WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian aids programme

  1. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  2. The Brazilian programme for labelling photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco Antonio; Lima, Jorge Henrique [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcoag@cepel.br; Novgorodcev, Alexandre [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (PBE/INMETRO), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa Brasileiro de Etiquetagem; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Zanesco, Izete; Moehlecke, Adriano [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Krenzinger, Arno [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir de Faro [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A great increase in the installation of stand-alone PV systems for rural electrification is expected in Brazil for the next years due to a government program named Luz para Todos. However, there is a major concern for the quality of the equipment and systems to be acquired and installed, which led to an initiative, coordinated by INMETRO - Brazilian Institute for Metrology, Standardisation and Industrial Quality (Instituto Brasileiro de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial), joining several institutions to establish a programme for labelling these equipment. The adopted requirements are discussed in the present article. (author)

  3. [HIV/AIDS infection. The Brazilian view. AIDS in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A P; De Sa, C A; Rubini, N

    1996-01-01

    The Ministry of Health coordinates and orients in Brazil all the activities concerning the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is officially designated as AIDS. The first AIDS' case registered in Brazil was, by retrospective diagnosis, in 1981 but it was in 1982 that the first two diagnosis in live patients were made. The incidence is very high in this country that is among the ones where the higher number of cases are being registered. The great majority of the Brazilian cases occurs in the cities and in direct proportion to the population index. The groups of risk are the same universally known and a comparative increase of heterosexual transmission is noted, chiefly due to the use of injectable drugs and bisexuality of the male partners. Another problem that is being increased is pediatric AIDS, with raising importance of perinatal transmission as well as the use of injectable drugs and precocious prostitution in adolescence. The transfusional and haemophilic AIDS have proportionally decreased due to the control of blood products. The control and the orientation activity of the Ministry of Health is directed to varied points such as: compulsory cases notification, cooperation between public and private sectors, preventive and sexual orientation, freely delivered medication and laboratory tests including sigilous tests, lay and technical personnel preparation, diversified informative and educational campaigns. Trial tests with anti-HIV vaccines have begun to be performed. Multiple Reference Centers were officially established by the administration. Among them is to be quoted the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée Guinle of Rio de Janeiro where the authors work. It is credited for its intensive activity and pioneerism. In this Institution special attention was due against discrimination of HIV-infected patients, to diagnosis, to anonymous and sigilous tests, to medical and psychological assistance, to myocardium involvement, to the virologic study of the

  4. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  5. Targeting International Food Aid Programmes: The Case of Productive Safety Net Programme in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Azadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has experienced more than five major droughts in the past three decades, leading to high dependency on international food aids. Nevertheless, studies indicate that asset depletion has not been prevented; neither did food insecurity diminish. Since 2004/5, the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP has been implemented to improve food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Critics point out that the implementation of food aid programmes can have negative impacts as well as positive outcomes for local communities. Accordingly, this survey study aimed to analyse the distribution and allocation of food aids in the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP in Tigray. Results of 479 interviews revealed that targeting different households in the PSNP has been considerably linked to socio-demographic attributes among which age and size of family were decisive factors to receive food aids. Furthermore, older households with smaller family size received more direct support. Inequality between genders was another major finding of this study. When combined with the marital status, there was also a big difference in the percentage of married or unmarried women receiving food aids. These findings could provide fundamental information for policy intervention to correct food security programmes at household level and reduce hunger. Given that, socio-demographic factors can help to identify particular and usually different requirements, vulnerabilities and coping strategies of the members of the food aid programme, so that they can be much more addressed when an emergency happens.

  6. the keiskamma aids treatment programme: evaluation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-16

    Mar 16, 2009 ... is a community-based service designed to cater for all those in need of ARVs. This includes people living with. HIV/AIDS who are too sick or too poor to access facility- ... system. Effective treatment programmes must address the needs of the communities .... model of ARV distribution can be effective in rural.

  7. Information literacy: perceptions of Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Bastos, Francisco I; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Barros, Cláudia Renata; Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2014-03-01

    Information literacy has evolved with changes in lifelong learning. Can Brazilian health researchers search for and use updated scientific information? To describe researchers' information literacy based on their perceptions of their abilities to search for and use scientific information and on their interactions with libraries. Semi-structured interviews and focus group conducted with six Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers. Analyses comprised the assessment of researchers as disseminators, their interactions with librarians, their use of information and communication technology and language. Interviewees believed they were partially qualified to use databases. They used words and phrases that indicated their knowledge of technology and terminology. They acted as disseminators for students during information searches. Researchers' abilities to interact with librarians are key skills, especially in a renewed context where libraries have, to a large extent, changed from physical spaces to digital environments. Great amounts of information have been made available, and researchers' participation in courses does not automatically translate into adequate information literacy. Librarians must help research groups, and as such, librarians' information literacy-related responsibilities in Brazil should be redefined and expanded. Students must develop the ability to learn quickly, and librarians should help them in their efforts. Librarians and researchers can act as gatekeepers for research groups and as information coaches to improve others' search abilities. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PRODEEM - the Brazilian programme for rural electrification using photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdino, Marco A.; Lima, Jorge H.G. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: marcoag@cepel.br, jlima@cepel.br

    2002-07-01

    This work describes several technical and managerial aspects of the Brazilian PRODEEM Program, which comprises installation of thousands of PV systems for several applications in Brazilian outback. The equipment were acquired through international bidding and CEPEL was specially concerned about the its quality and lifespan, as well as about the correct sizing of the systems. The purpose of this work is to present a history and the technical experience obtained by CEPEL after several years of involvement in PRODEEM activities. (author)

  9. Poor diet quality among Brazilian adolescents with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Fiengo Tanaka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess diet quality among adolescents with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving patients with HIV/AIDS treated in a referral hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-eight adolescents (10-19 years of age participated in the study. Information on disease history and use of medication were obtained from medical records. The participants responded to two 24-hour diet recalls. Diet quality was assessed by means of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 adapted to the Brazilian population. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. Mean HEI-2005 scores were compared according to the independent variables using either the Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The mean HEI-2005 score was 51.90 (SE = 0.90. The components with the lowest means were whole grains and sodium. Components with highest means were total grains and oils. No correlations were found between the independent variables and HEI score. Adolescents living in foster homes had higher means for total fruit and lower means for meat and beans in comparison to adolescents living with their families. Girls had higher means for milk and lower means for calories from solid fats, alcoholic beverages, and added sugars in comparison to boys. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with HIV/AIDS exhibited a similar eating pattern to that of adolescents in the general population: high consumption of added sugar, saturated fat, and sodium, and insufficient ingestion of whole grains and fruits. Special attention should be paid to the diet of adolescents with HIV/AIDS, who are at greater risk of developing cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.

  10. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng; ZHANG Kong-lai; SHAN Guang-liang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism.Methods Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project.Results In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P<0.001),and some indices of the villagers' behavior using condoms improved after the intervention. But this improvement was poorer than that in the women group. In the Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P<0.001).Conclusion The results suggested that the Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms,but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  11. Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

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    Luciana Mourão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Over the last seven years many evaluations of the programme have been conducted, allowing an overview of its results and its strong and weak points to be mapped. Five central aspects relating to the programme are discussed in article five: (1 programme access, (2 hunger fighting results, (3 programme financial impacts, (4 conditioning factors of education and health, (5 supplementary programs and social mobility. The results of scientific research were presented for each of these aspects, and any of these believed to be convergent or divergent were discussed. As a general result it was concluded that the programme has generated significant results for the country, but there are still some issues that need to be reviewed, such as conditioning factors and the integrated management of the programme.

  12. Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mourao (Luciana); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in

  13. Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mourao (Luciana); A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant) Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Ove

  14. "Our way" : responding to the Dutch aid in the District Rural Development Programme of Bukoba, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanzi, A.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about the relationship between donors and aid recipients in bilateral development cooperation programmes. Using the example of the Dutch District Rural Development Programmes (DRDPs) in Bukoba, Tanzania, it examines the processes in which the aid beneficiaries are engaged, so that they

  15. Blood, sweat and semen: the economy of axé and the response of Afro-Brazilian religions to HIV and AIDS in Recife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luis Felipe; Oliveira, Cinthia; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of Afro-Brazilian religious responses to the HIV epidemic in Recife. Drawing on participant observation and in-depth interviews conducted with Afro-Brazilian religious leaders and public health officials, it highlights the importance of the axé--a mystical energy manipulated in religious rituals that is symbolically associated with blood, sweat and semen. In an analysis of the relationship formed between the state AIDS programme and Afro-Brazilian religious centres, we conclude that the recognition of native categories and their meanings is one of the key elements to a fruitful dialogue between public health programmes and religious leaders that in the case studied, resulted in the re-signification of cultural practices to prevent HIV. Although the Afro-Brazilian religious leaders interviewed tended to be more open about sexuality and condom promotion, stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) was still present within the religious temples, yet appeared to be more centred upon the perception of HIV as negatively affecting followers' axé than judgement related to how one may have contracted the virus. We discuss the tensions between taking a more liberal and open stance on prevention, while also fostering attitudes that may stigmatise PLHIV, and make suggestions for improving the current Afro-Brazilian response to the epidemic.

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Nelisiwe Maleka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA. Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour

  17. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleka, Elma Nelisiwe

    2017-12-01

    There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA). Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour. The selected

  18. Drawing AIDS : Tanzanian teachers picture the pandemic. Implications for re-curriculation of teacher education programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Lange, Naydene; Wood, Lesley; Mkumbo, Kitila

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explain how we engaged teachers in creating their own representations of HIV and AIDS in Tanzania as a starting point for re-curriculation of the undergraduate teacher education programme...

  19. PROGRAMME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEASUREMENT OF SURVIVAL IN A PRIVATE. SECTOR HIV/AIDS DISEASE ... during the first 4 years of the programme was published in 2003.' The purpose of this ... that their scheme offers a Dl\\/IP, and must be willing to disclose their HlV ...

  20. Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Ramos, Sueli de Lima; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Currently, the Brazilian government has certificated nearly 140 specialized centers in hearing aid fittings through the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Remote fitting through the Internet can allow a broader and more efficient coverage with a higher likelihood of success for patients covered by the SUS, as they can receive fittings from their own homes instead of going to the few and distant specialized centers. Aim: To describe a case of remote fitting between 2 cities, with revision of the literature. Method: Computer gears, a universal interface, and hearing aids were used. Case study: An audiologist located in a specialized center introduced a new hearing aid and its fitting procedure to a remote center (200 km away). The specialized center helped the remote center in fitting a hearing aid in 2 patients, and performed fitting in one of its own patients. The whole process was done through the Internet with audio and video in real time. Results: Three patients were fitted remotely. Three audiologists were remotely trained on how to fit the hearing aids. Conclusions: Remote fitting of hearing aids is possible through the Internet, as well as further supplying technical training to a remote center about the fitting procedures. Such a technological approach can help the government advance public policies on hearing rehabilitation, as patients can be motivated about maintaining their use of hearing aids with the option to ask for help in the comfort of their own homes. PMID:25991960

  1. The impact of socio-economic status on incidence of AIDS cases in Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Godoy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have devoted attention to the issue of the importance of social indicators in disease reduction. The objective of this paper is to analyze the statistical association between the reported AIDS cases and some socioeconomic variables. We analyzed a sample of 1,994 Brazilian municipalities with AIDS cases reported in 1991 and 2000. The variables analyzed are: AIDS incidence rate per capita, illiteracy rate, Gini Index, per capita income, access to electricity and television, life expectancy at birth. The approach used in this study was econometric panel data model. The results of this analysis show that socioeconomic variables are important for understanding the incidence of AIDS cases in Brazil, and are important for the design of public policies to combat the increasing incidence of HIV / AIDS, also show a distinct pattern to found in the literature for African countries.

  2. Implementation of a comprehensive AIDS education programme for schools in Masaka District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J; Harrison, S; Kengeya-Kayondo, J; Kanyesigye, E; Musoke, S; Whitworth, J

    1999-10-01

    As part of a large IEC (Information, Education and Communication)/STD intervention trial, a 19-lesson, comprehensive school-based AIDS education programme was implemented and evaluated in 50 primary and 16 secondary schools in 12 parishes of Masaka District, Uganda. A series of three teacher-training and evaluation workshops spread over a year was held in each parish, between which teachers implemented the programme in the classroom. One hundred and forty-eight teachers were trained and about 3,500 students were subsequently exposed to the programme. Both teachers and students responded positively, which suggests that this type of programme has much to offer young people who attend school. However, some problems were encountered: language, programme content, community resistance to teaching about condoms, and several practical issues. Proposed solutions include flexibility with the English language policy, alternative approaches to role play activities, targeting influential individuals with information about the need for young people to learn about safer sex, and a parallel community-based IEC programme to facilitate community acceptance of the need for the programme. In addition, implementation may be incomplete unless comprehensive AIDS education is fully incorporated into the curriculum, and properly examined. These findings are placed in the context of other life skills/AIDS education programmes being introduced both in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa.

  3. HIV/AIDS in childhood and adolescence. Trends in Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the theme HIV/AIDS in childhood and adolescence, its characteristics and trends, in Brazilian scientific production between 1983 and 2010. Methodology. Review of 121 quantitative and qualitative descriptive studies. Results. 81% of the production comes from the South-East/South of the country. In the 1980's, a balance is observed between experience reports (50% and research (50%. Seventy percent of the papers were produced between 2003 and 2010. The most frequent theme analyzed with regard to childhood was care delivery (75%, against prevention in adolescence (72%. Studies related to HIV/ AIDS in emphasized clinical-epidemiological aspects (70%, while sociocultural studies predominated for the adolescent period (90%, with a preventive trend. Conclusion. The scientific production under analysis is coherent with the Brazilian policy to cope with the epidemic and addresses all care levels related to this public health problem.

  4. HIV/AIDS Researchers Interaction with Schoolteachers: A Key to Combat AIDS among Brazilian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Simone; de Castro, Fabiola Attie; de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that information on HIV/AIDS is a strategy for disease control, this project was planned to provide comprehensive information about HIV infection and AIDS to schoolteachers and their students. Previous analysis of adolescent students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS showed that they still have doubts about transmission, diagnosis, and…

  5. HIV/AIDS Researchers Interaction with Schoolteachers: A Key to Combat AIDS among Brazilian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Simone; de Castro, Fabiola Attie; de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that information on HIV/AIDS is a strategy for disease control, this project was planned to provide comprehensive information about HIV infection and AIDS to schoolteachers and their students. Previous analysis of adolescent students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS showed that they still have doubts about transmission, diagnosis, and…

  6. HIV/AIDS programmes: what do learners want?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The literature reveals that parental deaths reduce children's self- esteem and increase the incidence of depression, anxiety, behavioural ..... appraisal. United Kingdom: Save the Children. Smart R 2003. Children affected by HIV/AIDS in South ...

  7. Multicenter Brazilian Study of Oral Candida Species Isolated from Aids Patients

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    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be considered the most common opportunistic disease in Aids patients. This study was designed to investigate species distribution, serotype and antifungal susceptibility profile among Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of Aids patients recruited from six Brazilian university centers. Oral swabs from 130 Aids patients were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium and 142 isolates were recovered. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and serotyped using the Candida Check® system-Iatron. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the NCCLS microbroth assay. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (91%, and 70% of the isolates belonged to serotype A. We detected 12 episodes of co-infection (9%, including co-infection with both serotypes of C. albicans. Non-albicans species were isolated from 12 episodes, 50% of them exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Otherwise, only 8 out 130 isolates of C. albicans exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Brazilian Aids patients are infected mainly by C. albicans serotype A, most of them susceptible to all antifungal drugs.

  8. A programmable sound processor for advanced hearing aid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, H

    1998-03-01

    A portable sound processor has been developed to facilitate research on advanced hearing aids. Because it is based on a digital signal processing integrated circuit (Motorola DSP56001), it can readily be programmed to execute novel algorithms. Furthermore, the parameters of these algorithms can be adjusted quickly and easily to suit the specific hearing characteristics of users. In the processor, microphone signals are digitized to a precision of 12 bits at a sampling rate of approximately 12 kHz for input to the DSP device. Subsequently, processed samples are delivered to the earphone by a novel, fully-digital class-D driver. This driver provides the advantages of a conventional class-D amplifier (high maximum output, low power consumption, low distortion) without some of the disadvantages (such as the need for precise analog circuitry). In addition, a cochlear implant driver is provided so that the processor is suitable for hearing-impaired people who use an implant and an acoustic hearing aid together. To reduce the computational demands on the DSP device, and therefore the power consumption, a running spectral analysis of incoming signals is provided by a custom-designed switched-capacitor integrated circuit incorporating 20 bandpass filters. The complete processor is pocket-sized and powered by batteries. An example is described of its use in providing frequency-shaped amplification for aid users with severe hearing impairment. Speech perception tests confirmed that the processor performed significantly better than the subjects' own hearing aids, probably because the digital filter provided a frequency response generally closer to the optimum for each user than the simpler analog aids.

  9. Goat-based aid programme in Central Java: An effective intervention for the poor and vulnerable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budisatria, I.G.S.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a goat-based aid programme developed to facilitate the recovery of vulnerable people in an earthquake affected area in Central Java, Indonesia. Farmers, organised in farmers’ groups, received a package of one male and four female goats. In total, 72 farmers from 6 farmers’ group

  10. Auditory performances of a 3-4-7 programmable numeric filter hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouard, C H; Ouayoun, M; Meyer, B; Coudert, C; Sequeville, T; Bachelot, G; Génin, J

    1997-01-01

    We designed a non-portable prototype seven-filter digital auditory hearing aid. For each of the filters, frequency bandwidth, amplification and compression were programmable in order to adapt these parameters to the deaf patient's audiometric characteristics. We compared the hearing improvement it was possible to obtain either with the three-analogue filter auditory prosthesis Triton 3004 hearing aid from Siemens or with our prototype as a function of the number of filters (three, four or seven) and their frequency bandwidth programmability. We tested 21 patients suffering from moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. This study allowed us to demonstrate that a seven programmable-width filter strategy seems to be more effective than the present analogue T004 device. Further studies with improvement of our prototype and finer audiometric adjustment of filter strategies, together with long-term clinical studies, need to be carried out.

  11. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Steenkamp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes.Motivation for the study: Given the abundance of HIV and AIDS information, the question is whether these workplace programmes’ efforts are still relevant.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative descriptive study design was used using a self-administered questionnaire covering questions about KAPB with regard to HIV and AIDS. The data collection took place in seven automotive supplier companies in South Africa (n = 733 who were going to implement HIV and AIDS workplace programmes with the support of the Automotive Industry Development Centre in the Eastern Cape.Main findings: High-risk behaviour, as indicated by sexual relations with more than one partner in the last 12 months, occurred in between 12% (management and 42% (cleaners of employees. All risk behaviour indicators showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between management and administrative staff on the one hand and technicians, operators and cleaners on the other. Despite being aware of an HIV policy, more than 50% of employees indicated that they would not be willing to disclose their status.Practical/managerial implications: As HIV and AIDS risk behaviour and stigma remain a problem, HIV infection with associated health problems may threaten productivity in the automotive industry if no measures are taken to address the impact on employees and the company.Contribution: This study strongly supports the conclusion that KAPB studies can still provide important information to tailor HIV workplace

  12. Integrating eHealth in HIV/AIDS intervention programmes in South Africa

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    Babasile D. Osunyomi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With an estimated 12.2% of its population infected in 2012, South Africa has the highest percentage of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the mortality rate of the epidemic is decreasing, it has adverse impacts on the socio-economic development status and human capital of South Africa.Objective: The key aim of this article is to explore the status quo of the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in selected intervention programmes in the South African HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. The contribution of this article is the mapping of key intervention activities along an HIV care value chain and to suggest a roadmap towards the integration of ICTs in service delivery programmes.Method: 20 managers of HIV/AIDS intervention programmes were surveyed, followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews with these respondents. A further five in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in the ICT area for exploring the uses of and barriers to integrating ICTs in the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain.Results: The researchers mapped the barriers to implementation and ICT tools utilised within the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain, which proves to be a useful tool to explore the status quo of technology in such service delivery programmes. The researchers then considered the wider policy environment and provided a roadmap based on the analysis and the South Africa eHealth strategy for driving development in this sector.Conclusion: The authors found that South Africa’s eHealth environment is still nascent and that the South African eHealth strategy does not place enough emphasis on systems integration and stakeholder engagement or the planning and process of uptake of ICTs by target audiences.

  13. Opportunistic illnesses in Brazilian children with AIDS: results from two national cohort studies, 1983-2007

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    Heukelbach Jorg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAART has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity in children. However, limited evidence is available from developing countries regarding patterns of opportunistic illnesses. We describe these events and their associated factors in children with AIDS in Brazil. Methods This study is based on two representative retrospective multi-center cohorts including a total 1,859 children with AIDS, infected via mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, between 1983-2002. Opportunistic illnesses were described and analyzed over time. The association of demographic, clinical and operational data with the occurrence of opportunistic diseases was assessed. Results In total, 1,218 (65.5% had at least one event of an opportunistic disease. Variables significantly associated with occurrence of these events included: region of residence (OR 2.68-11.33, as compared to the Northern region, age Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (21.9 vs. 13.2%; p Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in recent years, opportunistic illnesses are still common in Brazilian children with AIDS in the HAART era, especially bacterial diseases. The data reinforce the need for scaling up prevention of MTCT, early diagnosis of infection, and improvement of comprehensive pediatric care.

  14. HIV/AIDS patient satisfaction with a food assistance programme in Sofala province, Mozambique.

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    Posse, Mariana; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the main factors affecting access and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in middle- and low-income countries. To mitigate this problem, food assistance interventions are being integrated in ART programmes. As evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed, evaluating their implementation is important. We measured the satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients with a food assistance programme in Sofala province in Mozambique. This was an observational study that used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. HIV/AIDS patients receiving food assistance took part in focus group discussions (FDGs) and completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their opinions about the programme. Data were analysed using content and factor analysis, percentages of the maximum attainable scores (PMAS) and regression. Patients were satisfied with food assistance and rated it well above 60% of PMAS. Four factors were identified as underlying factors of satisfaction with food assistance. From these factors, patients were satisfied with 2, product availability and the distribution process, and rated these above 60%. They were dissatisfied with the other 2, quantity of products and the enrolment period, and rated these below 60%. From the four factors, only the distribution process was significantly associated with satisfaction with food assistance (p = 0.001). Satisfaction and the helpfulness of food assistance in adherence to ART, as perceived by patients, were significantly associated (p food assistance. Programme managers should focus on the distribution process, quantity of products and enrolment period to further improve satisfaction of patients receiving food assistance.

  15. Spiritual support for people living with HIV/AIDS: a Brazilian explorative, descriptive study.

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    Caixeta, Camila Roberto da Costa Borges; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Pedro, Iara Cristina da Silva; Rocha, Semiramis Melani Melo

    2012-12-01

    In this exploratory and descriptive research, we identified the meaning of religion and spirituality in the experience of patients at a public health service for treatment of HIV/AIDS in a Brazilian upcountry town. Eight participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The emerging themes were religion: a path to support, and God is everything. Religion, as a path that leads patients to different sources of support, included exploration of different churches, acknowledgment of guilt, and finding strength to cope with the disease, rationalization of the disease process, meeting other churchgoers, and finding God and faith. God, an important source of support, was present in prayers, in the belief in healing through faith, and in the feeling of comfort and relief. Because spirituality and religion were seen as important sources of support, in this study we that health professionals include these aspects in care planning.

  16. Increasing leadership capacity for HIV/AIDS programmes by strengthening public health epidemiology and management training in Zimbabwe

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    Hader Shannon L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased funding for global human immunodeficiency virus prevention and control in developing countries has created both a challenge and an opportunity for achieving long-term global health goals. This paper describes a programme in Zimbabwe aimed at responding more effectively to the HIV/AIDS epidemic by reinforcing a critical competence-based training institution and producing public health leaders. Methods The programme used new HIV/AIDS programme-specific funds to build on the assets of a local education institution to strengthen and expand the general public health leadership capacity in Zimbabwe, simultaneously ensuring that they were trained in HIV interventions. Results The programme increased both numbers of graduates and retention of faculty. The expanded HIV/AIDS curriculum was associated with a substantial increase in trainee projects related to HIV. The increased number of public health professionals has led to a number of practically trained persons working in public health leadership positions in the ministry, including in HIV/AIDS programmes. Conclusion Investment of a modest proportion of new HIV/AIDS resources in targeted public health leadership training programmes can assist in building capacity to lead and manage national HIV and other public health programmes.

  17. [Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS in the Brazilian context, 1998 and 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sandra; Koyama, Mitti Ayako Hara

    2008-06-01

    To identify discriminatory attitudes in two moments of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the occurrence of possible changes. The Intention of Discrimination Index was obtained by scoring 1 for discriminatory situations or 0, when the opposite was the case. Intention of discrimination ranges were established by means of the clustering technique, and made compatible between the 1998 and 2005 surveys. Mean comparisons, chi-square test and ordered logit adjusted regression models were used to verify association between the index and socio-demographic variables. Between the 1998 and 2005 surveys, there was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of people who answered "yes" to anti-HIV test's being mandatory in the following cases: admission for employment, before getting married, when joining the military service, drug users, foreigners entering the country, sex professionals, and for all the people. To have lower level of education, to be female, to live in the North/Northeast regions of Brazil, and to be aged over 45 years are factors associated with higher intention of discrimination level. The growth of intention of discrimination shows that information about ways of AIDS transmission and non-transmission still needs to be better planned and promoted, especially among populations that have lower level of education, live in the North/Northeast regions, are female and aged over 45 years.

  18. Objectives and Actual HIV and AIDS Education Programme Delivery and Behavioral Changes among Kenyan Secondary School Students

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    Ongunya, R. O.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Although there seems to be a high level of awareness of the HIV and AIDS menace among the youth, their behavior does not reflect this level of awareness. There seems to be a mismatch between HIV and AIDS Programme objectives and behavior change among the youth. However, this level of mismatch has not been established for effective intervention…

  19. Traditional healers, HIV/AIDS and company programmes in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David

    2008-11-01

    This paper explores the organisational structures of traditional healers, outlines their explanations of HIV/AIDS, and discusses how they can be integrated with company programmes. The South African Traditional Health Practitioners Act seeks to register, regulate and promote traditional healers, but its ability to do this depends on strong, formalised associations of traditional healers. The different forms of traditional healer groupings in South Africa are described along with the implications that their organisational structure has for knowledge, competition and service standards. Traditional healers' diverse and fluid beliefs about HIV and AIDS are explained together with ways in which cooperation between companies, allopathic medicine and African traditional healing practices could be promoted in workplace responses to HIV/AIDS. It is suggested that such collaboration should focus on 'windows of compatibility' rather than on overall agreement. Moreover, it is argued that any response to HIV/AIDS must be embedded within a wider set of agreements, the most critical being a genuine process of referral between the traditional and allopathic healthcare systems. Companies are in a strong position to initiate such reforms, and this would support the professionalisation of traditional healers as well as help coordinate a wider and more effective response to the HIV epidemic in South Africa.

  20. Constructing Hope: a Multi-Agency Programme model for Young Sex Offenders living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas P. Boer; Dario Dosio

    2007-01-01

    Many young sex offenders in South Africa have HIV/AIDS. This fact both complicates and underlines the importance of delivering effective multi-agency sex offender programmes to these individuals. Reducing reoffending rates is of obvious importance, as stopping these young offenders from offending also means limiting the spread of HIV to new victims. We are proposing an integrative programme that incorporates proven models of sex offender treatment in combination with medical, educational and ...

  1. AIDS e doenças oportunistas transmissíveis na faixa de fronteira Brasileira AIDS and transmissible opportunistic diseases in the Brazilian border area

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    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2010-10-01

    AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area. METHODS: Brazilian border area municipalities were grouped into three cultural regions; the source data was AIDS cases registered with the Ministry of Health from 1990 to 2003, which were classified according to CDC-adapted, Rio de Janeiro/Caracas and death criteria; detected communicable opportunistic diseases were categorized into groups according to transmission: 1 inhalation agent; 2 contaminated water and/or food ingestion, and 3 interpersonal contact. The descriptive evaluation considered cultural region, years of schooling, sex and age group. RESULTS: Different AIDS incidence patterns were observed among groups of opportunistic diseases in each cultural region. The extreme southern region showed the greatest incidence of AIDS; the absolute incidence of female cases was greatest in the category of heterosexual transmission; the number of male cases was greatest among intravenous drug users; transmission was most frequent in the interpersonal contact group, particularly incidences of candidiasis; tuberculoses and pneumonias were most frequent in the inhalation agent transmission group; the contaminated water/food ingestion transmission group showed an unchanged pattern of absolute incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian border area is a very important and heterogeneous geographic phenomenon; AIDS programs must recognize different cultural geographies.

  2. Handbook for Peer Educators and Community Mobilisers Conducting HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes in the Informal Sector Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagimu, Majid; Karama, Said; Mbabazi, Jackson; Mularira, Grace N.; Nakawuka, Minah; Kityo, Tom; Ssengonzi, Robert; Ssentongo, Chris; Walakira, Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as a resource to be used by peer/community educators and mobilisers conducting HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in the informal sector workplaces and surrounding communities in Uganda. The handbook provides basic information on a range of topics on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections that can be used by…

  3. [The impact of conditional cash transfers on health status: the Brazilian Bolsa Familia Programme].

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    Rivera Castiñeira, Berta; Currais Nunes, Luis; Rungo, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Conditional cash transfers are becoming the standard approach to reducing poverty levels; the Brazilian Bolsa Familia Program, in particular, is the largest program of this kind, and the evaluation of its impact allows for drawing some interesting conclusions, which may apply to other countries. In this paper, the lack of positive results in terms of both health status and modification of unhealthy habits is underlined. Among different causes, which are discussed here, the existence of barriers on the supply side appears as the most important limitation for obtaining better results. The positive impact of this program on both education and poverty reduction however, allows for predicting improvements in health status in the long run.

  4. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  5. An implementation evaluation of a voluntary counselling and testing programme for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

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    Tarryn N. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employee wellness programmes have become standard interventions in mostorganisations. In South Africa, these programmes invariably contain an element to addressthe problem of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome (AIDS in the workplace.Research purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess whether or not a VoluntaryCounselling and Testing (VCT programme for HIV and AIDS, at a South African university,was implemented as intended.Motivation for the study: The evaluators were motivated to explore indications in the existingliterature about these programmes that participants in VCT programmes are often not theintended target population who live a high risk lifestyle.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive design was used to evaluate serviceutlisation, service delivery and organisational support. Questionnaire data from 285respondents who participated in the programme and programme records supplied by theprogramme staff were consulted to answer the evaluation questions.Main findings: The evaluation showed that the highest uptake for the programme occurredamongst female students. The low uptake amongst men was a concern. It was found that theprogramme was delivered as intended and that there were enough resources to implement itaccording to standards set.Practical/managerial implications: The systematic report on the programme process providedthe programme managers with practical suggestions for programme improvement.Contribution/value-add: This was the first implementation evaluation of a VCT programme ina South African university context. As such it aimed to educate programme managers to thinkevaluatively about introducing new or continuing existing programmes.

  6. Consultative Seminar Develops Action Programmes for AIDS Prevention Education in Schools.

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    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Outlined are the technical briefings on the global overview of the HIV/AIDS predicament, the modes of disease transmission, the global distribution of HIV/AIDS, and the social impact of the epidemic among the countries in Asia which participated in the World Health Organization/UNESCO-sponsored AIDS consultative seminar on AIDS prevention…

  7. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R

    2011-06-01

    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants.

  8. DESIGNING OF COMPUTER AIDED AND USER INTERACTIVE CNC PART PROGRAMME FOR A MILLING MACHINE

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    M. Ali DÖNERTAŞ

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a user–interactive computer programme generating CNC part programme according to dialog method has been developed. The design of programme has been prepared like a CAM programme structure. The part programme was established by required parameters asking to the user with a specific order. Subsequently, this parameters are used to create M and G codes, and these codes are showed at a different page on the screen. In addition, these code pages can be stored with "txt" format. This program includes basic processes and the programme design has been prepared for milling machine working according to Fanuc system. The computer programme was written by using Delphi 6 programming language.

  9. [The fight against AIDS among adolescent girls: the impact of the 2003 Carnival campaign by the Brazilian Ministry of Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Mauro Pereira

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched a nationwide campaign aimed at promoting condom use by adolescent girls. The "Carnival Campaign" was broadcast on television and radio from February 16 to March 3 and targeted adolescent girls (13-19 years), a group which had shown an increase in the number of cases of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The MoH hired Kelly Key, a Brazilian pop singer, to star the television and radio ads and deliver the campaign message. One of the objectives was to empower girls and encourage them not to be ashamed of purchasing condoms or of demanding that their partners use them. The article presents the results of a nationwide survey with 1,006 adolescent girls in 86 municipalities, sponsored by the MoH. The results show that campaign materials reached the main target public and were evaluated in a very positive light. Finally, the survey data show that the Carnival Campaign had important effects, stimulating discussions in the adolescent social environment and reinforcing positive attitudes towards condom use.

  10. Growth patterns and scaling laws governing AIDS epidemic in Brazilian cities

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    Antonio, F J; Teixeira, J J V; Mendes, R S

    2014-01-01

    Brazil holds approximately 1/3 of population living infected with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Central and South Americas, and it was also the first developing country to implement a large-scale control and intervention program against AIDS epidemic. In this scenario, we investigate the temporal evolution and current status of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Specifically, we analyze records of annual absolute frequency of cases for more than 5000 cities for the first 33 years of the infection in Brazil. We found that (i) the annual absolute frequencies exhibit a logistic-type growth with an exponential regime in the first few years of the AIDS spreading; (ii) the actual reproduction number decaying as a power law; (iii) the distribution of the annual absolute frequencies among cities decays with a power law behavior; (iv) the annual absolute frequencies and the number of inhabitants have an allometric relationship; (v) the temporal evolution of the annual absolute frequencies have different profi...

  11. PCR Assay Using Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Brazilian AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E.; Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system in AIDS patients. However, neurological abnormalities still remain important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. For these reasons, early, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests must be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA, and to determine if the association of PCR with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We studied two sample groups. First, we analyzed stored CSF samples from 29 newborns and from 39 adults with AIDS without a definitive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The goal of this step was to standardize the methodology with a simple and economical procedure to recover the T. gondii DNA. Next, we prospectively evaluated CSF samples from 12 AIDS patients with a first episode of cerebral toxoplasmosis and 18 AIDS patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases and without previous cerebral toxoplasmosis. In all PCR samples, an indirect immunofluorescent assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. Samples from all patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis presented positive PCR results (sensitivity, 100%), and a sample from one of the 18 AIDS patients with other neurological diseases also presented positive PCR results (specificity, 94.4%). These findings suggest the clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in developing countries. PMID:15472338

  12. Assessing behavioural intention of small and medium enterprises in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme

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    A. Parsadh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs are likely to feel the impact of an HIV/AIDS epidemic through reduced productivity and an increased percentage of absenteeism; staff turnover; recruitment and training costs; cost of employee benefits; and poor staff morale. One of the interventions is to implement an HIV/AIDS policy and programme, yet a literature search showed that psychological studies of SMEs in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme are limited. The present study utilised the model of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1988, 1991, which is an extension of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. The intention to implement an HIV/AIDS policy and programme was predicted by the theory of planned behaviour constructs such as attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The theory of planned behaviour was found to have limited use in assessing behavioural intention of SMEs in implementing an HIV/AIDS policy and programme. Opsomming Die uitwerking van die MIV/VIGS pandemie op Klein en Medium Sake-ondernemings sal tot gevolg hê ’n afname in produktiwiteit; ’n toename in personeelafwesigheid, personeelomset, personeelwerwing en –opleidingskoste, personeelvoordele; en swak personeel moraal tot gevolg hê. Een manier om die probleem aan te spreek is om ’n MIV/VIGS beleid en program te implimenteer. Navorsing toon dat psigologiese studies van klein en medium sakeondernemings om ’n HIV/VIGS beleid en program te implimenteer, beperk is. Hierdie navorsing steun op die teorie van planmatige gedrag (Ajzen, 1988; 1991, wat ’n verlenging is van die teorie van beredeneerde optrede (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980. Die oogmerk met die implimentering van ’n MIV/VIGS beleid en program is bepaal deur die teorie van planmagtige gedrag soos waargeneem in houding, subjektiewe norme en waargenome gedragskontrole. Die resultate toon dat die teorie van planmagtige gedrag

  13. A novel activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutation in Brazilian patients with hyper-IgM type 2 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratão, Nadine; Cortesão, Catarina S; Reis, Pedro H; Freitas, Raquel F; Jacob, Cristina M A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Barreto, Vasco M

    2013-08-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a DNA editing protein that plays an essential role in three major events of immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification: somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and Ig gene conversion. Mutations in the AID gene (AICDA) have been found in patients with autosomal recessive Hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome type 2. Here, two 9- and 14-year-old Brazilian sisters, from a consanguineous family, were diagnosed with HIGM2 syndrome. Sequencing analysis of the exons from AICDA revealed that both patients are homozygous for a single C to G transversion in the third position of codon 15, which replaces a conserved Phenylalanine with a Leucine. To our knowledge, this is a new AICDA mutation found in HIGM2 patients. Functional studies confirm that the homologous murine mutation leads to a dysfunctional protein with diminished intrinsic cytidine deaminase activity and is unable to rescue CSR when introduced in Aicda(-/-)stimulated murine B cells. We briefly discuss the relevance of AICDA mutations found in patients for the biology of this molecule.

  14. [Gender, human rights and socioeconomic impact of AIDS in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010.

  15. Comprehensive Characterization of HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology and Demographic History in the Brazilian Region Most Heavily Affected by AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Fritsch, Hegger; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Maletich Junqueira, Dennis; Esteves de Matos Almeida, Sabrina; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The high incidence of AIDS cases and the dominance of HIV-1 subtype C infections are two features that distinguish the HIV-1 epidemic in the two southernmost Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul [RS] and Santa Catarina [SC]) from the epidemic in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, previous studies on HIV molecular epidemiology were conducted mainly in capital cities, and a more comprehensive understanding of factors driving this unique epidemic in Brazil is necessary. Blood samples were collected from individuals in 13 municipalities in the Brazilian southern region. HIV-1 env and pol genes were submitted to phylogenetic analyses for assignment of subtype, and viral population phylodynamics were reconstructed by applying Skygrid and logistic coalescent models in a Bayesian analysis. A high prevalence of subtype C was observed in all sampled locations; however, an increased frequency of recombinant strains was found in RS, with evidence for new circulating forms (CRFs). In the SC state, subtype B and C epidemics were associated with distinct exposure groups. Although logistic models estimated similar growth rates for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) and HIV-1B, a Skygrid plot reveals that the former epidemic has been expanding for a longer time. Our results highlight a consistent expansion of HIV-1C in south Brazil, and we also discuss how heterosexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) transmission chains might have impacted the current prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in this region. IMPORTANCE The AIDS epidemic in south Brazil is expanding rapidly, but the circumstances driving this condition are not well known. A high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C was reported in the capital cities of this region, in contrast to the subtype B dominance in the rest of the country. This study sought to comparatively investigate the HIV-1 subtype B and C epidemics by sampling individuals from several cities in the two states with the highest AIDS incidences in Brazil. Our

  16. Good adherence to HAART and improved survival in a community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programme: the experience of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO, Kampala, Uganda

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    Kalyango Joan N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART may result in treatment failure and death. Most reports of the effect of adherence to HAART on mortality come from studies where special efforts are made to provide HAART under ideal conditions. However, there are few reports of the impact of non-adherence to HAART on mortality from community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programmes in developing countries. We therefore conducted a study to assess the effect of adherence to HAART on survival in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO community HAART programme in Kampala, Uganda. Methods The study was a retrospective cohort of 897 patients who initiated HAART at TASO clinic, Kampala, between May 2004 and December 2006. A total of 7,856 adherence assessments were performed on the data. Adherence was assessed using a combination of self-report and pill count methods. Patients who took ≤ 95% of their regimens were classified as non-adherent. The data was stratified at a CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. Kaplan Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used in the analysis. Results A total of 701 (78.2% patients had a mean adherence to ART of > 95%. The crude death rate was 12.2 deaths per 100 patient-years, with a rate of 42.5 deaths per 100 patient-years for non-adherent patients and 6.1 deaths per 100 patient-years for adherent patients. Non-adherence to ART was significantly associated with mortality. Patients with a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm3 had a higher mortality (HR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.22–5.56 compared to patients with a CD4 count equal to or greater than 50 cells/mm3 (HR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.79–2.38. Conclusion Our study showed that good adherence and improved survival are feasible in community HIV/AIDS programmes such as that of TASO, Uganda. However, there is need to support community HAART programmes to overcome the challenges of funding to provide sustainable supplies particularly of

  17. Weight and height of people living with HIV/AIDS attended by the Brazilian National Health System

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    Katia Cristina Bassichetto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA is related to morbidity and mortality and its monitoring is important in the maintenance of the health status. This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Brazilian National Health System in the Municipality of São Paulo. It describes anthropometrical characteristics: weight and height; indices of weight for height (W/H, height for age (H/A, body mass index for age (BMI/A and Z score for height and weight. The study includes 772 participants from all ages: children, adolescents, adults and elderly. The graphical analysis shows that in under-5s and in the 5 to 19 years old group, the W/H, the H/A and the BMI/A curves are similar to the reference population with an exception in the H/A for 5 to 19 years old group which is left-shifted (mean Z = -0.66. In the case of adults, graphics for the study population show median weight apparently lower than in the reference population for most age groups in the case of men, and when age is greater in women. The proportion of people over 20 years old with AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy is lower when coinfection is present (p < 0.001. The findings of the study showed that, for children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS, the average weight and height are lower than the values for non infected population. For adults and elderly, the weight average is lower than the reference population with a worsening among coinfected patients. This underscores the need to direct more effort in nutritional actions thus helping enhance the health status of this group.

  18. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

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    Rashmi Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP. Methods: The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results: The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77 per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions: The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in

  19. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rashmi; Bogg, Lennart; Shet, Anita; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the

  20. Formulating Rural Development Programmes to Aid Low-Income Farm Families

    OpenAIRE

    Findeis, Jill L; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.

    1989-01-01

    Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...

  1. Brazilian afforestation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nock, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    A review which includes analyses of: rates of forest destruction/afforestation; location of major afforestation projects; tree species used (in relation to relative importance; ages at thinning/final felling; m.a.i.); and coordination between afforestation and the forest products industry in Amazonia. Major tree species considered include Araucaria angustifolia, Pinus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Gmelina arborea and Paulownia spp. (Refs. 17)

  2. Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/ AIDS attended in a Brazilian Teaching Hospital

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    Lilian Andreia Fleck Reinato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/AIDS under inpatient treatment in a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. METHOD: a cross-sectional study undertaken in two units specialized in attending people living with HIV/AIDS, in the period August 2011 - July 2012. Socio-demographic and clinical data was collected through individual interviews and from the medical records; samples of nasal secretion were collected with Stuart swabs on the first day of inpatient treatment. Ethical aspects were respected. RESULT: of the 229 individuals with HIV/AIDS hospitalized in this period, 169 participated in the study, with Staphylococcus aureus being identified in the culture tests of 46 (27.2% of the individuals, resistance to oxacillin being evidenced in 10 (21.8% participants. CONCLUSION: the results of the research indicate that the prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/AIDS in the specialized units was considered relevant, possibly contributing to future investigations and, moreover, to the implementation of measures to prevent and control this pathogen in this population.

  3. Male Adolescents' View on Sexual Activity as Basis for the Development of Aids-Prevention Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Hester; Myburgh, Chris P.H.; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2005-01-01

    The world regards AIDS as the most disastrous health threat in the world. HIV/AIDS- related issues amongst adolescents were initially neglected due to the visible impact of this pandemic on babies and adults. Adolescents' behavior is however regarded as high-risk because of their involvement in sexual activities from a young age. The purpose of…

  4. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  5. Process Evaluation of the Teacher Training for an AIDS Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine; Jansen, Shahieda; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a process evaluation of a 6-day teacher training programme which forms part of a sexuality education project. The training aimed at providing teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively teach a 16-lesson Grade 8 (14 year olds) life skills curriculum consisting of participatory exercises on sexual…

  6. Evaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region with the aid of infrared thermography

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    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of dairy goats with aid of infrared thermography in the environmental conditions of the Brazilian semiarid region. Were used 36 female goats, with a mean of 2.5 years and an average weight of 45 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design 2 x 2 in a factorial arrangement; two genotypes (Anglo Nubian and Alpine Brown and two shifts (morning and afternoon, with 18 repetitions. Analysis of variance showed that the shift had significant effect (P<0.05 on rectal temperature (RT, average surface temperature (AST and thermal gradients, but the breed had no significant effect (P>0.05 and there was no significant interaction between breed and shift. With respect to physiological parameters: respiratory rate (RR and surface temperature of the muzzle of cinnamon there was significant effect of breed and shift and significant interaction between breed and shift (P<0.05. Positive correlations between physiological parameters and room temperature and negative correlation between thermal gradients and more parameters. The Anglo Nubian breed had become more adapted to the semi-arid environmental conditions representing a good alternative for breeding programs. The Alpine breed increased respiratory effort required to dissipate heat and maintain homeothermy, proving to be more demanding regarding system creation and management in the semi-arid climatic conditions.

  7. Advanced earth observation spacecraft computer-aided design software: Technical, user and programmer guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, C. E.; Krauze, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The IDEAS computer of NASA is a tool for interactive preliminary design and analysis of LSS (Large Space System). Nine analysis modules were either modified or created. These modules include the capabilities of automatic model generation, model mass properties calculation, model area calculation, nonkinematic deployment modeling, rigid-body controls analysis, RF performance prediction, subsystem properties definition, and EOS science sensor selection. For each module, a section is provided that contains technical information, user instructions, and programmer documentation.

  8. Aid programmes in eastern Europe. Can we learn from Third World experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G

    1995-06-01

    This article opens for debate and discussion the topic of how health-care professionals in the UK can contribute to the improvement of health in developing countries and learn from the process. In 1994, the 50th anniversary of the Bretton Woods agreement which established the World Bank, British and European government aid agencies had substantial funds to support projects aimed at developing countries. Today, the challenges of working in developing countries to create a modern health infrastructure are being mimicked in the newly-independent countries of eastern Europe. Thus, lessons learned in developing countries can be applied to Europe, although huge challenges remain as do questions about the direction of aid programs, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The Western perception is that the provision of aid also provides ways for individuals to supplement their income through schemes that would be considered corrupt in the West. In order to draw useful conclusions from the African experience, it must first be recognized that the situation has improved recently and also that practices viewed as corrupt in the West may simply be the way of doing business in Third World countries. Justification for replacing commission-based systems of local aid with modern management techniques rests in the efficiency of the modern systems. It may be a form of neocolonialism simply to impose Western values on other cultures. The upcoming efforts in eastern Europe will also challenge heretofore unquestioned assumptions about the way we do things. The most pressing challenges will arise from the sheer magnitude of the need to provide health care in an atmosphere which engenders apathy towards inadequate services. We must learn from our successes and recognize that without our aid efforts, millions of people, particularly women and children, would have suffered and died.

  9. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF A BRAZILIAN AIDS PATIENT WITH PROTRACTED DIARRHEA CAUSED BY Enterocytozoon bieneusi

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    Patrícia BRASIL

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidian parasite that causes gastrointestinal infection in persons with AIDS. Microsporidia are increasingly recognized as important opportunistic pathogens all over the world but in Brazil only few cases have been reported due either to the non awareness of the clinical presentation of the disease or to difficulties in the laboratory diagnosis. We report a 3-year follow-up of a Brazilian HIV-positive patient in whom microsporidial spores were detected in stools and were identified as E. bieneusi using electron microscopy and PCR. The patient presented with chronic diarrhea, CD4 T-lymphocytes count below 100/mm3 and microsporidial spores were consistently detected in stools. Albendazole was given to the patient in several occasions with transient relief of the diarrhea, which reappeared as soon as the drug was discontinued. Nevertheless, a diarrhea-free period with weight gain up to 18 Kg occurred when a combination of nucleoside and protease inhibitors was initiated as part of the antiviral treatment.Enterocytozoon bieneusi é o mais comum microsporídio agente de infecções gastrointestinais que ocorre predominantemente em pessoas com AIDS. Em todo o mundo os microsporídios são reconhecidos como importantes patógenos oportunistas, entretanto poucos casos já foram diagnosticados no Brasil, provavelmente devido ao pouco conhecimento do quadro clínico que os agentes produzem ou a dificuldades no diagnóstico laboratorial. No presente trabalho relatamos o caso de um paciente brasileiro HIV-positivo acompanhado durante 3 anos, em que foram detectados esporos de microsporídios nas fezes, identificados como Enterocytozoon bieneusi por microscopia eletrônica e PCR. O paciente apresentava diarréia crônica, contagem de linfócitos CD4 abaixo de 100/mm3 e fez uso de albendazol em diferentes ocasiões com melhora transitória da diarréia, que reaparecia logo que a droga era suspensa

  10. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  11. The effects of conditional cash transfer programmes on adult labour supply: an empirical analysis using a time-series-cross-section sample of brazilian municipalities

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    Miguel Nathan Foguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the effects of the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT programmes in Brazil on the labour supply of adult males and females. We employ the panel of municipalities that are continuously investigated by the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD/IBGE over the years 2001-2005. The effects of the Brazilian CCT programmes are estimated both on the participation rate and the mean number of hours worked. Since PNAD does not ask directly surveyed families about CCT programme participation, we use an indirect procedure to identify beneficiary families. Our results indicate that the effects of interest are not significant both on statistical grounds and in terms of magnitude.Neste trabalho, estimamos os efeitos dos Programas Condicionais de Transferência de Renda (PCTR, no Brasil, sobre a oferta de trabalho de mulheres e homens adultos. Para tanto, utilizamos o painel de municípios que são continuamente cobertos pela Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD/IBGE durante o período entre 2001 e 2005. Os efeitos dos PCTR brasileiros são estimados tanto sobre a taxa de participação quanto sobre o número médio de horas trabalhadas. Como a PNAD não investiga diretamente a participação das famílias em PCTR, utilizamos um procedimento indireto para identificar as famílias beneficiárias desses programas. Nossos resultados indicam que os efeitos de interesse não são significativos tanto do ponto de vista estatístico como em termos de magnitude.

  12. Kaposi’s sarcoma in Brazilian AIDS patients: a study of 144 cases Sarcoma de Kaposi em pacientes com AIDS: estudo de 144 casos

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    Esther G. BIRMAN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-four Brazilian AIDS patients presenting with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS were evaluated with respect to the frequency of oral neoplasms and their clinical features. The majority of the patients were young male adults (age range: 21-40 years old, from which 11.1 % presented with oral KS (OKS exclusively. Oral and skin lesions were associated in 25% of the cases, while only four patients showed association between oral and visceral KS; 49.3% of the cases were exclusively dermatological. The hard palate was the main site affected, followed by the oropharynx. The localization of KS was found to be similarly frequent in the tongue, gingiva and other sites of the oral mucosa. Candidosis was the prevailing fungal disease; in 20% of the cases it was restricted to the oral mucosa and in 80% it was systemic. No high frequency of paracoccidioidomicosis and cryptococcosis was detected. The prevailing bacterial disease was Tuberculosis and there was only one case of syphilis. Among the viral diseases, the most frequently detected was herpes simplex, followed by molusco contagiosum, condiloma acuminatum and cytomegaloviroses at lower frequencies. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystes carinii and toxoplasmosis were also identified. The authors emphasise the importance of oral examination in HIV-infected patients bearing in mind several aspects related especially to KS, and stress the need for an interdisciplinary team in the management of these patients, in order to provide better quality of life as well as rapid diagnosis and treatment.Foram estudados pacientes brasileiros portadores de SIDA apresentando sarcoma de Kaposi (SK. O perfil de idade mostrou um grupo com média de idade entre 21 e 40 anos, sendo que 11,1% da amostra apresentava SK exclusivamente na cavidade bucal, observando-se em 25% da amostra uma associação de lesões bucais e na pele. Somente quatro pacientes apresentaram associação de lesões bucais e viscerais, enquanto 49

  13. Strengthening pre-service training for skilled birth attendance - An evaluation of the maternal and child health aide training programme in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan A; Sam, Betty; Bull, Florence; James, Margaret; Ameh, Charles A; van den Broek, Nynke R

    2016-06-01

    The high maternal mortality rate in Sierra Leone combined with an ongoing shortage of midwives has led to the introduction of new cadres of healthcare workers. Maternal and Child Health Aides are one such cadre and now provide 56% of patient care. The quality of the education training programme for MCHA is therefore of paramount importance if high quality maternal care is to be provided. To conduct an evaluation of the MCHAide training programme in Sierra Leone. Mapping of programme and focus group discussions (FGDs) with key informants. Analysis of data using a thematic approach and formulation of recommendations for national, district and individual levels. All 14 MCHAide schools across Sierra Leone. The National Coordinator, Coordinators from 14 MCHAide schools and District Health Sisters from District Health Management Teams. Focus group discussions were held with tutors facilitated by a group member to encourage a free flowing discussion. Participants were divided into 4 groups, one for each province, with 5-8 participants per group and 50min for the discussion. Strengths, weaknesses and opportunities of the MCHAide training programme were identified. Four major themes were identified; the need for autonomy and support within the programme from stakeholders; the effect of poor infrastructure on teaching and student learning; the need to ensure rigorous academic quality including teaching quality, curricula content and the academic ability of the students; and the benefits of community support. It is important that the key personnel be involved in the development and introduction of training programmes for new cadres of staff from the earliest stages of development. On-going programme review and development is essential and those implementing the programme are the best placed to lead and contribute to this. Gathering the experiences and perceptions of key informants helps provide an in-depth examination that can inform recommendations. Copyright © 2016 The

  14. Análise dos padrões de difusão espacial dos casos de AIDS por estados brasileiros Analysis of spatial diffusion patterns for AIDS cases in some Brazilian States

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    Paulo Roberto Telles Pires Dias

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Ações preventivas ainda são essenciais ao controle da epidemia de AIDS; contudo, programas de prevenção eficazes dependem da distribuição correta e eficiente dos recursos de saúde. Assim, informações acerca de onde, quando, com que intensidade e como se difundirá a epidemia são valiosos. Este estudo visou obter melhor compreensão do processo de difusão espacial dos casos de AIDS em quatro Estados brasileiros. Tais padrões foram avaliados qualitativamente - estudo de mapas seqüenciais - e quantitativamente - análise de correlogramas espaciais - ao longo de dez anos, agrupados em três períodos: 1987-1989, 1990-1992 e 1993-1996. O processo de difusão foi estudado para o total de casos de AIDS e para os do sexo feminino e masculino. De modo geral, houve difusão significativa dos casos de AIDS nos períodos, mas o processo exibiu características específicas a cada Estado. As informações obtidas - em especial, os resultados da análise de correlogramas - permitem entender melhor os padrões de difusão espacial da epidemia em diferentes partes do País e podem ser empregadas para fixar parâmetros a outros modelos epidemiológicos da AIDS.Despite new improvements in AIDS treatment, preventive measures are still essential to control the epidemic. Effective programs almost always depend on correct and efficient allocation of scarce health resources. Detailed information on the epidemic, such as where, when, and how the epidemic will spread are of great value. This study was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the dissemination of AIDS cases in four important Brazilian States. Spatial diffusion patterns were evaluated qualitatively by studying sequential maps and quantitatively by analyzing spatial correlograms. Ten years were analyzed, grouped in three periods (1987-1989, 1990-1992, and 1993-1996. The diffusion process was studied for both total AIDS cases and male and female cases. Diffusion of AIDS cases presented

  15. CMV retinitis screening and treatment in a resource-poor setting: three-year experience from a primary care HIV/AIDS programme in Myanmar

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    Tun NiNi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a neglected disease in resource-poor settings, in part because of the perceived complexity of care and because ophthalmologists are rarely accessible. In this paper, we describe a pilot programme of CMV retinitis management by non-ophthalmologists. The programme consists of systematic screening of all high-risk patients (CD4 3 by AIDS clinicians using indirect ophthalmoscopy, and treatment of all patients with active retinitis by intravitreal injection of ganciclovir. Prior to this programme, CMV retinitis was not routinely examined for, or treated, in Myanmar. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Between November 2006 and July 2009, 17 primary care AIDS clinicians were trained in indirect ophthalmoscopy and diagnosis of CMV retinitis; eight were also trained in intravitreal injection. Evaluation of training by a variety of methods documented high clinical competence. Systematic screening of all high-risk patients (CD4 3 was carried out at five separate AIDS clinics throughout Myanmar. Results A total of 891 new patients (1782 eyes were screened in the primary area (Yangon; the majority of patients were male (64.3%, median age was 32 years, and median CD4 cell count was 38 cells/mm3. CMV retinitis was diagnosed in 24% (211/891 of these patients. Bilateral disease was present in 36% of patients. Patients with active retinitis were treated with weekly intravitreal injection of ganciclovir, with patients typically receiving five to seven injections per eye. A total of 1296 injections were administered. Conclusions A strategy of management of CMV retinitis at the primary care level is feasible in resource-poor settings. With appropriate training and support, CMV retinitis can be diagnosed and treated by AIDS clinicians (non-ophthalmologists, just like other major opportunistic infections.

  16. An assessment of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and associated risky behavior among inmates of Kaduna convict prison: the implications for Prevention Programmes in Nigerian Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitu, K; Iliyasu, Z; Joshua, I A

    2009-01-01

    Prisoners worldwide have a significantly higher prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite this, little is known of inmates' knowledge, behaviour and access to services, especially in developing countries. This study assessed the characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and associated risky behavior among inmates of a prison in northern Nigeria. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 374 inmates of Kaduna convict prison in northern Nigeria. Information was elicited on their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude and indulgence in risky behaviour. About 96.1% of the inmates had heard about AIDS. Majority of them (70%) were ignorant of the causative agent; however, knowledge of route of disease transmission was high, with 91%, 67% and 46.7% of inmates mentioning sexual activity, unscreened blood transfusion and sharing unsterilized blades, respectively. They listed abstinence, faithfulness, use of condoms, new needles, syringes and blades as protective measures. Overall, 39.5%, 48.7% and 11.8% of the respondents had good, fair and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS, respectively. Only 64 (14.9%) inmates reported having sexual intercourse in prison. These sexual encounters were homosexual in 56.2% of cases and heterosexual in 43.8% of cases. Only 28 (43.8%) of the sexually active inmates claimed to have used condoms regularly. Respectively, 72.3% and 70.8% of inmates shared barbing clippers and razor blades. There was a strong association between educational attainment and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (2 = 28.3 df = 6 P < 0.0001). Although more than two thirds of the inmates had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS, there were gaps, misconceptions and high-risk behaviour. Well-designed information, education an communication (IEC) programmes on AIDS should be developed for inmates of prisons nationwide.

  17. Effectiveness of an online SUpport PRogramme (SUPR) for older hearing aid users: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janine FJ Meijerink; Marieke Pronk; Bernadette Paulissen; Birgit I Witte; Bregje van der Wouden; Vera Jansen; Sophia E Kramer

    2017-01-01

    ... (care as usual, 34 practices) and hearing aid fitting including SUPR (36 practices). The aim was to recruit a total of 569 older (aged 50+ years) first-time (n=258) and experienced (n=311) HAUs and their CPs...

  18. The Perceived Impact Of The PPTCT Programme On The Management Of Parent To Child HIV And AIDS Transmission A Case Study Of Chikuku Hospital

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    Mashamba Tarashika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was carried out to investigate the perceived impact of the PPTCT programme on the management of parent-to-child HIV and AIDS transmission in Chikuku rural hospital community in Bikita district. A case study was used. A sample of ten expecting couples on Chikuku PPTCT programme and ten expecting mothers who were not on Chikuku PPTCT but attending ANC there participated in the study. Five professional counsellors also participated. Questionnaires and the interviews were used as data collection instruments. The data collected was analysed and interpreted using descriptive statistics and narratives. Tables were used to present the data and each question was analysed. The general findings agree with the reviewed literature as reflected that awareness and knowledge of PPTCT services and knowledge of its benefits was common but there were certain hurdles that need to be overcome in implementing and utilising them effectively. The clarion call is to review and reorganise the existing polices and current approaches in increasing PPTCT service uptake in communities similar to the study area. Recommendations were also made for programme implementers and policy makers in respect of the research findings in order to plan for the future.

  19. AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa

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    Chu Kathryn M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is an important, life-threatening opportunistic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. In western countries, the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and new chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in decreased incidence and improved prognosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. In African cohorts, however, mortality remains high. In this study, we describe disease characteristics and risk factors for mortality in a public sector HIV programme in South Africa. Methods We analysed data from an observational cohort study of HIV-infected adults with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, enrolled between May 2001 and January 2007 in three primary care clinics. Paper records from primary care and tertiary hospital oncology clinics were reviewed to determine the site of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome stage, and treatment. Baseline characteristics, cART use and survival outcomes were extracted from an electronic database maintained for routine monitoring and evaluation. Cox regression was used to model associations with mortality. Results Of 6292 patients, 215 (3.4% had AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Lesions were most commonly oral (65% and on the lower extremities (56%. One quarter of patients did not receive cART. The mortality and lost-to-follow-up rates were, respectively, 25 (95% CI 19-32 and eight (95% CI 5-13 per 100 person years for patients who received cART, and 70 (95% CI 42-117 and 119 (80-176 per 100 person years for patients who did not receive cART. Advanced T stage (adjusted HR, AHR = 5.3, p Patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma presented with advanced disease and high rates of mortality and loss to follow up. Risk factors for mortality included advanced Kaposi's sarcoma disease and lack of chemotherapy use. Contributing factors to the high mortality for patients with AIDS

  20. Poder inteligente: a questão do HIV/AIDS na política externa Brasileira Smart power: the issue of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giacomelli da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor discute a faceta internacional da política brasileira sobre HIV/AIDS e sua relação com outras áreas da política externa, como propriedade intelectual e direitos humanos. Para isso, utiliza-se dos conceitos de Joseph Nye Jr. de soft power e hard power. Este reflete a capacidade de um ator fazer com que outros sigam sua posição, mesmo contra a vontade. Aquele consiste na capacidade de um ator atrair outros livremente para sua posição. O ensaio analisa a importância, nas relações internacionais, dos meios de comunicação, das ONGs, da opinião pública e das instituições interestatais, que não somente possuem soft power próprio, mas também desempenham papel relevante no fortalecimento do soft power dos países. O autor avalia a influência desse tipo de poder nas relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, bem como em foros multilaterais como as Nações Unidas e a Organização Mundial do Comércio. O artigo analisa, igualmente, o papel do hard power nas relações internacionais e avalia por que os países não podem dispensá-lo. Embora o soft power venha de fato tornando-se cada vez mais importante nos últimos anos, a combinação dos dois tipos de poder continua sendo a política mais correta a ser seguida. A política externa brasileira de HIV/AIDS constitui exemplo ilustrativo.The paper discusses the international facet of the Brazilian policy on HIV/AIDS and its connection to other areas of foreign relations, such as intellectual property rights and human rights. In so doing, it takes into account Joseph Nye Jr. concepts of soft and hard power. The latter reflects the capacity of making others follow one's position, albeit against their will. The former consists in the capacity of freely attracting others to one's position. The author analyses the importance of the media, the nongovernmental organizations, the public opinion, and the international institutions in foreign affairs. Not only do they possess soft

  1. An evaluation of a morphine public health programme for cancer and AIDS pain relief in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Harding Richard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing HIV and cancer prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO advocacy for a public health approach to palliative care provision, opioid availability is severely limited. Uganda has achieved a morphine roll-out programme in partnership with the Ministry of Health. This study aimed to evaluate that programme by identifying challenges to implementation that may inform replication. Methods A multi-methods protocol appraised morphine regulation, storage, prescribing, and consumption in three phases: key informant interviews throughout the opioid supply chain, and direct observation and audit of clinical practice. Results Regulation had achieved its goal of preventing misuse and leakage from the supply chain. However, the Government felt that relaxation of regulation was now appropriate. Confusion and complexity in storage and authorisation rules led to discontinuation of opioid pain management at the patient level and also wasted service time in trying to obtain supplies to which they were entitled. Continued neglect to prescribe among clinicians and public fear of opioids led to under prescribing, and clinical skills showed some evidence of need for improvement with respect to physical assessment and follow-up. Conclusion The Ugandan programme offers a successful model for both advocacy and Governmental support in achieving opioid roll-out across health districts. Despite initial concerns, abuse of opioids has not been evident. Further work is required to ensure that available supplies of opioids are prescribed to those in need, and that clinical standards are met. However, the programme for roll-out has proved a useful model to expand opioid availability as the first step in improving patient care, and may prove a useful template for other Sub-Saharan African countries.

  2. The Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS School-Based Sexual Health Education Programmes in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaugo, Lucky Gospel; Papadopoulos, Chris; Ochieng, Bertha M. N.; Ali, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the most important public health challenges facing Nigeria today. Recent evidence has revealed that the adolescent population make up a large proportion of the 3.7% reported prevalence rate among Nigerians aged 15-49 years. School-based sexual health education has therefore become an important tool towards fighting this problem.…

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus and cervical lesions among women living with HIV/AIDS in Brazilian Amazon, Brazil

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    Leila da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection infection and cervical lesions and its associated factors among HIV infected women attending an AIDS clinic in Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus between March and December 2011 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a standardized interview including demographical, behavioral, and clinical data. Additionally, patients underwent a gynecological evaluation with collection of cervical samples for cytological analysis and high-risk human papillomavirus infection hybrid capture. A blood sample was also obtained to determine CD4 and viral load levels. RESULTS: A total of 310 (82.9% women participated in the study. High-risk human papillomavirus infection was detected in 191 (61.6% cases; 24 (13.5% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL and 4 (2.2% high-grade SIL. No invasive cervical cancer was diagnosed. Median age was 32 (interquartile range (IQR: 27-38 years and median of education was 8.5 (IQR 4-11 years of schooling and 56.1% had a monthly income up to US$180. In multivariate analysis, being less than 30 years old [OR = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2-2.4,p = 0.005], high-grade SIL [OR = 6.5 (95% CI: 1.6-23.0, p = 0.009], and CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p < 0.001] were associated with high risk human papillomavirus infection infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study high-risk human papillomavirus infection was frequent and it was associated to high-SIL. These results show the importance of gynecologic examinations in routine care and follow-up required by those who present with cervical lesions.

  4. Manifestações orais em pacientes com AIDS em uma população brasileira Oral manifestations in HIV - infected patients in a Brazilian population

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    Lélia Batista de SOUZA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados l00 pacientes HIV+/AIDS no Hospital Giselda Trigueiro - Natal/RN, Brasil no período de l996-97 quanto a presença de manifestações orais nestes pacientes. Setenta e quatro pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 26 do feminino. A idade média dos pacientes do sexo masculino foi 40 anos, variando de 24 a 67 anos e no feminino 29,8 anos variando de 17 a 48 anos. As manifestações orais mais freqüentes foram candidíase (homens - 79,7%; mulheres - 80,7%, gengivite e periodontite (homens - 79,7%; mulheres - 73,0%, leucoplasia pilosa (homens - 6,7%; mulheres - 3,8%, herpes labial (homens - 5,4%; mulheres - 7,6%, sarcoma de Kaposi (homens - 6,7%.Verificou-se que 62,2% dos homens eram homo- ou bissexuais e 100% das mulheres eram heterossexuais. Nossos resultados revelam semelhanças com outros trabalhos realizados em pacientes de outras regiões do mundo.One hundred HIV+/AIDS Brazilian patients (74 men and 26 women were examined in the Giselda Trigueiro Hospital, in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil in the period from l996 to 1997. The men’s mean age was 40 years, ranging from 24 to 67 years and the women’s was 29.8 years, ranging from 17 to 48 years. One or more oral findings were observed in theses patients. The most common oral lesions were candidiasis (men - 97.2%; women - 80.7%, gingivitis and periodontitis (men - 79.7%; women - 7.3%, hairy leukoplakia (men - 6.7%; women - 3.8%, herpes simplex (men - 5.4%; women - 2.7%, and Kaposi’s sarcoma (men - 6.7%. From the men, 62.1% were homo-/bisexual, and 100% of the women were heterosexual.

  5. Programmable Calculators and Minicomputers in Agriculture. A Symposium Exploring Computerized Decision-Making Aids and Their Extension to the Farm Level. Proceedings of a Symposium (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 6-7, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Ernest, Ed.

    Ten papers presented at a symposium discuss the array of computerized decision-making aids currently available to farmers and ways to speed up the rate of adoption of computers by agriculturalists. Topics presented include the development of software for agricultural decision-making; the role of programmable calculators and minicomputers in…

  6. Estigma, discriminação e HIV/Aids no contexto brasileiro, 1998 e 2005 Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS in the Brazilian context, 1998 and 2005

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    Sandra Garcia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de atitudes discriminatórias em dois momentos da epidemia brasileira de HIV/Aids e possíveis mudanças ocorridas. MÉTODOS: O Índice de Intenção de Discriminação foi obtido por pontuação, somando 1 para situações de discriminação ou 0, para o caso contrário. As faixas de intenção de discriminação foram estabelecidas por meio da técnica de cluster, compatibilizadas entre os estudos de 1998 e 2005. Para verificar associação entre o índice e as variáveis sociodemográficas, utilizou-se comparações de médias, teste qui-quadrado, e modelos ajustados de regressão logito ordenado. RESULTADOS: Houve redução estatisticamente significante na proporção de pessoas entre as pesquisas de 1998 e 2005 que responderam sim à obrigatoriedade do teste anti-HIV para: a admissão no emprego, antes do casamento, ingresso nas forças armadas, usuários de drogas, entrada de estrangeiros no país, profissionais do sexo e para todas as pessoas. Possuir menor escolaridade, ser do sexo feminino, ter acima de 45 anos e residir na região Norte/Nordeste são fatores associados ao maior nível de intenção de discriminação. CONCLUSÕES: O crescimento da intenção de discriminação mostra que as informações sobre formas de transmissão e não transmissão da Aids ainda necessitam de melhor elaboração e divulgação, principalmente entre as populações de menor escolaridade, residentes nos estados do Norte/Nordeste, do sexo feminino e pertencentes à faixa etária acima de 45 anos.OBJECTIVE: To identify discriminatory attitudes in two moments of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the occurrence of possible changes. METHODS: The Intention of Discrimination Index was obtained by scoring 1 for discriminatory situations or 0, when the opposite was the case. Intention of discrimination ranges were established by means of the clustering technique, and made compatible between the 1998 and 2005

  7. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa

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    Maseapo P. Mthobeni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South African communities are still greatly affected by the high rate of infection with HIV or who are living with AIDS, mirrored in the 2008 overall national HIV prevalence of 29.3%(UNAIDS 2010:10. In addressing the challenge, the health system is dependent on community care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers based in the communities are the ones with first-hand information on what is needed for the success of health promotion programmes. This study, aimed at exploring the challenges faced by the health promoters, described their perceptions regarding a health promotion programme for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS. Data were collected on the purposively selected participants at the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa and the research question: ‘What is your perception regarding health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS’ was asked and discussed by participants in a focus group interview. Data were analysed using the adapted Tesch method to organize and isolate the main categories, sub-categories and themes. The following main categories were isolated: attitudes of adolescents, effectiveness of home visits, need for health education and limited resources. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that health care planners assist in the improvement of health promotion and education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, including young people, to access the information.Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskappe word steeds grootliks beïnvloed deur die hoë vlak van MIV en vigs, soos weerspieël in die algehele nasionale MIV-syfer in 2008 van 29.3% (UNAIDS 2010:10. In die aanspreek van hierdie uitdaging is die gesondheidstelsel afhanklik van gemeenskapsorgwerkers om gesondheidsbevordering

  8. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda: high-risk groups not targeted by food aid programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Smedemark, Siri Aas; Ovuga, Emilio; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance System aged 15 years and older were considered eligible. Trained field assistants collected anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and administered questionnaires with information on sociodemographic characteristics, food security, smoking and alcohol. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index. In total, 2062 men and 2924 women participated and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of underweight was 22.3% for men and 16.0% for women, whereas the prevalence of overweight was 1.5% for men and 7.6% for women. In men, underweight was associated with younger (15-19 years) and older age (>55 years) (P < 0.001), being divorced/separated [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-2.99] and smoking (OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.67-2.73). For women, underweight was associated with older age (P < 0.001) and hungry-gap rainy season (May-July) (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04-1.69). Widowed or divorced/separated women were not more likely to be underweight. No association was found between education, alcohol consumption or food security score and underweight. Our findings are not in line with the conventional target groups in nutritional programmes and highlight the importance of continuous health and nutritional assessments of all population groups that reflect local social determinants and family structures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-01-01

    .... In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine...

  10. Nível de conhecimento e percepção de risco da população brasileira sobre o HIV/Aids, 1998 e 2005 Knowledge and risk perception on HIV/AIDS by Brazilian population, 1998 and 2005

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    Maria Paula Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o nível de conhecimento e percepção de risco da população brasileira sobre o HIV/Aids. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas as bases de dados da Pesquisa sobre Comportamento Sexual e Percepções da População, nos anos 1998 e 2005. Utilizou-se um indicador sintético composto de nove questões sobre níveis de conhecimento e percepção de risco acerca de formas de transmissão do vírus e situações de risco, segundo subgrupos populacionais. RESULTADOS: Os homens aumentaram seu nível de conhecimento no período, atingindo o nível de informação das mulheres. Entre os jovens não houve crescimento significativo do conhecimento, e tornou-se praticamente inexistente a diferença entre os sexos em relação a essa dimensão. Quanto à percepção de risco, aumentou a proporção dos que declaram não apresentar risco de contrair HIV/Aids. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do aumento no nível de conhecimento em geral, os resultados encontrados indicam a necessidade de ações e programas e de prevenção do HIV/Aids para a população em geral, em especial, aos jovens.OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of knowledge and risk perception on HIV/AIDS of the Brazilian Population. METHODS: Data base from a national survey on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS risk perception in the Brazilian population, in 1998 and 2005, were used. A synthetic indicator was used, composed by nine questions on the level of knowledge and risk perception on the forms of transmission of the virus and risk situations, according to population subgroups. RESULTS: Men increased their level of knowledge in the period, reaching the same information level of women. Among youngsters, there was no significant increase in knowledge, and the difference between sexes was absent in this dimension. Regarding risk perception, there was an increase in the proportion of those that declared they were not under risk of HIV/AIDS contamination. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increase in the level of

  11. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future). WHO is a cosponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS). Within UNAIDS, WHO leads ... and tuberculosis co-infection, and jointly coordinates with UNICEF the work on the elimination of mother-to- ...

  12. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary prevention activities. Conclusions

  13. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

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    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  14. Evaluation of a school-based HIV/AIDS peer-led prevention programme: the first intervention trial for children of migrant workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Huang, H; Cai, Y; Ye, X; Shen, X; Shi, R; Xu, G

    2010-02-01

    The effectiveness of a peer-led education intervention in HIV/AIDS prevention was assessed in the Chinese children of migrant workers. A prospective study was conducted in 12 junior high schools for migrant children. Among the intervention group, a peer-education-based HIV/AIDS prevention was implemented for three months. The results during the baseline survey indicated that the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS was lower in children of migrant workers. After three months of peer-led intervention, compared with the control group, students in the intervention group positively increased their HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, modified their attitude and improved their protection self-efficacy. Compared with attitude, intervention was more effective in the improvement of knowledge and protection self-efficacy, especially knowledge. The findings suggest that peer-led education was an effective method in improving knowledge, attitude and protection self-efficacy in Chinese children of migrant workers. Heightened concerns targeting the group students were particularly necessary, given their lower level of related knowledge and vulnerability to HIV infection.

  15. Low incidence of colonization and no cases of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (DMAC in Brazilian AIDS patients in the HAART era

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    Gadelha Ângela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence of mycobacterial disease and the colonization of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC bacteria in AIDS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: HIV-positive individuals with at least one CD4+ count 100 cells/mm³ (HR = 0.18; CI = 0.05 - 0.70 predicted a lower risk of death (P<0.05 but was not protective for MAC colonization (HR=0.52;CI =0.62 - 4.35, P=0.55. CONCLUSION: The absence of DMAC infection in colonized individuals argues in favor of a HAART protective effect against; DMAC; however, restoration of CD4 counts did not protect patients against MAC colonization.

  16. The impact of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) on the nutritional status of patients living with HIV/AIDS in Mozambique: results from the DREAM Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, P; Buonomo, E; Zimba, I; Doro Altan, A M; Germano, P; Palombi, L; Marazzi, M C

    2011-01-01

    DREAM (Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition) is a multiregional health program active in Mozambique since 2002 and provides free of charge an integrating package of care consisting of peer to peer nutritional and health education, food supplementation, voluntary counseling and testing, immunological, virological, clinical assessment and HAART (Highly Active AntiRetroviral Treatment). The main goals of this paper are to describe the state of health and nutrition and the adequacy of the diet of a sample of HIV/AIDS patients in Mozambique on HAART and not. A single-arm retrospective cohort study was conducted. 106 HIV/AIDS adult patients (84 in HAART), all receiving food supplementation and peer-to-peer nutritional education, were randomly recruited in Mozambique in two public health centres where DREAM is running. The programme is characterized by: provision of HAART, clinical and laboratory monitoring, peer to peer health and nutritional education and food supplementation. We measured BMI, haemoglobin, viral load, CD4 count at baseline (T0) and after at least 1 year (T1). Dietary intake was estimated using 24h food recall and dietary diversity was assessed by using the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) at T1. Overall, the patients'diet appeared to be quite balanced in nutrients. In the cohort not in HAART the mean BMI values showed an increases but not significant (initial value: 21.9 ± 2.9; final value: 22.5 ± 3.3 ) and the mean haemoglobin values (g/dl) showed a significant increases (initial value: 10.5+ 2.1; final value: 11.5 ± 1.7 pnutritional status improvement was observed in both cohorts. The improvement in BMI was significant and substantially higher in HAART patients because of the impact of HAART on nutritional status of AIDS patients. Subjects on HAART and with a DDS > 5, showed a substantial BMI gain. This association showed an additional expression of the synergic effect of integrating food supplementation, nutritional education and

  17. Assessing the effects of HIV/AIDS and TB disease control programmes on health systems in low- and middle-income countries of Southeast Asia: a semi-systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conseil, A; Mounier-Jack, S; Rudge, J W; Coker, R

    2013-12-01

    To systematically review the literature on if and how HIV/AIDS and TB programmes have impacted on general healthcare systems in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Medline, Embase, Global Health and CINHAL were searched for English language literature published between 1st January 2003 and 31st March 2011. Papers included had to focus on: HIV and/or TB control programmes; the low- and-middle-income ASEAN countries; and factors related to any health systems functions. The effects were examined along six system functions: Stewardship and Governance; Financing; Planning; Service Delivery; Monitoring and Evaluation; and Demand Generation. A comprehensive thematic analytical tool aligned with the above six health systems functions was developed to support data extraction and analysis. 88 papers met the inclusion criteria. Most programme effects highlighted were related with health service delivery. The other five health system functions were seldom scrutinized, and each covered by less than a quarter of papers. Overall 69% of effects highlighted were positive effects whereas 31% were negative. There was a paucity of robust evidence. Effects on health systems were rarely a focus of research protocols but more often a minor component in the Results/Discussion sections. Particular attention should be paid by Global Health Initiatives to the negative effects that emerged from this study, such as the development of parallel systems, specific incentives not available to the general health systems, and lack of integration of services with private healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users in Russia: opportunities and barriers to scaling-up of harm reduction programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatchenko-Schmidt, Elena; Renton, Adrian; Gevorgyan, Ruzanna; Davydenko, Ludmila; Atun, Rifat

    2008-02-01

    to examine attitudes of Russian policy-makers and HIV stakeholders towards harm reduction (HR) scale up, focusing on the factors constraining the scale-up process. Semi-structured interviews with representatives of 58 government and non-governmental organisations involved in HIV policies and programmes in Volgograd Region, Russian Federation. We found a considerable diversity of opinion on HR scale-up and suggest that Russia is experiencing the situation of power parity between HR supporters and opponents with many stakeholders being indecisive or cautious to express their views. We identified six main factors which constrain policy decisions in favour of HR scale-up: insufficient financial resources; lack of information on HR effectiveness; perception of HR as being culturally unacceptable; reluctance of IDUs to use the services; opposition from law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and unclear legal regulations. We demonstrate a complex interplay between these factors, policy-makers' attitudes and their choices on HR scale-up. A number of actions are needed to achieve a successful scale-up of HR programmes in Russia and similar political contexts: (i) a strategic approach to HR advocacy, targeting neutral and indecisive stakeholders; (ii) more systematic evidence on HR effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in the local context; (iii) HR advocacy targeting law enforcement agencies and the Russian Church; and (iv) aligning best international HR practices with the objectives of local policy-makers, practitioners and service-users.

  19. Lutando contra a AIDS entre meninas adolescentes: os efeitos da Campanha de Carnaval de 2003 do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil The fight against AIDS among adolescent girls: the impact of the 2003 Carnival campaign by the Brazilian Ministry of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pereira Porto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Em 2003, o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil (MS lançou uma campanha nacional para promover o uso de preservativos entre meninas adolescentes. A Campanha de Carnaval 2003 foi transmitida por emissoras de rádio e televisão entre 16 de fevereiro e 3 de março, tendo como público-alvo adolescentes do sexo feminino entre 13 e 19 anos, um grupo social que havia registrado crescimento no número de casos de AIDS e outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. O MS contratou a artista Kelly Key para estrelar os anúncios de rádio e TV. Um dos objetivos foi o de estimular as adolescentes a não sentirem vergonha de adquirir preservativos e de exigir que seus parceiros os utilizassem. O artigo apresenta os resultados de um survey nacional encomendado pelo MS, que contou com a participação de 1.006 jovens adolescentes em 86 municípios. Os resultados demonstram que os materiais de campanha alcançaram o público-alvo, e que eles foram muito bem avaliados pelas entrevistadas. Finalmente, os resultados mostram, ainda, que a campanha teve efeitos importantes, como o desencadeamento de discussões no ambiente social das jovens e o reforço de atitudes relacionadas ao uso de preservativos.In 2003, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched a nationwide campaign aimed at promoting condom use by adolescent girls. The "Carnival Campaign" was broadcast on television and radio from February 16 to March 3 and targeted adolescent girls (13-19 years, a group which had shown an increase in the number of cases of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The MoH hired Kelly Key, a Brazilian pop singer, to star the television and radio ads and deliver the campaign message. One of the objectives was to empower girls and encourage them not to be ashamed of purchasing condoms or of demanding that their partners use them. The article presents the results of a nationwide survey with 1,006 adolescent girls in 86 municipalities, sponsored by the MoH. The results show

  20. Programa Bolsa Família: uma análise do programa de transferência de renda brasileiro Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme Le programme Bolsa Família (Bourse familiale : analyse du programme brésilien de transfert conditionnel de revenus El programa Bolsa Família: un análisis del programa brasileño de transferencia de ingresos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mourão

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Over the last seven years many evaluations of the programme have been conducted, allowing an overview of its results and its strong and weak points to be mapped. Five central aspects relating to the programme are discussed in article five: (1 programme access, (2 hunger fighting results, (3 programme financial impacts, (4 conditioning factors of education and health, (5 supplementary programs and social mobility. The results of scientific research were presented for each of these aspects, and any of these believed to be convergent or divergent were discussed. As a general result it was concluded that the programme has generated significant results for the country, but there are still some issues that need to be reviewed, such as conditioning factors and the integrated management of the programme.Les programmes de transfert de revenus sont courants dans plusieurs pays et jouent un rôle important dans la lutte contre la pauvreté. Cet article présente un examen des résultats du programme Bolsa Família (Bourse familiale entrepris au Brésil par le gouvernement de Lula da Silva en 2004. Au cours des sept dernières années, de nombreuses évaluations du programme ont été réalisées, ce qui permet d'avoir un aperçu de ses résultats et une vue d'ensemble de ses points forts et de ses points faibles. Cinq aspects clés de ce programme sont abordés dans cet article : (1 l'accès au programme, (2 les résultats en matière de lutte contre la faim, (3 les répercussions financières du programme, (4 les facteurs conditionnels de l'éducation et de la santé, (5 les programmes complémentaires et la mobilité sociale. Des résultats issus de la recherche scientifique ont été pr

  1. Gênero, direitos humanos e impacto socioeconômico da Aids no Brasil Gender, human rights and socioeconomic impact of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise crítica, levando-se em consideração as questões de gênero, dos resultados oficiais do relatório do governo brasileiro para o Programa Conjunto das Nações Unidas para o HIV/Aids - UNAIDS. Mais especificamente, foi abordado o cumprimento das metas resultantes da Declaração de Compromisso sobre HIV/Aids, nos itens Direitos humanos e Redução do Impacto Social e Econômico da Aids até o ano de 2003. Foram apontados os conceitos chave incluindo reflexões sobre os indicadores e estratégias que auxiliam a sociedade civil organizada a efetivar seu monitoramento até 2010.The paper critically analyzes, from the gender standpoint, official results presented in the Brazilian government report to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS. Specifically, the fulfillment of 2003 targets set forth in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, under the category of Human Rights and Reduction of the Economic and Social Impact of AIDS, are evaluated. Key concepts are highlighted, including indicators and strategies that may help civilian society better monitor these targets until 2010.

  2. Anaemia and zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy in paediatric antiretroviral programmes in the IeDEA Paediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna A Renner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a risk of anaemia among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART containing zidovudine (ZDV recommended in first-line regimens in the WHO guidelines. We estimated the risk of severe anaemia after initiation of a ZDV-containing regimen in HIV-infected children included in the IeDEA West African database. Methods: Standardized collection of data from HIV-infected children (positive PCR<18 months or positive serology ≥18 months followed up in HIV programmes was included in the regional IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Ten clinical centres from seven countries contributed (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal to this collection. Inclusion criteria were age <16 years and starting ART. We explored the data quality of haemoglobin documentation over time and the incidence and predictors of severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dL per 100 child-years of follow-up over the duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Results: As of December 2009, among the 2933 children included in the collaboration, 45% were girls, median age was five years; median CD4 cell percentage was 13%; median weight-for-age z-score was−2.7; and 1772 (60.4% had a first-line ZDV-containing regimen. At baseline, 70% of the children with a first-line ZDV-containing regimen had a haemoglobin measure available versus 76% in those not on ZDV (p≤0.01: the prevalence of severe anaemia was 3.0% (n=38 in the ZDV group versus 10.2% (n=89 in those without (p<0. 01. Over the first-line follow-up, 58.9% of the children had ≥1 measure of haemoglobin available in those exposed to ZDV versus 60.4% of those not (p=0.45. Severe anaemia occurred in 92 children with an incidence of 2.47 per 100 child-years of follow-up in those on a ZDV-containing regimen versus 4.25 in those not (p≤0.01. Adjusted for age at ART initiation and first-line regimen, a weight-for-age z-score ≤−3 was a strong predictor associated with a 5.59 times risk of

  3. Variation in attrition at subnational level: review of the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment (Masa) programme data (2002-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the variation in all-cause attrition [mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU)] among HIV-infected individuals in Botswana by health district during the rapid and massive scale-up of the National Treatment Program. Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 226 030 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. A time-to-event analysis was used to measure crude mortality and loss to follow-up rates (LTFU). A marginal structural model was used to evaluate mortality and LTFU rates by district over time, adjusted for individual-level risk factors (e.g. age, gender, baseline CD4, year of treatment initiation and antiretroviral regimen). Mortality rates in the districts ranged from the lowest 1.0 (95% CI 0.9-1.1) in Selibe-Phikwe, to the highest 5.0 (95% CI 4.0-6.1), in Mabutsane. There was a wide range of overall LTFU across districts, including rates as low as 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) losses per 100 person-years in Ngamiland, and 5.9 (95% CI 5.6-6.2) losses per 100 person-years in South East district, to rates as high as 25.4 (95% CI 23.08-27.89) losses per 100 person-years in Mabutsane and 46.3 (95% CI 43.48-49.23) losses per 100 person-years in Okavango. Even when known risk factors for mortality and LTFU were adjusted for, district was a significant predictor of both mortality and LTFU rates. We found statistically significant variation in attrition (mortality and LTFU) and data quality among districts. These findings suggest that district-level contextual factors affect retention in treatment. Further research needs to investigate factors that can potentially cause this variation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of strategies by the Brazilian Ministry of Health to stimulate the municipal response to AIDS Avaliação de estratégias do Ministério da Saúde para incentivar a resposta municipal a AIDS no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies by the Brazilian Ministry of Health to expand the municipal response to AIDS. Cities "included" and "not included" in Federal strategies for "municipalization" of the response were compared according to the response profile and trends in the epidemic. Multinomial logistic regression was used, among other statistical procedures. Municipalities included from 1994 to 1998 showed higher chances of providing HIV diagnostic testing [OR = 15.0; 95%CI: 5.6-40.1], of having AIDS services [OR = 18.4; 95%CI: 8.4-40.5], and reducing cases involving heterosexual [OR = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.4-7.3], homosexual/bisexual [OR = 3.0; 95%CI: 1.4-6.2], and IDU transmission [OR = 6.6; 95%CI: 2.9-14.9] as compared to those "included in 2003" and "not included". There were no associations between the included Municipalities, greater coverage in prevention, the reduction in cases due to vertical transmission or blood transfusion, or mortality rates. Municipalities with a more structured response were associated with better results. The findings suggest that the municipalization policy contributed to improvement in the local response to AIDS.Avaliar as estratégias do Ministério da Saúde para ampliar a resposta municipal a AIDS. Cidades "incluídas" e "não incluídas" nas estratégias federais de municipalização foram comparadas segundo perfil da resposta e da epidemia. Regressão logística multinomial foi usada, entre outros procedimentos estatísticos. Municípios incluídos entre 1994/98 apresentaram maior chance de ofertar o diagnóstico do HIV [OR = 15,0; IC95%: 5,6-40,1], possuir serviços de AIDS [OR = 18,4; IC95%: 8,4-40,5] e reduzir casos por transmissão heterossexual [OR = 3,1; IC95%: 1,4-7,3], homo/bissexual [OR = 3,0; IC95%: 1,4-6,2] e uso de drogas injetáveis [OR = 6,6; IC95%: 2,9-14,9] do que os "incluídos em 2003" e os "não incluídos". Não houve associações entre municípios incluídos, a maior

  5. Effect of sociodemographic, clinical-prophylactic and therapeutic procedures on survival of AIDS patients assisted in a Brazilian outpatient clinic Efeitos de fatores sociodemográficos, clínico-profiláticos e terapêuticos na sobrevida de pacientes com aids acompanhados em uma unidade ambulatorial brasileira

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    Dario José Hart Pontes Signorini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian AIDS Program offers free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy. This study investigates the influence of sociodemographic, clinical-prophylactic and therapeutic factors on survival, after AIDS diagnosis, in an open cohort of 1,420 patients assisted in a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro (1995 _ 2002. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of variables in the three dimensions studied. The overall survival time of the upper quartile was 24 months (CI95%= 20.5-27.5, increasing from 14 months, in 1995, to 46 months, in 1998. We found a protective effect of heterosexual behavior against death that could be attributed to the increasing female-to-male sex ratio in the cohort, which coincided with the time of therapy introduction. Low schooling, hospital admission and lack of follow-up were identified as risk factors for death; PCP and Toxoplasmosis prophylaxis were protective. The number of attempts required to consolidate the antiretroviral therapy showed no significant effect on survival. The full model, which includes the number of antiretroviral drugs in the regimen, confirmed the triple therapy as the best regimen. This study brings important information for designing guidelines to deal with different aspects related to the practical management of patients and their behavior, thus contributing to the success of the program of free access to antiretroviral therapy implemented in Brazil.O programa Brasileiro de DST/AIDS oferece acesso livre e universal à terapia anti-retroviral. Este estudo investiga a influência dos fatores sociodemográficos, clínico-profiláticos e terapêuticos na sobrevida, após o diagnóstico de AIDS, em uma coorte aberta de 1.420 pacientes atendida em hospital universitário na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro (1995-2002. Kaplan-Meier e modelo de risco proporcional de Cox foram usados para estimar os efeitos das variáveis nas três dimens

  6. Does computer-aided detection have a role in the arbitration of discordant double-reading opinions in a breast-screening programme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jonathan.james@nuh.nhs.uk; Cornford, E.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Aims: To investigate whether a computer-aided detection (CAD) system could act as an arbitrator of discordant double-reading opinions, replacing the need for an independent third film reader. Methods: The mammograms of the 240 women that underwent arbitration by an independent third reader were identified from the 16,629 women attending our screening centre between July 2003 and April 2004. Mammograms of the arbitration cases were digitized and analysed by a CAD system. To assess the ability of CAD to act as the arbitrator, the site of the CAD prompts was retrospectively compared to the site of any abnormality noted by the original film readers. If a CAD prompt was placed on a region marked by one of the film readers then the decision of CAD as the arbitrator was that the women should be recalled for further assessment. If no mark was placed then the region was considered low risk and the decision was not to recall. The decision of CAD as the arbitrator was retrospectively compared with the original recall decision of the independent third reader. Results: There were 21 cancer cases in the group of women undergoing arbitration, diagnosed both at the original screening episode and subsequently. The independent third reader recalled 15/18 (83%) of the cancers that corresponded with the arbitrated lesion. CAD as the arbitrator would have recalled 16/18 (89%) of the cancers that corresponded to the arbitrated lesion. CAD acting as the arbitrator would have resulted in a significant increase in normal women being recalled to assessment in the arbitration group (P < 0.001). The extra 50 recalls would have potentially increased the overall recall rate to assessment from 3.1 to 3.4%; a relative increase of 10%. Conclusions: The main effect of CAD acting as an arbitrator of discordant double-reading opinions is to increase the recall rate, significantly above what is found when arbitration is performed by an independent third reader. Using CAD as an arbitrator may be an

  7. Condições sociodemográficas de crianças de zero a dois anos filhas de mães com HIV/Aids, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil The socio-demographic conditions of children aged 0 to 2 years born to mothers with HIV/AIDS, in the city of Fortaleza, in the Brazilian State of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Tavares Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar as condições sociodemográficas das crianças de 0 a 2 anos de idade nascidas de mães HIV + / AIDS em Fortaleza, Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal utilizando um questionário semiestruturado com cuidadores (63 mães e 5 avós de crianças no ambulatório de um hospital estadual, entre Dezembro de 2005 e Abril de 2006. RESULTADOS: a idade média das mães foi de 26 anos de idade. Aproximadamente 16% eram analfabetas, 57,3% eram casadas e 5,9% viúvas. Mais de dois terços (79,4% das mulheres participantes do estudo tornou-se ciente de seu status de HIV + no último parto e 51,5% relataram não receber qualquer tipo de assistência social do governo. A idade média das crianças foi de 15,6 meses e 13% não tiveram um teste de HIV. A maioria delas era proveniente de áreas rurais (60,3%, com renda familiar média mensal de R$ 446,32. Verificou-se que 57,9% das crianças viviam em uma casa com cinco ou mais pessoas, e 31% relataram ter quatro ou mais crianças morando na mesma casa. CONCLUSÕES: há necessidade de estratégias de prevenção e promoção à saúde, levando em consideração o contexto social das famílias que vivem com HIV/AIDS.OBJECTIVES: to ascertain the socio-demographic conditions of children aged between 0 and 2 years born to mothers testing positive for HIV / AIDS in the city of Fortaleza, in the Northeastern Brazilian State of Ceará. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted involving the application of a semi-structured questionnaire to women caring for children (63 mothers and 5 grandmothers at a State hospital outpatient clinic, between December 2005 and April 2006. RESULTS: the mean age of the mothers was 26 years. Approximately 16% were illiterate; 57.3% were married and 5.9% widows. More than two thirds (79.4% of the women taking part in the study first became aware of their HIV status during their last delivery. 51.5% reported not having received any kind of

  8. Predicting Success in a Master of Information Science Degree Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbonlaho, Rosemary O.; Offor, Uzoamaka J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an insight into factors that can help predict the success of students admitted to a Master of information science (MInfSc) programme and aid admission committees in selecting candidates that are most likely to succeed in a graduate programme of information science, using the MInfSc programme at the Africa Regional Centre for…

  9. PLANTS IN AID OF FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Oommachan, Mathew; Khan, Shaukat Saeed

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted during the years 1978-’79 at Bhopal and its neighbourhood to find out the medicinal plants and their utility. From among a total number of 850 angiospermic plant species of this region, about 10% of them were found having poisonous principles. One fourth of these poisonous plants can be used for safe termination of pregnancy. Certain of these plants are used by the villagers for criminal abortions and even for suicidal purpose. A good number of them can be u...

  10. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find

  11. Métodos de auxílio multicritério à decisão aplicados a problemas de PCP: mapeamento da produção em periódicos publicados no Brasil Multicriteria decision aid methods applied to PPC problems: a mapping of papers published in Brazilian journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Salvador Sanchez Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estabelecer um mapeamento da produção científica divulgada em importantes periódicos publicados no Brasil sobre a aplicação de Métodos de Auxílio Multicritério à Decisão (AMD à modelagem de problemas de Planejamento e Controle da Produção. O mapeamento contemplou 32 artigos, que foram selecionados criteriosamente, tendo como base a lista de periódicos científicos oferecida no Scielo e em importantes sociedades científicas brasileiras no âmbito da Engenharia de Produção. Os resultados permitiram indicar, entre outros aspectos, os periódicos que mais publicam neste contexto, os métodos de AMD mais usados nesta interface, os setores de produção nos quais as aplicações ocorreram e os tópicos de PCP mais abordados. Também foram destacados os aspectos de PCP que ainda carecem de estudos que envolvam métodos multicritério.The objective of this study is to map the Brazilian scientific production based on Brazilian journal publications on the implementation of Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA to model Production Planning and Control problems. It consisted of 32 papers that were systematically selected from journals indexed in the Scielo database and also from a list of journals suggested by major Brazilian Industrial Engineering research societies. The results revealed, among other aspects, the journals that publish the most on this topic, the most often used MCDA methods in this interface, the production sectors in which the applications took place, and the most commonly discussed PPC topics. This paper also highlights the PPC aspects that need further research including MCDA methods.

  12. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  13. Interview with Brazilian astrophysicist Luciana da Cunha Ferreira

    CERN Document Server

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    In September 2011, CERN hosted Brazilian astrophysicist, Luciana da Cunha Ferreira, in a weeklong teacher-training programme. Luciana was the first indigenous person from the Amazon region to visit CERN, and plans to share her new found knowledge of the LHC with other indigenous people on her return to Brazil.

  14. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes...

  15. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  16. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Lynch, K M; Grob, L K; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Lozeva, R; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Delaure, B J P; Mayet, P; Ory, G T; Kesteloot, N J K; Papuga, J; Dehairs, M H R; Callens, M; Boudreau, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Wiehr, S; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Guttormsen, M S; Ingeberg, V W; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Donets, E D; Golovkov, M; Wu, C; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Gladnishki, K A; Rainovski, G I; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Molkanov, P; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Laurent, B G; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Leimbach, D; Coeck, S; Ryssens, W A M; Knoops, G; Vanbuel, J; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Vetter, U; Araujo mendes, C M; Agramunt ros, J; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Ways, M; Heylen, H; Riisager, K; Ruotsalainen, P A; Bastin, B; Duval, F T; Penessot, G; Flechard, X D; Desrues, P; Giovinazzo, J; Blank, B A; Kurtukian nieto, T; Ascher, P E L; Roccia, S; Matea, I; Croizet, H A G; Bonnin, C M; Morfouace, P; Smith, A J; Guin, R; Banerjee, D; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Ohtsubo, T; Zhukov, M V; Tengborn, E A; Dessagne, P; Juscamaita vivanco, Y; De rydt, M A E; Vermaelen, P; Monten, R; Yang, X; De coster, A; Kruecken, R; Nowak, A K; Cano ott, D; Murphy, A S J; Shand, C M; Regan, P H; Jones, G D; Herzberg, R; Ikin, P; Napoli, D R; Scarel, G; Larsen, A; Tornyi, T G; Pascu, S G; Stroe, L; Toma, S; Jansson, K; Dronjak fahlander, M; Krupko, S; Hurst, A M; Veskovic, M; Nikolov, J; Sibanda, W N; Rocchini, M; Klimo, J; Deicher, M; Wichert, T; Wolf, E; Kronenberg, J; Helmke, A; Meliani, Z; Ivanov, V S; Kuti, I; Halasz, Z; Henry, M O; Bras de sequeira amaral, V; Espirito santo, F; Da silva, D J; Carvalho teixeira, R C; Rosendahl, S; Speidel, K; Agarwal, I; Faul, T; Kownacki, J M; Martins correia, J G; Lorenz, K; Costa miranda, S M; Granadeiro costa, A R; Da costa pereira, L M; Keupers, M; Stukken, R; Wursten, E J; Kotthaus, T; Pfeiffer, M; Gironi, L; Cakirli, R B; Jensen, A; Romstedt, F; Constantino silva furtado, I; Heredia cardona, J A; Jordan martin, M D; Montaner piza, A; Zacate, M O; Plewinski, F; Mesli, A; Pichard, A; Hergemoller, F; Fallis starhunter, J P; Voulot, D; Mrazek, J; Ugryumov, V; Savreux, R P; Kojouharov, I M; Stegmann, R; Kern, R O; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Kirsebom, O S; Jensen, K L; Jokinen, A; Rahkila, P J; Hager, U D K; Konki, J P; Dubois, M; Orr, N A; Fabian, X; Huikari, J E; Goigoux, T; Magron, C; Zakari, A A; Maietta, M; Bachelet, C E M; Roussiere, B; Li, R; Foster, R M; Mertzimekis, T; Gislason, H P; Shayestehaminzadeh, S; Qi, B; Mukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Willmann, L; Kurcewicz, W; Wimmer, K; Meisel, Z P; Dorvaux, O; Nowacki, F; Lievens, P; Neyens, G; Darby, I G; Descamps, B O; Ceruti, S; Bunka, M; Vermeulen, C; Umbricht, C A; De boer, J; Podadera aliseda, I; Alcorta moreno, M; Pesudo fortes, V; Zielinska, M; Korten, W; Wang, C H; Lotay, G J; Mason, P; Rice, S J; Willenegger, L M; Judson, D S; Revill, J P; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Hass, M; Kumar, V; Crespo campo, L; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Jeppesen, H B; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Dexters, W M M; Velten, P; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; Algora, A; Kozlov, V; Mokhles gerami, A; Bernardo da silva, E; Unzueta solozabal, I; Schell, J; Szybowicz, M; Lassen, J; Johnston, K; Miyazaki, A; Macko, M; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Bonig, E S; Ignatov, A; Paschalis, S; Fernandez martinez, G; Schilling, M; Habermann, T; Von hahn, R; Minaya ramirez, E E; Manea, V; De roubin, A A J; Karthein, J; Moore, I D; Wang, Y; Saastamoinen, A J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Stolze, S M; Clement, E; Dijon, A; Shornikov, A; Lienard, E; Gibelin, J D; Pain, C; Canchel, G; Simpson, G S; Latrasse, L P; Huang, W; Forest, D H; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Strashnov, I; Binnersley, C L; Simpson, J; Morrall, P S; Grant, A F; Charisopoulos, S; Lagogiannis, A; Bhattacharya, C; Olafsson, S; Tornqvist, H T; Heinz, A M; White iv, E R; Vermote, S L; Courtin, S; Marechal, F; Randisi, G; Rajabali, M M; Lannoo, B J M; Frederickx, R; De coster, T J C; Roovers, N; De lemos lima, T A; Haller, S; Rizzi, M; Reichert, S B; Bonn, J; Thirolf, P G; Garcia rios, A R; Gugliermina, V M; Cubero campos, M A; Sanchez tembleque, V; Benito garcia, J; Senoville, M; Mountford, D J; Gelletly, W; Alharbi, T S T; Wilson, E; Rigby, S V; Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; O'neill, G G; Harkness, L J; Wraith, C; Van esbroeck, K; Wadsworth, R; Cubiss, J G; Doherty, D T; Harding, R D; Vaintraub, S; Mandal, S K; Hadynska-klek, K; Scarpa, D; Hoff, P; Syed naeemul, H; Borcea, R; Balabanski, D L; Marginean, R; Rotaru, F; Rudolph, D; Fahlander, C H; Chudoba, V; Naidoo, D; Veselsky, M; Kliman, J; Raisanen, J A; Dietrich, M; Maung maung than, M M T; Reed, M W; Danchev, M T; Ray, J; Roy, M; Hammen, M; Capponi, L; Veghne csatlos, M M; Fryar, J; Mirzadeh vaghefi, S P; Trindade pereira, A M; Bakenecker, A; Tramm, C; Germic, V; Morel, P A; Kowalczyk, M; Matejska-minda, M; Ringvall moberg, A; Kana, T; Vermeeren, B R M; Dockx, K; Mantovan, R; Fransen, C H; Radeck, F; Schneiders, D W; Steinbach, T; Vibenholt, J E; Magnussen, M J; Stevnhoved, H M; Comas lijachev, V; Dasenbrock-gammon, N M; Perkowski, J; Matveev, Y; Wegner, M; Garcia borge, M J; Molholt, T E; Srnka, D; Dlouhy, Z; Beck, D; Homm, I; Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Probst, M B; Kaiser, C J; Martin, J A; Refsgaard, J; Papadakis, F; Peura, P J; Greenlees, P T; Auranen, K; Delahaye, P; Traykov, E K; Perez loureiro, D; Mery, A A; Couratin, C; Tsekhanovich, I; Lunney, D; Gaulard, C V; Althubiti, N A S; Mottram, A D; Das, S K; Van de walle, J; Mazzocchi, C; Jonson, B N G; Woehr, A; Lesher, S R; Zuber, K T; Koudriavtsev, I; De witte, H J; Van den bergh, P A M; Raabe, R; Depuydt, M J F; Radulov, D P; Elseviers, J; Reynders, K L T; Sels, S M C; Verlinde, M; Delombaerde, L; De maesschalck, D; Dunlop, R A; Tarasava, K; Gernhaeuser, R A; Weinzierl, W; Berger, C; Wendt, K; Achtzehn, T; Gottwald, T; Schug, M; Rossel, R E; Dominguez reyes, R R; Briz monago, J A; Koester, U H; Bunce, M R; Bowry, M D; Nakhostin, M; Shearman, R; Cresswell, J R; Joss, D T; Gredley, A; Groombridge, D; Laird, A M; Aslanoglou, X; Siem, S; Weterings, J A; Renstrom, T; Szpak, B T; Luczkowski, M J; Ghita, D; Bezbakh, A; Bollmann, J; Bhattacharya, P; Roy, S; Rahaman, M A; Wlodarski, T; Carvalho soares, J; Barzakh, A; Werner, V R; Schertz, F; Froemmgen, N E; Liberati, V; Foy, B E; De pinho oliveira, G N; Weinheimer, C P; Zboril, M; Figuera, P; Simon, R E; Popescu, L A; Czosnyka, T; Miranda jana, P A; Buescher, J S L; Plociennik, W A; Ruchowska, E E; Chiara, C J; Eberth, J H; Thomas, T; Thole, P; Queiser, M T; Lo bianco, G; D'amico, F; Muller, S; Sanchez alarcon, R M; Tain enriquez, J L; Orrigo, S E A; Orlandi, R; Plazaola muguruza, F C; Pallada, S; Lepareur, N G; Wildner, E; Kowalska, M; Malbrunot, S; Slezak, M; Roeckl, E; Schrieder, G H; Ilieva, S K; Koenig, K L; Amoretti, M A; Lommen, J M; Fynbo, H O U; Weyer, G O P; Koldste, G T; Madsboll, K; Jensen, J H; Nieminen, A M; Reponen, M; Villari, A; Thomas, J; Saint-laurent, M; Sorlin, O H; Carniol, B; Pereira lopez, J; Grevy, S; Plaisir, C; Marie-jeanne, M J; Georgiev, G P; Etile, A M; Le blanc, F M; Verney, D; Stefan, G I; Assie, M; Suzuki, D; Guillot, J; Vazquez rodriguez, L; Campbell, P; Deacon, A N; Ware, T; Flueras, A; Xie, L; Banerjee, K; Piersa, M; Johansson, H T; Schwarz, S; Welker, A; Krauth, M R; Perrot, F; Aumont, J; Sferrazza, M; Van duppen, P L E; Versyck, S; Dehaes, J; Bree, N C F; Neyskens, P; Martinez palenzuela, Y; De groote, R P; Carlier, L M F; De schepper, S; Dewolf, K W A; Kabir, L R; Garcia ruiz, R F; Khodery ahmad, M A; Zadvornaya, A; Xu, Z; Smolders, P; Krastev, P; Rapisarda, E; Reber, J A; Mattolat, C F; Raeder, S; Habs, D; Martinez perez, T; Fraile prieto, L M; Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Klintefjord, M L; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Masenda, H; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Decoster, S J; Porobic, T; Babo, M; Walters, W; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Nogwanya, T; Neidherr, D M; Domingo pardo, C; Morales lopez, A I; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Abrahams, K J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Kalaninova, Z; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Julin, R J; Jakobsson, E H U; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Grinyer, G F; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Kusoglu, A; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Mallion, S N; Diriken, J V J; Ghys, L H L; Khamehchi, M A; Van beveren, C; Gins, W A M; Bouma, J T; Koszorus, A; Mcnulty, J F; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Tengblad, O; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Malatji, K L; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Baptista barbosa, M; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Houngbo, D; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Redondo cubero, A; Dirkx, D; Stegemann, S T; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Wiedeking, M; Guadilla gomez, V; Herlert, A J; Mehl, C V; Judge, S M; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Wenander, F J C; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Boukhari, A; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Farooq-smith, G J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Huyse, M L; Himpe, P; Ferrer garcia, R; Sambi, S; Budincevic, I; Neven, M; Bomans, P; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Naubereit, P; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Valiente dobon, J J; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Strisovska, J; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Galaviz redondo, D; Castro ribeiro da silva, M; Bernards, C W; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Severijns, N; Vanpoucke, B R S; Finlay, P E J; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Majola, S N; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  17. Critical Pedagogy in the Community Music Education Programmes of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Paulo Freire (1970) developed critical pedagogy to teach oppressed Brazilian adults to read. Freire documented his ideas in a landmark publication entitled Pedagogy of the Oppressed. This article discusses and reports my findings on Freirean methods evident in music education programmes in Rio de Janeiro, Alvorada, Recife and Sao Caetano.

  18. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  19. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  20. Development of the speech test signal in Brazilian Portuguese for real-ear measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Luciana P; Scollie, Susan D; Martinelli Iório, Maria Cecília

    2013-08-01

    Recommended practice is to verify the gain and/or output of hearing aids with speech or speech-shaped signals. This study has the purpose of developing a speech test signal in Brazilian Portuguese that is electroacoustically similar to the international long-term average speech spectrum (ILTASS) for use in real ear verification systems. A Brazilian Portuguese speech passage was recorded using standardized equipment and procedures for one female talker and compared to ISTS. The passage consisted of simple, declarative sentences making a total of 148 words. The recordings of a Brazilian Portuguese passage were filtered to the ILTASS and compared to the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS). Aided recordings were made at three test levels, for three audiograms for the Brazilian Portuguese passage and the ISTS. The unaided test signals were spectrally matched to within 0.5 dB. Aided evaluation revealed that the Brazilian Portuguese passage produced aided spectra that were within 1 dB on average, within about 2 dB per audiogram, and within about 3 dB per frequency for 95% of fittings. Results indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese passage developed in this study provides similar electroacoustic hearing-aid evaluations to those expected from the standard ISTS passage.

  1. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  2. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  3. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  4. Financial planning and management of health programmes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, K L

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with the financial planning and control of health programmes in India. The techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and of performance budgeting are highly useful aids to management for implementation of monitoring and review of performance of the programmes are also essential for gauging the progress.

  5. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  6. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  7. Desenvolvimento de prótese auditiva digital para atendimento da Portaria nº 587 (APAC do Ministério da Saúde: Health Department Development of a digital hearing aid to meet the Brazilian Government's Ordinance 587 (APAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pires Penteado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento das disacusias sensório-neurais está balizado no uso de próteses auditivas, conhecidas como aparelhos auditivos ou aparelhos de amplificação sonora individuais. As próteses auditivas adquiridas pelo Governo Brasileiro para a condução de políticas públicas têm como uma de suas características a utilização de componentes dedicados, o que traz benefícios, mas que encarece a aquisição e pode inviabilizar os serviços de reparo após o término da garantia do fabricante. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver próteses auditivas digitais no desenho retroauricular, construídas a partir de componentes padronizados oriundos da própria cadeia de suprimentos dos fabricantes de próteses auditivas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Identificar a cadeia de suprimentos destes fabricantes, solicitar amostras e montar próteses auditivas em laboratório. RESULTADOS: As próteses auditivas desenvolvidas apresentaram recursos eletroacústicos não inferiores àquelas adquiridas pelo Governo, sendo adicionalmente atestadas pela mesma norma técnica internacional de referência. CONCLUSÃO: É possível desenvolver próteses auditivas digitais no desenho retroauricular montados a partir de componentes padronizados da cadeia de suprimentos dos fabricantes de próteses auditivas. Suas vantagens residem no baixo custo operacional - aquisição (com vantagens para o Governo e de manutenção (com vantagens para o paciente.The treatment of sensorineural hearing loss is based on hearing aids, also known as individual sound amplification devices. The hearing aids purchased by the Brazilian Government, aiming at fulfilling public policies, are based on dedicated components, which bring about benefits, but also render them expensive and may impair repair services after manufacture's warranty expires. AIM: to design digital behind-the-ear hearing aids built from standardized components coming from the very supply chain of these manufacturers

  8. Développement d'un système expert d'aide à la définition d'un programme de reconnaissance pour les tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Laouini, H.; Deffayet, M.; Robert, A.; Gueniffey, Yves

    1992-01-01

    International audience; La definition d'un progranune de reconnaissance pour un projet de tunnel s'efforce de prendre en compte le plus completement possible le contexte particulier de chaque ouvrage, ainsi que l'ensemble des informations geologiques et geotechniques disponibles. La formalisation sous forme de regles de l'experience acquise dans ce domaine, et son traitement par Systeme expert permettent d'aider le specialiste dans son choix d'un Programme de reconnaissance adapte a la determ...

  9. Gender-specific HIV policies and programmes at South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-specific HIV policies and programmes at South African workplaces. ... in the fight against HIV/AIDS, thereby helping to achieve equality and dignity. ... prime importance in the spread of HIV/Aids, changes in these accepted gender roles ...

  10. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  11. A Review of HIV/AIDS Awareness and Knowledge of Preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    intensify the knowledge and preventive methods of HIV/AIDS especially among the women in their reproductive age. Afr J .... countries to assess the effectiveness of the various strategies adopted in .... AIDS/STI Control Programme was later.

  12. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  13. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  14. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  15. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    Grande do Sul. Many were relatively small producers who were attracted to the Alto Parana region of Paraguay near the Brazilian border by its geographic proximity, extensive availability of land at low prices, and favorable credit and tax policies. Many small proprietors from Brazil were able to buy extensive tracts in Paraguay and to develop an economy based on cultivation of export crops on small and medium sized holdings. A serious and efficient plan for financial aid, together with technical assistance and intensive training programs, could have placed Paraguayan cultivators in a position similar to that of the Brazilians. Paraguayan colonists in the frontier areas could then have progressed rapidly beyond their current state of subsistence or semisubsistence agriculture to the kind of entrepreneurial agriculture practiced by the Brazilians.

  16. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching throu

  17. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  18. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  19. 国家助听器验配师体系下听力学本科教育探索%The Audiology Undergraduate Programme within the Framework of the National Hearing Aid Acoustician Qualiifcation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the current status and challenges of audiology personnel training in China based on the requirements of hearing aid acoustician qualification system and summarizes the experiences in audiology teaching in recent years. It points out that integration of the personnel training mode and qualification system will promote mutual development.%本文从我国助听器验配师体系要求出发,探讨了听力学人才培养的现状和挑战,总结了近年来在听力学教学中取得的经验,指出我国听力学人才培养模式应当与助听器验配师职业体系相互促进发展。

  20. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  1. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  2. ELT in Brazilian Public Schools: History, Challenges, New Experiences and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira de Almeida, Ricardo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Historically speaking, the teaching of English was never a part of Brazilian primary schools programmes. Foreign language teaching as an obligatory school subject appears only in the sixth year of basic education, and its goal is more connected to the development of critical citizens, rather than to the promotion of proficient speakers of the…

  3. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  4. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  5. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  6. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  7. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  8. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  9. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  10. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  11. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  12. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  13. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  14. REHABILITATION PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRANJC JOLDIKJ

    Full Text Available Centre for Education and Rehabilitation of Physi­cally Handicapped Children and Adolescents Kamnik (Zavod za usposabljanje invalidne mlad­ine Kamnik; hereinafter: ZUIM perform verified or state-ap­proved programme the Rehabilitation practical pro­gramme. The programme is intended for all those young people, who have completed primary school education, but cannot continue regular schooling in secondary school pro­grammes. The programme con­sists of several equivalent parts: education, practical work, train­ing work, health, therapeutic, psychologi­cal, and other activities. For every beginner in the first month of education members of the operative team create an individualized programme, which in­cludes individualized school work, individualized training programme, and other expert activities. The programme can last for 6 years maximum, it can however be completed earlier, when the op­erative team feels the training is no longer neces­sary. Pro­gress of a young person is what matters the most, and if there is no progress, the training is brought to an end. Training of young people in the Rehabilitation practical programme is only the be­ginning. The country will have to start considering social enter­prises, which are found elsewhere in the world, for example in Scandinavian countries and in the USA.

  15. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte

    2004-01-01

    reviews, we seek to map out the channels through which ARVs are being made available to people and to describe and assess the social implications of the present system of distribution. Four channels of access to ARV medicines were common in mid-2003: (i) Medicines were provided free in structured research...... and treatment programmes funded by donors, but only to those who lived in a defined catchment area and met inclusion criteria. (ii) Gazetted treatment centres provided drugs on a fee-for-service basis; these urban-based institutions account for the largest number of drugs dispensed. (iii) Private practitioners...

  16. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  17. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  18. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization.

  19. Structure of the Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) for Computational Tools: Citizenship and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego R.; de F. Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; da Silva, Rafaella A. Lopes; Garcia, Laura Sanchez

    This work presents a computational model (XML) of the Brazilian Sign Language (Libras), based on its phonology. The model was used to create a sample of representative signs to aid the recording of a base of videos whose aim is to support the development of tools to support genuine social inclusion of the deaf.

  20. Sexual dysfunctions among people living with aids in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco de Tubino Scanavino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction symptoms in patients with HIV have not been fully investigated in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between sexual dysfunction symptoms and AIDS among participants in the Brazilian Sex Life Study. METHODS: The Brazilian Sex Life Study is a cross-sectional population study. The participants answered an anonymous self-responsive inquiry. It was applied to a population sample in 18 large Brazilian cities. Answers given by those who reported having AIDS (75 were compared with those who reported not having AIDS (control; 150. This was a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional population study. RESULTS: In females, AIDS was associated with "sexual inactivity over the last 12 months" and "does not maintain sexual arousal until the end of the sex act" (P < 0.05 after adjusting for race and thyroid disease. Compared to the control group, men with AIDS had more difficulty becoming sexually aroused (they required more help from their partner to begin the sex act, they required longer foreplay than they wished, they reported losing sexual desire before the end of the sex act, and they required longer to ejaculate than they desired (P < 0.05. After adjusting for sexual orientation, sex hormone deficiency, depression, and alcoholism, only "does not have sexual desire," "have longer foreplay," and dyspareunia were associated with AIDS. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are associated with AIDS. Men with AIDS need more time and stimulation to develop a sexual response, and a significant portion (37% of women with AIDS reported sexual inactivity over the last 12 months.

  1. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  2. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  3. Programmable mechanical metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, H.C.B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel strategy to overcome this limitation and create programmable me chanical metamaterials, where the response of a single structure is determined and can be changed by the amount of lateral confinement.

  4. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  5. The HAWC GRB Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, D.; Taboada, I.

    2016-10-01

    HAWC is a very-high-energy gamma-ray extensive air shower detector located in central Mexico at an altitude of 4,100 m above sea level. This contribution summarises recent results of the HAWC GRB programme.

  6. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  7. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  8. Visual Basic educational programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pranaitis, Arūnas

    2005-01-01

    Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...

  9. Motivation programmes of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pízová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...

  10. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  11. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  12. Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme: an analysis of Brazilian income transfer programme Du mythe à la réalité : l'expérience du tourisme durable dans la communauté du Vale Encantado, Forêt de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brésil Del mito a la relidad : la experiencia del turismo sostenible en la comunidad de Vale Encantado, Bosque de Tijuca, Río de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mourão

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Income transfer programmes are common in various countries and play an important role in combating poverty. This article presents a review of the results of the Bolsa Família (Family Grant Programme, implemented in Brazil by the government of Lula da Silva in 2004. Over the last seven years many evaluations of the programme have been conducted, allowing an overview of its results and its strong and weak points to be mapped. Five central aspects relating to the programme are discussed in article five: (1 programme access, (2 hunger fighting results, (3 programme financial impacts, (4 conditioning factors of education and health, (5 supplementary programs and social mobility. The results of scientific research were presented for each of these aspects, and any of these believed to be convergent or divergent were discussed. As a general result it was concluded that the programme has generated significant results for the country, but there are still some issues that need to be reviewed, such as conditioning factors and the integrated management of the programme.Considérée comme une des plus grandes forêts urbaines du monde et la troisième plus grande du Brésil, la Forêt de Tijuca, située dans la Ville de Rio de Janeiro, est face à un grand défi : cohabiter de façon harmonieuse et durable avec les 46 favelas qui l’entourent. L’une de ces communautés, le Vale Encantado, dont la présence remonte au milieu du XVIIIe siècle, a connu les différents cycles de production qui y ont été développés : l’extraction de bois, l’exploitation agricole, l’élevage, la culture de plantes ornementales et l’extraction du granit noir. Ces cycles de production ont, directement ou indirectement, eu un effet négatif sur la forêt primaire. Cependant, parallèlement à ce processus, la communauté du Vale Encantado s’est attachée à reconstituer et à préserver ce fragment de Forêt Atlantique grâce à la reforestation et à la cr

  13. The Global Fund's resource allocation decisions for HIV programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avdeeva, Olga; Lazarus, Jeff; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel;

    2011-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2010, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria's investment in HIV increased substantially to reach US$12 billion. We assessed how the Global Fund's investments in HIV programmes were targeted to key populations in relation to disease burden and national income....

  14. Le programme d'expériences au SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Nous voudrions remercier ici Jim Allaby, qui fut le coordonnateur pendant plusieurs années du programme d'expériences avec le SPS, de l'aide qu'il nous a apportée dans la préparation de cet article.

  15. Teaching AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  16. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  17. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  18. Effect of Brazil's conditional cash transfer programme on tuberculosis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, J S; Rodrigues, L C; Rasella, D; Aquino, R; Barreira, D; Torrens, A W; Boccia, D; Penna, G O; Penna, M L F; Barreto, M L; Pereira, S M

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer programme (Bolsa Família Programme, BFP) on tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil from 2004 to 2012. We studied tuberculosis surveillance data using a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design covering 2458 Brazilian municipalities. The main independent variable was BFP coverage and the outcome was the TB incidence rate. All study variables were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for selected covariates and a variable representing time. After controlling for covariates, TB incidence rates were significantly reduced in municipalities with high BFP coverage compared with those with low and intermediate coverage (in a model with a time variable incidence rate ratio = 0.96, 95%CI 0.93-0.99). This was the first evidence of a statistically significant association between the increase in cash transfer programme coverage and a reduction in TB incidence rate. Our findings provide support for social protection interventions for tackling TB worldwide.

  19. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  20. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, C; Gehrels, N.; Lund, N.; Schoenfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements of the observing programme.

  1. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Levorato, Mario; Frota, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtai...

  2. Brazilian Portuguese Words for Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gies, Sheila; Cassidy, Tracy Diane

    2009-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese is the Portuguese spoken in Brazil, which has slight differences from the Portuguese spoken in Portugal. One may try to understand such differences by comparing them with the dissimilarities between the American English and the British English. Although this article does not intend to establish potential differences between Brazilian Portuguese and Portuguese spoken in other countries, such as Portugal, it is important to bear in mind that divergences in meaning of words ...

  3. Assessment of solar energy programmes in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthan, B.; Monga, P. [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Giri, S. [UNDP, United Nation Building, Thimphu (Bhutan); Adhikari, R.N. [Norlha Associates, Thimphu (Bhutan)

    2004-07-01

    The paper reports on the renewable energy and solar electrification programmes in Bhutan. Findings from a field survey of PV systems have been presented and lessons identified. A discussion of the key results from the assessments are also presented and conclusions drawn. The paper provides direct feedback on the performance of PV systems in difficult geographical conditions such as those prevailing in Bhutan. The results and findings of this paper are relevant to PV industry targeting rural electrification markets and policy makers and aid-planners involved in PV rural electrification initiatives. (authors)

  4. Computer Aided Ocular Assessment. Programmer’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    ulcer would cause significant bilateral symptomology, thus each of the ulcer registers are decre- mented moderately (-20). It is also unlikely, but not...Confidence=20 and AACorneal abrasionAA - Confidence=-20 NOTE: The purpose of this rule is to increment the ulcer registers if staining is in 1-3 areas and...Confidence=-30 NOTE: The purpose of this rule is to decrement the ulcer and abrasion registers if several key findings are missing. RULE NUMBER: 152 IF: The

  5. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Jackson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals. The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  6. The Water Footprint of Food Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N. D.; Konar, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find that the total water footprint of food aid was 10 km3 in 2005, which represents approximately 0.5% of the water footprint of food trade and 2.0% of the water footprint of land grabbing (i.e., water appropriation associated with large agricultural land deals). The United States is by far the largest food aid donor and contributes 82% of the water footprint of food aid. The countries that receive the most water embodied in aid are Ethiopia, Sudan, North Korea, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. Notably, we find that there is significant overlap between countries that receive food aid and those that have their land grabbed. Multivariate regression results indicate that donor water footprints are driven by political and environmental variables, whereas recipient water footprints are driven by land grabbing and food indicators.

  7. Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption.

  8. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  9. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  10. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  11. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  12. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  13. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  14. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  15. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in.

  16. Aids for Handicapped Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  17. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  18. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  19. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  20. A programmable molecular robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Richard A; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2011-03-09

    We have developed a programmable and auton-omous molecular robot whose motion is fueled by DNA hybridization. Instructions determining the path to be followed are programmed into the fuel molecules, allowing precise control of cargo motion on a branched track.

  1. User programmable virtualized networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.J.; Strijkers, R.J.; Gommans, L.; Laat, C.de

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a User Programmable Virtualized Network, which allows networks to deliver application specific services using network element components that developers can program as part of a users application. The use of special tokens in data or control packets is the basis

  2. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  3. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  4. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  5. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  6. VAM programme 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngman, Michael [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Since 1988, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has supported a Valid Analytical Measurement (VAM) initiative. VAM programming 14 is concerned with sampling and measurement of aerosols and particulates in the gas phase. The programme of work is summarised here. (author).

  7. En model for programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Dette undervisningsmateriale beskriver en model for, hvordan programmer er opbygget. Materialet er skrevet til brug i det gymnasiale forsøgsfag Informationsteknologi. Seneste version af dette undervisningsmateriale kan findes på http:// www.imhotep.dk. Tak til Elisabeth Husum for en kritisk...

  8. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  9. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  10. Crawling Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  11. Brazilian Literature in African Descent Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Fonseca, Maria Nazareth

    2016-01-01

    The essay argues about the meanings given to the terms "black literature," African-Brazilian literature", "Afro-descendant literature" and "black-Brazilian literature" present in anthologies of black African-Brazilian poetry in Brazil. It also discusses the ways these directions are presented in the writers' texts published in the anthologies highlighted in this study.

  12. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  13. Blisters: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Blisters: First aid Blisters: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff If a blister isn't too painful, try to keep it intact. Unbroken skin over a blister may provide a natural barrier to bacteria and ...

  14. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  15. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS Treatment HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development ... such as hepatitis, malaria, and tuberculosis. Treatment of HIV Infection In the early 1980s when the HIV/ ...

  16. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  17. [AIDS along Brazil's borders, 1990-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres

    2009-01-01

    To study the AIDS epidemic in Brazil's border areas, from the spatial and temporal perspective. This was an ecological study in which the cases of AIDS reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil from 1990-2003 were grouped according to "hunger areas" as defined by Josué de Castro in the 1940s and according to 19 cultural subregions. Spatial assessment was based on incidence rates for border municipalities; temporal assessment considered the absolute number of cases occurring quarterly from 1990-2003 in each of the hunger areas studied (Extreme South, Midwest, and Amazon). During the study period, 7,973 cases of AIDS were reported from the Brazilian border areas: 648 in the Amazon area, 1,579 in the Midwest, and 5,746 in the Extreme South (populations of 668,098, 895,489, and 2,769,361, respectively). The subregions with the highest AIDS incidence rates in each of the three border areas were those near triple-borders, between more than two Latin American countries. Sexual transmission was predominant, with heterosexual transmission being the most frequent, followed by transmission by male homosexuality. These two categories accounted for 87.2% of the cases reported. The estimates of the trend parameter in the temporal analysis were 0.53 (P borders may be a strategy for territorial integration and for dealing with the AIDS epidemic, as long as social, economic, and cultural differences are taken into account.

  18. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  19. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Clémençon Stéphan; Legeai Camille; Lounes Rachid; Joanes Jose; de Arazoza Héctor; Pérez Jorge; Auvert Bertran

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-po...

  20. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  1. The ACIGA data analysis programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Cusack, Benedict J; McClelland, David E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2004-03-07

    The data analysis programme of the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) was set up in 1998 by Scott to complement the then existing ACIGA programmes working on suspension systems, lasers and optics and detector configurations. The ACIGA data analysis programme continues to contribute significantly in the field; we present an overview of our activities.

  2. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  3. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  4. The ACIGA Data Analysis programme

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, S M; Cusack, B J; McClelland, D E; Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Cusack, Benedict J; Clelland, David E Mc

    2004-01-01

    The Data Analysis programme of the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) was set up in 1998 by the first author to complement the then existing ACIGA programmes working on suspension systems, lasers and optics, and detector configurations. The ACIGA Data Analysis programme continues to contribute significantly in the field; we present an overview of our activities.

  5. Appreciative inquiry into lifeskills-based HIV/AIDS education in South African schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Sumeshni; Edwards, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    With a steady rise in the prevalence of HIV and AIDS throughout the world it has become vital for programme implementers at all levels to ensure that all HIV intervention programmes are effectively put into practice. The present research used qualitative and quantitative data to evaluate the lifeskills-based HIV/AIDS education programme being implemented in primary and secondary schools in South Africa, with special reference to KwaZulu-Natal. A qualitative questionnaire gathered information from nine respondents at three levels: Department of Education district officials, educators and learners. Six key themes were consequently identified to guide the evaluation: communication, empowerment, resources, networking, motivation, and evaluation and feedback. A quantitative questionnaire completed by 30 educators revealed an overall positive attitude towards the programme, regardless of the educator's gender, age or level of formal education. The results are discussed with special reference to continuation and improvement of the lifeskills-based HIV/AIDS education programme.

  6. [The emergence of Aids in Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Júlio César

    2016-01-26

    This article analyzes the historical, social, and political context in which Aids emerged in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, and how local responses were shaped by changes taking place on a national political level. Documental sources from governmental and non-governmental institutions were researched, and the information was supplemented and clarified by oral sources - testimonials of activists and health professionals/managers who have led the organization of healthcare for people with HIV/Aids in the state. This research reveals that the lack of coordination between healthcare institutions and the dearth of any real political will to fight the epidemic in the state have hampered the planning and execution of public strategies and actions covering the whole welfare system in the state.

  7. Feasibility of a first responder programme in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Mecrow, Tom Stefan; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Nusrat, Nahida; Khanam, Mahruba; Scarr, Justin; Linnan, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To develop and implement a first responder training programme, assess the feasibility of training lay persons with low literacy in rural Bangladesh and determine the acceptability of the programme in the community. A first responder training programme including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was developed covering 20 villages in a rural sub-district in north-central Bangladesh. 2398 participants received training and 2120 graduated over a 14-month period. Responders were a mix of adolescents, community volunteers and community elders. The programme was evaluated through post-training assessment of knowledge and skills of participants and performance evaluation of trainers. A focus group discussion was used to assess the response of community leaders to usefulness and community acceptance of the programme. Materials developed for training include a low-literacy training manual, posters and a training video. Almost 90 per cent (88.4) of participants qualified in post training assessment. Adolescents and community volunteers had higher pass rates than community elders. In all, CPR skills showed a significant decline over 9 months of assessment, while first aid knowledge appeared stable over the same period. Community leaders considered the programme useful for the community and expressed their support for the programme. Developing a first responder training programme that includes CPR in a rural Bangladesh community is feasible if participants have secondary school attainment. Adolescents and young adults are suitable candidates. Evaluation is ongoing to see whether the programme graduates were able to reduce morbidity and mortality through effective first response efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jocelyn R Vass

    2008-03-26

    Mar 26, 2008 ... Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes ... Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often ..... such as the Internet and computers, was cited as contributory reasons.

  9. Urban and rural differences in HIV/AIDS stigma in five African countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naidoo, Joanne R; Uys, Leana R; Greeff, Minrie; Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy; Dlamini, Priscilla; Phetlhu, René D; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla

    2007-01-01

    .... Decreasing stigma is therefore an important goal in HIV/AIDS programmes. This paper explores whether urban and rural differences existed in reported incidents of HIV stigma from five African countries...

  10. The HIV/AIDS philanthropy sector: towards harmonization of resource tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Beekink, E.

    2008-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS philanthropic sector, which supports programmes in developing countries, is diverse. Grant making organizations include foundations, public charities and the corporate sector. Foundations include private, family and community foundations. The meaning of the term foundation varies

  11. A review of the response to HIV/AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago: 1983 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christine Laptiste

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... disparate efforts of government, private sector, workplace, com- munity, civil society and ... Care and support;. • Legal and ethical; and ...... business professionals, health experts, NGO representatives and the AIDS Programme ...

  12. Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elma Nelisiwe Maleka

    2016-12-20

    Dec 20, 2016 ... services that contribute to a reduction of HIV/AIDS transmission such as HCT, sexual ..... ness programmes of the selected NGOs are in line with the ...... with non-participants: Coaching for hope Burkina Faso evaluation report.

  13. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The VIDA Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Iannone, Rosa Lisa

    and Innovation’ within the project ‘Curriculum Quality Analysis and Impact Review of European Education and Care’ (CARE). The programme at the centre of this case builds on theory drawn from research on child development, social disadvantage related to issues of social inequality, and research on organisational...... learning and innovation. The latter field has tended to focus primarily on technological innovation, leaving socially-driven innovation in the shade (Dawson & Daniel, 2010). Here, in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC), we draw on Dawson and Daniel’s (ibid., p. 10) definition...... programme period (2010-2013) and beyond?; 2) What is the impact of the VIDA approach to professional development on i) educators’ practices regarding high quality ECEC (output), ii) child outcomes (outcome), and iii) improved practice at the municipal level (impact in a broader sense)?; and 3) Which factors...

  15. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Academic Training; Tel. 73127

    2001-01-01

    Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Date Time Lecturer Title Monday 13 August 9:15 10:15 11:15 Student Session (3/3) Course Review Course Review Tuesday 14 August 16:00 Poster Session Further information can be obtained on the web at the following URL: Summer Student Lecture ProgrammeSummer Student Lectures are available at: http://agenda.cern.ch/SSLP2001

  16. NSF announces diversity programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  17. Programmable mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin; van Hecke, Martin

    2014-10-24

    We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, nonmonotonic, and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multistability and giant hysteresis.

  18. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  19. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Korir

    Full Text Available Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  20. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  1. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology.

  2. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  3. The Brazilian Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Antonio Carlos S. de

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the technology and experience of Petrobras in the development of deep-water exploitation off the coast of Brazil. The company recently found important oil deposits in waters over 300 m deep in Campos Basin, the main petroleum province in Brazil, located offshore Rio de Janeiro State. It is estimated that 50% of the new discoveries will take place in waters deeper than 1000 m. Unlike other companies, Petrobras made an option to develop its offshore fields by means of sub-sea equipment and floating production units. This was possible mainly because of the characteristics of the reservoirs and the mild environmental conditions in Campos Basin. Petrobras has 288 subsea trees on the seabed, 48 subsea manifolds and 21 floating production units in operation. The company has constantly moved on to deeper and deeper waters and by the end of 1998 a new milestone will be achieved with a Roncador field subsea well at 1853 m. Procap-2000, a strategic research and development corporate programme for ultra-deep water technology, was developed. Other innovations by Petrobras are also discussed. 3 figs.

  4. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  5. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  6. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  7. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  8. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  9. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  10. User-programmer dialogue: Guidelines for designing menus and help files for interactive computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    This document is a set of guidelines to aid a programmer in making the various decisions necessary for a clear user-programmer dialogue. Its goal is to promote an effective and efficient transfer of information between programmer and user. These guidelines are divided into four sections: (1) Format, (2) Sequence, (3) Audience, and (4) Aim. Format, in terms of this study, means the spatial and structural presentation of information. Sequence deals with the procedural aspects of multiple panel displays. This section looks at the issues of timelines of presentation, modularization of information, and patterns of user behavior. Audience looks at the relationship among programmer, user, and message. It covers the issues of analyzing the audience's knowledge, attitudes, and needs, anticipating the audience's inferences, and identifying textual ambiguities. The programmer's aim or intention shows up in everything from tone to format. Aim considers the programmer's purpose.

  11. Home Health Aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  12. Ele não quer com camisinha e eu quero me prevenir: exposição de adolescentes do sexo feminino às DST/aids no semi-árido nordestino He does not want it with condom and I want to protect myself: exposure of female adolescents to STD/AIDS in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sampaio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A propagação da aids tem sofrido mudanças em seu perfil, e o aumento de casos em mulheres tem sido cada vez mais frequente, contribuindo de modo decisivo para o fenômeno chamado feminização da aids. Levando em consideração essa realidade, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a exposição de adolescentes às DST/aids no semiárido nordestino. A metodologia de trabalho utilizada foi baseada na abordagem qualitativa em saúde, utilizando como modelo teórico-metodológico as Práticas Discursivas e Produção de Sentido (Spink, 2004; Spink e Medrado, 1999. Ao todo três estratégias metodológicas foram utilizadas para a coleta de dados: 1024 horas de observação participante, 72 entrevistas semiestruturadas e 36 grupos focais, englobando dois grupos de atores: 72 profissionais de 8 equipes de saúde e 360 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos. A partir da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que a realidade nordestina é permeada por características que tornam a mulher vulnerável às DST/aids, tais como: a a baixa escolaridade; b as relações desiguais de gênero; c a ausência de uma política de prevenção direcionada ao público adolescente; d a inexistência de vínculo entre profissionais da saúde e população; e e a frequente compreensão dos serviços de saúde como espaço exclusivamente da mulher. Diante desse contexto, aponta-se a necessidade da efetivação de políticas de atenção à saúde integral de adolescentes, que trabalhem os direitos sexuais e reprodutivos na perspectiva de gênero, para a efetiva prevenção das DST/aids, exercendo impacto direto na promoção da qualidade de suas vidas.The dissemination of AIDS has suffered changes in its profile and the increase in cases among women has been more and more frequent, contributing decisively to the phenomenon called the feminization of AIDS. Taking this fact into account, the objective of this work is to examine the exposure of adolescents to STD / AIDS in the

  13. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  14. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  15. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  16. Hearing aids and tinnitus--an experimental group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, L; Scott, B; Lindberg, P; Lyttkens, L

    1987-05-01

    From a waiting list consisting of hearing-impaired patients waiting for hearing aids to be fitted, 39 subjects who at interview also stated that they had tinnitus took part in an experimental group study with the aim of investigating the effect of a hearing aid on tinnitus. No subject had any previous experience of hearing aids. The subjects were randomly allocated to a treatment and a waiting list control group. After an initial interview, the routine programme for the fitting of hearing aids started in the treatment group, while the waiting list control group had to wait for 6 weeks before starting the same hearing aid rehabilitation programme. The hearing aids were fitted exclusively for hearing purposes. As expected, the hearing aids improved the hearing capacity, but they did not reduce tinnitus as recorded on a visual analogue scale. According to information obtained at the final interview, there were significant differences in tinnitus between subjects who used their aid for more than 2 hours daily and those who used it for less than 2 hours. However, the results of scaling (pre- and post-fitting) did not support this finding. The discrepancy between the scaling and interview data is probably due to demand characteristics.

  17. Progression to overweight, obesity and associated factors after antiretroviral therapy initiation among Brazilian persons with HIV/AIDS Progresión para el sobrepeso, obesidad y los factores asociados después de la iniciación de la terapia con antirretrovirales en personas brasileñas con VIH/SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    L. H. Maia Leite; A. B. De Mattos Marinho Sampaio

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess body weight changes, progression to overweight/obesity and investigate the associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted involving a sample group of 203 adults with HIV/AIDS. Medical records were used to gather demographic, clinical and anthropometric information. The variables were compared by Chi-square tests, Student's t tests and One-way analysis of variance. Results: The majority of the individuals studied were men (72.4%) ...

  18. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the

  19. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the effectiv

  20. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  1. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  2. The ONTARGET trial programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Thomas; Kintscher, Ulrich; Kappert, Kai;

    2009-01-01

    The ONTARGET trial programme tested the effects of the angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan, alone or in combination with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in more than 25.000 patients at high cardiovascular risk including diabetes on a combined endpoint ....... Telmisartan thus proved to be the first and so far the only representative of the ARB class that can be used as an alternative to the "gold standard" ACE-inhibitor, ramipril, in patients at high cardiovascular risk with or without hypertension. © 2009 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd....

  3. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  4. Programmable pulse generator

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Zhi Hua; Duan Xiao Hui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  5. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  6. Angola launches rejuvenated programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Angola has been at war almost continuously since the early 1960s. Over the past few years, large parts of the country have been under the control of Unita and thus beyond the reach of government health services. The first reported case of AIDS in Angola was identified in late 1985. By June 3, 1995, 993 cases had been confirmed. Of these cases, women outnumber men by 13 to 10, and most cases are aged 20-39 years. Officials realize, however, that the true numbers are actually higher. The World Health Organization (WHO) suspects that the level of infection with HIV/AIDS may be worse in the diamond mining province of Lunda Norte due to cross-border links with neighboring Zaire. Huge numbers of displaced people, many living in crowded conditions with poor sanitation, disrupted family relationships, the common practice of becoming sexually active as young as 12 or 13 years, homelessness, prostitution, and the sex behavior of widowed women and street children contribute to the current high levels of HIV infection. Moreover, there is no effective clean blood system. The lack of education among the population, seven official languages, residence in temporary accommodations, and isolation in rural communities makes it difficult to disseminate public health messages. Condoms are, however, promoted on television, some community health programs are in place in the shantytowns surrounding Luanda, and women may be better placed than in other countries to lobby for keeping reproductive health high on the political agenda. The director of the Ministry of Health's existing National AIDS Program has proposed the creation of a new multisectoral AIDS committee answerable only to the prime minister. All relevant ministries will be involved, although a ministry to head the program has yet to be chosen. The lack of reliable information on the population and the limited reach of existing health services will be the two biggest problems of the committee.

  7. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  8. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  9. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  10. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tropical diseases: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G Morgado

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes recent findings on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/Aids, highlighting the role of co-infections with major tropical diseases. Such co-infections have been studied in the Brazilian context since the beginning of the Aids epidemic and are expected to be more frequent and relevant as the Aids epidemic in Brazil proceeds towards smaller municipalities and the countryside, where tropical diseases are endemic. Unlike opportunistic diseases that affect basically the immunocompromised host, most tropical diseases, as well as tuberculosis, are pathogenic on their own, and can affect subjects with mild or no immunossuppression. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART, opportunistic diseases seem to be on decrease in Brazil, where such medicines are fully available. Benefiting from HAART in terms of restoration of the immune function, putative milder clinical courses are expected in the future for most co-infections, including tropical diseases. On the other hand, from an ecological perspective, the progressive geographic diffusion of Aids makes tropical diseases and tuberculosis a renewed challenge for Brazilian researchers and practitioners dealing with HIV/Aids in the coming years.

  12. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  13. Programmable pH buffers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  14. Programmable fast data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Bianchi, G.; Zoni, L.

    The goal of this work is to investigate the possibility to install on modern radiotelescopes a fast and programmable backend instead of several backends, each dedicated to a single acquisition task. Such an approach could lower the costs and make available a more compact and flexible back end. Exploiting the state-of-the-art of the FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) and innovative architectures, a programmable system might be conceived.

  15. Physics R and D programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, F.; Pacher, H.D. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)); Fujisawa, N.; Sugihara, M.; Tsunematsu, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)); Luxon, J. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA)); Mukhovatov, V. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii); Post, D.; Young, K. (Princeton Un

    1990-12-01

    ITER-Related Physics R and D Programmes were set up in two steps: A first programme covering the latter part of the ITER conceptual design phase (1989--1990) was generated and agreed between summer 1988 and spring 1989, and partial results have been reported. A second programme is being developed, to provide the data base necessary for supporting the decision to start ITER construction and to be carried out in parallel with the ITER engineering design (1991--1995).

  16. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  17. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  18. Polyamide 66/Brazilian Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Araújo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyamide 66 (PA66/Brazilian clay nanocomposites were produced via direct melt intercalation. A montmorillonite sample from the Brazilian state of Paraíba was organically modified with esthearildimethylammonium chloride (Praepagen, quaternary ammonium salt and has been tested to be used in polymer nanocomposites. The dispersion analysis and the interlayer spacing of the clay particles in matrix were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Thermal behavior of the obtained systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry (TG, and heat deflection temperature (HDT was reported too. The nanocomposites exhibited a partially exfoliated structure, very interesting HDT values which are higher than those of pure PA66, and good thermal stability.

  19. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  20. attitude of niger delta university undergraduates towards hiv/aids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Plate au. Yobe. Ebonyi. Kebbi. Bauchi. Delta. Gom be. Im o. Abia. Kogi ... Community home- based care in the state is mainly carried ... print/audio media and also visual media. .... programmes that will aid in exposing cultural and religious beliefs that ... about HIV, risky sexual behaviour and safe sex practices research.

  1. Electroacoustic Evaluation of Frequency-Modulated Receivers Interfaced with Personal Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Erin C.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Whalen, Holly S.; Overson, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the electroacoustic outputs of frequency-modulated (FM) systems coupled to hearing aids. Method: Electroacoustic performance of FM systems coupled to hearing aids was determined for 3 FM receivers: body-worn with neck loop, ear-level nonprogrammable, and ear-level programmable. Systems were…

  2. QASI: A collaboration for implementation of an independent quality assessment programme in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne F.A. Meyers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The HIV pandemic remains a significant global health concern. Accurate determination of CD4+ T-cells in patient samples relies on reliable CD4 enumeration. The Quality Assessment and Standardization programme for Immunological measures relevant to HIV/AIDS (QASI programme of the Public Health Agency of Canada provides clinical laboratories from resource-limited countries with a mechanism to evaluate the quality of CD4 testing and develop the implementation of an independent national External Quality Assessment (EQA programme. This study describes how QASI helped develop the capacity for managing a sustainable national CD4 EQA programme in India.Design: Supported by the Public Health Agency of Canada and Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative, QASI engaged with the National AIDS Control Organization and the Indian National AIDS Research Institute to assist in technology transfer in preparation for the implementation/ management of an independent CD4 EQA programme. Technology transfer training was provided to support corrective actions and to improve the quality of CD4 testing. Inter- laboratory variation of EQA surveys between pre- and post-skill development was compared.Results: Prior to training, coefficient of variation values were 14.7% (mid-level CD4 count controls and 39.0% (low-level. Following training, variation was reduced to 10.3% for mid- level controls and 20.0% for low-level controls.Conclusion: This training assisted the National AIDS Control Organization and the Indian National AIDS Research Institute in identifying the information necessary for management of an EQA programme, and developed the foundation for India to provide corrective actions for sites with challenges in achieving reliable results for CD4 enumeration. This led to a demonstrable improvement in CD4 testing quality and illustrates how country-specific training significantly improved CD4 enumeration performance for better clinical management of HIV care

  3. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  4. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  5. Cigotica programme: pediatric experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešović Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The alarming spread of obesity epidemic in children and adolsecents, as well as the absence of tested and efficient measures and programmes on obesity preven­tion indicate the necessity for the establishment of the Centre for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of obesity in children and adolescents and the 'Cigotica Programme' at the Special Hospital 'Zlatibor'. The advantage of the 'Cigotica' Programme is the multidisciplinary approach to treating obese children, which implies specific education, dietetic interventions with the reduction in the total daily calorie intake, physical activity, medical, educational and psychological support, change of behavior and lifestyle. Objective To define obesity complications, metabolic risk factors and treatment effects on body composition and metabolic parameters in adolescents participating in the 'Cigotica' Programme. Method 1,030 adolescents were examined (498 girls and 532 boys, aged 12 to 18, average age 15.45, diagnosed with primary obesity, hospitalized at the Centre for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of obesity in children and adolescents at the Special Hospital 'Zlatibor', in the period from 27/07/2008 to 03/10/2010. Hospitalization lasted 21 days. Obesity criterion was body mass index (BMI > +2 SD . Body The Special Hospital for the Thyroid Gland and Metabolism Zlatibor mass, BMI, % of fat were obtained by means of Tanita scales for determining body composition using the impendence method. Apart from medical examination, blood pressure was also taken. The levels of triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterols, uric acids and glycemia were determined on the second and twenty-first day of hospitalization after a 12-day fasting period. Results After the multidisciplinary treatment, the average reduction in body mass (p< 0.05 in all adolescents was 5.92 ± 2.71 kg, in boys - 6.24 ±3.24 kg, and in girls -5.86±2.4. During the 21-day hospitalization, the average

  6. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  7. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  8. Aids and Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    HIV/AIDS patients require surgery sometimes during their illness. ... risks to surgical equipes and analysing preventive strategies to HIV ... problems in patients presenting HIV, AIDS and ... Dentistry, Surgery of Awolowo University in Nigeria3.

  9. First Aid: Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media First Aid: Warts KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Warts Print A ... plantar warts. Signs and Symptoms Of a common wart include: located on back of hands, around nails, ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  11. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  12. Programmable Cadence Timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William A.; Gilbert, John

    1990-01-01

    Electronic metronome paces users through wide range of exercise routines. Conceptual programmable cadence timer provides rhythmic aural and visual cues. Timer automatically changes cadence according to program entered by the user. It also functions as clock, stopwatch, or alarm. Modular pacer operated as single unit or as two units. With audiovisual module moved away from base module, user concentrates on exercise cues without distraction from information appearing on the liquid-crystal display. Variety of uses in rehabilitative medicine, experimental medicine, sports, and gymnastics. Used in intermittent positive-pressure breathing treatment, in which patient must rhythmically inhale and retain medication delivered under positive pressure; and in incentive spirometer treatment, in which patient must inhale maximally at regular intervals.

  13. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  14. Food aid: Who needs it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J

    2000-07-01

    In the 1998 food crisis in Rumbek county, South Sudan, Dinka mothers began voluntarily to remove their malnourished children from Oxfam's therapeutic feeding programs. This article explains how the incident has led Oxfam to re-examine its ideas about food aid in the region and to take a fresh look at Dinka ideas of need. It was shown that Dinka ideas of vulnerability do not always coincide with the norm when it comes to food aid distribution. Dinka life revolves around the cattle, which provide milk for the children and the elderly. Thus, they believed that a child whose family or clan has sufficient cattle should not need special attention, even if they happen to be thin occasionally. In view of this, Oxfam decided that the best way forward was to discuss these issues and set up a workshop of women and men involving food decision making. In the workshop, Oxfam explained the purposes and outcomes of giving food to the malnourished, or the ¿weak¿ as the Dinka termed it and this became a negotiation over feeding attendance. It was finally agreed that the chiefs would allow ¿weak¿ children to receive double rations, on the condition that Oxfam discuss the issues with the World Food Programme.

  15. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  16. Reconstructing the AIDS epidemic among injection drug users in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Hacker

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs in Brazil has been unique in terms of temporal and geographical contrasts. This analysis explores these contrasts through the use of multilevel modeling. Standardized AIDS incidence rates among IDUs for Brazilian municipalities (1986-2000 were used as the dependent variable, with a set of social indicators as independent variables (covariates. In some States of the North/Northeast, the epidemic among IDUs has been incipient. The São Paulo epidemic extended to reach a network of municipalities, most of which located far from the capital. More recently, on a smaller scale, a similar extension has been observed in the southernmost States of the country. Both "number of physicians per inhabitant" and "standard distance to the State capital" were found to be associated with AIDS incidence. AIDS cases among IDUs appeared to cluster in wealthier, more developed municipalities. The relative weight of such extensive dissemination in key, heavily populated States prevails in the Brazilian IDU epidemic, defining a central-western-southeastern strip of wealthier middle-sized municipalities and more recently a southern strip of municipalities deeply affected by the epidemic in this population.

  17. Fever: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  18. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  19. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  20. AIDS awareness: Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, N

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the level of public awareness of AIDS in India was conducted on 600 men and women from Aligarth town, 180 km east of Delhi, and in Srinagar City in Kashmir Valley. Subjects were chosen from illiterate and below matriculate level; matriculate to graduate level; and graduate and above. Subjects were asked if they had heard of a disease called AIDS, when they first hears about AIDS, what was their 1st source of information, what are the reasons behind the incidence of AIDS and whether they are scared of AIDS. None of the illiterate group had heard of AIDS. 24% of the men and 14% of the women in the matriculate and graduate level group (clerks, mechanics, primary school teachers, businessmen and undergraduate students) had heard of AIDS. 92% of the highest educated group (lawyers, engineers, school principals and university students or teachers) had heard of AIDS. The 8% who had not were mostly women. Most of the highly educated, but fewer of the middle group were afraid of AIDS, but most thought AIDS would not spread in India because "our life pattern is different." None was aware that AIDS can spread from unchecked blood transfusions and re-use of unsterilized needles in hospitals. The most common information sources were newspapers, radio, magazines and friends. Most had not heard of AIDS from doctors or other health workers, or from television, which could be an extremely effective medium to reach people.

  1. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  3. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  4. Meeting report of the International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peake Sharon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of a partnership arrangement with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada hosted an International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability from 11 to 13 March 2009 in Ottawa, Canada. The dialogue provided a forum for stakeholders from governments, academia, and non-governmental and multilateral organizations to explore the issues and evidence related to HIV/AIDS and disability, and to chart a way forward in terms of policy and programme development. This meeting report outlines the participants, objectives and high-level outcomes.

  5. Meeting report of the International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Sharon

    2009-11-09

    As part of a partnership arrangement with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada hosted an International Policy Dialogue on HIV/AIDS and Disability from 11 to 13 March 2009 in Ottawa, Canada. The dialogue provided a forum for stakeholders from governments, academia, and non-governmental and multilateral organizations to explore the issues and evidence related to HIV/AIDS and disability, and to chart a way forward in terms of policy and programme development. This meeting report outlines the participants, objectives and high-level outcomes.

  6. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and t

  7. Ny software helt uden programmering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2010-01-01

    Fremtiden er modelbaseret softwareudvikling. Men er det bare en våd drøm, eller er det realistisk at tro, at man kan lave software uden programmering?......Fremtiden er modelbaseret softwareudvikling. Men er det bare en våd drøm, eller er det realistisk at tro, at man kan lave software uden programmering?...

  8. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and t

  9. SWOV programme 2003-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    SWOV uses a four-year programme to structure its activities over a longer period of time. The current four-year programme, for 2003-2006, includes proposals for so-called planning office activities, anticipatory research, knowledge management, and knowledge dissemination. The research activities are

  10. An automatic bibliography indexing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple FORTRAN IV programme, designed for a small computer, for author and key-word indexes to bibliographic records is described, and examples of output are given. It is com­pared with some other systems. Suggested improvements to the programme are given.

  11. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  12. An educational programme on dengue fever prevention and control for females in Jeddah high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N K; Abalkhail, B; Rady, M; Al-Bar, H

    2009-01-01

    A mass communication campaign was conducted at 20 randomly selected female high schools and 2 school supervision centres in Jeddah to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices of students, teachers and supervisors about dengue fever. A total of 5977 pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were completed and the intervention was conducted using lectures and audiovisual aids. A marked improvement in all areas of knowledge, attitudes and practices was observed after the programme in all groups. Students obtained the highest improvement in mean knowledge scores after the programme compared to the other 2 groups. There is a need to expand such programmes to all Jeddah schools.

  13. The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Lêda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicides, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

  14. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  15. Auditing emergency management programmes: Measuring leading indicators of programme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Heather

    Emergency Management Programmes benefit from review and measurement against established criteria. By measuring current vs required programme elements for their actual currency, completeness and effectiveness, the resulting timely reports of achievements and documentation of identified gaps can effectively be used to rationally support prioritised improvement. Audits, with their detailed, triangulated and objectively weighted processes, are the ultimate approach in terms of programme content measurement. Although Emergency Management is often presented as a wholly separate operational mechanism, distinct and functionally different from the organisation's usual management structure, this characterisation is only completely accurate while managing an emergency itself. Otherwise, an organisation's Emergency Management Programme is embedded within that organisation and dependent upon it. Therefore, the organisation's culture and structure of management, accountability and measurement must be engaged for the programme to exist, much less improve. A wise and successful Emergency Management Coordinator does not let the separate and distinct nature of managing an emergency obscure their realisation of the need for an organisation to understand and manage all of the other programme components as part of its regular business practices. This includes its measurement. Not all organisations are sufficiently large or capable of supporting the use of an audit. This paper proposes that alternate, less formal, yet effective mechanisms can be explored, as long as they reflect and support organisational management norms, including a process of relatively informal measurement focused on the organisation's own perception of key Emergency Management Programme performance indicators.

  16. Dosimetric characterisation of Brazilian natural stones using the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, F.D.G.; Cecatti, S.G.P.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2002-07-01

    A thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) measuring system developed and constructed at IPEN was used to verify the feasibility of the use of Brazilian natural semi-precious stones, such as jasper, amethyst, agate (blue and rose) and quartz (rose and white) for gamma and X radiation detection. Its counting system consists of a 2p windowless gas-flow proportional counter, and the heating system is formed by a temperature programmer that provides linear heating of the samples. The samples were tested in gamma and in X radiation beams and evaluated in relation to their main dosimetric characteristics, as TSEE glow curves, calibration curves and energy dependence. The TSEE results are compared with those of thermoluminescence. The results obtained show the usefulness of Brazilian natural stones as dosimetric materials, using the thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission techniques. (author)

  17. [Thinking health under the perspective of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Feitosa Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa; Jesuino, Jorge Correia; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed at determining the social representations on health and immigrants constructed by Brazilians. Samples consisted of one hundred Brazilian male and female immigrants living in Lisbon, Portugal. The technique of free evocation, which uses as inductive words "health "and "immigrant", were used for data collection. Data were submitted to analyses using the software EVOC (Ensemble de Programmes Permettant L'analyse des Evocations). We detected the presence of the psycho-affective and social-interaction dimensions as to health, whereas as to "immigrant", individuals related it to a difficult experience that generates pain, prejudice, and homesickness, where the love for the family are the reason to immigrate to obtain better life conditions.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  19. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  20. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  1. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  2. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  3. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  4. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  5. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  6. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  7. AIDS incidence and mortality in injecting drug users: the AjUDE-Brasil II Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Mauro Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents AIDS incidence and mortality among injecting drug users (IDUs reached by the AjUDE-Brasil II Project. From a cross-sectional survey, 478 IDUs were interviewed in three Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre, São José do Rio Preto, and Itajaí. The cohort was followed up in the Brazilian surveillance database for AIDS and mortality during 2000 and 2001. AIDS incidence was 1.1 cases per 100 person-years, and the mortality rate was 2.8 deaths per 100 person-years. AIDS cases only occurred in IDUs who reported ever having shared injecting equipment. Female gender (RR = 5.30, homelessness (RR = 6.16, and report of previous sexual relations with same-sex partners (RR = 6.21 were associated with AIDS. Deaths occurred only among males. Homelessness (RR = 3.00, lack of income (RR = 2.65, HIV seropositive status (RR = 4.52, and no history of incarceration (RR = 3.71 were also associated with death. These findings support evidence that gender and socioeconomic conditions are both determinants of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian IDUs.

  8. AIDS epidemic in the triple frontier: subsidies for professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Monica Augusta; Barreto, Mayckel da Silva; de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the AIDS epidemic trend from 1988 to 2012, in a tri-border area. Ecological time-series study with data from the Department of informatics from the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). A total of 1427 cases of AIDS were registered, and 82.1% were aged 20-49 years and 56% in males. The relationship man/woman went from 9/1 to 1/1 and increased the number of cases among individuals with more years of education, also, people aged more than 50 years old the age group from 20 to 34 years old. The most common exposure category was heterosexual, significantly higher among women; on the other hand, drug injection use was associated with male gender. seeking to embrace the changes in the epidemiological scenario of AIDS, nursing professionals should implement intervention strategies for people identified as the most vulnerable to HIV infection.

  9. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  10. Comparative Immature Morphology of Brazilian Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although common in Brazil, the biology of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith is still poorly studied. Larval descriptions are useful to genus-level ant systematics and sometimes to species-level taxonomy. This study presents a detailed description of juveniles of S. saevissima from Brazil, which were compared with Brazilian specimens of Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, and Solenopsis altipunctata Pitts. Different larval instars were separated by diagnostic morphological traits which were confirmed by observing moults. Reproductive larvae could be easily sorted by their distinctive body dimensions and shape. Contrary to previous reports on this species, the larvae of S. saevissima proved to be generally identical to those of S. invicta, while a few specimens resembled those of other close species, such as Solenopsis megergates Trager. Mature larvae thus presented considerable intraspecific variation in some characters recently proposed to aid fire ant species separation (morphology of head hairs.

  11. Dilemmas of Brazilian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    marching toward a multipolar world,” he said in 2009, “and South Amer- ica will be one of those poles.”59 The imperative of asserting Brazilian...countries like Chile, Colombia, and Peru . More pressing still is the issue of Venezuela, which under President Hugo Chávez has staked its own claim to...helicopters to Paraguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador, and used a SIVAM surveillance aircraft to help Peru resolve a hostage crisis in 2003. As part of an

  12. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  13. Luso-Brazilian antiscorbutic herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Machline, Vera Cecília; Professor, Graduate Program in History of Science, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Not only Iberian physicians such as João Curvo Semmedo and Francisco Suárez de Rivera participated in the 17th and 18th-century endeavor of seeking cures for scurvy. Besides those Luso-Hispanic iatrochemists, at least three Portuguese-born surgeons who resided in the Brazilian colony also took part in this crusade. As detailed here Luis Gomes Ferreyra, Jozé Antonio Mendes and João Cardoso de Miranda – each in his own way – advocated that the herb popularly called mastruço in Portuguese (Ameri...

  14. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  15. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  16. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  17. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  18. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  19. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  20. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  1. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  2. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  3. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  4. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  5. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 3 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. FAYARD, O. ULLALAND Presentation of the Summer Student Programm 10:15 - 12:00 L. MAIANI Introduction to CERN (1&2/2) 14:00 - 15:00 G. Stevenson Radiation Protection (Council Chamber, bldg.503) Thursday 4 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (1&2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (1/5) Friday 5 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (3&4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (1/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 M. FRANKLIN Classic Experiments (1/3) 14:00 - 15:00 M. LINDROOS Isolde 15:30 - 16:30 M. LINDROOS Visit of the Experiment Tuesday 9 july 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (2/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Part...

  6. Uptake of Space Technologies - An Educational Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacai, Hina; Zolotikova, Svetlana; Young, Mandy; Cowsill, Rhys; Wells, Alan; Monks, Paul; Archibald, Alexandra; Smith, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Earth Observation data and remote sensing technologies have been maturing into useful tools that can be utilised by local authorities and businesses to aid in activates such as monitoring climate change trends and managing agricultural land and water uses. The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), provides the means to collect and process multi-source EO and environmental data that supports policy developments at the European level. At the regional and local level, the Copernicus programme has been initiated through Regional Contact Office (RCO), which provide knowledge, training, and access to expertise both locally and at a European level through the network of RCOs established across Europe in the DORIS_Net (Downstream Observatory organised by Regions active In Space - Network) project (Grant Agreement No. 262789 Coordination and support action (Coordinating) FP7 SPA.2010.1.1-07 "Fostering downstream activities and links with regions"). In the East Midlands UK RCO, educational and training workshops and modules have been organised to highlight the wider range of tools and application available to businesses and local authorities in the region. Engagement with businesses and LRA highlighted the need to have a tiered system of training to build awareness prior to investigating innovative solutions and space technology uses for societal benefits. In this paper we outline education and training programmes which have been developed at G-STEP (GMES - Science and Technology Education Partnership), University of Leicester, UK to open up the Copernicus programme through the Regional Contact Office to downstream users such as local businesses and LRAs. Innovative methods to introduce the operational uses of Space technologies in real cases through e-learning modules and web-based tools will be described and examples of good practice for educational training in these sectors will be

  7. Silencing women's sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny JTP Peters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women's sexual agency. Methods: We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results: We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men's sexual agency is treated differently from women's sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions: The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women's agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering

  8. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  9. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Drought-Tolerant Bacillus sp. Strain CMAA 1363 Isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The strain of Bacillus sp. CMAA 1363 was isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga biome and showed plant growth-promoting traits and ability to promote maize growth under drought stress. Sequencing revealed genes involved in stress response and plant growth promotion. These genomic features might aid in the protection of plants against the negative effects imposed by drought. PMID:28153893

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Drought-Tolerant Bacillus sp. Strain CMAA 1363 Isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-02-02

    The strain of Bacillus sp. CMAA 1363 was isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga biome and showed plant growth-promoting traits and ability to promote maize growth under drought stress. Sequencing revealed genes involved in stress response and plant growth promotion. These genomic features might aid in the protection of plants against the negative effects imposed by drought. Copyright © 2017 Kavamura et al.

  12. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  13. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  14. Abandoning weight-loss programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on factors relating to reasons why the weight loss programmes had ... the increase according to a National Health and Nutrition .... classes after weight gain. 7. 14. 26 .... 'slow metabolism' (8%), and a chronic problem of premenstrual.

  15. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  16. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  17. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  18. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  19. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  20. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  1. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  2. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  3. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  4. Solar pond-based rural development programme for selected coastal regions - A concept

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    is expected to aid speedy development of selected coastal areas. The programme involves design and construction of a solar pond in which brine in the lower layer is heated to 85 degrees C by solar radiation and is used as the heat source for a closed cycle...

  5. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  6. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  7. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes. PMID:22081877

  8. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  9. Fear of AIDS and suicide in Finland: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Henriksson, M; Leinikki, P

    1995-01-01

    This review presents data on HIV epidemiology and suicide mortality, and summarizes studies on fear of AIDS in completed suicides in Finland. Finland has a low prevalence of HIV and a high suicide mortality. A 12-month nationwide suicide population, 1987-88 (n = 1397, all HIV negative) at the time...... of a sensational media campaign against HIV included 28 (2%) cases with fear of AIDS as a contributing factor. Triggers of fear could be classified in 20 cases: persistent symptoms in 10, casual sex contacts in eight, and a TV programme in two. The AIDS fear cases were younger, had more major depression and more...... health care contacts than the others. Suicidal fear and underlying depression were not being properly identified and treated. Despite recent improvement in media reporting, health education and identification of depression, clinical experience, help line calls and population surveys indicate that AIDS...

  10. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  11. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    International development programmes, including global health interventions, have the capacity to make important implicit and explicit benefits to diplomatic and international relations outcomes. Conversely, in the absence of awareness of these implications, such programmes may generate associated threats. Due to heightened international tensions in conflict and post-conflict settings, greater attention to diplomatic outcomes may therefore be necessary. We examine related 'collateral' effects of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programmes in Iraq. During site visits to Iraq conducted during 2012 and 2013 on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, on-site service delivery evaluations, unstructured interviews with clinical and operational staff, and programme documentary review of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis treatment and care programmes were conducted. During this process, a range of possible external or collateral international relations and diplomatic effects of global health programmes were assessed according to predetermined criteria. A range of positive diplomatic and international relations effects of Global Fund-supported programmes were observed in the Iraq setting. These included (1) geo-strategic accessibility and coverage; (2) provisions for programme sustainability and alignment; (3) contributions to nation-building and peace-keeping initiatives; (4) consistent observation of social, cultural and religious norms in intervention selection; and (5) selection of the most effective and cost-effective tuberculosis treatment and care interventions. Investments in global health programmes have valuable diplomatic, as well as health-related, outcomes, associated with their potential to prevent, mitigate or reverse international tension and hostility in conflict and post-conflict settings, provided that they adhere to appropriate criteria. The associated international presence in such regions may also contribute to peace

  12. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  13. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  14. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...

  15. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  16. Aid, Development, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  17. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  18. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  19. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  20. First Aid: Diaper Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  1. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  2. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  3. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  4. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  5. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  6. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  7. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  8. Implantable Heart Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  9. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...

  10. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  11. AIDS as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  12. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  13. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  14. HIV/AIDS and disability: differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge between deaf and hearing people in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, N E; Yousafzai, A K; van der Maas, F

    2007-03-15

    Studies both in North America and Europe have found that deaf individuals lack access to AIDS information, due to problems in communication, low literacy and tightly woven social networks within the deaf community. However few comparable studies are available from countries in the Developing World. The present study was undertaken in Nigeria where there is an estimated adult HIV prevalence rate of 5.4%. We sought to compare HIV knowledge among deaf and hearing individuals in order to identify how effectively deaf members of the community are being reached by HIV/AIDS messages. A survey comparing knowledge about HIV/AIDS among deaf and hard of hearing adolescents (n = 50) and young adults (n = 50) was undertaken. Significant differences (p people with disabilities in public health and HIV/AIDS strategies and that address their specific vulnerabilities. Evaluating the adaptation of education material and the inclusion of the deaf population in HIV awareness programmes is an urgent 'next step.'

  15. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  16. The Provision of a Health Promoting Environment for HIV/AIDS Education: The Case of Namibian Senior Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bob; Lubben, Fred

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a…

  17. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals

    OpenAIRE

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu,Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law n.º 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. PURPOSE: To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to ana...

  18. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  19. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  20. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  1. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  2. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  3. Projects and Programmes: A Development Practitioner's Critique of the Transition to a Sector-Wide Approach to Educational Development in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther-Schmidt, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This article utilises the main principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness as one conceptual and methodological strategy for making sense of Nepal's recent experiences of educational reform, primarily an increasing loss in ownership in the transition from a project to programme (SWAp) aid delivery paradigm. Whilst drawing on…

  4. The internationalisation of postgraduate programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Andersen, Ole K.; Bak, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has for the inter......This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has...... for the international students are presented and discussed in terms of e.g. the teamwork situation, professional and cultural differences. A student enrolment programme, implemented through the provision of scholarships, jointly paid by government and industry funds is presented...

  5. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  6. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  7. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... assignment  mechanism, which is based on the discretionary choice of case workers. This is done in a duration model context, using the timing-of-events framework to identify causal effects. We compare different assignment  mechanisms, and the results suggest that a significant reduction in the average...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  8. The RESCueH Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld;

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible......, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US. The RESCueH programme comprises 5 randomized controlled trials......, and the studies can be expected to result in (1) more patients starting treatment in specialized outpatient clinics, (2) a greater number of elderly patients being treated, (3) increased patient motivation for treatment and thus improved adherence, (4) more patients with stable positive outcomes after treatment...

  9. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  10. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  11. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  12. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    augmentation of heterosexual transmission and IDUs as transmission groups, are described and analised. The geographical distribution of the AIDS cases registered between 1987-1993 in Brazil throughout the Brazilian States is evaluated by means of worksheets, maps, and non-parametric statistics. Results show that Gravimetric Centers (obtained by the use of the calculus spatial means of AIDS in Brazil are situated within a triangle the sides of which are formed lines joining the three main metropolitan areas of the wealthiest region of Brazil - the southeast, i.e. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. These especially S. Paulo, function as points of attraction for these Gravimetric Centers (GCs towards the south as compared with the GCs of the general population calculated ia accordance with data from the 1980 and 1991 censuses. It is possible to observe a displacement of the GCs toward the northwest over this period in accordance with the migration patterns of the Brazilian population in general, though with a dynamic of its own. These changes in the geographical, socio-demographic and transmission group patterns show the complex nature of the epidemic in Brazil and pose additional difficulties for the development of prevention strategies.

  13. AIDS at the beginning of the second decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, N F

    1990-01-01

    Though at times tumultuous, the 6th International Conference on AIDS, hosted by in San Francisco, avoided the polarization of previous conferences and achieved a political success. Conference participants vehemently objected to the Immigration and Naturalization Service's policy of barring homosexuals and HIV carriers from entering the country, a practice that remained unchanged for the conference. Over 80 organizations boycotted the conference. Displeasure with US government policies was also evident when AIDS activists drowned out the speech by Secretary of Health and Human Services Louis Sullivan. While paper presentations by notable researchers appeared to be mostly a formality, since most of the information had already been published, useful exchanges did occur when scientists were, for a day, allowed to display abstracts on their latest research. But perhaps the most popular printed item on the conference was ACT UP's Research Agenda, a handout prepared by the AIDS activist group listing a series of drugs that should be tested and treatments that should be tried. Participants heard the disturbing news of the spread of the epidemic, of how 3.5 million Africans are infected, and of how Brazilian teenagers are at great risk of infection. Furthermore, participants discussed the high cost of AIDS care in the US (estimated at $85,000/patient) and the reluctance of insurance companies to cover AIDS-stricken patients. Aside from the exchange of information, the conference's real success came in the political arena, establishing itself as policymaker and champion of the affected.

  14. Pakistan launches media blitz on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, W

    1994-01-01

    In March 1994, the National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in Pakistan launched its media campaign. Staffers have had to work within Islamic principles to inform the public about the risk of HIV infection and to encourage the public to adopt behavior to prevent its transmission. The media messages are not sexually explicit. They call for Pakistanis to call a hotline for or to ask medical professionals about more detailed information on AIDS. The hotline number is memorable (123). The 2 hotlines in Islamabad receive 250-300 calls/day. These hotlines deliver a recorded message with information on the significance of condoms in AIDS prevention and allows callers an opportunity to leave a telephone number or address if they want information. Staff advise callers who are concerned that they may be infected with HIV to obtain a test at 1 of 30 sites and to attend the National Institute for Health in Islamabad for more testing and counseling if the first test is positive. The hotline system will soon expand to all other major Pakistani cities. The program receives 300-400 letters/week asking for specific information. The program had workshops for journalists as its first wave of increasing AIDS awareness. The journalists followed with thoughtful articles on AIDS. Program staff spent much energy to obtain support from Islamic leaders. More media professionals have joined efforts to disseminate information through various media forums to encourage people to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. The program's goal is a 55% increase in the number of people who can name at least 2 correct ways to prevent HIV transmission and an increase in condom use from 1% to 70%. The program eventually would like to increase outreach efforts by working with nongovernmental organizations and by developing videos and short stories.

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  17. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  18. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  19. Paper pump for passive and programmable transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In microfluidic systems, a pump for fluid-driving is often necessary. To keep the size of microfluidic systems small, a pump that is small in size, light-weight and needs no external power source is advantageous. In this work, we present a passive, simple, ultra-low-cost, and easily controlled pumping method based on capillary action of paper that pumps fluid through conventional polymer-based microfluidic channels with steady flow rate. By using inexpensive cutting tools, paper can be shaped and placed at the outlet port of a conventional microfluidic channel, providing a wide range of pumping rates. A theoretical model was developed to describe the pumping mechanism and aid in the design of paper pumps. As we show, paper pumps can provide steady flow rates from 0.3 μl/s to 1.7 μl/s and can be cascaded to achieve programmable flow-rate tuning during the pumping process. We also successfully demonstrate transport of the most common biofluids (urine, serum, and blood). With these capabilities, the paper pump has the potential to become a powerful fluid-driving approach that will benefit the fielding of microfluidic systems for point-of-care applications.

  20. Sleep Forensics: a critical review of the literature and brief comments on the Brazilian legal situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Delgado-Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new field among Medical Sciences. Its legal aspects are still obscure, either for lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying violent behaviour during sleep or the virtual absence of clear legal and uniformly accepted guidelines as to whether to punish or treat those disorders. An updated review of the pertinent literature was performed to determine the most prevalent pathological conditions involving violence and sleep and to identify their most common precipitating factors, attempting to provide some technical support to aid Brazilian medical-experts or assistants in preparing substantial and scientific-based reports in a legal environment.

  1. Dynamic Brazilian Tests of Granite Under Coupled Static and Dynamic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zilong; Li, Xibing; Zou, Yang; Jiang, Yihui; Li, Guonan

    2014-01-01

    Rocks in underground projects at great depth, which are under high static stresses, may be subjected to dynamic disturbance at the same time. In our previous work (Li et al. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 45(5):739–748, 2008), the dynamic compressive behaviour of pre-stressed rocks was investigated using coupled-load equipment. The current work is devoted to the investigation of the dynamic tensile behaviour of granite rocks under coupled loads using the Brazilian disc (BD) method with the aid of a ...

  2. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation.

  3. Programme documentation to control programme for Solar-tracker; Programdokumentation til styringsprogram til Solar-tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudbeck, C.

    1995-07-01

    The report contains the programme documentation partly for a programme to control of a tracking system and partly a programme, which uses this programme to make measurements of transmittance for covering layer. Both the transmittance measurement programme and the programme is built in Borland Pascal v7.0, and is compiled in Real mode for the use on a processor of the 80X86-family. The source code for the programme for transmittance measurements and the programmes (the positioning routines) are described in Appendix B. (EHS)

  4. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    .... Jacques Pepin looks back to the early twentieth-century events in Africa that triggered the emergence of HIV/AIDS and the subsequent evolution and transmission of the disease before it was first...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  6. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  7. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  8. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  9. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  10. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  11. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

  12. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  13. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  14. Hypophyseal pathology in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, L; Costanzi, G; Antonacci, C.; Boldorini, R; Carboni, N.; Cristina, S; Liberani, C.; Parravicini, C.; Pirolo, A.; Vago, L

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and eleven pituitary glands of patients (93 males, 18 females; mean age 32 years, 5 months) who died of fully developed AIDS or ARC were examined under light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemistry. On post mortem (p.m.) examination a wide series of multiorgan alterations was noticed. Microscopically vanous lesions in both adeno- and neurohypophysis were seen. These ranged from vessel damage to secondaries to systemic infections, neoplas...

  15. Empowering teachers to change youth practices: evaluating teacher delivery and responses to the FLHE programme in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen

    2012-06-01

    School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area.

  16. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  17. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  18. Final Draft Programme Support Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Ulrika; Schleimann, Finn; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    The HSPS III is the third phase of Danish support to the Ghanaian Health Sector. The support is in line with the Ministy of Health's Medium Term Strategy and the Second Five-Year Programme of Work; the latter also bring in line with the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. The majority of funds (340...

  19. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  20. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Yang, Shu; Yi, Yun Kyu; Kamien, Randall D; Yin, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Programmable kirigami metamaterials with controllable local tilting orientations on demand through prescribed notches are constructed through a new approach of kiri-kirgami, and their actuation of pore opening via both mechanical stretching and temperature, along with their potential application as skins for energy-saving buildings, is discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Summer Student Programme – Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bellora, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is the report on the studies about radiation damage on silicon strips detectors I've performed during my Summer Student Programme. A parameter to describe the damage amount has been defined, as well as his behaviour over time and absorbed dose.

  2. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  3. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  4. Contemporary Visual Art Programme 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Danino, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The film "Communion" (2010) will be shown in the Marble Chapel, Mount Stuart, curated by James Mackay and Sophie Crighton-Stuart. \\ud \\ud This is a film installation show with 4 other artists at Mount Stuart house for their Contemporary Visual Art Programme.

  5. THE AIDS HANDBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  6. AIDS and dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbert, B; Badner, V; Maguire, B

    1988-01-01

    Dental health care workers (DHCWs) can provide important diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. They also have a responsibility to protect all patients in their practices, and themselves, from infectious disease transmission through the use of infection control. To determine the extent to which DHCWs are prepared to assume these responsibilities, a randomized survey of California DHCWs was conducted. Responses were obtained from 297 dentists, 128 hygienists, and 177 dental assistants. DHCWs who expressed a greater willingness to treat people with AIDS or HIV infection also practiced more thorough infection control. Respondents in all groups who perceived a greater percent of their patients to be at risk for AIDS were more likely to use infection control procedures (P less than .0001). They also were more willing to treat such patients (P less than .004) and were more likely to assess patients for AIDS by taking a thorough medical history (P less than .02) and sexual history (P less than .04). Since attitudes toward AIDS and perception of the percent of patients at risk in one's practice affect patient assessment and infection control procedures used by dental health care workers, educational programs designed to enhance DHCWs' response to the HIV epidemic should alert them to the extent of the problem and help them cope with their concerns.

  7. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  8. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  9. The Brazilian wind energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves-Schwinteck, P. [DEWI GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany); Neddermann, B. [DEWI GmbH, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    At the end of 2011 Brazil had a total installed capacity of ca. 116,000 MW of electricity generation connected to its national interconnected system, in which more than 70% is from Hydropower. According to the latest expansion plan published by the National Energetic Research entity (EPE - Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica) in December 2011, the total energy demand of Brazil shall increase over 60% within the next 10 years. From this forecasted demand 67% will be still covered by Hydropower, which will, however, lose a significant share to other renewable sources like Wind, Biomass and Small Hydro. The forecast of EPE predicts the expansion of renewable energy sources in the overall electric energy supply matrix from the current 8% to 16%. Solely the participation of wind power shall increase from less than 1% to about 7% by the end of 2020. The forecast of the wind power expansion is supported by the Brazilian Wind Energy Atlas (Atlas Eolico Brasileiro) published by Eletrobras in 2011, which indicates an overall wind energy potential of 143 GW. (orig.)

  10. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  11. Oral manifestations among people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, F M; Kahabuka, F K; Petersen, P E

    2009-01-01

    associated with low body mass index (BMI). CONCLUSION: This community survey carried out in an African sub-Saharan country showed that oral lesions are frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS. As emphasised by the World Health Organization Global Oral Health Programme, national HIV/AIDS programmes should......BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of various oral and peri-oral manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional study. A total of 187 persons with HIV infection were recruited from non-governmental organisations serving people living...... with HIV/AIDS, 16.6% were males and females 83.4%. Information on weight and height, as well as extra oral and intra oral examinations for different manifestations were gathered. Treatment and referral for special care were offered. RESULTS: At least one oral lesion was present in 45% of the participants...

  12. Oral manifestations among people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, F M; Kahabuka, F K; Petersen, P E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of various oral and peri-oral manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional study. A total of 187 persons with HIV infection were recruited from non-governmental organisations serving people living...... with HIV/AIDS, 16.6% were males and females 83.4%. Information on weight and height, as well as extra oral and intra oral examinations for different manifestations were gathered. Treatment and referral for special care were offered. RESULTS: At least one oral lesion was present in 45% of the participants...... associated with low body mass index (BMI). CONCLUSION: This community survey carried out in an African sub-Saharan country showed that oral lesions are frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS. As emphasised by the World Health Organization Global Oral Health Programme, national HIV/AIDS programmes should...

  13. AIDS education in schools--awareness, attitudes and opinions among educators, theology students and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, C P; Glover, P H

    1993-09-01

    A project was undertaken in Grahamstown to assess the level of AIDS awareness, attitudes towards AIDS and opinions as to how and whether education programmes for schoolchildren should be planned. Opinions were canvassed initially by means of a questionnaire to three groups of professionals who could become involved in AIDS education programmes: student teachers and lecturers in the Department of Education at Rhodes University, theology students at the local Theological College and health care professionals at Settlers' Hospital. Each group was then asked to attend a lecture about AIDS at which slides were shown of actual cases of the disease and its complications. A slightly modified version of the original questionnaire was then administered after 6 weeks to assess any changes in awareness, attitudes and opinions. The study did not attempt to establish the permanence of any such changes.

  14. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  15. Assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids no Brasil Health care to HIV/AIDS patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Crisóstomo Portela

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a assistência à população com Aids no Brasil e a capacidade do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS de prover intervenções para enfrentamento da epidemia e discutir a sustentabilidade da iniciativa brasileira de distribuição universal e gratuita dos anti-retrovirais. O trabalho considerou dados originais de uma pesquisa sobre a capacidade potencial de distribuição de uma futura vacina anti-HIV no Brasil, envolvendo 119 entrevistados. Nas abordagens da assistência hospitalar e da assistência farmacêutica foram utilizados dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS e do Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos do Programa Nacional de DST/Aids. Os resultados mostraram bom desempenho da política de distribuição de anti-retrovirais. Entretanto, o acesso ao tratamento de doenças oportunistas foi deficitário. Os valores pagos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde pelas internações por Aids mantiveram-se muito baixos, com valor médio em torno de R$700,00, em 2004. A assistência a pacientes com HIV/Aids no Brasil tem sido tratada como um direito do cidadão, com o respaldo de uma articulação efetiva entre as esferas de governo e a sociedade civil. Os desafios que se colocam atualmente dizem respeito ao monitoramento mais fino dos processos e resultados obtidos e à sustentabilidade da distribuição universal e gratuita de anti-retrovirais.This study was intended to assess care provided to those living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil and the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS capacity of delivering interventions to cope with the epidemic as well as to discuss the sustainability of the Brazilian initiative of providing universal free access to antiretrovirals (ARVs. Original data from a study comprising 119 respondents on the potential capacity of delivering a prospective HIV vaccine in Brazil was used. Inpatient and pharmaceutical care was based on data from the SUS Hospital Information System and

  16. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  17. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaas, Jocelyn R

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.

  18. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  19. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  20. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

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    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  1. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older Brazilians: a comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Max Fagundes de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare epidemiological aspects of young (15 to 49 years old and older (more than 50 years old AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 511,633 AIDS cases notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in the period of 1980-2008 looking at sex, age ranges, educational level and exposure category. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 15, from 15 to 49 and over 50 years old. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed data with regard to category of exposure, education (expressed in years of schooling, and sex ratio among younger (15-49 and older adults (over 50 years old. Time series data were log-transformed and normalized, and the temporal trend was evaluated. RESULTS: AIDS incidence is increasing among people over 50 years old in Brazil, with those older than 50 being responsible for 9.64 % of AIDS cases. There was no significant difference between educational level and gender (p = 0.468, but there was a significant difference in exposure category with a lower proportion of injecting drug users amongst the older group. CONCLUSION: Based on this analysis over the last 10 years, the percentage of AIDS cases has increased almost three times among people over 50 years old when compared with the 15-49 year-old group. Our findings suggest that public campaigns have to be specially targeted to the older segment of the population, aiming at heterosexual transmission.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older Brazilians: a comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Max Fagundes de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare epidemiological aspects of young (15 to 49 years old and older (more than 50 years old AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 511,633 AIDS cases notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in the period of 1980-2008 looking at sex, age ranges, educational level and exposure category. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 15, from 15 to 49 and over 50 years old. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed data with regard to category of exposure, education (expressed in years of schooling, and sex ratio among younger (15-49 and older adults (over 50 years old. Time series data were log-transformed and normalized, and the temporal trend was evaluated. RESULTS: AIDS incidence is increasing among people over 50 years old in Brazil, with those older than 50 being responsible for 9.64 % of AIDS cases. There was no significant difference between educational level and gender (p = 0.468, but there was a significant difference in exposure category with a lower proportion of injecting drug users amongst the older group. CONCLUSION: Based on this analysis over the last 10 years, the percentage of AIDS cases has increased almost three times among people over 50 years old when compared with the 15-49 year-old group. Our findings suggest that public campaigns have to be specially targeted to the older segment of the population, aiming at heterosexual transmission.

  4. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  5. South African Antarctic earth science research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SASCAR

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the past, current and planned future South African earth science research programme in the Antarctic, Southern Ocean and subantarctic regions. The scientific programme comprises five components into which present and future...

  6. Microarray of programmable electrochemically active elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCaskill, John; Maeke, Thomas; Straczek, Lukas

    Possible applications of the MICREAgents Dock, a two dimensional array of programmable electrochemically active elements, to Alife.......Possible applications of the MICREAgents Dock, a two dimensional array of programmable electrochemically active elements, to Alife....

  7. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  8. Progression to overweight, obesity and associated factors after antiretroviral therapy initiation among Brazilian persons with HIV/AIDS Progresión para el sobrepeso, obesidad y los factores asociados después de la iniciación de la terapia con antirretrovirales en personas brasileñas con VIH/SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Maia Leite

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess body weight changes, progression to overweight/obesity and investigate the associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted involving a sample group of 203 adults with HIV/AIDS. Medical records were used to gather demographic, clinical and anthropometric information. The variables were compared by Chi-square tests, Student's t tests and One-way analysis of variance. Results: The majority of the individuals studied were men (72.4% with an average age of 34.68 ± 8.3 years, and time of HIV infection of 4.12 ± 1.8 years. 63% of the patients gained weight. The greatest weight gain was observed among patients with lower CD4 cell count on admission (8.45 ± 6.6 vs. 5.97 ± 4.97 p = 0.019. 39/203 new cases of overweight/obesity were identified, with a progression rate of 19%. Men were more likely to progress to overweight (p Objetivos: Evaluar los cambios del peso corporal, la progresión al sobrepeso/obesidad e investigar los factores asociados a ellas en pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en una muestra de 203 adultos que viven con VIH/SIDA. Se utilizaron historias clínicas para recoger informaciones demográficas, clínicas y antropométricas. Se compararon las variables por medio de pruebas Qui cuadrado, pruebas t de Student y análisis de la varianza ANOVA one way. Resultados: La mayoría de los individuos estudiados eran hombres (72,4% con edad promedio de 34,68 ± 8,3 años, y tiempo de infección por VIH de 4,12 ± 1,8 años. El 63% de los pacientes ganaron peso. La mayor ganancia de peso se observó entre los pacientes con menor recuento de células CD4 a la admisión (8,45 ± 6,6 vs. 5,97 ± 4,97 p = 0,019. En los 203 adultos estudiados se identificaron 39 nuevos casos de sobrepeso/obesidad, con una tasa de progresión del 19%. Los hombres presentaron mayor tendencia al sobrepeso (p < 0,001 y las mujeres a la obesidad (p < 0,001. Se observ

  9. Interview with Brazilian astrophysicist Luciana da Cunha Ferreira

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    In September 2011, CERN hosted Brazilian astrophysicist, Luciana da Cunha Ferreira, in a weeklong teacher-training programme. Luciana was the first indigenous person from the Amazon region to visit CERN, and plans to share her new-found knowledge of the LHC with other indigenous people on her return to Brazil.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-135/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  10. Agri-Environment Programme for Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko; Karoglan Todorović, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In the period 2002-2004, the Netherlands Government's Pin-Matra programme funded an international project aiming to support the introduction of an agri-environment programme (AE) in Croatia. The project resulted in proposals for national and pilot agri-environment programmes. The project addressed key actors working on agri-environmental issues in Croatia, such as government representatives, scientists, farmers, environmental and nature conservation NGOs. An AE Programme has been operatin...

  11. A theory evaluation of an induction programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick Hendricks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: An induction programme is commonly used to help new employees understand their job within the organisation. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine whether or not the programme theory of an induction programme was plausible and would lead to the intended outcomes as described by the programme manager.Motivation for the study: Induction training is one of the most common training programmes in an organisation. However, there is little research to evaluate whether or not the activities of an induction programme will lead to the intended outcomes of such a programme.Research design, approach and method: This theory evaluation used a descriptive design. One hundred and thirteen employees of a media company completed a ten-item, five-point Likert scale which measured their perceptions of the programme’s outcome, identification with the organisation and intentions to stay with the organisation.Main findings: From this theory evaluation it was apparent that an induction programme based on an implausible programme theory could be problematic. An implausible programme theory affects the design of the programme activities and unsuitable activities may not deliver the desired outcomes.Practical/managerial implications: The intention of the evaluation is to guide human resource managers through a process of replacing an implausible programme theory with one that is plausible, and which ensures better alignment of programme activities and outcomes.Contribution/value-add: The evaluators showed how a plausible programme theory could improve programme design. This redesigned induction programme may lead to benefits, such as staff retention and company identification, rather than the vague assumption that it has been conforming to a legal obligation.

  12. Rehabilitation of below-knee amputees: factors influencing outcome and costs in three programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durance, J P; Warren, W K; Kerbel, D B; Stroud, T W

    1989-01-01

    The components of three different rehabilitation programmes were analysed to determine the factors that influence functional outcomes and prosthetic costs. Age and additional health problems showed little relationship to inpatient activity level while the physical health status score had a significant relationship. The level of expectation in the rehabilitation programmes for walking independently with canes or without aids at discharge was shown to have a strong influence on the activity level attained and the length of rehabilitation stay. The style of socket did not appear to affect fitting success but had some effect on the efficiency of the prosthetic fitting process and the length of stay.

  13. The JOSHUA (J80) system programmer`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A.O.; McCort, J.T.; Westmoreland, B.W.

    1993-08-01

    The JOSHUA system routines (JS routines) can be used to manage a JOSHUA data base and execute JOSHUA modules on VAX/VMS and IBM/MVS computer systems. This manual provides instructions for using the JS routines and information about the internal data structures and logic used by the routines. It is intended for use primarily by JOSHUA systems programmers, however, advanced applications programmers may also find it useful. The JS routines are, as far as possible, written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 so that they are easily maintainable and easily portable to different computer systems. Nevertheless, the JOSHUA system provides features that are not available in ANSI FORTRAN 77, notably dynamic module execution and a data base of named, variable length, unformatted records, so some parts of the routines are coded in nonstandard FORTRAN or assembler (as a last resort). In most cases, the nonstandard sections of code are different for each computer system. To make it easy for programmers using the JS routines to avoid naming conflicts, the JS routines and common block all have six character names that begin with the characters {open_quotes}JS.{close_quotes} Before using this manual, one should be familiar with the JOSHUA system as described in {open_quotes}The JOSHUA Users` Manual,{close_quotes} ANSI FORTRAN 77, and at least one of the computer systems for which the JS routines have been implemented.

  14. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

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    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  15. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

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    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  16. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  17. Financial Aspects of Loyalty Programmes Implementation

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    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial aspects of implementation of loyalty programmes are the most crucial factors moldings their effectiveness. The following article covers costs of loyalty programmes and stages of their creation and functioning in companies. It also interprets the part of KIMSF 13 Loyalty Programmes which deals with the ways of recognizing income in case of granting promotional points to the customers.

  18. 21 CFR 870.3700 - Pacemaker programmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker programmers. 870.3700 Section 870.3700...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers. (a) Identification. A pacemaker programmer is a device used to change noninvasively one or more of...

  19. Acceptors of Population Programme in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    SABIHA HASAN SyED

    1981-01-01

    Data from Pakistan's population planning programme, the Nationa11mpact Survey (1968) and the Pakistan Fertility Survey (1975) are ana1ysed to estimate the number of 'births averted' in Pakistan by various contraceptives. Limitations of the population planning programme statistics for determining the impact of the programme on fertility rates are pointed out.

  20. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  1. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  2. AIDS ORPHANS GET SPECIAL VISITOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  3. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  4. The Implementation of a Behavioural Support Programme: Teachers' Perceptions of the Programme and Themselves as Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemarson, Maria; Bodin, Maria; Rubenson, Birgitta; Guldbrandsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how teachers received and perceived the school programme Prevention in School (PS), a positive behavioural support programme; how did the teachers perceive the programme characteristics and themselves as providers; and how did this affect programme implementation? Design/methodology/approach:…

  5. Sources of AIDS awareness among women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, S; Sreedharan, C; Stones, R W

    2006-01-01

    Sources of AIDS awareness among rural and urban Indian women were analysed using data from the National Family and Health Survey (1998-2000). Two measures were developed to study the impact each source had on knowledge. 'Effectiveness' was defined as the proportion of women who had heard of AIDS from only one source, from among women who had heard of AIDS from that particular source and other sources. 'Independent effect' was the proportion who had heard of AIDS from only one source in relation to all women who had heard of AIDS. Television was the most effective medium, and also had the highest independent effect. Radio and print had very low effectiveness and independent effect. Although television and print audiences are growing in India, it is likely a sub-group of women will continue to lack media access. There is an urgent need to disseminate AIDS awareness to this 'media underclass'. Since the media will not reach this group, other sources including health workers, community level activities such as adult education programmes, and networks of friends and relatives need to be explored.

  6. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  7. Self-consciousness Scale: a Brazilian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M A; Gomes, W B

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a Brazilian version of the Self-consciousness Scale to university students. Factorial structure, subscale intercorrelations, and normative data obtained with 182 subjects are reported. These results suggest that the proposed model of self-consciousness is applicable in the Brazilian culture, although some significant sex differences were found for two of the scales. Reliability tests and the factorial validity of the scale showed that this version still needs refinement to be used as a reliable research tool.

  8. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  9. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  10. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  11. [Dental practice and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, S

    1991-01-01

    In Thailand nowadays AIDS is not completely under control. This is evident from reports which show an increasing number of HIV-positive patients. Since an unknown number of HIV-infected persons who are either undiagnosed or asymptomatic come to get dental service, fears of getting infected with HIV have been developed among dental professionals. This article summarizes a number of past studies and reports on HIV transmission in dental work and discusses the possibility of AIDS infection and dental occupational risk. It also urges dental professionals to take effective safety precaution against the infection. This is for their own and their patients' well-being and hopefully for Thailand's success in controlling AIDS.

  12. AIDS in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R

    1989-01-01

    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  13. LEP Celebration : the official programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    At 14:00: Groupe de Jazz "Wolfgang & The Werewolves" . The official programme begins at 15:00 with an introduction from the Director General, and Professor Martinus Veltman will give the keynote speech. Heads of national delegations represented at ministerial level will then make their speeches, following which a commemorative plaque will be unveiled. A specially commissioned ballet by Maurice Béjart will bring the ceremony to a close.

  14. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  15. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  16. The INTEGRAL LMXRB Monitoring Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Paizis, A; Vilhu, O; Chernyakova, M; Tikkanen, T; Bazzano, A; Beckmann, V; Chenevez, J; Cocchi, M; Ebisawa, K; Farinelli, R; Frontera, F; Giménez, A; Goldoni, P; Hannikainen, D C; Kuulkers, E; Lund, N; Oosterbroek, T; Piraino, S; Rodríguez, J; Santangelo, A; Walter, R; Zdziarski, A A; Heras, J A Z

    2004-01-01

    Our collaboration is responsible for the study of a sample of 72 low mass X-ray binaries (LMXRB) using the INTEGRAL Core Programme data. In this paper we describe the monitoring programme we have started and the current variability and spectral results on a sample of 8 persistently bright LMXRBs hosting a neutron star (Z and Atoll sources). Current results show that among our sample of sources there seems to be no important difference in the variability of Z sources with respect to Atolls and the first colour-colour and hardness intensity diagrams built in the "traditional" energy bands display the expected patterns. Z sources seem to be harder than the bright Atolls of our sample (above 20 keV) and present no evident cut-off until about 50 keV. A hint of a non-thermal hard tail is seen in Sco X-1 with ISGRI and SPI, similarly to what was previously detected by D'Amico et al. (2001) with RXTE. These results, even if preliminary, show the importance of such a programme and the potential underlying it to unders...

  17. Employers’ Perception on Internship Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaidin Nur Jannah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internship program is compulsory for Bachelor in Accounting (BIA students in University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL. We believed internship program is useful to facilitate students learning opportunities outside classroom. These experiences provide the opportunity to apply classroom theory into real working environment thus enhancing students’ academic and career goals. Constructive comments from supervisor will give us indicator that we must prepare the students with all aspects of accounting wide knowledge. Employer’s feedback is important in preparing the students for the industry by developing a better programme structure and subjects offered. It is indirectly improves the lecturers’ teaching methods and skills. Therefore, this paper explores the employers’ perception towards internship programme for accounting students in Universiti Kuala Lumpur. Data was collected from employer’s feedback form using five point-likert scales distributed to employers of the participating companies from Semester January 2013 to Semester January 2015. The evaluation form is used to evaluate the students’ performance throughout their 6 months internship period. The statistical results found that student’s score is positively associated with employer’s feedback. The results also indicate that the employers’ perception is important for the students in preparing themselves for the industry and for the university in developing proper programme structure.

  18. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    , an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system......Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper...

  19. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  20. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....