Solimões and Alter do Chão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geilson Alves Demétrio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Geological maps and stratigraphic charts of the Amazon and Solimões sedimentary basins were reviewed, emphasizing the formations Alter do Chão, Içá and Solimões, the largest reserves of fresh groundwater in these basins. The lack of information on these formations was minimized by sample probe and stratigraphic profiles of construction, lithological and geophysical water and oil wells, obtained in the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura, Urucu region, about 650 km southwest of Manaus (AM. In the Amazon Basin, the Aquifer System Alter do Chão is characterized by unconfined and confined aquifers, with transmissivity between 1.5 and 9.1 x 10-3 m2/s, indicated for public supply. In the Solimões Basin, this system is confined by Aquiclude Solimões, recovered by the I-Solimões Aquifers. The reserve is estimated as 33,000 km3. The Aquifer System Içá-Solimões, in Urucu, is unconfined-confined, with two aquifers hydraulically connected: the superficial, with top and bottom at depths near 20 and 70 m, respectively; and the deeper, between 50 and 120 m. With an outcrop area of 948,600 km2 in the Solimões Basin, the reservation of this system was estimated as 7,200 km3, less expressive than the Aquifer System Alter do Chão. The average hydrodynamic parameters were: T = 3 x 10-3 m2/s, S = 5 x 10-4 and K = 1 x 10-4 m/s, orders of magnitudes similar to those found in the aquifer Alter do Chão. Assessing the interrelationships and potential of these two regional aquifers sought to contribute to the hydrogeological knowledge in the Amazon Basin region, where researches on groundwater are still incipient.

  16. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-29

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a "galactic" form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity.

  17. Carbonate rock classification applied to brazilian sedimentary basins; Classificacao de rochas carbonaticas aplicavel as bacias sedimentares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra, Gerson Jose Salamoni [Universidade Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias de Exploracao e Producao], E-mail: gersonterra@petrobras.com.br; Spadini, Adali Ricardo [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao], E-mail: spadini@petrobras.com.br; Franca, Almerio Barros [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sedimentologia e Petrologia] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    A new classification of carbonate rocks is proposed seeking to cover the entire spectrum of their occurrence in Brazilian basins. Emphasis is given to those in oil exploration and production locations, especially since the discovery of giant oil fields in the so called Pre-Salt section. This classification is a synergy between the various existing classifications adapting or modifying some terms and introducing new names. The carbonate rocks were divided into four groups according to their depositional texture: 1) elements not bound during deposition (mudstone, wackestone, packstone, grainstone, floatstone, rudstone, bioaccumulated, breccia), 2) elements bound during deposition, or in situ (boundstone, stromatolite, arborescent stromatolite, arbustiform stromatolite, dendriform stromatolite, thrombolite, dendrolite, leiolite, spherulitite, travertine and tufa), 3) elements bound or not bound during deposition (laminite, smooth laminite, crenulated laminite); 4) unrecognized depositional texture (crystalline limestone, dolomite). (author)

  18. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  19. Correction of Interferometric and Vegetation Biases in the SRTMGL1 Spaceborne DEM with Hydrological Conditioning towards Improved Hydrodynamics Modeling in the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Pinel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon basin, the recently released SRTM Global 1 arc-second (SRTMGL1 remains the best topographic information for hydrological and hydrodynamic modeling purposes. However, its accuracy is hindered by errors, partly due to vegetation, leading to erroneous simulations. Previous efforts to remove the vegetation signal either did not account for its spatial variability or relied on a single assumed percentage of penetration of the SRTM signal. Here, we propose a systematic approach over an Amazonian floodplain to remove the vegetation signal, addressing its heterogeneity by combining estimates of vegetation height and a land cover map. We improve this approach by interpolating the first results with drainage network, field and altimetry data to obtain a hydrological conditioned DEM. The averaged interferometric and vegetation biases over the forest zone were found to be −2.0 m and 7.4 m, respectively. Comparing the original and corrected DEM, vertical validation against Ground Control Points shows a RMSE reduction of 64%. Flood extent accuracy, controlled against Landsat and JERS-1 images, stresses improvements in low and high water periods (+24% and +18%, respectively. This study also highlights that a ground truth drainage network, as a unique input during the interpolation, achieves reasonable results in terms of flood extent and hydrological characteristics.

  20. The presence of sboA and spaS genes and antimicrobial peptides subtilosin A and subtilin among Bacillus strains of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Renata Voltolini; Basso, Ana Paula; Segalin, Jeferson; Costa-Medina, Luis Fernando; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-03-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of PCR for the genes spaS and sboA as a means of identifying Bacillus strains with a potential to produce subtilin and subtilosin A. One collection strain and five Bacillus spp. isolated from aquatic environments in the Amazon basin were screened by PCR using primers for sboA and spaS designed specifically for this study. The sequences of the PCR products showed elevated homology with previously described spaS and sboA genes. Antimicrobial peptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. For all samples, the mass spectra revealed clusters with peaks at m/z 3300-3500 Da, corresponding to subtilosin A, subtilin and isoforms of these peptides. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of these strains may be associated with the production of subtilosin A and/or subtilin. The PCR used here was efficient in identifying novel Bacillus strains with the essential genes for producing subtilosin A and subtilin.

  1. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  2. A new synonym for Pristimantis luscombei (Duellman and Mendelson 1995) and the description of a new species of Pristimantis from the upper Amazon basin (Amphibia: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2014-12-12

    We consider Pristimantis achuar as junior synonym of P. luscombei, based on morphological and genetic evidence. Paratype specimens of P. luscombei are part of a new species, which lead to taxonomic confusion regarding the identity of P. luscombei. We describe and name this new species as Pristimantis miktos sp. nov. from Juyuintza, Pastaza province, eastern lowlands of Ecuador. Morphological diagnostic characters used to distinguish the new species from other brownish Amazonian Pristimantis are: (1) skin of dorsum shagreen with scattered tubercles or pustules; (2) tympanum prominent; (3) a thick X-shaped scapular dermal ridge in males; and (4) an orange iris in life. Pristimantis miktos is an inhabitant of the lowlands forests of the Pastaza and Napo drainages in eastern Ecuador and northern Loreto in Peru, reaching elevations of up to 350 m; P. luscombei is widely distributed in the upper Amazon Basin of Ecuador, northern Peru and extreme western Brazil, up to 1000 m. Phylogenetic analyses reveals that P. luscombei and the new species are not closest relatives, as also deduced from morphological evidence.

  3. The presence of sboA and spaS genes and antimicrobial peptides subtilosin A and subtilin among Bacillus strains of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Renata Voltolini; Basso, Ana Paula; Segalin, Jeferson; Costa-Medina, Luis Fernando; Brandelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of PCR for the genes spaS and sboA as a means of identifying Bacillus strains with a potential to produce subtilin and subtilosin A. One collection strain and five Bacillus spp. isolated from aquatic environments in the Amazon basin were screened by PCR using primers for sboA and spaS designed specifically for this study. The sequences of the PCR products showed elevated homology with previously described spaS and sboA genes. Antimicrobial peptides were isolated from culture supernatants and analyzed by mass spectrometry. For all samples, the mass spectra revealed clusters with peaks at m/z 3300–3500 Da, corresponding to subtilosin A, subtilin and isoforms of these peptides. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of these strains may be associated with the production of subtilosin A and/or subtilin. The PCR used here was efficient in identifying novel Bacillus strains with the essential genes for producing subtilosin A and subtilin. PMID:23569414

  4. Beyond Rewards and Punishments in the Brazilian  Amazon: Practical Implications of the REDD+  Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Gebara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through different policies and measures reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhancing conservation (REDD+ has grown into a way to induce behavior change of forest managers and landowners in tropical countries. We argue that debates around REDD+ in Brazil have typically highlighted rewards and punishments, obscuring other core interventions and strategies that are also critically important to reach the goal of reducing deforestation, supporting livelihoods, and promoting conservation (i.e., technology transfer and capacity building. We adopt Foucault’s concepts of governmentality and technologies of governance to provide a reading of the REDD+ discourse in Brazil and to offer an historical genealogy of the rewards and punishments approach. By analyzing practical elements from REDD+ implementation in the Brazilian Amazon, our research provides insights on the different dimensions in which smallholders react to rewards and punishments. In doing so, we add to the debate on governmentality, supplementing its focus on rationalities of governance with attention to the social practices in which such rationalities are embedded. Our research also suggests that the techniques of remuneration and coercion on which a rewards and punishments approach relies are only supporting limited behavioral changes on the ground, generating negative adaptations of deforestation practices, reducing positive feedbacks and, perhaps as importantly, producing only short‐term outcomes at the expense of positive longterm land use changes. Furthermore, the approach ignores local heterogeneities and the differences between the agents engaging in forest clearing in the Amazon. The practical elements of the REDD+ discourse in Brazil suggest the rewards and punishments approach profoundly limits our understanding of human behavior by reducing the complex and multi‐dimensional to a linear and rational simplicity. Such simplification leads to an

  5. Thermotectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin: Evidence from apatite fission track data of the offshore Santos Basin and continental basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann de Oliveira, Christie Helouise; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Chemale, Farid; Cupertino, José Antônio

    2016-08-01

    The Santos Basin is the largest offshore sedimentary basin in the southeastern Brazilian margin and originated by breakup of West Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous. We carried out a new thermochronological study by apatite fission track analysis from borehole samples of the Santos Basin and its continental basement to constrain the tectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin. Apatite fission track central ages of the basement and borehole samples vary from 21.0 ± 1.8 to 157.0 ± 35.0 Ma and from 6.5 ± 1.1 to 208.0 ± 11.0 Ma, respectively. From thermal modeling, the basement samples reached the maximum paleotemperatures during the final breakup of South America and Africa. The onshore basement and offshore basin record an early thermotectonic event during the Late Cretaceous linked to the uplift and denudation of the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. Maturation of the organic matter in the offshore basin is related with the progressive increase of the geothermal gradient due to burial. The thermal modeling indicates that the oil generation window started at 55-25 Ma. The basement samples experienced the final cooling during the Cenozoic, with an estimated amount of denudation linked to the sedimentary influx in the offshore basin. A rapid cooling during the Neogene becomes evident and it is linked to the reactivation along Precambrian shear zones and change of the Paraíba do Sul drainage system.

  6. Population genetic structure of Cichla pleiozona (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Upper Madera basin (Bolivian Amazon): sex-biased dispersal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Vallejos, F M; Duponchelle, F; Ballivian, J P Torrico; Hubert, Nicolas; Rodríguez, J Nuñez; Berrebi, P; Cornejo, S Sirvas; Renno, J-F

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the population structure of the Tucunaré (Cichla pleiozona) in the Bolivian Amazon (Upper Madera) by using nuclear (EPIC-PCR, 67 individuals) and mitochondrial (Control Region, 41 published and 76 new sequences) DNA analyses, in relation with ecological (water quality: muddy, clear and mix) and geographic factors. Our analyses of both markers showed the highest diversity in clear waters (Yata, Middle and Upper Iténez), and the existence of two populations in muddy waters (Sécure and Ichilo) and one in mix waters (Manuripi). On the other hand, mitochondrial analyses identified three populations in clear waters where nuclear analyses identified a panmictic population. The highest diversity observed in the Yata-Iténez system suggests that an aquatic refuge occurred during the past in this area. The possible explanations for the observed discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial markers are discussed, and a sex-biased dispersal seems to be the most plausible hypothesis in the light of the available information and field observations.

  7. Are similar the parasite communities structure of Trachelyopterus coriaceus and Trachelyopterus galeatus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) in the Amazon basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Wanderson Michel de Farias; Silva, Lenise Vargas Flores; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the parasite communities in two sympatric host populations, Trachelyopterus coriaceus andTrachelyopterus galeatus, which were caught in tributary of the Amazon River in Brazil. All the specimens of T. galeatusand T. coriaceus were infected by one or more parasites, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tripartiella tetramerii, Trichodina nobilis, Cosmetocleithrum striatuli, Contracaecumsp., Cystidicoloides sp., Dadaytremoides parauchenipteri and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. Seven species were common to both host fish, and there were 1-5 parasite species per host. In both hosts, trichodinids were dominant. Aggregate dispersion of ectoparasites and endoparasites was observed, with greater aggregation among endoparasites. Only the ectoparasites species showed differences in intensity and/or abundance. However, the parasite communities of the two hosts were taxonomically similar (99%) and characterized by high prevalence and high abundance of ectoparasites, but with low diversity, prevalence and abundance of endoparasites. Trachelyopterus galeatus, the host with the larger body size, presented greater variation of Brillouin diversity and evenness, while T. coriaceus had higher Berger-Parker dominance values and total numbers of parasites. This first study on these parasites ofT. galeatus and T. coriaceus showed that the life mode, size of the hosts and the availability of infective forms of the parasites were the main factors that influenced the parasite communities structure.

  8. A Metagenomic Perspective on Changes to Nutrient-cycling Genes Following Forest-to-agriculture Conversion in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Womack, A. M.; Rodrigues, J.; Nüsslein, K.; Bohannan, B. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-to-agriculture conversion has been shown to alter nutrient cycling and the community composition of soil microorganisms. However, few studies have looked simultaneously at how the abundance, composition, and diversity of microbial genes involved in nutrient cycling change with conversion. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to analyze soil from primary rainforest and converted cattle pasture sampled at the Fazenda Nova Vida in Rondônia, Brazil. The diversity, richness, and evenness of nutrient cycling genes were significantly higher in the pasture, and the composition of nutrient cycling communities differed significantly between land use types. These results largely mirror taxonomic shifts following Amazon rainforest conversion, which tends to increase diversity, richness, and evenness of soil microbial communities. The abundance of genes related to N cycling and methane flux differed between land use types. Methanotrophy genes decreased in abundance in the pasture, whereas methanogenesis genes were not significantly different between land use types. These changes could underlie the commonly observed shift from methane sink to source following forest-to-agriculture conversion. Multiple genes in the nitrogen cycle also differed with land use, including genes related to N-fixation and ammonification. Metagenomics provides a unique perspective on the consequences of land use change on microbial community structure and function.

  9. Hidatidose policística: relato de dois casos procedentes de Sena Madureira, Acre, na Amazônia brasileira Polycystic hydatid disease: report of two cases from the city of Sena Madureira , Acre, in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pastore

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois casos de hidatidose policística (HP são relatados, oriundos do mesmo município da região amazônica brasileira (Sena Madureira, Acre. Ambos tiveram a mesma apresentação e evolução clínica ao longo de dois anos de acompanhamento. Inicialmente os pacientes queixaram-se de dor abdominal no andar superior ou no hipocôndrio direito e apresentaram icterícia obstrutiva, febre, aumento de volume abdominal e emagrecimento. Por exame de imagem, além de esplenomegalia, cistos múltiplos e coalescentes foram detectados no fígado. Amostras de soro foram reagentes por contraimunoeletroforese. O tratamento com albendazol resultou em melhora parcial, com alívio sintomático e redução no tamanho das lesões. Este relato reforça a importância de estudos clínico-epidemiológicos da hidatidose policística na região amazônica brasileira, especialmente no município de Sena Madureira, onde outros pacientes com HP podem estar sem diagnóstico.Two cases of Polycystic hydatid disease (PH are reported from the same municipal district of the Brazilian Amazon region (Sena Madureira, Acre. Both had a similar clinical presentation and course over two years of follow-up. Initially the patients complained of pain in the right hypochondrium or upper abdomen and presented obstructive jaundice, fever, increased abdominal volume and weight loss. By image analysis, in addition to splenomegaly, multiple and coalescent cysts were detected in the liver. Serum samples were reactive by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Treatment with albendazole resulted in partial improvement, with symptomatic relief and reduction in size of the lesions. This report stresses the importance of performing clinical-epidemiological studies of polycystic hydatid disease in the Brazilian Amazon and especially in the municipality of Sena Madureira where many other cases of PH may remain undiagnosed.

  10. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress.

  11. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-01-01

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two “tipping points,” namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale “savannization” of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation—80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade—opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm—away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity—in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress. PMID:27638214

  12. Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carlos A; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S; Cardoso, Manoel

    2016-09-27

    For half a century, the process of economic integration of the Amazon has been based on intensive use of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources, which has brought significant basin-wide environmental alterations. The rural development in the Amazonia pushed the agricultural frontier swiftly, resulting in widespread land-cover change, but agriculture in the Amazon has been of low productivity and unsustainable. The loss of biodiversity and continued deforestation will lead to high risks of irreversible change of its tropical forests. It has been established by modeling studies that the Amazon may have two "tipping points," namely, temperature increase of 4 °C or deforestation exceeding 40% of the forest area. If transgressed, large-scale "savannization" of mostly southern and eastern Amazon may take place. The region has warmed about 1 °C over the last 60 y, and total deforestation is reaching 20% of the forested area. The recent significant reductions in deforestation-80% reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade-opens up opportunities for a novel sustainable development paradigm for the future of the Amazon. We argue for a new development paradigm-away from only attempting to reconcile maximizing conservation versus intensification of traditional agriculture and expansion of hydropower capacity-in which we research, develop, and scale a high-tech innovation approach that sees the Amazon as a global public good of biological assets that can enable the creation of innovative high-value products, services, and platforms through combining advanced digital, biological, and material technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in progress.

  13. Analysis of tectonic-controlled fluvial morphology and sedimentary processes of the western Amazon Basin: an approach using satellite images and digital elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzionor L. Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the tectonic controls of the fluvial morphology and sedimentary processes of an area located southwest of Manaus in the Amazon Basin was conducted using orbital remote sensing data. In this region, low topographic gradients represent a major obstacle for morphotectonic analysis using conventional methods. The use of remote sensing data can contribute significantly to overcome this limitation. In this instance, remote sensing data comprised digital elevation model (DEM acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM and Landsat Thematic Mapper images. Advanced image processing techniques were employed for enhancing the topographic textures and providing a three-dimensional visualization, hence allowing interpretation of the morphotectonic elements. This led to the recognition of main tectonic compartments and several morphostructural features and landforms related to the neotectonic evolution of this portion of the Amazon Basin. Features such as fault scarps, anomalous drainage patterns, aligned ridges, spurs and valleys, are expressed in the enhanced images as conspicuous lineaments along NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and N-S directions. These features are associated to the geometry of alternated horst and graben structures, the latter filled by recent sedimentary units. Morphotectonic interpretation using this approach has proven to be efficient and permitted to recognize new tectonic features that were named Asymmetric Ariaú Graben, Rombohedral Manacapuru Basin and Castanho-Mamori Graben.Uma investigação do controle tectônico da morfologia fluvial e dos processos sedimentares de uma área localizada a sudoeste da cidade de Manaus, na Bacia do Amazonas, foi conduzida a partir do uso de dados de sensores remotos orbitais. Nessa região, o baixo gradiente topográfico representa o principal obstáculo para a análise morfotectônica usando métodos convencionais. O uso de dados de sensores remotos pode contribuir

  14. [The people of the black waters: the Amazon caboclo of the Negro river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernando Sergio Dumas

    2007-12-01

    The article constructs a historically contextualized description of the people who live along the Negro river, a Brazilian affluent in the Amazon basin. Drawing on information about the daily social experience of the participants from the dawn of the twentieth century through the mid-1990s, the processes by which the population and communities took shape are identified. On the Negro river, contact between Brazilian society and the autochthonous, catechized indigenous groups living there was determinant in shaping the territory's caboclo identity. Starting in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, this nomenclature took root and entered the popular lexicon. Extractivist activities played a major role in spreading the term, within a context where the predominant social relations derived from the 'cultura do barracão'.

  15. Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (R2 and mefloquine (R3 in Brazilian Amazon region Resistência do Plasmodium vivax pela cloroquina (R2 e mefloquina (R3 na amazônia Brasileira