WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazil review synthesis

  1. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C., E-mail: santos@ocean.fsu.edu [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography. Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Facility; Godoy, Jose M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    We review the usefulness, limitations, significance, and coastal management implications of radionuclide measurements in Brazilian coastal environments. We focus on the use of radionuclides as tracers of sedimentary processes and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). We also discuss artificial radionuclide contamination and high natural radioactivity areas. The interpretation of {sup 14}C-, {sup 137}Cs-, and {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rates has provided evidence that inappropriate soil use by urban and agricultural activities has intensified erosion processes on land, which is reflected in depositional environments, such as coastal lagoons, estuaries and mangroves. Of the processes discussed in this paper, SGD is the one that requires the most scientific effort in the short-term. There have been only two case studies using {sup 222}Rn and radium isotopes as groundwater tracers in Brazil. These investigations showed that SGD can be a major source of nutrients and other dissolved species to the coastal ocean. Baseline {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 238}Pu concentrations in seawater from the whole Brazilian coastal zone are very low. Therefore, in spite of contamination problems in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere, artificial radionuclide pollution appears to be negligible along the Brazilian coast. Phosphate fertilizer industries and petroleum processing facilities are the main economic activities producing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). Even though a few attempts have been made to assess the radiological effects of these activities, their potential threats indicate a need for the radiological control of their wastes. This review showed that the number of studies within the field of environmental radioactivity is still small in Brazil and much more research is needed to understand processes of high interest for environmental managers. In the near future, it is likely that such studies

  2. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac R. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the usefulness, limitations, significance, and coastal management implications of radionuclide measurements in Brazilian coastal environments. We focus on the use of radionuclides as tracers of sedimentary processes and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD. We also discuss artificial radionuclide contamination and high natural radioactivity areas. The interpretation of 14C-, 137Cs-, and 210Pb-derived sedimentation rates has provided evidence that inappropriate soil use by urban and agricultural activities has intensified erosion processes on land, which is reflected in depositional environments, such as coastal lagoons, estuaries and mangroves. Of the processes discussed in this paper, SGD is the one that requires the most scientific effort in the short-term. There have been only two case studies using 222Rn and radium isotopes as groundwater tracers in Brazil. These investigations showed that SGD can be a major source of nutrients and other dissolved species to the coastal ocean. Baseline 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, and 238Pu concentrations in seawater from the whole Brazilian coastal zone are very low. Therefore, in spite of contamination problems in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere, artificial radionuclide pollution appears to be negligible along the Brazilian coast. Phosphate fertilizer industries and petroleum processing facilities are the main economic activities producing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM. Even though a few attempts have been made to assess the radiological effects of these activities, their potential threats indicate a need for the radiological control of their wastes. This review showed that the number of studies within the field of environmental radioactivity is still small in Brazil and much more research is needed to understand processes of high interest for environmental managers. In the near future, it is likely that such studies in Brazil will move from

  3. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  4. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  5. Carbonatite complexes from Brazil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C. B.; Ruperti, E.; Morbidelli, L.

    This paper reviews general aspects regarding the occurrences of alkaline rocks associated with carbonatites in Brazil. Currently twenty-two complexes are listed in the literature, but only a few have been thoroughly studied. Special attention is given to the geological association and geochronology of such rocks, and petrological problems are only briefly discussed as a consequence of insufficient information. Data on mineral resources are also provided for some complexes. Eight occurrence are being mined, particularly for phosphate and niobium.

  6. Physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith,Samuel C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study, based on a systematic literature review, was to describe the prevalence of physical activity (or inactivity) in the Brazilian population. The databases consulted were: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal. The terms "physical activity", "physical exercise", "physical inactivity", "sedentary" "Brazil", and "Brazilian" were used in the search. Overall, 47 studies (all cross-sectional) with random samples were found, and in 26 studies ...

  7. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro FIASCHI; José R. PIRANI

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have become a major area of interest in plant systematics, and their impacts on historical biogeographic hypotheses are not to be disregarded. In Brazil, most historical biogeographic studies have relied on animal phylogenies, whereas plant biogeographic studies have largely lacked a phylogenetic component, having a limited utility for historical biogeography. That country, however, is of great importance for most biogeographic studies of lowland tropical South America, and it includes areas from a number of biogeographic regions of the continent. Important biogeographic reports have been published as part of phylogenetic studies, taxonomic monographs, and regional accounts for small areas or phytogeographic domains, hut the available information is subsequently scattered and sometimes hard to find. In this paper we review some relevant angiosperm biogeographic studies in Brazil. Initially we briefly discuss the importance of other continents as source areas for the South American flora. Then we present a subdivision of Brazil into phytogeographic domains, and we cite studies that have explored the detection of biogeographic units (areas of endemism) and how they are historically related among those domains. Examples of plant taxa that could be used to test some biogeographic hypotheses are provided throughout, as well as taxa that exemplify several patterns of endemism and disjunction in the Brazilian angiosperm flora.

  8. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  9. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29,...

  10. Economic evaluations in gastroenterology in Brazil: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana Bertocco de Paiva Haddad; Tassia Cristina Decimoni; Jose Antonio Turri; Roseli Leandro; Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review economic evaluations in gastroenterology, relating to Brazil, published between 1980 and 2013. METHODS: We selected full and partial economic evaluations from among those retrieved by searching the following databases: MEDLINE(PubM ed); Excerpta Medica; the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database; the Scientific Electronic Library Online; the database of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination; the National Health Service(NHS) Economic Evaluation Database; the NHS Health Technology Assessment database; the Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health; Scopus; Web of Science; and the Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. RESULTS: We ide nt if ie d 535 he alt h e c onomic evaluations relating to Brazil and published in the 1980-2013 period. Of those 535 articles, only 40 dealt with gastroenterology. Full and partial economic evaluations respectively accounted for 23(57.5%) and 17(42.5%) of the 40 studies included. Among the 23 full economic evaluations, there were 11 cost-utility analyses, seven cost-effectiveness analyses, four costconsequence analyses, and one cost-minimization analysis. Of the 40 studies, 25(62.5%) evaluated medications; 7(17.5%) evaluated procedures; and 3(7.5%) evaluated equipment. Most(55%) of the studies were related to viral hepatitis, and most(63.4%) were published after 2010. Other topics included gastrointestinal cancer, liver transplantation, digestive diseases and hernias. Over the 33-year period examined, the number of such economic evaluations relating to Brazil, especially of those evaluating medications for the treatment of hepatitis, increased considerably. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed in order to ensure that expenditures on health care in Brazil are made as fairly and efficiently as possible.

  11. Prevalence of papillomavirus in Brazil: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpani, Verônica; Bidinotto, Augusto Bacelo; Falavigna, Maicon; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Pimenta, Cristina; Maranhão, Ana Goretti Kalume; Domingues, Carla Magda Allan Santos; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Wendland, Eliana M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause of premalignant and malignant cancer in the lower genital and digestive tracts. In Brazil, there have been no prevalence studies that included a nationwide sample, and the prevalence of HPV has not been determined in many regions. Methods We will search the EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science and SciELO databases and previously published review articles to identify original research articles assessing HPV prevalence of the perineal (cervical, penile and anal) and oral areas. No exclusion criteria related to language or publication date will apply. 2 reviewers will independently screen for eligibility and perform data extraction. Discrepancies will be resolved through consensus; the opinion of a third reviewer will be sought as necessary. Relevant measures and data about study and population characteristics will be extracted from the included studies. Where possible, study prevalence will be pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. The methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using an adapted version of the NIH ‘Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies’. The overall quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Ethics and dissemination We expect to estimate the prevalence of perineal and oral HPV infection in the general population as well as the prevalence of HPV infection in individuals with premalignant and malignant lesions in Brazil and its 5 geographic regions. This systematic review does not require ethical approval. Trial registration number CRD42016032751. PMID:27881522

  12. 75 FR 54596 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Heavy Iron Construction Castings... of the countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant... review of the CVD order on iron construction castings from Brazil pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  13. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decision-making is a complex, multidimensional cognitive function that requires the choice between two or more options and also the predictive analysis of its consequences. One of the tools most widely used to assess decision-making in neuropsychological research is the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of articles reporting empirical IGT studies based in Brazil. Method: Articles were obtained from multiple journal databases including ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, and Scholar Google. Results: Thirty-six studies were included in this review and divided into four categories according to main subject matter (psychiatry & personality; demographic & cultural variables; medical/clinic; and psychometric properties & test administration standardization. In general, there was a significant growth in research employing IGT (Χ² = 17.6, df = 5, p = 0.0003, but this growth was restricted to a few geographic areas of Brazil. The psychiatry & personality subject matter was the most abundant, accounting for 14 publications (39% of the total sample. Conclusion: Since its first adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese in 2006, a growing interest in decision-making as measured by the IGT can be observed, with psychiatry & personality topics representing a large portion of the scientific inquiry to date. Nevertheless, in order to extend the initial results of Brazilian IGT decision-making research, more studies are necessary - across a more diverse range of topics, including demographic & cultural variables, and psychometric properties & test administration standardization, the areas least studied -, as is the dissemination of the IGT to more regions of the country.

  14. [Methods for assessing the completeness of data in health information systems in Brazil: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Lourani Oliveira dos Santos; Padilha, Bruna Merten; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this study was to review the literature on the methods used to assess the completeness of the data in health information systems. Searches were conducted in the Medline, SciELO and Lilacs databases using the key words "quality," "data quality," "quality of information" and "information systems." It included articles, dissertations and theses that assessed the fulfillment of variables. In the 19 studies reviewed, the epidemiological rationality systems were the most evaluated (90.5%). Studies on completeness are still scarce (one per year on average). Methods vary from isolated analysis to the evaluation of more than one dimension of quality. The term completeness is the word most used to characterize the fulfillment of variables. The Romero and Cunha score is the most frequent. The SIS databases and Datasus site were the sources and means of access to the most common data. Studies with data from the Southeast of Brazil were predominant. The indicators that measure the completeness vary from simple relative frequency to indices and synthesis-indicators. The heterogeneity of methods lacks standardization and dissemination of information to enable comparisons between the studies.

  15. 76 FR 74807 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Institution of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Institution of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... Department of Commerce issued antidumping duty orders on imports of stainless steel bar from Brazil,...

  16. 76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  17. 76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  18. 75 FR 20812 - Silicon Metal from Brazil: Amended Final Results of Administrative Review Pursuant to Court Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal from Brazil: Amended Final Results of Administrative Review... Commerce (``the Department'') regarding the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on Silicon Metal from Brazil for the period of review beginning July 1, 1996, through June 30, 1997. See...

  19. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  20. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-09-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries.

  1. Coal facies studies in Brazil. A short review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa da Silva, Zuleika Carretta [Rua Eca de Queiroz, 682/402, 90670-020, Porto Alegre RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    Coal facies studies in Brazil have been done for south Brazilian coal measures over the last 20 years using different methods for reconstructing paleoenvironments of peat formation and deposition. The first studies were based on Teichmuller's concept of macerals; from 1984 to 1993, microlithotypes and palynomorphs were used according to the methodology described by Hacquebard and Donaldson. In the 1990s, a new method of interpreting paleoenvironments implementing organic geochemistry, sequence stratigraphy and the use of biomarkers has become more common in the literature, as well as the use of Diessel's Gelification Index (GI) and Tissue Preservation Index (TPI)

  2. Book review: Amphibians of the Serra Gaúcha, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Solé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book:Kwet, A., R. Lingnau, and M. Di Bernardo†. 2010. Pró-Mata: Anfíbios da Serra Gaúcha, Sul do Brasil – Amphibien der Serra Gaúcha, Südbrasilien – Amphibians of the Serra Gaúcha, South of Brazil. 148pp.; 200 figures. 2nd Edition, revised and enlarged; Brasilien-Zentrum de Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, and EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

  3. Social and cultural dimensions of hypertension in Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    Full Text Available Elevated arterial blood pressure varies substantially in relation to social and cultural variables. Early work on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and blood pressure documented this variation, which could not be explained entirely by conventional factors such as diet, physical activity, or access to medical care. These findings stimulated the development of a model of stress and disease. The stress model emphasizes social and psychological factors that are perceived by individuals to be stressful, as well as factors that help individuals to respond to those stressors. Conventional stress models are, however, problematic because the primary emphasis is on individual perception, with little consideration of the social and cultural context in which stress occurs. This paper describes a complementary model of social and cultural influences on disease risk, placing greater emphasis on how individuals are able to approximate, in their own behaviors, shared cultural models of life, referred to as "cultural consonance". Findings from research in Brazil indicate that the higher an individual's cultural consonance, the lower his or her blood pressure. These results indicate the importance of linking different levels of analysis - the cultural, the individual, and the biological - to understand disease risk.

  4. Social and cultural dimensions of hypertension in Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressler William W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated arterial blood pressure varies substantially in relation to social and cultural variables. Early work on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and blood pressure documented this variation, which could not be explained entirely by conventional factors such as diet, physical activity, or access to medical care. These findings stimulated the development of a model of stress and disease. The stress model emphasizes social and psychological factors that are perceived by individuals to be stressful, as well as factors that help individuals to respond to those stressors. Conventional stress models are, however, problematic because the primary emphasis is on individual perception, with little consideration of the social and cultural context in which stress occurs. This paper describes a complementary model of social and cultural influences on disease risk, placing greater emphasis on how individuals are able to approximate, in their own behaviors, shared cultural models of life, referred to as "cultural consonance". Findings from research in Brazil indicate that the higher an individual's cultural consonance, the lower his or her blood pressure. These results indicate the importance of linking different levels of analysis - the cultural, the individual, and the biological - to understand disease risk.

  5. SHARES OF HEALTH PROMOTION FOR THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL AND LATIN AMERICA: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana dos Santos Ribeiro; Andréa Mathes Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Health promotion in the elderly is approaching the concept of active aging, in which the individual preserves capabilities and development potential. Objective: Identify the Brazilian literature and Latin American studies which reflect actions and practices to promote health among older adults. Method: This is an integrative literature review, the main question was: 'what are the issues addressed in the literature on the promotion of health among the elderly in Brazil and Latin ...

  6. The Paleoparasitology in Brazil and Findings in Human Remains from South America: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Shênia Patrícia Corrêa; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The review article presents some of the history of how paleoparasitology started in Brazil, making highlight the great responsible Dr. Luiz Fernando Ferreira and Dr. Adauto Araújo, the trajectory of paleoparasitology in Brazil since 1978 and its performance in science to the present day. In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred. Many of the parasites found in archaeological material and mentioned in this review went out of Africa with the peopling of Europe and from there they dispersed around the world, where climatic conditions allow the transmission. However, humans have acquired other parasites of animals, since humans invaded new habitats or creating new habits adopting new technologies, thus expanding its range of influence on the environment. Thus, this review article is finalized with information that explain the importance of these findings in the interaction between parasites, human host, and ambient.

  7. Taxonomic review of Metaxia (Gastropoda: Triphoridae from Brazil, with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Romulo Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the species of Metaxia Monterosato, 1884 from Brazil is revised. Previously to this study, only Metaxia excelsa Faber & Moolenbeek, 1991 was known to occur in this country, under its older name Metaxia exilis (C.B. Adams, 1850. The review of a large amount of shells in malacological collections in Brazil revealed the occurrence of three known additional species: Metaxia taeniolata (Dall, 1889; Metaxia rugulosa (C.B. Adams, 1850; Metaxia prompta Rolán & Fernández-Garcés, 2008, all previously reported from the southeast coast of the USA and/or the Caribbean region. Metaxia gongyloskymnus sp. nov., diagnosed by the globose protoconch with continuous axial ribs and microscopic spiral sculpture, is restricted to localities off the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

  8. Homophobia or sexism? A systematic review of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Peroni, Rodrigo Oliva; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2013-01-01

    Since it was coined in the 1970s, in the United States, the term "homophobia" has been invoked to define the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation. Besides the US, the phenomenon has been detected in many contemporary societies, including Brazil. Prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation is strongly associated with the historical and social contexts in which it is embedded, which means that the term should not be used without a clear definition of its local specificities. This applies to the recent debate around homophobia in the Brazilian context. In an attempt to identify existing studies of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations in Brazil, a systematic review was conducted in SciELO indexes, PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. The articles were collected using the keyword "homophobia" and related terms, and "Brazil", in the languages of the databases. The search returned 355 articles. Of these, 247 were removed because they were duplicates. The abstracts of 109 studies published between 1973 and 2011were analyzed. Thirty-one articles were identified as relevant. The reviewed studies indicate that prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations is an evident and widespread phenomenon that is prevalent in various populations and contexts. Nevertheless, prejudice in Brazil is not homogeneous, and particular attention is necessary to the inequality of gender relations (sexism) and prejudice against gender nonconformity, which seem to explain, if not cause, most of the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations. Although theoretically there is a clear distinction between sexual orientation and gender expression, from the standpoint of manifestation of prejudice that distinction seems to be more tenuous.

  9. A review of poisonous plants that cause reproductive failure and malformations in the ruminants of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a report on toxic plants causing reproductive problems in ruminants in Brazil. Aspidosperma pyrifolium causes abortion or stillbirth in goats, as well as most likely in sheep and cattle, in the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil. Intoxications by Ateleia glazioveana, Tetrapterys acutifolia and T. multiglandulosa result in abortion and neonatal mortality in cattle and sheep, and the same signs have been experimentally observed in goats. These three plants can also cause cardiac fibrosis and a nervous disease with spongiosis of the central nervous system. Other plants known to cause abortion include Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. gummiferum, Stryphnodendron coriaceum, S. obovatum and S. fissuratum. These plants can also cause digestive signs and photosensitization. Abortions have been reported in animals intoxicated by nitrates and nitrites as well. Infertility, abortions and the birth of weak offspring have been reported in animals intoxicated by plants containing swainsonine, including Ipomoea spp., Turbina cordata and Sida carpinifolia. Trifolium subterraneum causes estrogenism in cattle. Mimosa tenuiflora and, most likely, M. ophthalmocentra cause malformations and embryonic mortality in goats, sheep and cattle in the semiarid regions of Northeastern Brazil.

  10. Study of the mayfly order Ephemeroptera (Insecta in Brazil: a scienciometric review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Shimano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of the mayfly order Ephemeroptera (Insecta in Brazil: a scienciometric review. Despite an increase in the number of studies in recent years of the aquatic insect order Ephemeroptera (the mayflies much still remains to be learnt. In order to identify the current state of knowledge of this group in Brazil, we performed a scienciometric analysis with the purpose of identifying the strong and weak points of Brazilian research into the group. Our research used the "Institute for Scientific Information - ISI" database and was based on the abstracts, titles and keywords of manuscripts published between 1992 and 2011. We selected the papers with the combination of the words "Ephemeroptera" and "Brazil*" based on a search in February 2012. We analyzed 92 articles, and noted a lack of studies in some Brazilian states, no specific studies about some families, and an absence of phylogenetic studies. To improve ecological studies, it is necessary to fine-tune taxonomic resolution. Moreover, there is a lack of studies investigating the environmental variables which influence the distribution of mayflies. Despite these gaps, if the rate of publication with mayflies proceeds at the same pace, we anticipate that many of these knowledge gaps will be closed.

  11. Human bartonellosis: seroepidemiological and clinical features with an emphasis on data from Brazil - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lamas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature with several animal reservoirs (mainly cats, dogs, and rodents and insect vectors (mainly fleas, sandflies, and human lice. Thirteen species or subspecies of Bartonella have been recognized as agents causing human disease, including B. bacilliformis, B. quintana, B. vinsonii berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. washoensis, B. koehlerae, B. rocha-limaea, and B. tamiae. The clinical spectrum of infection includes lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, endocarditis, neurological and ophthalmological syndromes, Carrion's disease, and others. This review provides updated information on clinical manifestations and seroepidemiological studies with an emphasis on data available from Brazil.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of chalcone derivatives (mini review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Jasamai, Malina; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2012-11-01

    Chalcones are the principal precursors for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A three carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system constitutes chalcones. Chalcones are the condensation products of aromatic aldehyde with acetophenones in attendance of catalyst. They go through an assortment of chemical reactions and are found advantageous in synthesis of pyrazoline, isoxazole and a variety of heterocyclic compounds. In synthesizing a range of therapeutic compounds, chalcones impart key role. They have showed worth mentioning therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of various diseases. Chalcone based derivatives have gained heed since they own simple structures, and diverse pharmacological actions. A lot of methods and schemes have been reported for the synthesis of these compounds. Amongst all, Aldol condensation and Claisen-Schmidt condensation still grasp high up position. Other distinguished techniques include Suzuki reaction, Witting reaction, Friedel-Crafts acylation with cinnamoyl chloride, Photo-Fries rearrangement of phenyl cinnamates etc. These inventive techniques utilize various catalysts and reagents including SOCl(2) natural phosphate, lithium nitrate, amino grafted zeolites, zinc oxide, water, Na(2)CO(3), PEG400, silicasulfuric acid, ZrCl(4) and ionic liquid etc. The development of better techniques for the synthesis of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds is still in high demand. In brief, we have explained the methods and catalysts used in the synthesis of chalcones along with their biological activities in a review form to provide information for the development of new-fangled processes targeting better yield, less reaction time and least side effects with utmost pharmacological properties.

  13. Prevalence of Chagas disease in Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-02-01

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Brazil and Latin America. During the last years, it has become an emerging problem in North America and Europe due to increasing international migration. Here we describe the prevalence of Chagas disease in Brazil through a systematic review. We searched national and international electronic databases, grey literature and reference lists of selected articles for population-based studies on Chagas disease prevalence in Brazil, performed from 1980 until September 2012. Forty-two articles with relevant prevalence data were identified from a total of 4985 references. Prevalence ranged from 0% to 25.1%. Most surveys were performed in the Northeast region, especially in the state of Piauí. We observed a high degree of heterogeneity in most pooled estimates (I(2)>75%; pdisease prevalence across studies for the entire period was 4.2% (95% CI: 3.1-5.7), ranging from 4.4% (95% CI: 2.3-8.3) in the 1980s to 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5-3.8) after 2000. Females (4.2%; 95% CI: 2.6-6.8), >60 year-olds (17.7%; 95% CI: 11.4-26.5), Northeast (5.0%; 95% CI: 3.1-8.1) and Southeast (5.0%; CI: 2.4-9.9) regions and mixed (urban/rural) areas (6.4%; 95% CI: 4.2-9.4) had the highest pooled prevalence. About 4.6 million (95% CI: 2.9-7.2 million) of people are estimated to be infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The small number of studies and small-scale samples of the general population in some areas limit interpretation, and findings of this review do not necessarily reflect the situation of the entire country. Systematic population-based studies at regional and national level are recommended to provide more accurate estimates and better define the epidemiology and risk areas of Chagas disease in Brazil.

  14. Neurocysticercosis in Ceará State, northeastern Brazil: a review of 119 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A Q; Sa, H L; Queiroz, T R; Horta, W G; Pearson, R D

    1998-06-01

    Relatively little is known about the occurrence of neurocysticercosis in northeastern Brazil. There have been no published reports from the state of Ceará, but a review of the records at the Hospital São José in Fortaleza, Brazil identified 119 patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed between January 1988 and April 1994. Patients came from 43 municipalities in Ceará. Their ages ranged from five to 74 years; the greatest number of cases were in persons 10-40 years of age; 63% were males. Seizures were the presenting complaint in 64% of the patients and headache in 22%. Two patients, each with several hundred intracranial lesions, presented with mental status changes; one was initially given the clinical diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis. Computed tomography scans showed that 44% of the patients had five or more lesions. Cysts were found throughout the brain. The parietal lobe was the most frequent site of involvement; 85% of patients had one or more lesions there. The brain stem was involved in 8%. There was no consistent association between the severity of the clinical abnormalities and the radiologic findings. Computed tomography of the thighs was done in 10 persons; cysts were identified in nine.

  15. Use of Psychodrama in medicine in Brazil: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Liberali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the literature on experiences of the use of psychodrama in medical education in Brazil.Methods Papers published between 2003 and 2013 were identified in the main databases.Results Seven papers were identified. Role playing and sociodrama were the psychodrama techniques reported. They were used to address aspects of relationships such as emotions and behavior and to improve some communication and clinical skills. Psychodrama provided the students with opportunities for critical reflection, questioning of professional practices and sharing of experiences, and also decreased their anxiety and fear. Role playing was used among students and among teachers undergoing academic development, while sociodrama was only used among students.Conclusions There are still few papers reporting on experiences from the use of psychodrama in Brazilian medical schools.

  16. Autism in Brazil: a systematic review of family challenges and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulyane T.M. Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the challenges faced by families caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in Brazil and the coping strategies employed. SOURCES: Systematic review of articles published until September of 2013, without language restrictions, using quality appraisal (AMSTAR and CASP/Oxford instruments. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The literature shows parental emotional overload as one of the main challenges faced by families, especially mothers. The main stressors were diagnostic postponement, difficulty dealing with the diagnosis and associated symptoms, and poor access to health services and social support. The predominant coping strategies found included information exchange between affected families and integrated healthcare network for patient and family support. CONCLUSION: ASD exerts strong influence on family dynamics, resulting in caregiver overload, especially in mothers. The Brazilian Unified Health System needs to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to strengthen the patient-family dyad and promote the full development and societal inclusion of children with ASD.

  17. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  18. Combining graphene with silicon carbide: synthesis and properties - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtepliuk, Ivan; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Yakimova, Rositsa

    2016-11-01

    Being a true two-dimensional crystal, graphene possesses a lot of exotic properties that would enable unique applications. Integration of graphene with inorganic semiconductors, e.g. silicon carbide (SiC) promotes the birth of a class of hybrid materials which are highly promising for development of novel operations, since they combine the best properties of two counterparts in the frame of one hybrid platform. As a specific heterostructure, graphene on SiC performs strongly, dependent on the synthesis method and the growth modes. In this article, a comprehensive review of the most relevant studies of graphene growth methods and mechanisms on SiC substrates has been carried out. The aim is to elucidate the basic physical processes that are responsible for the formation of graphene on SiC. First, an introduction is made covering some intriguing and not so often discussed properties of graphene. Then, we focus on integration of graphene with SiC, which is facilitated by the nature of SiC to assume graphitization. Concerning the synthesis methods, we discuss thermal decomposition of SiC, chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy, stressing that the first technique is the most common one when SiC substrates are used. In addition, we briefly appraise graphene synthesis via metal mediated carbon segregation. We address in detail the main aspects of the substrate effect, such as substrate face polarity, off-cut, kind of polytype and nonpolar surfaces on the growth of graphene layers. A comparison of graphene grown on the polar faces is made. In particular, growth of graphene on Si-face SiC is critically analyzed concerning growth kinetics and growth mechanisms taking into account the specific characteristics of SiC (0001) surfaces, such as the step-terrace structure and the unavoidable surface reconstruction upon heating. In all subtopics obstacles and solutions are featured. We complete the review with a short summary and concluding remarks.

  19. Vocational Support Approaches in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Synthesis Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B.; Attridge, Mark; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Clarke, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This synthesis-based analysis identifies and reviews studies evaluating vocational resources for adults with autism spectrum disorder. It is based on a larger systematic review of intervention studies in autism spectrum disorder, from which a critical interpretive synthesis was conducted on studies related to vocation and autism spectrum disorder.…

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from aquatic environments in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeton Duarte do Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from aquatic environments in Brazil, taking into account isolation sites, the main reported antimicrobial agents, the genes involved in resistance, the most prevalent bacterial genera and species, and the main mechanisms of resistance. This review is based upon specialized literature, consulting published scientific articles selected from the SciELO, PubMed and LILACS databases. Based upon the inclusion criteria, we selected 21 articles, most (61.6% were from PubMed, with the highest prevalence for work done in the Southeast region (71.4% in freshwater environments (71.4%, and the major focus on farm ponds (28.6%. Gram-negative bacteria are the most studied (71.4% and the Aeromonas spp. was the one found most frequently (19.0%. The most frequently used antimicrobials were chloramphenicol (81.0%, gentamicin (76.2%, sulpha/trimethroprim (71.4%, ampicillin (61.9% and tetracycline (71.4%; and the ones with higher prevalence of resistance were chloramphenicol (58.8%, sulpha/trimethroprim (78.5% and ampicillin (84.6%. It was found that studies on resistance in other aquatic environments have not yet been conducted in Brazil, especially in the North and Northeast regions, where irregular rainfall distribution leads to the use of reservoirs as supply sources during the dry season, highlighting concerns regarding the quality, contamination and maintenance of these resources, as the water is intended for human use or for production purposes.

  1. Growth surveillance in the context of the Primary Public Healthcare Service Network in Brazil: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to identify and analyze the scientific literature on child growth monitoring in the context of the primary public healthcare service network in Brazil, focusing on the main problems detected in studies. Methods: the review was based on searches ofSciELO, Lilacs and PubMed databases to identify articles published between 2006 and 2014. The articles were categorized according to the analytical categories of structure (items needed to carry out primary activities or work processes (set of activities and procedures used in the management of resources. Results: of the 16 articles included in this review, only six dealt with structure and, in these, thetraining of professionals and availability of protocols were the most frequently identified problems. Processes, addressed in 15 articles, highlighted the underutilization of Child Health Handbook to record growth measurements and the adoption of guidelines on the basis of notes taken. Conclusions: the difficulties found demonstrate the everyday circumstances of the public health service which have a detrimental effect on growth surveillance.

  2. Review of developments in corneal transplantation in the regions of Brazil - Evaluation of corneal transplants in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hirlana Gomes; Hida, Richard Yudi; Kara-Junior, Newton

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in corneal donation and transplantation among the regions of Brazil. A transversal and retrospective study was specifically conducted using data from the Brazilian Transplant Registry collected by the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation between January 2002 and December 2014. The collected data were processed using descriptive statistical methods, and p<0.05 was the rate of rejection of the null hypothesis. From 2002 to 2014, there was an increase in the absolute number of corneal transplants, the annual rate of transplants per million people and the percentage of needed transplants performed in each of the five regions of Brazil. Family refusal and medical contraindication were the most frequent reasons for a lack of corneal donation. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in each of the five Brazilian regions, health professionals’ lack of preparation to approach families with donation requests at the death of a family member appears to be the main obstacle to increasing the number of corneal donations. Thus, the present study suggests the implementation of public policies to make corneal transplants more effective, particularly given that there are considerable disparities in the effectiveness with which regional needs are met and in health professionals’ ability to perform transplants among the Brazilian regions, with higher rates in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions and lower rates in the North and Northeast regions. PMID:27652836

  3. Review of developments in corneal transplantation in the regions of Brazil - Evaluation of corneal transplants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirlana Gomes Almeida

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in corneal donation and transplantation among the regions of Brazil. A transversal and retrospective study was specifically conducted using data from the Brazilian Transplant Registry collected by the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation between January 2002 and December 2014. The collected data were processed using descriptive statistical methods, and p<0.05 was the rate of rejection of the null hypothesis. From 2002 to 2014, there was an increase in the absolute number of corneal transplants, the annual rate of transplants per million people and the percentage of needed transplants performed in each of the five regions of Brazil. Family refusal and medical contraindication were the most frequent reasons for a lack of corneal donation. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in each of the five Brazilian regions, health professionals’ lack of preparation to approach families with donation requests at the death of a family member appears to be the main obstacle to increasing the number of corneal donations. Thus, the present study suggests the implementation of public policies to make corneal transplants more effective, particularly given that there are considerable disparities in the effectiveness with which regional needs are met and in health professionals’ ability to perform transplants among the Brazilian regions, with higher rates in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions and lower rates in the North and Northeast regions.

  4. Review of developments in corneal transplantation in the regions of Brazil - Evaluation of corneal transplants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hirlana Gomes; Hida, Richard Yudi; Kara, Newton

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in corneal donation and transplantation among the regions of Brazil. A transversal and retrospective study was specifically conducted using data from the Brazilian Transplant Registry collected by the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation between January 2002 and December 2014. The collected data were processed using descriptive statistical methods, and ptransplants, the annual rate of transplants per million people and the percentage of needed transplants performed in each of the five regions of Brazil. Family refusal and medical contraindication were the most frequent reasons for a lack of corneal donation. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in each of the five Brazilian regions, health professionals' lack of preparation to approach families with donation requests at the death of a family member appears to be the main obstacle to increasing the number of corneal donations. Thus, the present study suggests the implementation of public policies to make corneal transplants more effective, particularly given that there are considerable disparities in the effectiveness with which regional needs are met and in health professionals' ability to perform transplants among the Brazilian regions, with higher rates in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions and lower rates in the North and Northeast regions.

  5. Cell-Free Synthesis Meets Antibody Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlitt Stech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered antibodies are key players in therapy, diagnostics and research. In addition to full size immunoglobulin gamma (IgG molecules, smaller formats of recombinant antibodies, such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv and antigen binding fragments (Fab, have emerged as promising alternatives since they possess different advantageous properties. Cell-based production technologies of antibodies and antibody fragments are well-established, allowing researchers to design and manufacture highly specific molecular recognition tools. However, as these technologies are accompanied by the drawbacks of being rather time-consuming and cost-intensive, efficient and powerful cell-free protein synthesis systems have been developed over the last decade as alternatives. So far, prokaryotic cell-free systems have been the focus of interest. Recently, eukaryotic in vitro translation systems have enriched the antibody production pipeline, as these systems are able to mimic the natural pathway of antibody synthesis in eukaryotic cells. This review aims to overview and summarize the advances made in the production of antibodies and antibody fragments in cell-free systems.

  6. Microbial synthesis of iron-based nanomaterials—A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhilash; K Revati; B D Pandey

    2011-04-01

    Nanoparticles are the materials having dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. They exhibit a high surface/volume ratio leading to different properties far different from those of the bulk materials. The development of uniform nanoparticles has been intensively pursued because of their technological and fundamental scientific importance. A number of chemical methods are available and are extensively used, but these are often energy intensive and employ toxic chemicals. An alternative approach for the synthesis of uniform nanoparticles is the biological route that occurs at ambient temperature, pressure and at neutral pH. The main aim of this review is to enlist and compare various methods of synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with emphasis on the biological method. Biologically induced and controlled mineralization mechanisms are the two modes through which the micro-organisms synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles. In biologically induced mineralization (BIM) mode, the environmental factors like pH, pO2, pCO2, redox potential, temperature etc govern the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. In contrast, biologically controlled mineralization (BCM) process initiates the micro-organism itself to control the synthesis. BIM can be observed in the Fe(III) reducing bacterial species of Shewanella, Geobacter, Thermoanaerobacter, and sulphate reducing bacterial species of Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, whereas BCM mode can be observed in the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) like Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, M. gryphiswaldense and sulphate-reducing magnetic bacteria (Desulfovibrio magneticus). Magnetite crystals formed by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria are epicellular, poorly crystalline, irregular in shapes, having a size range of 10–50 nm super-paramagnetic particles, with a saturation magnetization value ranging from 75–77 emu/g and are not aligned in chains. Magnetite crystals produced by MTB have uniform species-specific morphologies and sizes

  7. What is the most appropriate knowledge synthesis method to conduct a review? Protocol for a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastner Monika

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A knowledge synthesis attempts to summarize all pertinent studies on a specific question, can improve the understanding of inconsistencies in diverse evidence, and can identify gaps in research evidence to define future research agendas. Knowledge synthesis activities in healthcare have largely focused on systematic reviews of interventions. However, a wider range of synthesis methods has emerged in the last decade addressing different types of questions (e.g., realist synthesis to explore mediating mechanisms and moderators of interventions. Many different knowledge synthesis methods exist in the literature across multiple disciplines, but locating these, particularly for qualitative research, present challenges. There is a need for a comprehensive manual for synthesis methods (quantitative/qualitative or mixed, outlining how these methods are related, and how to match the most appropriate knowledge synthesis method to answer a research question. The objectives of this scoping review are to: 1 conduct a systematic search of the literature for knowledge synthesis methods across multi-disciplinary fields; 2 compare and contrast the different knowledge synthesis methods; and, 3 map out the specific steps to conducting the knowledge syntheses to inform the development of a knowledge synthesis methods manual/tool. Methods We will search relevant electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, grey literature, and discipline-based listservs. The scoping review will consider all study designs including qualitative and quantitative methodologies (excluding economic analysis or clinical practice guideline development, and identify knowledge synthesis methods across the disciplines of health, education, sociology, and philosophy. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction forms, and will independently screen the literature and abstract the data. A three-step synthesis process will be used to map the

  8. Solar energy for wastewater treatment: review of international technologies and their applicability in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, R B P; Queiroz, M T A; Amorim, C C; Leão, M M D; Brites-Nóbrega, F F

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported the adverse effects of recalcitrant compounds and emerging contaminants present in industrial effluents, which are not degradable by ordinary biological treatment. Many of these compounds are likely to accumulate in living organisms through the lipid layer. At concentrations above the limits of biological tolerance, these compounds can be harmful to the ecosystem and may even reach humans through food chain biomagnification. In this regard, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) represent an effective alternative for the removal of the pollutants. This study focused on the AOP involving the use of ultraviolet radiation in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Based on the literature review, comparisons between natural and artificial light were established, approaching photoreactors constructive and operational characteristics. We concluded that the high availability of solar power in Brazil would make the implementation of the AOP using natural solar radiation for the decontamination of effluents feasible, thereby contributing to clean production and biodiversity conservation. This will serve as an important tool for the enforcement of environmental responsibility among public and private institutions.

  9. Frequency of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in Brazil: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Winzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lack of official data on rape has been a challenge for researchers in Brazil. Two recently published studies were based on law enforcement and medical records. Although these studies represent important progress in research on rape in the country, they have several limitations. In order to obtain more realistic rates, the current article reviews Brazilian studies on self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in individuals over 14 years of age. Forty-one studies were identified through electronic searches and reference verification. From 1% to 40% of women and 1% to 35% of men reported some form of victimization in the previous year. The male perpetration incidence ranged from 2% to 44%. Despite the wide variability, these rates were much higher than those provided by official data. The results suggest that sexual orientation is associated with vulnerability. Mixed findings were found concerning race. Most studies were based on convenience samples and focused on female victimization. Male victimization has received increasing attention, but studies on self-reported perpetration are still limited.

  10. Vibrio vulnificus infection in São Paulo, Brazil: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Elmor de Araujo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Non cholera Vibrio may cause conjunctivitis, wound infection, gastroenteritis and serious sepsis. Transmission to men is through contact with skin, mucosa or wounds exposed to marine water, and consumption of certain barely cooked or raw seafood, more frequently in the summer. This is one of the first cases of severe infection related to Vibrio vulnificus described in Brazil. The patient was an old man, who ingested seafood in Guarujá, a seashore city near São Paulo, 3 days before hospitalization. He was admitted to the emergency room in an ill state with septic shock. On 2 sets of blood culture a highly virulent microorganism was isolated, Vibrio vulnificus, which leads to sepsis and frequently to death in susceptible patients. The objective of this report was to use this case to discuss clinical aspects, microbiological diagnosis and treatment of the infection caused by this agent, besides the review of epidemiology, associated risk factors and prevention before consuming or getting in contact with seafood, especially in patients with greater susceptibility to this kind of infection.

  11. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread.

  12. Reviewing the Tannic Acid Mediated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufail Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticles harbour numerous exceptional physiochemical properties absolutely different from those of bulk metal as a function of their extremely small size and large superficial area to volume. Naked metal nanoparticles are synthesized by various physical and chemical methods. Chemical methods involving metal salt reduction in solution enjoy an extra edge over other protocols owing to their relative facileness and capability of controlling particle size along with the attribute of surface tailoring. Although chemical methods are the easiest, they are marred by the use of hazardous chemicals such as borohydrides. This has led to inclination of scientific community towards eco-friendly agents for the reduction of metal salts to form nanoparticles. Tannic acid, a plant derived polyphenolic compound, is one such agent which embodies characteristics of being harmless and environmentally friendly combined with being a good reducing and stabilizing agent. In this review, first various methods used to prepare metal nanoparticles are highlighted and further tannic acid mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles is emphasized. This review brings forth the most recent findings on this issue.

  13. Ameloblastoma in the Northeast region of Brazil: A review of 112 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago de Santana; Piva, Marta Rabello; Andrade, Emanuel Sávio de Souza; Vajgel, André; Vasconcelos, Ricardo José de Holanda; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ameloblastomas are benign tumors of the jaws with locally invasive capacity. Aim: The aim of this study was to review 112 cases of ameloblastoma seen over an 18-year period (1992-2009) at the Pernambuco Dental School, University of Pernambuco and at Federal University of Sergipe, in the northeast region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: The following data were selected for analysis: age, gender, race, site distribution, radiographic appearance, association with an impacted tooth, size, presence of symptoms, clinicopathologic subtypes and recurrence. Settings and Design: In this retrospective study, Pearson's χ2 test and t-test were employed. The critical level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients at presentation was 35.1 ± 16.8 years with a slight female preference. The peak prevalence was in the 11- to 20-year age group and declined with increasing age. Total 75 patients were black and 37 were white, for a 2:1 black: white ratio. The location of the ameloblastomas showed a marked predominance in the mandible (84.8%) and 69% of the cases presented with a multilocular radiographic appearance. The tumor was associated with an embedded tooth in 14 cases (12.7%): nine unilocular and five multilocular ameloblastomas. The maximum radiological extension of the lesions on panoramic radiographs was 0.5-20 cm (mean ± SD: 5.2 ± 3.3 cm) and most cases were symptom-free (75.9%). Solid/multicystic ameloblastoma was the most common clinicopathologic subtype. There was an association between the clinicopathologic subtypes and radiographic appearance (P < 0.001). Recurrence was observed in 13.3% of cases. Conclusion: We propose that racial factors may have strong influence on the incidence of ameloblastomas in the northeast region of Brazil, since most people have African descent. Data related to gender, location, radiographic appearance, size, symptoms, clinicopathologic subtypes and recurrence were similar to previous studies

  14. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  15. Reviews of the Norwegian climate policy - a synthesis of four international reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Bjoernaes, Christian; Reed, Eilif Ursin

    2011-07-01

    The report is a synthesis of four reviews on the Norwegian climate policy: 1. Environmental performance review of Norway, OECD 2011 2. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, Norway, IEA 2011 3. Economic Survey of Norway, OECD 2010 4. Report on the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Norway.(auth)

  16. Prevalência de anemia ferropriva no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática Prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Esteves Jordão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os estudos de prevalência de anemia no Brasil publicados entre janeiro de 1996 e janeiro de 2007. FONTES DE DADOS: Por meio de revisão sistemática nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline e Lilacs, foram selecionados títulos científicos publicados no intervalo de onze anos referentes à prevalência de anemia no Brasil em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade. Foram excluídos artigos de revisão, relatos de caso e trabalhos que relacionaram anemia a outras doenças e ao período gestacional. Para a análise comparativa das variáveis categóricas de interesse nos artigos encontrados, realizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e o teste exato de Fisher, levando-se em conta o nível de significância estatística de 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review on the prevalence of anemia due to iron-deficiency in Brazil from January 1996 to January 2007. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases (Medline and Lilacs in an eleven-year interval to verify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in children who were less than five years of age in Brazil. Reviews, case reports and studies related to anemia during pregnancy and anemia caused by others diseases were excluded. In order to describe the categorical variables according to the selected articles, the chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. The significance level adopted was 5% (p<0.05. DATA SYNTHESIS: The median prevalence level of anemia was 53%, which is considered a high prevalence rate by the World Health Organization. Among the 53 analyzed studies, the age of the children was the variable strongly associated with anemia (p=0.012. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of anemia, mostly in children less than two years of age, was observed in this review. However, most studies were carried out in day care centers or in Basic Health Care Units or were obtained by home interviews, suggesting that future research should focus populational studies.

  17. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition.

  18. Synthesis and Consecutive Reactions of α-Azido Ketones: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Faiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review paper covers the major synthetic approaches attempted towards the synthesis of α-azido ketones, as well as the synthetic applications/consecutive reactions of α-azido ketones.

  19. The efficacy of a chitin synthesis inhibitor against field populations of organophosphate-resistant Aedes aegypti in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Giglio Fontoura

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main focus of dengue control campaigns. Because of widespread resistance against conventional chemical insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs are considered control alternatives. We evaluated the resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to both the organophosphate temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, which are used in Brazil to control larvae and adults, respectively. All vector populations exhibited high levels of temephos resistance and varying rates of alterations in their susceptibility to pyrethroids. The effect of the CSI novaluron on these populations was also investigated. Novaluron was effective against all populations under laboratory conditions. Field-simulated assays with partial water replacement were conducted to evaluate novaluron persistence. Bioassays were continued until an adult emergence inhibition of at least 70% was attained. We found a residual effect of eight weeks under indoor conditions and novaluron persisted for five-six weeks in assays conducted in an external area. Our data show that novaluron is effective against the Ae. aegypti populations tested, regardless of their resistance to conventional chemical insecticides.

  20. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto [Centro de Investigacoes do Gondwana, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS, 91.509-900 (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  1. Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Saji; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    The past few decades have witnessed significant advances in the development of functionalized gold nanoparticles for applications in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmacy and physics. Although it has been more than 150 years since they were first synthesized, extensive research has recently been undertaken to improve or modify gold nanoparticles, thereby opening up opportunities to enhance and optimize their potential and breadth of their applicability. Recently developed methods have allowed a precise control of gold nanoparticle size and the modification of gold nanoparticles with suitable protecting and functionalizing agents, facilitate their applications in different areas such as chemical and biological sensing, imaging and biomedical applications. This review focuses on the recent developments in various methods for the size and shape controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles, understanding of different properties of gold nanoparticles and their applications in various fields. Particular attention is given to the chemical and biological sensing applications of gold nanoparticles and on the advances in the controlled ordering of gold nanoparticles for creating nanostructures for diverse applications.

  2. Microbial synthesis of chalcogenide semiconductor nanoparticles: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Jaya Mary; Lens, Piet N. L.; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chalcogenide semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as promising nanomaterials due to their size tunable optoelectronic properties. The commercial synthesis and their subsequent integration for practical uses have, however, been contorted largely due to the toxicity and cost issues associated with the present chemical synthesis protocols. Accordingly, there is an immediate need to develop alternative environment‐friendly synthesis procedures. Microbial factories hold immense potentia...

  3. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and Acrobrycon are discussed on the basis of preliminary morphological information. It is proposed that the Diapomini is a monophyletic group. An identification key, information on sexual dimorphism, gonad anatomy, reproductive mode and distribution of the species of Diapoma are provided.

  4. Assessment of the measurement properties of the post stroke motor function instruments available in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Simões, Luan; Guerra, Ana C. C.; Lemos, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background While there are several instruments in Brazil that measure motor function in patients after stroke, it is unknown whether the measurement properties of these instruments are appropriate. Objective To identify the motor function instruments available in Brazil for patients after stroke. To assess the methodological quality of the studies and the results related to the measurement properties of these instruments. Method Two independent reviewers conducted searches on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies that aimed to cross-culturally adapt an existing instrument or create a Brazilian instrument and test at least one measurement property related to motor function in patients after stroke were included. The methodological quality of these studies was checked by the COSMIN checklist with 4-point rating scale and the results of the measurement properties were analyzed by the criteria developed by Terwee et al. Results A total of 11 instruments were considered eligible, none of which were created in Brazil. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was inadequate in 10 out of 11 instruments due to the lack of back-translation or due to inappropriate target population. All of the instruments presented flaws in the measurement properties, especially reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity. Conclusion The flaws observed in both cross-cultural adaptation process and testing measurement properties make the results inconclusive on the validity of the available instruments. Adequate procedures of cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties of these instruments are strongly needed. PMID:26982452

  5. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

  6. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gondim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp, Paraíba (n = 12 spp and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp. No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area.

  7. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagooncoastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  8. A Review of Thorium Utilization as an option for Advanced Fuel Cycle--Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, J.R.; Carluccio, T.

    2004-10-03

    Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R&D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

  9. 76 FR 19315 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Brazil from two producers/exporters of the subject merchandise, Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and... ``Calculations Performed for Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura for the Preliminary Results in the... and Constructed Value Calculation Adjustments for the Preliminary Results-- Fischer S.A....

  10. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  11. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nykiforuk, Candace

    2013-10-01

    This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social) and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  12. Methodological Synthesis in Quantitative L2 Research: A Review of Reviews and a Case Study of Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Gonulal, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Research synthesis and meta-analysis provide a pathway to bring together findings in a given domain with greater systematicity, objectivity, and transparency than traditional reviews. The same techniques and corresponding benefits can be and have been applied to examine methodological practices in second language (L2) research (e.g., Plonsky,…

  13. The main characteristics of qualitative studies carried out by doctors in Brazil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of the nutrition-sensitive agriculture approach in the context of the programs and actions towards promoting food and nutrition sovereignty and security in Brazil. To analyze the links between nutrition and agriculture, this paper presents the conceptual framework related to food and nutrition security, and stresses the correlations among concepts, institutional structures and program design in Brazil. Dominant models of food production and consumption are scrutinized in the light of these relationships. This paper also highlights differences amongst different ways to promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture through food-acquisition programs from family farmers, experiences in agro-ecology and bio-fortification programs. In the closing remarks, the paper draws some lessons learned from the Brazilian experience that highlight the advantages of family farming and rapid food production, distribution and consumption cycles in order to promote access to an affordable, diversified and more adequate diet in nutritional terms.

  14. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  15. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico P. Brandini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal variations in the hydrographic regime. During summertime, when warm oligotrophic waters predominate over the shelf, the phytoplankton is nummerically dominated by small phytotlagellates, dinotlagellates, coccolithophorids and filaments of cyanobacteria. During wintertime, the abundance of micro-size diatoms over the shclf increase due to the dominance of cold nutrient-rich waters from the South Atlantic Central Water and wind-driven vertical circulation. The phytoplankton community off Paraná State may be classified into two categorics: the diatom-dominated coastal assemblage, mainly controlled by nutrient inputs from land drainage and ressuspension of bottom sediments, and the tlagellate-dominated shelf assemblage, more affectcd by the seasonality of local hydrographic regime.O trabalho é uma revisão dos estudos taxonômicos e ecológicos das microalgas (planctônicas e bentônicas realizados no Estado do Paraná. A maioria dos trabalhos sobre microfitobentos são de caráter taxonômico e, basicamente, referem-se à diatomáceas bênticas sobre macroalgas ou fundos lodosos e consolidados. Poucos trabalhos contribuiram para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do fitoplâncton em áreas costeiras e de plataforma. São descritos os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica em relação ao regime hidrográfico. No verão, quando águas quentes oligotróficas predominam na superfície, o fitoplâncton

  16. A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Casson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG analysis.

  17. A workshop on asthma management programs and centers in Brazil: reviewing and explaining concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Stelmach

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the results of a workshop regarding asthma management programs and centers (AMPCs in Brazil, so that they can be used as a tool for the improvement and advancement of current and future AMPCs. Methods: The workshop consisted of five presentations and the corresponding group discussions. The working groups discussed the following themes: implementation of asthma management strategies; human resources needed for AMPCs; financial resources needed for AMPCs; and operational maintenance of AMPCs. Results: The workshop involved 39 participants, from all regions of the country, representing associations of asthma patients (n = 3, universities (n = 7, and AMPCs (n = 29. We found a direct relationship between a lack of planning and the failure of AMPCs. Based on the experiences reported during the workshop, the common assumptions about AMPCs in Brazil were the importance of raising awareness of managers; greater community participation; interdependence between primary care and specialized care; awareness of regionalization; and use of medications available in the public health system. Conclusions: Brazil already has a core of experience in the area of asthma management programs. The implementation of strategies for the management of chronic respiratory disease and their incorporation into health care system protocols would seem to be a natural progression. However, there is minimal experience in this area. Joint efforts by individuals with expertise in AMPCs could promote the implementation of asthma management strategies, thus speeding the creation of treatment networks, which might have a multiplier effect, precluding the need for isolated centers to start from zero.

  18. A workshop on asthma management programs and centers in Brazil: reviewing and explaining concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Rafael; Neto, Alcindo Cerci; Fonseca, Ana Cristina de Carvalho Fernandez; Ponte, Eduardo Vieira; Alves, Gerardo; Araujo-Costa, Ildely Niedia; Lasmar, Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury; de Castro, Luci Keiko Kuromoto; Lenz, Maria Lucia Medeiros; Silva, Paulo; Cukier, Alberto; Alves, Alexssandra Maia; Lima-Matos, Aline Silva; Cardoso, Amanda da Rocha Oliveira; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de São-José, Bruno Piassi; Riedi, Carlos Antônio; Schor, Deborah; Peixoto, Décio Medeiros; Brandenburg, Diego Djones; Camillo, Elineide Gomes dos Santos; Serpa, Faradiba Sarquis; Brandão, Heli Vieira; Lima, João Antonio Bonfadini; Pio, Jorge Eduardo; Fiterman, Jussara; Anderson, Maria de Fátima; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro de Lucena; Rodrigues, Marcelo Tadday; Pereira, Marilyn Nilda Esther Urrutia; Antila, Marti; Martins, Sonia Maria; Guimarães, Vanessa Gonzaga Tavares; Mello, Yara Arruda Marques; de Andrade, Wenderson Clay Correia; Salibe-Filho, William; Caldeira, Zelina Maria da Rocha; da Cruz-Filho, Álvaro Augusto Souza; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report the results of a workshop regarding asthma management programs and centers (AMPCs) in Brazil, so that they can be used as a tool for the improvement and advancement of current and future AMPCs. Methods: The workshop consisted of five presentations and the corresponding group discussions. The working groups discussed the following themes: implementation of asthma management strategies; human resources needed for AMPCs; financial resources needed for AMPCs; and operational maintenance of AMPCs. Results: The workshop involved 39 participants, from all regions of the country, representing associations of asthma patients (n = 3), universities (n = 7), and AMPCs (n = 29). We found a direct relationship between a lack of planning and the failure of AMPCs. Based on the experiences reported during the workshop, the common assumptions about AMPCs in Brazil were the importance of raising awareness of managers; greater community participation; interdependence between primary care and specialized care; awareness of regionalization; and use of medications available in the public health system. Conclusions: Brazil already has a core of experience in the area of asthma management programs. The implementation of strategies for the management of chronic respiratory disease and their incorporation into health care system protocols would seem to be a natural progression. However, there is minimal experience in this area. Joint efforts by individuals with expertise in AMPCs could promote the implementation of asthma management strategies, thus speeding the creation of treatment networks, which might have a multiplier effect, precluding the need for isolated centers to start from zero. PMID:25750669

  19. Canine rangeliosis due to Rangelia vitalii: from first report in Brazil in 1910 to current day - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Raqueli T; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Loretti, Alexandre P; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2014-09-01

    Canine rangeliosis (popular names: "nambi-uvú", i.e. ``bleeding ears''; "peste de sangue", i.e. ``bleeding plague''; and "febre amarela dos cães", i.e. ``yellow fever of dogs'') is a tick-borne haemolytic and haemorrhagic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Rangelia vitalii which infects erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells of blood capillaries. Rangelia vitalii was first reported as a novel piroplasm of dogs in 1910 in Brazil, a discovery that was met with skepticism at that time. Canine rangeliosis has been diagnosed in domestic dogs not only in Brazil but also in other South American countries (Argentina and Uruguay). Rangelia vitalii infection has also been found incidentally in Brazil in wild dogs (Cerdocyon thous, the crab-eating fox). Despite the fact that researchers in the early 1900s suggested that R. vitalii was a hitherto unidentified piroplasm that would be transmitted by the tick Amblyomma aureolatum, it was not until 2012 that these hypotheses were actually confirmed by PCR and transmission studies. Molecular studies have shown that R. vitalii is related to the Babesia sensu strictu clade, but genetically different from other morphologically similar species of Babesia that infect dogs. Another difference between Babesia spp. and R. vitalii is the ability of R. vitalii to invade endothelial cells, erythrocytes, and leukocytes. Experimental infection in dogs has successfully reproduced the clinical picture and pathology of the natural disease. In this article, epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory findings, pathogenetic mechanisms including oxidative stress and immune response, necropsy findings, microscopic lesions, diagnosis, and treatment of canine rangeliosis are reviewed. What is currently known about this protozoal disease since its first report over a century ago is presented herein.

  20. A Review of Methods for Synthesis of Al Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghorbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and, more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Several methods have been introduced for the synthesis of these materials. The techniques for synthesizing aluminum nanoparticles can be divided into solid-phase, liquid-phase and gas-phase processes. The solid-phase techniques include mechanical ball milling and mechanochemical, the liquid-phase techniques include laser ablation, exploding wire, solution reduction, and decomposition process, whereas the gas-phase processes include gas evaporation, exploding wire, and laser ablation process. This study is an attempt to present an overview of Al nanoparticles preparation by various methods.

  1. Review on palladium-containing perovskites: synthesis, physico-chemical properties and applications in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essoumhi, Abdellatif; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto

    2014-02-01

    This review reports on the recent advances in the synthesis and physico-chemical properties of palladium-containing perovskites. Initially, the perovskite structure is briefly reviewed, then palladium-containing perovskites synthesis and physico-chemical properties are detailed. The applications of palladium-containing perovskites in catalysis; namely, NO reduction, methane combustion, methanol as well as ethanol oxidation, are briefly highlighted. The involvement and the important contribution of palladium-containing perovskites in cross-coupling reactions, especially Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira, Ulmann and Grignard, are discussed.

  2. Systematic review study on the use of the concept of daily life in the field of occupational therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Simões Matsukura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the concept of daily life has increased in the field of occupational therapy, with studies referring to daily life as a tool that is both theoretic-conceptual and practical, providing support for both research and care. In this study, we aimed to identify and systematize the knowledge production about the daily life concept in occupational therapy in Brazil. A systematic review of the Brazilian literature of the past ten years on the concept of daily life in occupational therapy was used as our methodological approach. Twelve articles were selected to compose this research. The concept of daily life as considered in studies of occupational therapists, is established in the relationship between what is singular to the individual and what is collective and social. This concept defines a theoretical position in occupational therapy, departing from a medical and positivist interpretation of health care, giving attention to the subjectivity of individuals, their day-to-day activities and their social inclusion. The concept of daily life was also used in the reflection about how illnesses change people’s daily lives, to support the description and analysis of the daily lives of the studied subjects and to discuss the concept of daily life in occupational therapy practice. There is a wide range of possibilities for the use of the concept of daily life in the research and practice of occupational therapy. The present study shows that this concept adds to the basis of contemporary occupational therapy knowledge produced in Brazil.

  3. Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An historical review is given of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Brazil. Following the first records of AVL in this country, in 1934, the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912 was incriminated as the principal vector. It is now generally accepted, however, that there exist a number of cryptic species under the name of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and that variations in the quantity of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan in the saliva of flies from different populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l., may account for the variable clinical manifestations of AVL seen in different geographic regions. Distribution of AVL has been shown to extend throughout most of South and Central America, with the domestic dog serving as the principal reservoir of infection for man. However, while one hypothesis suggests that the causative parasite is Leishmania infantum, imported from Europe with the Portuguese and Spanish colonists, the demonstration of a high rate of benign, inapparent infection in foxes in Amazonian Brazil raised an opposing suggestion that the parasite is indigenous to the Americas. Recent reports of similar infections in native marsupials, and possibly rodents, tend to support this view, particularly as Lu. longipalpis is primordially a silvatic sandfly. Although effective control measures in foci of the disease will diminish the number of canine and human infections, the presence of such an enzootic in a variety of native animals will render the total eradication of AVL unlikely.

  4. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  5. A Review on the Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Morphologies Studied via TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protima Rauwel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver has been recognized as a nontoxic, safe inorganic antibacterial/antifungal agent used for centuries. Silver demonstrates a very high potential in a wide range of biological applications, more particularly in the form of nanoparticles. Environmentally friendly synthesis methods are becoming more and more popular in chemistry and chemical technologies and the need for ecological methods of synthesis is increasing; the aim is to reduce polluting reaction by-products. Another important advantage of green synthesis methods lies in its cost-effectiveness and in the abundance of raw materials. During the last five years, many efforts were put into developing new greener and cheaper methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The cost decrease and less harmful synthesis methods have been the motivation in comparison to other synthesis techniques where harmful reductive organic species produce hazardous by-products. This environment-friendly aspect has now become a major social issue and is instrumental in combatting environmental pollution through reduction or elimination of hazardous materials. This review describes a brief overview of the research on green synthesis of silver metal nanoparticles and the influence of the method on their size and morphology.

  6. Review: three synthesis methods of CdX (X = Se, S or Te) quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa Farkhani, Samad; Valizadeh, Alireza

    2014-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences that used for imaging or tracking macromolecules/cells in cell/tissue. Because of QDs are important in biomedical and biological applications, identify a variety of synthesis methods to produce QDs with different characteristics also is particularly important. Hence, in this review the authors discussed three methods for synthesis of heavy metal chalcogenide-based QDs for use in biomedical field: (i) Organometallic method for synthesis of QDs consists of three components: precursors, organic surfactants and solvents. The authors also discussed water-solubilisation strategies of synthesised QDs including encapsulation and ligand exchange. (ii) Aqueous synthesis technique using short-chain thiols as stabilising agents is a useful alternative to organometallic synthesis of CdSe, CdS and CdTe QDs. (iii) The third method discussed in this article for QDs synthesis involves the utilise of microorganisms to prepare QDs with controlled size, shape, chemical composition and functionality. The authors also discussed recently new methods for the synthesis of the appropriate QDs for use in biology. In addition, attachment of biomolecules such as antibodies, oligonucleotides on the surface of QDs for specific targeting and different opinions about toxicity of QD have been studied.

  7. Poly(ethylene Terephthalate), Pet: A Review On The Synthesis Processes, Degradation Mechanisms And Its Recycling [poli(tereftalato De Etileno), Pet:uma Revisão Sobre Os Processos De íntese, Mecanismos De Egradação E Sua Reciclagem

    OpenAIRE

    Romao W.; Spinace M.A.S.; De Paoli M.-A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a review on poly(ethylene terephthalate), emphasizing the synthesis processes and the degradation mechanisms. Brazil is currently among the countries that most recycle PET, with 53% of this polymer being mechanically recycled. The success of this thermoplastic in the recycling industry is due to its large diversity of applications, from the textile industry to food packaging, where the food grade recycled packages will be mixed with the pristine resin for reprocessing and use. We a...

  8. Structural violence in the context of drug policy and initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm in contemporary Brazil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Francisco I

    2012-01-01

    Brazil, the 6th largest world economy, has experienced rapid economic, demographic, and social structural changes during the last decade. Notwithstanding, Brazil being one of the most unequal societies worldwide, 40 million of 200 million Brazilians have moved from poverty to middle-class standards during this period. This review analyzes the success of different Brazilian initiatives aiming to reduce drug consumption-related harms, as well as the failed attempts to curb structural violence, despite some very recent initiatives have yet to be fully implemented and evaluated.

  9. Educational inclusion of students with Autism in Brazil: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Regina de Paula Nunes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian legislation mandates that all children with disabilities have access to general education, including those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. While the benefits of mainstreamed education have been described in numerous studies, the topic remains controversial, particularly regarding the competence of general schools in addressing the needs of students with ASD. The purpose of this article is to describe what studies published between 2008 and 2013 have revealed about the educational inclusion of people with ASD in Brazil. The results indicate that the access of these students to regular classrooms increased after the popularization of the inclusion paradigm. In spite of this fact, investigations suggest that school personnel have scarce knowledge concerning the syndrome and the educational strategies applied in schools may entail little effect on the learning process of these students.

  10. Difficulties and challenges in reviewing ethical aspects of research in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Júnior, Luís Carlos; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia de; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Objective To reflect on the problems faced by researchers from different areas, especially of Humanities and Social Sciences, when submitting research projects for evaluation by the research ethics committees in Brazil. Method A theoretical and reflective study based on international literature and the critical analysis of the authors. Results Although Resolution 466/2012, which addresses human research, contains some innovations, issues related to the research participants remain obscure and the project evaluation process is time-consuming. Conclusion The difficulties faced by researchers, especially in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, must be transposed to ensure that the ethical guidelines are applicable, in terms of principles and procedures, to the different research traditions. Appropriate human research standards must be managed by a system with a satisfactory operational capacity, according to the specificities of the different areas of knowledge.

  11. Prevalence of diabetes in Brazil over time: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Telo, Gabriela H.; Cureau, Felipe Vogt; de Souza, Martina S.; Andrade, Thais S.; Copês, Fabiana; Schaan, Beatriz D.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most important epidemic diseases of this century and the number of people with diabetes has more than doubled over the past three decades. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in the adult Brazilian population and analyze the trends for the last three decades through a systematic review with meta-analysis. This review included observational studies published between 1980 and 2015, which were independently identified by two reviewers in five databases. Rand...

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with breastfeeding in brazil between the years 1998 and 2013: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Tognollo Borotta Uema

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the prevalence and the determinants of breastfeeding in different cities and states in Brazil, based on researches which used similar methodology to the one proposed by the Breastfeeding and Municipalities Project. To this end, we performed a systematic review and a search for articles in the Lilacs, SciELO, Cochrane, Bdenf, Medline and PubMed through the keywords breastfeeding/aleitamento materno, prevalence/prevalência, indicators/indicadores, cross-sectional studies/estudos transversais, nutrition surveys/inquéritos nutricionais, diet surveys/inquéritos alimentares and Brazil/Brasil, in the period between 1998 and 2013. Twenty-seven articles were selected, 8 of which presented the prevalence of breastfeeding in children under one year of age, 11 in children under four months, 10 in children under six months, 07 in children under four and six months and 04 articles of the temporal trends of breastfeeding. The articles analyzed the association between breastfeeding and maternal variables such as age, education, occupation, parity, mode of delivery, number of prenatal visits, income, and maternity leave. Regarding the variables of the infant, the most studied factors were: pacifier use, birth weight, birth in institutions participating in the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, bottle feeding, introduction of other milk and tea, breastfeeding in the first 24 hours of life and sex. The results indicate the need for evaluation and understanding about the effectiveness of existing actions, and the creation of strategies to encourage and support breastfeeding, especially to first-time mothers, teenagers, worker mothers and the ones with difficulties handling breastfeeding initiation.

  13. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harden Angela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the use of this type of analysis in systematic reviews to bring together and integrate the findings of multiple qualitative studies. Methods We describe thematic synthesis, outline several steps for its conduct and illustrate the process and outcome of this approach using a completed review of health promotion research. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of text 'line-by-line'; the development of 'descriptive themes'; and the generation of 'analytical themes'. While the development of descriptive themes remains 'close' to the primary studies, the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby the reviewers 'go beyond' the primary studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses. The use of computer software can facilitate this method of synthesis; detailed guidance is given on how this can be achieved. Results We used thematic synthesis to combine the studies of children's views and identified key themes to explore in the intervention studies. Most interventions were based in school and often combined learning about health benefits with 'hands-on' experience. The studies of children's views suggested that fruit and vegetables should be treated in different ways, and that messages should not focus on health warnings. Interventions that were in line with these suggestions tended to be more effective. Thematic synthesis enabled us to stay 'close' to the results of the primary studies, synthesising them in a transparent way, and facilitating the explicit production of new concepts and hypotheses

  14. 75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive...)(1), we have calculated importer/customer-specific assessment rates for these final results of review... reviewed sales for each reported importer or customer. We will instruct CBP to assess the...

  15. The tobacco endgame: a qualitative review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco endgame concept reorients discussion away from the persistent control of tobacco toward plans for ending the tobacco epidemic, and envisions a tobacco-free future. A variety of policy approaches have been proposed, with many offered prior to the introduction of the unifying term ‘endgame’. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the literature on tobacco control endgames, and drew on media accounts and discussion of analogous ideas for illustrative purposes. We identified proposals focused on the product, user, market/supply or larger institutional structures. Research on public support for these proposals was limited, but suggestive of some public appetite for endgame ideas. Advocates should be encouraged to explore new policy options and consider the goal of a tobacco-free future. PMID:26320149

  16. Acknowledging the patient with back pain: A systematic review based on thematic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Abstract NOF 2014 Acknowledging the back patient. A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review. Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories and ar...... a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment.......Abstract NOF 2014 Acknowledging the back patient. A thematic synthesis of qualitative research. A systematic literature review. Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories...... and are associated with heavy personal costs and hospitalisations. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The thematic synthesis aims...

  17. 77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... respondents in this administrative review (i.e., Fischer S.A. Comercio, Industria, and Agricultura (Fischer... 28, 2011: Percent Manufacturer/Exporter margin Sucocitrico Cutrale, S.A 2.63 Fischer S.A....

  18. Beyond Synthesis: Augmenting Systematic Review Procedures with Practical Principles to Optimise Impact and Uptake in Educational Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris; Taylor, Celia; Buckley, Sharon; Hean, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Whilst systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other forms of synthesis are considered amongst the most valuable forms of research evidence, their limited impact on educational policy and practice has been criticised. In this article, we analyse why systematic reviews do not benefit users of evidence more consistently and suggest how review teams…

  19. A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research: The Influence of School Context on Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Moore, Darren A.; Cooper, Paul; Russell, Abigail Emma; Richardson, Michelle; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research explored contextual factors relevant to non-pharmacological interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in schools. We conducted meta-ethnography to synthesise 34 studies, using theories of stigma to further develop the synthesis. Studies suggested that the…

  20. Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kołodziejczak-Radzimska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide can be called a multifunctional material thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties. The first part of this paper presents the most important methods of preparation of ZnO divided into metallurgical and chemical methods. The mechanochemical process, controlled precipitation, sol-gel method, solvothermal and hydrothermal method, method using emulsion and microemulsion enviroment and other methods of obtaining zinc oxide were classified as chemical methods. In the next part of this review, the modification methods of ZnO were characterized. The modification with organic (carboxylic acid, silanes and inroganic (metal oxides compounds, and polymer matrices were mainly described. Finally, we present possible applications in various branches of industry: rubber, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile, electronic and electrotechnology, photocatalysis were introduced. This review provides useful information for specialist dealings with zinc oxide.

  1. A Review on the Synthesis Methods of CdSeS-Based Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As typical II–VI ternary alloyed chalcogenides, CdSeS nanostructures have attracted intensive worldwide attention due to their excellent tunable optical properties based on quantum confinement effect and optical nonlinear phenomenon. Because CdSeS-based nanostructures have presented a great potential for applications in biomedicine and optoelectronic devices, different synthesis methods have been proposed to prepare CdSeS-based nanostructures with divergent optical properties to meet the needs of those applications, such as fluorescent labeling, in vivo imaging, waveguides, and solar cell. In this review, the tricks, advantages, and disadvantages of all these synthesis methods were discussed, including hot-injection synthesis, one-pot noninjection synthesis, microwave irradiation, solvothermal synthesis, template-assisted electrodeposition, thermal evaporation, and pulsed laser deposition. Special emphasis was put on those methods that are safe, economic, environment-friendly, and suitable for large-scale production of alloyed CdSeS nanostructures with high photoluminescence, high stability, and low/no cytotoxicity.

  2. Personal Review:Research on ethanol synthesis from syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie HE; Wen-nan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    It is a very fine substitutable energy technology to synthesize ethanol from biomass-derived syngas. This paper summarized the development of preparing ethanol from syngas, and especially elaborated on the research status of catalysts for the process. Based on the relative researches on the reaction mechanism, structure and performance of the catalysts, the optimum design of catalysts with high activity was presented in this review, which set the theoretical and application foundation for the industrial production of ethanol from syngas.

  3. Integrated processes for use of pulps and lignins obtained from sugarcane bagasse and straw: a review of recent efforts in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Adilson R; Benar, Priscila; Costa, Sirlene M; Ruzene, Denise S; Moriya, Regina Y; Luz, Sandra M; Ferretti, Lais P

    2005-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse and straw can be converted into pulps, oils, controlled-release formulations, chelating agents, and composites. This article reviews bagasse and straw conversion efforts in Brazil. Laboratory-scale processes were developed aiming at the integral use of these biomass byprod ucts. Organosolv pulping and oxidation of lignin are the most promising processes for the rational use of sugarcane residues. Fungal pretreatment and spectroscopic characterization are also discussed.

  4. Cretaceous biota of the Triângulo Mineiro region (Brazil: A review of recent finds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candeiro, C. R. A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Group (Adamantina, Uberaba, and Marília Formations crop out in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and yield a rich continental biota. Invertebrate and vertebrate taxa from underlying and overlying strata, as well as biostratigraphical correlations with other fossil sites in Argentina, suggest an Upper Cretaceous age for this biota. The diversity of the fossil assemblage recorded in these formations is summarized here and includes: frogs, lizards, crocodiles, titanosaurs, abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs. This fossil assemblage provides important clues to understand faunas from other southern landmasses, particularly those from the Cretaceous of the African continent.Los afloramientos del Grupo Bauru (formaciones Adamantina, Uberaba y Marília en la región del Triângulo Mineiro, Provincia de Minas Gerais, Brasil, posee un rico contenido de biota continental. Los taxa de invertebrados y vertebrados de estos estratos, así como las correlaciones biostratigráficas con otros yacimientos fósiles de Argentina, sugieren una edad del Cretácico Tardío. La diversidad de la asociación fósil registrada en las formaciones del Triângulo Mineiro se resume en el presente trabajo e incluye: sapos, lagartos, tortugas, cocodrilianos, titanosaurideos, dinosaurios abelisaurideos y carcharodontosaurideos. Esta asociación es importante para la comprensión de las faunas del sur de América y también de las del Cretácico de África.

  5. PROCEDURAL AND SUBSTANTIVE JUDICIAL REVIEW OF THE RIGHT TO HEALTH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perlingeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This text seeks to identify the objective and subjective aspects of rights to an existential minimum in health care, based on international parameters which, because they are restricted to the internal scope of a nation, depend on a constitutional basis and on comprehensible facts, the demonstration of which should be the responsibility of the national administrative authority. Regarding the judicial review of the minimum right to healthcare, this paper points out that it is a serious mistake to try to handle public health conflicts according to the typical judicial principles governing conflicts under private law, because that distorts the public health system, with judicial orders that depart from the universal access to health care and that are often impossible to comply with. The article concludes that the judicial review of administrative authorities in matters involving the right to health necessarily requires simultaneous judicial review of the corresponding administrative procedures.

  6. Lay and health care professional understandings of self-management: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Euan Sadler; Charles DA Wolfe; Christopher McKevitt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions.Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative stud...

  7. Polylactic acid (PLA) synthesis and modifications: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling CHENG; Shaobo DENG; Paul CHEN; Roger RUAN

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews various methods of synthesizing polycondensation and ring-opening polymerization and modifying properties of polylactic acid (PLA), which may be used as biomaterials, such as a drug carrier in a drug delivery system, as a cell scaffold and suture in tissue engineering, and as packaging materials in packaging engineering field. Copolymerization of lactide with other monomers or polymers such as malic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyglycolic acid (PGA), or dextran, as well as blending polylactide with natural derivatives and other methods of modification are discussed. Surface modifications of PLA-type copolymers, such as surface coating,chemical modification, and plasma treatment are described.

  8. Blur Clarified: A review and Synthesis of Blur Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    Blur is an important attribute of human spatial vision, and sensitivity to blur has been the subject of considerable experimental research and theoretical modeling. Often these models have invoked specialized concepts or mechanisms, such as intrinsic blur, multiple channels, or blur estimation units. In this paper we review the several experimental studies of blur discrimination and find they are in broad empirical agreement. But contrary to previous modeling efforts, we find that the essential features of blur discrimination are fully accounted for by a visible contrast energy model (ViCE), in which two spatial patterns are distinguished when the integrated difference between their masked local contrast energy responses reaches a threshold value.

  9. Ants as Indicators in Brazil: A Review with Suggestions to Improve the Use of Ants in Environmental Monitoring Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. Ribas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of ants as indicators in Brazil, based on a critical review of published articles. The analysis of fifty-eight papers, encompassing a range of almost 25 years, indicates an increased number of studies using ants as indicators in the last decade. Among the parameters analyzed in the papers, species composition is the most suitable to evaluate the effect of the disturbance on ant communities. The use of other metrics that consider the specificity and fidelity (e.g., IndVal index of ant species to a level or state of disturbance is also highly desirable. We discuss several alternative ways of overcoming many of the drawbacks related to the robustness of the results and to reduce the financial, logistic, and time costs involved with the use of ants as indicators in monitoring programs. By doing so, we expect to encourage new research on ants as bioindicators as well as to summarize current knowledge, facilitating further research.

  10. The early use of yellow fever virus strain 17D for vaccine production in Brazil - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Post

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of yellow fever (YF virus 17D strain for vaccine production adapted in Brazil since its introduction in 1937 was reviewed. This was possible due to the availability of official records of vaccine production. The retrieved data highlight the simultaneous use of several serially passaged 17D substrain viruses for both inocula and vaccine preparation that allowed uninterrupted production. Substitution of these substrain viruses became possible with the experience gained during quality control and human vaccination. Post-vaccinal complications in humans and the failure of some viruses in quality control tests (neurovirulence for monkeys indicated that variables needed to be reduced during vaccine production, leading to the development of the seed lot system. The 17DD substrain, still used today, was the most frequently used substrain and the most reliable in terms of safety and efficacy. For this reason, it is possible to derive an infectious cDNA clone of this substrain combined with production in cell culture that could be used to direct the expression of heterologous antigens and lead to the development of new live vaccines.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of Tuberculosis Control Programs in Brazil and Spain: an integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tiemi; Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Arnaez, Maria Araceli Arce; Gavín, Maria Ascención Ordobás; Gallardo, Maria Del Pilar Serrano; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2015-12-01

    This is an integrative review of the literature, which sought to locate evidence regarding the evaluation of the performance of tuberculosis control programs in the Brazilian and Spanish contexts. Articles indexed in databases, search directories and virtual libraries produced in Brazil and Spain from 2002 to 2013 were selected. A total of 17 articles (9 Brazilian and 8 Spanish) were included for analysis. The intention was to identify program evaluation concepts, methodologies and indicators for TB control program evaluation in both countries. In the Spanish context, a concern with results-oriented management and the attempt to develop broader indicators for the assessment of a series of health programs, including those related to tuberculosis control, was identified. The Brazilian references showed greater proximity to the classic methods of evaluation research, and a greater variety of objects of study regarding the activities expected in a control program. The findings highlight the complexity of program evaluation activities, which involve multiple and diverse stakeholders, and point to the need for integration of epidemiological and operational indicators in tuberculosis.

  12. Theories of how the school environment impacts on student health: systematic review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C P; Fletcher, A; Jamal, F; Wells, H; Harden, A; Murphy, S; Thomas, J

    2013-11-01

    Public-health interventions informed by theory can be more effective but complex interventions often use insufficiently complex theories. We systematically reviewed theories of how school environments influence health. We included 37 reports drawing on 24 theories. Narrative synthesis summarised and categorised theories. We then produced an integrated theory of school environment influences on student health. This integrated theory could inform complex interventions such as health promoting schools programmes. Using systematic reviews to develop theories of change might be useful for other types of 'complex' public-health interventions addressing risks at the individual and community levels.

  13. Tonian granitic magmatism of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ignez P.; de Fatima L. de Brito, Maria; de A. Lages, Geysson; da Silva Filho, Adejardo F.; Santos, Lucilene; Brasilino, Roberta G.

    2016-07-01

    Tonian granitoids, today augen-gneisses and migmatites, showing crystallization ages ranging from 870 Ma to 1000 Ma occur in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The majority of them have ages within the 925-970 Ma interval. Few intrusions with ages of ∼1.0 Ga and successions and metasedimentary sequences in the Transversal and South subprovinces. Tonian granitoids are unknown in the North subprovince. The CVG comprise mainly coarse-grained augen-gneisses of granite to granodiorite composition. Fe-rich biotite (annite) is the main mafic mineral phase, constituting up to 15% of the modal composition. Garnet, muscovite and tourmaline occur as accessory phases in many plutons. The CVG augen-gneisses have high SiO2 (>71%) and alkali contents, they vary from slightly peraluminous to slightly metaluminous, and from slightly magnesian to typical ferrroan rocks. In the migmatized orthogneisses the SiO2 contents are usually 40 ppm). The chondrite normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong to moderate negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.23-0.70). In general, the spidergram patterns show deep troughs at Ti, P, Ba and Sr and less pronounced Nb-Ta troughs. These patterns are similar to those reported for anorogenic granites evolved from mixtures of magmas from both crustal and mantle sources. The CVG exhibit TDM model ages ranging from 1.9 to 1.1Ga, with slightly negative to slightly positive ƐNd(t) values, suggesting the involvement of distinct proportions of mantle and crustal components in the source of their protoliths. There is no consensus in the literature about the tectonic setting of the CVG ie they have been related to either continental margin magmatic arc, with possible back-arc association, or extention-related setting, with generation of A-type granites. However, all the available geochemical data suggest that the CVG represent extension related magmatism. The geochemical signature associated to bimodal volcanism, including pyroclastic rocks, with similar

  14. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinos, Anna; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. Methods The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Results Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate

  15. Fire effects on soil aggregate stability: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerdà, A.; Arcenegui, V.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency and soil mineralogy. Opinions differ concerning the effect of fire on AS. Some authors have observed a decrease in AS in soils affected by intense wildfire or severe laboratory heating. However, others have reported increases. We provide an up to date review of the research on this topic and an analysis of the causes for the different effects observed. The implications for soil system functioning and for the hydrology of the affected areas are also discussed. Generally, low severity fires do not produce notable changes in AS, although in some cases an increase has been observed and attributed to increased water repellency. In contrast, high severity fires can induce important changes in this property, but with different effects depending on the type of soil affected. The patterns observed can vary from a disaggregation as a consequence of the organic matter destruction, to a strong aggregation if a recrystallization of some minerals such as Fe and Al oxyhydroxides occurs when they are present in sufficient quantities in the soil, after exposure to high temperatures. Because of the complexity of the different possible effects and reasons for the potential changes in the fire-affected soil aggregates, the inclusion of other parameters in the studies is necessary to understand the results. The suggested parameters to include in the examination of AS are: soil organic matter, microbial biomass, water repellency, texture, aggregate size distribution

  16. Procedural and Substantive Judicial Review of the Right to Health in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    R. Perlingeiro

    2015-01-01

    This text seeks to identify the objective and subjective aspects of rights to an existential minimum in health care, based on international parameters which, because they are restricted to the internal scope of a nation, depend on a constitutional basis and on comprehensible facts, the demonstration of which should be the responsibility of the national administrative authority. Regarding the judicial review of the minimum right to healthcare, this paper points out that it is a serious mistake...

  17. Learning outcomes for interprofessional education (IPE): Literature review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Moran, Monica

    2010-09-01

    As part of a World Health Organization (WHO) initiative we searched the literature to explore defined learning outcomes for interprofessional education between 1988, when the last WHO technical report on interprofessional education was published, and 2009. We describe and synthesize findings from 88 citations over this 21 year period. There is a variety in the way learning outcomes are presented but there are many similarities between specific outcomes and/or objectives. Papers describing educational interventions do not always include specific outcomes or objectives. Our findings have been integrated into a list of learning outcomes with six categories for further debate and discussion. This project is part of a wider initiative initiated by the WHO in 2007 to review the current position of interprofessional education worldwide. It is also a sub-project of a learning and teaching grant funded by the Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching within Australia. In this paper we use the CAIPE definition of interprofessional education: "Occasions when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care" (Barr, 2002 ).

  18. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management.

  19. A Review of the Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Hybrid ZnO and Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protima Rauwel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescent ZnO carbon nanomaterials are an emerging class of nanomaterials with unique optical properties. They each, ZnO and carbon nanomaterials, have an advantage of being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. Their cost-effective production methods along with simple synthesis routes are also of interest. Moreover, ZnO presents photoluminescence emission in the UV and visible region depending on the synthesis routes, shape, size, deep level, and surface defects. When combined with carbon nanomaterials, modification of surface defects in ZnO allows tuning of these photoluminescence properties to produce, for example, white light. Moreover, efficient energy transfer from the ZnO to carbon nanostructures makes them suitable candidates not only in energy harvesting applications but also in biosensors, photodetectors, and low temperature thermal imaging. This work reviews the synthesis and photoluminescence properties of 3 carbon allotropes: carbon quantum or nanodots, graphene, and carbon nanotubes when hybridized with ZnO nanostructures. Various synthesis routes for the hybrid materials with different morphologies of ZnO are presented. Moreover, differences in photoluminescence emission when combining ZnO with each of the three different allotropes are analysed.

  20. Methylated and thiolated arsenic species for environmental and health research - A review on synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, William R; Liu, Qingqing; Lu, Xiufen; McKnight-Whitford, Anthony; Peng, Hanyong; Popowich, Aleksandra; Yan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qi; Fricke, Michael; Sun, Hongsui; Le, X Chris

    2016-11-01

    Hundreds of millions of people around the world are exposed to elevated concentrations of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds, increasing the risk of a wide range of health effects. Studies of the environmental fate and human health effects of arsenic require authentic arsenic compounds. We summarize here the synthesis and characterization of more than a dozen methylated and thiolated arsenic compounds that are not commercially available. We discuss the methods of synthesis for the following 14 trivalent (III) and pentavalent (V) arsenic compounds: monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dicysteinylmethyldithioarsenite (MMA(III)(Cys)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylmonothioarsonic acid (MMMTA(V)) or monothio-MMA(V), monomethyldithioarsonic acid (MMDTA(V)) or dithio-MMA(V), monomethyltrithioarsonate (MMTTA(V)) or trithio-MMA(V), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMA(III)(SG)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) or monothio-DMA(V), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) or dithio-DMA(V), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB), and an arsenicin-A model compound. We have reviewed and compared the available methods, synthesized the arsenic compounds in our laboratories, and provided characterization information. On the basis of reaction yield, ease of synthesis and purification of product, safety considerations, and our experience, we recommend a method for the synthesis of each of these arsenic compounds.

  1. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: initial experience in Brazil and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Camargo Passerotti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: Partial nephrectomy has become the standard of care for renal tumors less than 4 cm in diameter. Controversy still exists, however, regarding the best surgical approach, especially when minimally invasive techniques are taken into account. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN has emerged as a promising technique that helps surgeons achieve the standards of open partial nephrectomy care while offering a minimally invasive approach. The objective of the present study was to describe our initial experience with robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and extensively review the pertinent literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2009 and February 2010, eight consecutive selected patients with contrast enhancing renal masses observed by CT were submitted to RALPN in a private institution. In addition, we collected information on the patients' demographics, preoperative tumor characteristics and detailed operative, postoperative and pathological data. In addition, a PubMed search was performed to provide an extensive review of the robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy literature. RESULTS: Seven patients had RALPN on the left or right sides with no intraoperative complications. One patient was electively converted to a robotic-assisted radical nephrectomy. The operative time ranged from 120 to 300 min, estimated blood loss (EBL ranged from 75 to 400 mL and, in five cases, the warm ischemia time (WIT ranged from 18 to 32 min. Two patients did not require any clamping. Overall, no transfusions were necessary, and there were no intraoperative complications or adverse postoperative clinical events. All margins were negative, and all patients were disease-free at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is a feasible and safe approach to small renal cortical masses.Further prospective studies are needed to compare open partial nephrectomy with

  2. A review of nanostructured lithium ion battery materials via low temperature synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajun

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured materials afford us new opportunities to improve the current technology for synthesizing Li ion batteries. Generating nanomaterials with new properties via an inexpensive approach offers a tremendous potential for realizing high performance Li-ion batteries. In this review, I mainly summarize some of the recent progress made, and describe the patents awarded on synthesizing nanostructured cathode materials for these batteries via low temperature wet- chemistry methods. From an economical view, such syntheses, especially hydrothermal synthesis, may offer the opportunities for significantly lowering the cost of manufacturing battery materials, while conferring distinct environmental advantages. Recent advances in in-situ (real time) X-ray diffraction for studying hydrothermal synthesis have great potential for bettering the rational design of advanced lithium-electrode materials. The development of this technique also will be discussed.

  3. The inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education: a systematic review using narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Marco; Mortari, Luigina

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the inclusion of students with dyslexia in higher education (HE). A systematic review was carried out to retrieve, critically appraise and synthesize the available evidence on how the inclusion of students with dyslexia can be fostered in HE. The 15 studies included in the final synthesis employed descriptive designs and overwhelmingly used qualitative methods to explore dyslexic students' perceptions on the impact of teaching, support and accommodation in their own learning experience. A critical appraisal of these studies revealed a landscape of significant gaps in the available stock of evidence on the inclusion of students with dyslexia in HE. The synthesis of the available evidence is presented in a narrative of five cross-study thematic areas: student coping strategies, being identified as dyslexic, interaction with academic staff, accessibility and accommodations, and using assistive technologies and information and communication technologies. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS. This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given.

  5. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang

    2017-02-13

    Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS). This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given.

  6. Review of thirty-two years of toothed whale strandings in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil (Cetacea: Odontoceti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís dos S. Vianna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marine mammal strandings provide valuable insights into local biodiversity. Strandings can be caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. In the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, organized marine mammal collections started in the 1980s through opportunistic and non-systematic collection efforts, representing a record of over 30 years of marine biodiversity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary review of 32 years of stranding records within this region. The secondary aim was to elucidate the stranding dynamics of the three most commonly recorded species. A total of 460 records were obtained, representing 17 species of odontocetes. The species registered most frequently were the franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d' Orbigny, 1844 (n = 173, bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 (n = 100, and Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864 (n = 97. Most of the stranding records were observed in the second half of the year during the austral winter and spring. The apparent causes of death could not be determined for most of the specimens due to carcass decomposition. For the specimens in which the apparent cause of death could be determined, 27% of the strandings were compatible with anthropogenic interactions. While the focus of this study was a preliminary assessment of stranding data obtained through opportunistic collection, it is evident that future systematic monitoring efforts and stable networks of collaborators will generate more reliable coastal biodiversity inventories and will allow the knowledge of population dynamics of marine mammal species. In particular, for threatened and vulnerable species, or species with poor natural history data, strandings are a fundamental tool for the understanding of marine biodiversity. Ideally, future more refined analyses of stranding data should be used to inform conservation and management policies and to elucidate the biology and ecology of

  7. Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of the Effectiveness of Contraceptive Service Interventions for Young People, Delivered in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan K.; Payne, Nick; Guillaume, Louise R.; Squires, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All…

  8. Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Synthesis for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Matthew; Beaulieu, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review, rating and synthesis of the empirical evidence for the use of psychotropic medications in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion and were coded and analyzed using a systematic evaluative…

  9. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  10. Synthesis and Bioactivity of (R)-Ricinoleic Acid Derivatives: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiś, Sylwia; Kula, Józef

    2016-01-01

    (R)-Ricinoleic acid (RA) [(12R,9Z)-hydroxyoctadecenoic acid], the main compound of castor seed oil, because of its unusual structure readily undergoes multi-directional chemical and biochemical transformations to produce derivatives with the retained carbon skeleton or with its degradation. Many of these are of high biological activity, as documented by an in vitro study, and possess therapeutic potential. This review article provides an overview of the recent developments in the area of synthesis of RA based compounds with anticancer and antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of some ricinoleic acid derivatives are also highlighted.

  11. Valorization of agroindustrial solid residues and residues from biofuel production chains by thermochemical conversion: a review, citing Brazil as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Virmond

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides high industrial development, Brazil is also an agribusiness country. Each year about 330 million metrics tons (Mg of biomass residues are generated, requiring tremendous effort to develop biomass systems in which production, conversion and utilization of bio-based products are carried out efficiently and under environmentally sustainable conditions. For the production of biofuels, organic chemicals and materials, it is envisaged to follow a biorefinery model which includes modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing, pyrolysis, gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and other catalytic processes in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. This paper presents promising options for valorization of Brazilian agroindustrial biomass sources and residues originating from the biofuel production chains as renewable energy sources and addresses the main aspects of the thermochemical technologies which have been applied.

  12. Recharge Rates and Chemistry Beneath Playas of the High Plains Aquifer - A Literature Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2009-01-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are important zones of recharge to the High Plains (or Ogallala) aquifer and critical habitat for birds and other wildlife in the otherwise semiarid, shortgrass prairie and agricultural landscape. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on ground water from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution of recharge from playas to the regional aquifer. To address these questions and concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Playa Lakes Joint Venture, present a review and synthesis of the more than 175 publications about recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas and interplaya settings. Although a number of questions remain regarding the controls on recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas, the results from most published studies indicate that recharge rates beneath playas are substantially (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. The synthesis presented here supports the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this synthesis yield science-based implications for the protection and management of playas and ground-water resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  13. A Review on the Synthesis and Applications of Mesostructured Transition Metal Phosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghe Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been devoted to extending the range of the elemental composition of mesoporous materials since the pioneering work of the M41S family of ordered mesoporous silica by Mobil researchers. The synthesis of transition metal-containing mesostructured materials with large surface area and high porosity has drawn great attention for its potential applications in acid and redox catalysis, photocatalysis, proton conducting devices, environmental restoration and so on. Thus, various transition metals-containing mesoporous materials, including transition metal-substituted mesoporous silicates, mesostructured transition metal oxides and transition metal phosphates (TMP, have been documented in the literature. Among these, mesostructured TMP materials are less studied, but possess some unique features, partly because of the easy and facile functionalization of PO4 and/or P–OH groups, rendering them interesting functional materials. This review first introduced the general synthesis strategies for manufacturing mesostructured TMP materials, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the respective method; then, we surveyed the ongoing developments of fabrication and application of the TMP materials in three groups on the basis of their components and application fields. Future perspectives on existing problems related to the present synthesis routes and further modifying of the functional groups for the purpose of tailoring special physical-chemical properties to meet wide application requirements were also provided in the last part.

  14. Conceptualising and measuring the well-being of people with psychosis: systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Beate; Bird, Victoria; Tylee, Andre; Coggins, Tony; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Well-being has become a prominent term in the political arena in recent years. However, in research the concept and use of well-being has been unclear, especially in the context of severe mental illness such as psychosis. This systematic review aims to characterise the evidence base relating to well-being in people with psychosis, by reviewing how well-being is measured, developing a new conceptual framework, and summarising empirical evaluations of psychosocial interventions to improve well-being. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of controlled trials of interventions investigating well-being in people with psychosis. The 28 studies meeting the inclusion criteria used 20 different measures of well-being. Five dimensions of well-being emerged: non-observable, observable, proximal, distal, and self-defined. Interventions to improve well-being vary widely. The investigated interventions have been targeted at non-observable, observable and proximal levels, while evaluation measures span all five dimensions. This review offers an evidence based conceptual framework of well-being which can provide an empirical basis for organising future well-being research in psychosis. The review also shows that the evidence base for interventions is small and methodologically weak. Recommendations are made for choosing well-being measures for future research.

  15. A Review: Mesoporous Santa Barbara Amorphous-15, Types, Synthesis and Its Applications towards Biorefinery Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhasyimi Rahmat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA-15 is significant mesoporous silica with exclusive and important properties of highly ordered mesopores, hydrothermally stable and thick wall, profusely large surface area and huge pore volume which render it as promising catalyst for wide applications. However, the purely siliceous SBA-15 which lacks of acidity characteristic hinders its ideal capabilities as catalyst. Moreover, functionalization and modification of SBA-15 could enhance and optimize its catalytic activity. Conclusion/Recommendations: Thus, in this review, the various types and different synthesis of modifying SBA-15 are discussed in detail towards its application in biorefinery production. The catalytic activities in various operating conditions and reactions are also reviewed for future reference and scope of studies.

  16. Green synthesis, Characterization and anti microbial activity of silver nano particles –Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeram. Hariprasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of silver nano particles is considered a green technology. Because it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Nanotechnology field is one of the most attractive researches. The field of nanotechnology is applied to bio materials. This review focuses on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using various plant sources. A detailed study on the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles from medical plant leaves extract were demonstrated with a brief experimental procedure. Characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles performed through UV spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy analysis, X-Ray Diffraction analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. This review mainly focus on anti microbial activities of synthesized silver nano particles.

  17. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Tiepolo

    Full Text Available Abstract We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil.

  18. Clathria (Clathria) Schmidt, 1862 from Brazil with description of a new species and a review of records (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Lydia Vieira; Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2013-01-01

    We report and describe material of Clathria (Clathria) (Poecilosclerida: Microcionina: Microcionidae) collected from the coast of Brazil: Clathria (C.) nicoleae sp. nov., Clathria (C.) calypso and Clathria (C.) prolifera. Clathria (C.) calypso is also redescribed. Specimens previously recorded from Brazil as Clathria (C.) prolifera were considered to fit better in the taxon Clathria (Wilsonella). The new species was compared with all other (twenty-five) Clathria (C.) species occurring in the Atlantic. The new species differs from the other species by overall morphology and presence of auxiliary tylostrongyle megascleres.

  19. Activities of Heterogeneous Acid-Base Catalysts for Fragrances Synthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Hartati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews various types of heterogeneous acid-base catalysts for fragrances preparation. Catalytic activities of various types of heterogeneous acid and base catalysts in fragrances preparation, i.e. non-zeolitic, zeolitic, and mesoporous molecular sieves have been reported. Generally, heterogeneous acid catalysts are commonly used in fragrance synthesis as compared to heterogeneous base catalysts. Heteropoly acids and hydrotalcites type catalysts are widely used as heterogeneous acid and base catalysts, respectively. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 20th January 2013; Revised: 31st March 2013; Accepted: 1st April 2013[How to Cite: Hartati, H., Santoso, M., Triwahyono, S., Prasetyoko, D. (2013. Activities of Heterogeneous Acid-Base Catalysts for Fragrances Synthesis: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 14-33. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4394.14-33][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4394.14-33] | View in  |

  20. Os estudos medievais no Brasil: tentativa de síntese Medieval Studies in Brazil: a synthesis attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rivair Macedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    L’interesse per la storia medievale è stato suscitato in Brasile dall’insegnamento di F. Braudel, E. Coornaert e E.G. Léonard impartito presso l’ Universidade de São Paulo negli anni Cinquanta del secolo scorso. Solo negli ultimi vent’anni, tuttavia, ricerche si sono sviluppate nelle università di São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, Fluminense. La formazione dei ricercatori è stata completata in Europa, con una forte influenza da parte della storiografia francese (Duby, Le Goff e si è soprattutto rivolta al basso Medioevo. Tra i temi più indagati, oltre alla storia del Portogallo nei secoli XIII e XIV, speciale attenzione è dedicata alla storia delle religioni e alla storia della mentalità (anche sotto l’aspetto del suo effetto sulla cultura popolare e contadina brasiliana.

    The interest for Medieval history was raised in Brazil by the teaching of F. Braudel, E. Coornaert and E.G. Léonard at the Universidade de São Paulo in the 1950s. Only on the last twenty years, however, researches have developed in the universities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, Fluminense. The formation of the researchers is completed in Europe, with a strong influence of French historiography (Duby, Le Goff and is mainly focused on the Later Middle Ages. Among the most investigated themes, besides history of Portugal in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, special attention is given to the history of religion and to the history of mentality (under the point of view of its effect on Brazilian popular and peasant culture as well.

  1. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods. We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/dr...

  2. Nanoscale zero-valent metals: a review of synthesis, characterization, and applications to environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyun; Hu, Jiwei; Shi, Xuedan; Fan, Mingyi; Luo, Jin; Wei, Xionghui

    2016-09-01

    Engineered nanoscale zero-valent metals (NZVMs) representing the forefront of technologies have been considered as promising materials for environmental remediation and antimicrobial effect, due to their high reducibility and strong adsorption capability. This review is focused on the methodology for synthesis of bare NZVMs, supported NZVMs, modified NZVMs, and bimetallic systems with both traditional and green methods. Recent studies have demonstrated that self-assembly methods can play an important role for obtaining ordered, controllable, and tunable NZVMs. In addition to common characterization methods, the state-of-the-art methods have been developed to obtain the properties of NZVMs (e.g., granularity, size distribution, specific surface area, shape, crystal form, and chemical bond) with the resolution down to subnanometer scale. These methods include spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). A growing body of experimental data has proven that nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is highly effective and versatile. This article discusses the applications of NZVMs to treatment of heavy metals, halogenated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nutrients, radioelements, and microorganisms, using both ex situ and in situ methods. Furthermore, this paper briefly describes the ecotoxicological effects for NZVMs and the research prospects related to their synthesis, modification, characterization, and applications.

  3. A review of C1 chemistry synthesis using yttrium-stabilized zirconia catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonius Indarto; Jae-Wook Choi; Hwaung Lee; Hyung Keun Song

    2008-01-01

    C1 chemistry based on synthesis gas, methane, and carbon dioxide offers many routes to industrial chemicals. The reactions related to the synthesis of gas can be classified into direct and indirect approach for making such products, such as acetic acid, dimethyl ether, and alcohol. Catalytic syngas processing is currently done at high temperatures and pressures, conditions that could be unfavorable for the life of the catalyst. Another issue of C1 chemistry is related to the methane-initiated process. It has been known that direct methane conversions are still suffering from low yields and selectivity of products resulting in unprofitable ways to produce products, such as higher hydrocarbons, methanol, and so on. However, many experts and researchers are still trying to find the best method to overcome these barriers, for example, by finding the best catalyst to reduce the high-energy barrier of the reactions and conduct only selective catalyst-surface reactions. The application of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and its combination with other metals for catalyzing purposes are increasing. The existence of an interesting site that acts as oxygen store could be the main reason for it. Moreover, formation of intermediate species on the surface of YSZ also contributes significantly in increasing the production of some specific products. Understanding the phenomena happening inside could be necessary. In this article, the use of YSZ for some C1 chemistry reactions was discussed and reviewed.

  4. Synthesis, Physico-Chemical Properties, and Biomedical Applications of Gold Nanorods--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Valeria S; Cancino-Bernardi, Juliana; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2016-06-01

    The development of new systems for diagnostic and therapeutic applications is a topic of intense and growing interest. The unique optical and electronic properties exhibited by gold-based nanomaterials have proved to be valuable for a wide range of biomedical applications. Recently, great attention has been given to rod-shaped gold nanomaterials, especially because of their electronic absorption band in the near infrared region, where maximum radiation penetration through tissue occurs. This feature has allowed the use of gold nanorods for in vivo imaging, with different techniques, and photothermal therapy. Furthermore, gold nanorods can be functionalized with a wide variety of biomolecules for cancer cell targeting. Moreover, their versatility and unique properties have generated much enthusiasm in medicine. The present review aims to show the recent advances in the synthesis and applications of gold nanorods in medical areas.

  5. Review and synthesis: Changing permafrost in a warming world and feedbacks to the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, Anthony; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthesizing its 28 multidisciplinary studies which provide field evidence, remote sensing observations, and modeling results on various scales. We synthesize study results from a diverse range of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems by reporting key observations and modeling outcomes for permafrost thaw dynamics, identifying feedbacks between permafrost and ecosystem processes, and highlighting biogeochemical feedbacks from permafrost thaw. We complete our synthesis by discussing the progress made, stressing remaining challenges and knowledge gaps, and providing an outlook on future needs and research opportunities in the study of permafrost–ecosystem–climate interactions.

  6. Establishing well-being after hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    the process of older people gradually coming to terms with new life conditions". It was a process of building confidence through cooperation with staff. Conclusions Experiences of well-being were possible after hip fracture. Self-confidence enhanced adaptations and adjustments. Older people strived......Purpose This study aimed to identify, appraise, aggregate and synthesize findings of experiences of self-confidence and well-being after hip fracture. Method The systematic review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines. A three-step literature search strategy was followed. Included...... studies were critically appraised using the JBI critical appraisal tool. Data were analyzed into a meta-summary and a meta-synthesis using a hermeneutic approach. Results Twenty-nine studies were included in the analysis. The category "balancing a new life" was illustrated through older people...

  7. Design, synthesis and potent pharmaceutical applications of glycodendrimers: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Cheng, Yiyun; Xu, Tongwen

    2007-12-01

    Dendrimers are a new class of artifical macromolecules with well-defined hyperbranched structures which endue these promising materials with a wide variety of applications. They are useful tools in drug discovery and allow bio-active molecules to be presented in a highly multi-valent fashion on the surface. Recently, the use of dendrimers as scaffolds of carbohydrates to synthesize glycodendrimers with high and specific affinities to various receptors has made it possible for these dendritic materials to participate in extracellular and intracellular biochemical processes. References on synthesis and biological applications of glycodendrimers in the literatures demonstrate that dendrimers are suitable candidates as scaffolds of these bioactive carbohydrates. In this mini-review, different approaches to construct glycodendrimers as well as their promising applications in biological systems are fully discussed.

  8. Synthesis, Prop erties and Potential Applications of Porous Graphene:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Russo; Anming Hu; Giuseppe Compagnini

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, many efforts have been done to modify the graphene structure for integrating this novel material to nanoelectronics, fuel cells, energy storage devices and in many other appli-cations. This leads to the production of different types of graphene-based materials, which possess properties different from those of pure graphene. Porous graphene is an example of this type of materials. It can be con-sidered as a graphene sheet with some holes/pores within the atomic plane. Due to its spongy structure, porous graphene can have potential applications as membranes for molecular sieving, energy storage components and in nanoelectronics. In this review, we present the recent progress in the synthesis of porous graphene. The properties and the potential applications of this new material are also discussed.

  9. Book review: Biology and conservation of martens, sables, and fishers: A new synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammals of the genus Martes, including martens, sables, and fishers, are mid-sized carnivores inhabiting many forested ecosystems throughout regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. This volume provides a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge pertaining to the biology and conservation of Martes species throughout the world. This volume will be an essential resource for mammalogists, resource managers, and applied ecologists involved in research or conservation of martens, sables, and fishers. For that matter, anyone seeking a full immersion in the modern world of Martes biology and conservation will not be disappointed. The volume has been carefully edited and reviewed, and the thoroughness with which the authors present and interpret recent advances in their specialty areas is really quite impressive.

  10. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  11. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities.

  12. GPs’ perspectives on the management of patients with multimorbidity: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Carol; Mc Hugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Bradley, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the existing published literature on the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) or their equivalent on the clinical management of multimorbidity and determine targets for future research that aims to improve clinical care in multimorbidity. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore GPs’ experiences of clinical management of multimorbidity or multiple chronic diseases. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex, Social Science Full Text and digital theses/online libraries (database inception to September 2012) to identify literature using qualitative methods (focus groups or interviews). Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results Of 1805 articles identified, 37 were reviewed in detail and 10 were included, using a total of 275 GPs in 7 different countries. Four areas of difficulty specific to the management of multimorbidity emerged from these papers: disorganisation and fragmentation of healthcare; the inadequacy of guidelines and evidence-based medicine; challenges in delivering patient-centred care; and barriers to shared decision-making. A ‘line of argument’ was drawn which described GPs’ sense of isolation in decision-making for multimorbid patients. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the problem areas for GPs in the management of multimorbidity may be classified into four domains. There will be no ‘one size fits all’ intervention for multimorbidity but these domains may be useful targets to guide the development of interventions that will assist and improve the provision of care to multimorbid patients. PMID:24038011

  13. The Experience of Caregivers Living with Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSeure, Peeranuch; Chongkham-ang, Supaporn

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this meta-synthesis were to: (1) explore the experience of caregivers who were caring for cancer patients, including their perceptions and responses to the situation; and (2) describe the context and the phenomena relevant to the experience. Five databases were used: CINAHL, MEDLINE, Academic Search, Science Direct, and a Thai database known as the Thai Library Integrated System (ThaiLIS). Three sets of the context of the experience and the phenomena relevant to the experience were described. The contexts were (1) having a hard time dealing with emotional devastation; (2) knowing that the caregiving job was laborious; and (3) knowing that I was not alone. The phenomenon showed the progress of the caregivers’ thoughts and actions. A general phenomenon of the experience—balancing my emotion—applied to most of the caregivers; whereas, more specific phenomenon—keeping life as normal as possible and lifting life above the illness—were experienced by a lesser number of the caregivers. This review added a more thorough explanation of the issues involved in caregiving for cancer patients. A more comprehensive description of the experience of caregiving was described. The findings of this review can be used to guide clinical practice and policy formation in cancer patient care. PMID:26610573

  14. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid T Katz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART is a critical determinant of HIV-1 RNA viral suppression and health outcomes. It is generally accepted that HIV-related stigma is correlated with factors that may undermine ART adherence, but its relationship with ART adherence itself is not well established. We therefore undertook this review to systematically assess the relationship between HIV-related stigma and ART adherence. Methods: We searched nine electronic databases for published and unpublished literature, with no language restrictions. First we screened the titles and abstracts for studies that potentially contained data on ART adherence. Then we reviewed the full text of these studies to identify articles that reported data on the relationship between ART adherence and either HIV-related stigma or serostatus disclosure. We used the method of meta-synthesis to summarize the findings from the qualitative studies. Results: Our search protocol yielded 14,854 initial records. After eliminating duplicates and screening the titles and abstracts, we retrieved the full text of 960 journal articles, dissertations and unpublished conference abstracts for review. We included 75 studies conducted among 26,715 HIV-positive persons living in 32 countries worldwide, with less representation of work from Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Among the 34 qualitative studies, our meta-synthesis identified five distinct third-order labels through an inductive process that we categorized as themes and organized in a conceptual model spanning intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural levels. HIV-related stigma undermined ART adherence by compromising general psychological processes, such as adaptive coping and social support. We also identified psychological processes specific to HIV-positive persons driven by predominant stigmatizing attitudes and which undermined adherence, such as internalized stigma and concealment. Adaptive coping and social

  15. New materials graphyne, graphdiyne, graphone, and graphane: review of properties, synthesis, and application in nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Q

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Qing Peng,1 Albert K Dearden,2 Jared Crean,1 Liang Han,1 Sheng Liu,3 Xiaodong Wen,4,5 Suvranu De11Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA; 2Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA; 3Institute for Microsystems, School of Mechanical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 4State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China; 5Synfuels China Co, Ltd, Huairou, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Plenty of new two-dimensional materials including graphyne, graphdiyne, graphone, and graphane have been proposed and unveiled after the discovery of the "wonder material" graphene. Graphyne and graphdiyne are two-dimensional carbon allotropes of graphene with honeycomb structures. Graphone and graphane are hydrogenated derivatives of graphene. The advanced and unique properties of these new materials make them highly promising for applications in next generation nanoelectronics. Here, we briefly review their properties, including structural, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, as well as their synthesis and applications in nanotechnology. Graphyne is better than graphene in directional electronic properties and charge carriers. With a band gap and magnetism, graphone and graphane show important applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. Because these materials are close to graphene and will play important roles in carbon-based electronic devices, they deserve further, careful, and thorough studies for nanotechnology applications.Keywords: two-dimensional materials, graphene-like structures, properties and synthesis, nanotechnology applications, graphyne, hydrogenation of grapheme

  16. A review on biogenic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using plant extracts and microbes: A prospect towards green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Chaudhry, Saif Ali; Ikram, Saiqa

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as an important area of research with its tremendous applications in all fields of science, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, etc. It involves the materials and their applications having one dimension in the range of 1-100nm. Generally, various techniques are used for syntheses of nanoparticles (NPs) viz. laser ablation, chemical reduction, milling, sputtering, etc. These conventional techniques e.g. chemical reduction method, in which various hazardous chemicals are used for the synthesis of NPs later become liable for innumerable health risks due to their toxicity and endangering serious concerns for environment, while other approaches are expensive, need high energy for the synthesis of NPs. However, biogenic synthesis method to produce NPs is eco-friendly and free of chemical contaminants for biological applications where purity is of concerns. In biological method, different biological entities such as extract, enzymes or proteins of a natural product are used to reduce and stabilised formation of NPs. The nature of these biological entities also influence the structure, shape, size and morphology of synthesized NPs. In this review, biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs, procedures of syntheses, mechanism of formation and their various applications have been discussed. Various entities such as proteins, enzymes, phytochemicals, etc. available in the natural reductants are responsible for synthesis of ZnO NPs.

  17. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers—the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers—Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program—Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  18. Policies for the Sustainable Development of Biofuels in the Pan American Region: A Review and Synthesis of Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D; Banerjee, Aparajita; Acevedo, Alberto; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond, Amarella

    2015-12-01

    Rapid growth of biofuel production in the United States and Brazil over the past decade has increased interest in replicating this success in other nations of the Pan American region. However, the continued use of food-based feedstock such as maize is widely seen as unsustainable and is in some cases linked to deforestation and increased greenhouse gas emissions, raising further doubts about long-term sustainability. As a result, many nations are exploring the production and use of cellulosic feedstock, though progress has been extremely slow. In this paper, we will review the North-South axis of biofuel production in the Pan American region and its linkage with the agricultural sectors in five countries. Focus will be given to biofuel policy goals, their results to date, and consideration of sustainability criteria and certification of producers. Policy goals, results, and sustainability will be highlighted for the main biofuel policies that have been enacted at the national level. Geographic focus will be given to the two largest producers-the United States and Brazil; two smaller emerging producers-Argentina and Canada; and one stalled program-Mexico. However, several additional countries in the region are either producing or planning to produce biofuels. We will also review alternative international governance schemes for biofuel sustainability that have been recently developed, and whether the biofuel programs are being managed to achieve improved environmental quality and sustainable development.

  19. Towards identifying nurse educator competencies required for simulation-based learning: A systemised rapid review and synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Rikke Buus; Topping, Annie; Rekola, Leena;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper presents the results of a systemised rapid reviewand synthesis of the literature undertaken to identify competencies required by nurse educators to facilitate simulation-based learning (SBL). Design: An international collaboration undertook a protocol-based search, retrieval...... and designing simulations, facilitating learning in “safe” environments, expert nursing knowledge based on credible clinical realism, reference to evidence-based knowledge and demonstration of professional values and identity. Conclusions: This review derived a preliminary competency framework. This needs...

  20. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in detail.

  1. Methods of synthesis and performance improvement of lithium iron phosphate for high rate Li-ion batteries: A review

    OpenAIRE

    T.V.S.L. Satyavani; Srinivas Kumar, A.; P.S.V. Subba Rao

    2016-01-01

    Lithium ion battery technology has the potential to meet the requirements of high energy density and high power density applications. A continuous search for novel materials is pursued continually to exploit the latent potential of this technology. In this review paper, methods for preparation of Lithium Iron Phosphate are discussed which include solid state and solution based synthesis routes. The methods to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate are presented in d...

  2. Smoke-free homes: what are the barriers, motivators and enablers? A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies of the barriers, motivators and enablers of smoke-free homes (SFHs). Design Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE, EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, Informit and EMBASE, combining terms for families, households and vulnerable populations; SFH and secondhand smoke; and qualitative research, were supplemented by searches of PhD theses, key authors, specialist journals and reference lists. Study selection We included 22 articles, reporting on 18 studies, involving 646 participants. Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed; English language; published from 1990 onwards (to week 3 of April 2014); used qualitative data collection methods; explored participants’ perspectives of home smoking behaviours; and the barriers, motivators and enablers to initiating and/or maintaining a SFH. Data extraction 1 of 3 authors extracted data with checking by a second. Data synthesis A thematic synthesis was performed to develop 7 core analytic themes: (1) knowledge, awareness and risk perception; (2) agency and personal skills/attributes; (3) wider community norms and personal moral responsibilities; (4) social relationships and influence of others; (5) perceived benefits, preferences and priorities; (6) addiction and habit; (7) practicalities. Conclusions This synthesis highlights the complexity faced by many households in having a SFH, the practical, social, cultural and personal issues that need to be addressed and balanced by households, and that while some of these are common across study settings, specific social and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping household smoking behaviours. The findings can inform policy and practice and the development of interventions aimed at increasing SFHs. Trial registration number CRD42014014115. PMID:26988351

  3. Modulation of genetic clusters for synthesis of bioactive molecules in fungal endophytes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika, V B; Murali, T S; Satyamoorthy, K

    2016-01-01

    Novel drugs with unique and targeted mode of action are very much need of the hour to treat and manage severe multidrug infections and other life-threatening complications. Though natural molecules have proved to be effective and environmentally safe, the relative paucity of discovery of new drugs has forced us to lean towards synthetic chemistry for developing novel drug molecules. Plants and microbes are the major resources that we rely upon in our pursuit towards discovery of novel compounds of pharmacological importance with less toxicity. Endophytes, an eclectic group of microbes having the potential to chemically bridge the gap between plants and microbes, have attracted the most attention due to their relatively high metabolic versatility. Since continuous large scale supply of major metabolites from microfungi and especially endophytes is severely impeded by the phenomenon of attenuation in axenic cultures, the major challenge is to understand the regulatory mechanisms in operation that drive the expression of metabolic gene clusters of pharmaceutical importance. This review is focused on the major regulatory elements that operate in filamentous fungi and various combinatorial multi-disciplinary approaches involving bioinformatics, molecular biology, and metabolomics that could aid in large scale synthesis of important lead molecules.

  4. Review of synthesis, assay, and prediction of β and γ-secretase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Helena; Rodríguez-Borges, José Enrique; García-Mera, Xerardo; Prado-Prado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterize with several pathologies this disease, amyloid plaques, composed of the β-amyloid peptide and β-amyloid peptide are hallmark neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease brain. Indeed, a wealth of evidence suggests that β-amyloid is central to the pathophysiology of AD and is likely to play an early role in this intractable neurodegenerative disorder. AD is the most prevalent form of dementia, and current indications show that twenty-nine million people live with AD worldwide, a figure expected rise exponentially over the coming decades. Clearly, blocking disease progression or, in the best-case scenario, preventing AD altogether would be of benefit in both social and economic terms. However, current AD therapies are merely palliative and only temporarily slow cognitive decline, and treatments that address the underlying pathologic mechanisms of AD are completely lacking. While familial AD (FAD) is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in either amyloid precursor protein (APP) or the presenilin (PS1, PS2) genes. First, we revised Desing, synthesis, and Biological assay of β and γ-secretase inhibitors. Next, we review 2D QSAR, 3D QSAR, CoMFA, CoMSIA and Docking with different compound to find out the structural requirements. Next, we revised QSAR studies using method of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in order to understand the essential structural requirement for binding with receptor for β and γ-secretase inhibitors.

  5. Recent advances of cerium oxide nanoparticles in synthesis, luminescence and biomedical studies:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立莹; 苏玉民; 蒋兰宏; 石士考

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO2) commonly known as nanoceria is a rare earth metal oxide, which plays a technologi-cally important role due to its versatile applications as automobile exhaust catalysts, oxide ion conductors in solid oxide fuel cells, electrode materials for gas sensors, ultraviolet absorbents and glass-polishing materials. However, nanoceria has little or weak lumi-nescence, and therefore its uses in high-performance luminescent devices and biomedical areas are limited. In this review, we present the recent advances of nanoceria in the aspects of synthesis, luminescence and biomedical studies. The CeO2 nanoparticles can be synthesized by solution-based methods including co-precipitation, hydrothermal, microemulsion process, sol-gel techniques, combus-tion reaction and so on. Achieving controlled morphologies and enhanced luminescence efficiency of nanoceria particles are quite es-sential for its potential energy- and environment-related applications. Additionally, a new frontier for nanoceria particles in biomedi-cal research has also been opened, which involves low toxicity, retinopathy, biosensors and cancer therapy aspects. Finally, the sum-mary and outlook on the challenges and perspectives of the nanoceria particles are proposed.

  6. A review of engineering aspects of intensification of chemical synthesis using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Sonam V; Gogate, Parag R

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation generated using ultrasound can enhance the rates of several chemical reactions giving better selectivity based on the physical and chemical effects. The present review focuses on overview of the different reactions that can be intensified using ultrasound followed by the discussion on the chemical kinetics for ultrasound assisted reactions, engineering aspects related to reactor designs and effect of operating parameters on the degree of intensification obtained for chemical synthesis. The cavitational effects in terms of magnitudes of collapse temperatures and collapse pressure, number of free radicals generated and extent of turbulence are strongly dependent on the operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, frequency, duty cycle, temperature as well as physicochemical parameters of liquid medium which controls the inception of cavitation. Guidelines have been presented for the optimum selection based on the critical analysis of the existing literature so that maximum process intensification benefits can be obtained. Different reactor designs have also been analyzed with guidelines for efficient scale up of the sonochemical reactor, which would be dependent on the type of reaction, controlling mechanism of reaction, catalyst and activation energy requirements. Overall, it has been established that sonochemistry offers considerable potential for green and sustainable processing and efficient scale up procedures are required so as to harness the effects at actual commercial level.

  7. A review of the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and applications of maghemite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrollahi, H.

    2017-03-01

    It must be pointed out that maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) with a cubic spinel structure is a crucial material for various applications, including spin electronic devices, high-density magnetic recording, nano-medicines and biosensors. This paper has to do with a review study on the synthesis methods, magnetic properties and application of maghemite in the form of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured materials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nano-rods, and nanowires, as well as two-dimensional (2D) thin films. The results revealed that maghemite is widely used in the biomedical applications (hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery) and magnetic recording devices. The unmodified and Co/Mn modified maghemite thin films prepared by the dc-reactive magnetron sputtering show the excellent values of coercivity 2100 Oe and 3900 Oe, respectively, for the magnetic storage application. The super-paramagnetic particles with 7 nm size and the saturation magnetization of 80 emu/g prepared by the established thermolysis method are good candidates for bio-medical applications.

  8. Conceptualising engagement with digital behaviour change interventions: a systematic review using principles from critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perski, Olga; Blandford, Ann; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2016-12-13

    "Engagement" with digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) is considered important for their effectiveness. Evaluating engagement is therefore a priority; however, a shared understanding of how to usefully conceptualise engagement is lacking. This review aimed to synthesise literature on engagement to identify key conceptualisations and to develop an integrative conceptual framework involving potential direct and indirect influences on engagement and relationships between engagement and intervention effectiveness. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect) were searched in November 2015. We identified 117 articles that met the inclusion criteria: studies employing experimental or non-experimental designs with adult participants explicitly or implicitly referring to engagement with DBCIs, digital games or technology. Data were synthesised using principles from critical interpretive synthesis. Engagement with DBCIs is conceptualised in terms of both experiential and behavioural aspects. A conceptual framework is proposed in which engagement with a DBCI is influenced by the DBCI itself (content and delivery), the context (the setting in which the DBCI is used and the population using it) and the behaviour that the DBCI is targeting. The context and "mechanisms of action" may moderate the influence of the DBCI on engagement. Engagement, in turn, moderates the influence of the DBCI on those mechanisms of action. In the research literature, engagement with DBCIs has been conceptualised in terms of both experience and behaviour and sits within a complex system involving the DBCI, the context of use, the mechanisms of action of the DBCI and the target behaviour.

  9. Poly-lactic acid synthesis for application in biomedical devices - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasprilla, Astrid J R; Martinez, Guillermo A R; Lunelli, Betânia H; Jardini, André L; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2012-01-01

    Bioabsorbable polymers are considered a suitable alternative to the improvement and development of numerous applications in medicine. Poly-lactic acid (PLA,) is one of the most promising biopolymers due to the fact that the monomers may produced from non toxic renewable feedstock as well as is naturally occurring organic acid. Lactic acid can be made by fermentation of sugars obtained from renewable resources as such sugarcane. Therefore, PLA is an eco-friendly product with better features for use in the human body (nontoxicity). Lactic acid polymers can be synthesized by different processes so as to obtain products with an ample variety of chemical and mechanical properties. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties, PLA and their copolymers are becoming widely used in tissue engineering for function restoration of impaired tissues. In order to maximize the benefits of its use, it is necessary to understand the relationship between PLA material properties, the manufacturing process and the final product with desired characteristics. In this paper, the lactic acid production by fermentation and the polymer synthesis such biomaterial are reviewed. The paper intends to contribute to the critical knowledge and development of suitable use of PLA for biomedical applications.

  10. Synthesis, microstructure and properties of BiFeO{sub 3}-based multiferroic materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    BiFeO{sub 3}-based materials are currently one of the most studied multiferroics due to their possible applications at room temperature. However, among the large number of published papers there is much controversy. For example, possibility of synthesizing a pure BiFeO{sub 3} phase is still source of discussion in literature. Not even the nature of the binary Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram has been clarified yet. The difficulty in controlling the formation of parasite phases reaches the consolidation step. Accordingly, the sintering conditions must be carefully determined both to get dense materials and to avoid bismuth ferrite decomposition. However, the precise conditions to attain dense bismuth ferrite materials are frequently contradictory among different works. As a consequence, the reported properties habitually result opposed and highly irreproducible hampering the preparation of BiFeO{sub 3} materials suitable for practical applications. In this context, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the main researches regarding BiFeO{sub 3} synthesis, microstructure and properties in order to provide an easier understanding of these materials. (Author)

  11. Antimicrobial N-halamine polymers and coatings: a review of their synthesis, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Franck; Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine

    2013-03-11

    Antimicrobial N-halamine polymers and coatings have been studied extensively over the past decade thanks to their numerous qualities such as effectiveness toward a broad spectrum of microorganisms, long-term stability, regenerability, safety to humans and environment and low cost. In this review, recent developments are described by emphasizing the synthesis of polymers and/or coatings having N-halamine moieties. Actually, three main approaches of preparation are given in detail: polymerization, generation by electrochemical route with proteins as monomers and grafting with precursor monomers. Identification and characterization of the formation of the N-halamine bonds (>N-X with X = Cl or Br or I) by physical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and by chemical reactions are described. In order to check the antimicrobial activity of the N-halamine compounds, bacterial tests are also described. Finally, some examples of application of these N-halamines in the water treatment, paints, healthcare equipment, and textile industries are presented and discussed.

  12. Expediting evidence synthesis for healthcare decision-making: exploring attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews using Q methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Rapid reviews expedite the knowledge synthesis process with the goal of providing timely information to healthcare decision-makers who want to use evidence-informed policy and practice approaches. A range of opinions and viewpoints on rapid reviews is thought to exist; however, no research to date has formally captured these views. This paper aims to explore evidence producer and knowledge user attitudes and perceptions towards rapid reviews. Methods A Q methodology study was conducted to identify central viewpoints about rapid reviews based on a broad topic discourse. Participants rank-ordered 50 text statements and explained their Q-sort in free-text comments. Individual Q-sorts were analysed using Q-Assessor (statistical method: factor analysis with varimax rotation. Factors, or salient viewpoints on rapid reviews, were identified, interpreted and described. Results Analysis of the 11 individual Q sorts identified three prominent viewpoints: Factor A cautions against the use of study design labels to make judgements. Factor B maintains that rapid reviews should be the exception and not the rule. Factor C focuses on the practical needs of the end-user over the review process. Conclusion Results show that there are opposing viewpoints on rapid reviews, yet some unity exists. The three factors described offer insight into how and why various stakeholders act as they do and what issues may need to be resolved before increase uptake of the evidence from rapid reviews can be realized in healthcare decision-making environments.

  13. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  14. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  15. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles for biorecognition and point of care medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Handa, Hiroshi; Abe, Masanori

    2010-11-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are important components in biorecognition and medical diagnostics. Here, we present a review of our contribution to this interdisciplinary research field. We start by describing a simple one-step process for the synthesis of highly uniform ferrite nanoparticles (d = 20-200 nm) and their functionalization with amino acids via carboxyl groups. For real-world applications, we used admicellar polymerization to produce 200 nm diameter 'FG beads', consisting of several 40 nm diameter ferrite nanoparticles encapsulated in a co-polymer of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate for high throughput molecular screening. The highly dispersive FG beads were functionalized with an ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether spacer and used for affinity purification of methotrexate—an anti-cancer agent. We synthesized sub-100 nm diameter magnetic nanocapsules by exploiting the self-assembly of viral capsid protein pentamers, where single 8, 20, and 27 nm nanoparticles were encapsulated with VP1 pentamers for applications including MRI contrast agents. The FG beads are now commercially available for use in fully automated bio-screening systems. We also incorporated europium complexes inside a polymer matrix to produce 140 nm diameter fluorescent-ferrite beads (FF beads), which emit at 618 nm. These FF beads were used for immunofluorescent staining for diagnosis of cancer metastases to lymph nodes during cancer resection surgery by labeling tumor cell epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRs), and for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)—a hormone secreted in excess amounts by the heart when stressed—to a level of 2.0 pg ml - 1. We also describe our work on Hall biosensors made using InSb and GaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG heterostructures integrated with gold current strips to reduce measurement times. Our approach for the detection of sub-200 nm magnetic bead is also described: we exploit the magnetically induced capture of micrometer sized 'probe

  17. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  18. Lay and health care professional understandings of self-management: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan Sadler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility; quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice. Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions.

  19. Non-native fishes in Florida freshwaters: a literature review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native fishes have been known from freshwater ecosystems of Florida since the 1950s, and dozens of species have established self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, no synthesis of data collected on those species in Florida has been published until now. We searched the literature for peer-reviewed publications reporting original data for 42 species of non-native fishes in Florida that are currently established, were established in the past, or are sustained by human intervention. Since the 1950s, the number of non-native fish species increased steadily at a rate of roughly six new species per decade. Studies documented (in decreasing abundance): geographic location/range expansion, life- and natural-history characteristics (e.g., diet, habitat use), ecophysiology, community composition, population structure, behaviour, aquatic-plant management, and fisheries/aquaculture. Although there is a great deal of taxonomic uncertainty and confusion associated with many taxa, very few studies focused on clarifying taxonomic ambiguities of non-native fishes in the State. Most studies were descriptive; only 15 % were manipulative. Risk assessments, population-control studies and evaluations of effects of non-native fishes were rare topics for research, although they are highly valued by natural-resource managers. Though some authors equated lack of data with lack of effects, research is needed to confirm or deny conclusions. Much more is known regarding the effects of lionfish (Pterois spp.) on native fauna, despite its much shorter establishment time. Natural-resource managers need biological and ecological information to make policy decisions regarding non-native fishes. Given the near-absence of empirical data on effects of Florida non-native fishes, and the lengthy time-frames usually needed to collect such information, we provide suggestions for data collection in a manner that may be useful in the evaluation and prediction of non-native fish effects.

  20. A review of the jumping tree bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) of Argentina and nearby areas of Brazil and Paraguay, with descriptions of nine new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine new species of jumping tree bugs, or Isometopinae, from Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are described. The genus Aristotelesia is revised and the two new species A. fuscata (Brazil) and A. medialis (Argentina) are described, and the Argentine and Paraguayan species of Myiomma are revie...

  1. Synthesis, microstructural and mechanical properties of ex situ zircon particles (ZrSiO4 reinforced Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Thandalam

    2015-07-01

    This review article details the current development on the synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of zircon reinforced MMCs, with specific attention on the abrasive wear behavior of the composites. This review also summarizes the work done by various research groups on zircon reinforced MMCs in achieving higher hardness and wear resistance in these composites.

  2. Job Demand and Control Interventions: A Stakeholder-Centered Best-Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews on Workplace Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Williams-Whitt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical and psychological job demands in combination with the degree of control a worker has over task completion, play an important role in reducing stress. Occupational stress is an important, modifiable factor affecting work disability. However, the effectiveness of reducing job demands or increasing job control remains unclear, particularly for outcomes of interest to employers, such as absenteeism or productivity.Objective: This systematic review reports on job demand and control interventions that impact absenteeism, productivity and financial outcomes.Methods: A stakeholder-centered best-evidence synthesis was conducted with researcher and stakeholder collaboration throughout. Databases and grey literature were searched for systematic reviews between 2000 and 2012: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, TRIP, health-evidence.ca, Rehab+, National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC, and Institute for Work and Health. Articles were assessed independently by two researchers for inclusion criteria and methodological quality. Differences were resolved through consensus.Results: The search resulted in 3363 unique titles. After review of abstracts, 115 articles were retained for full-text review. 11 articles finally met the inclusion criteria and are summarized in this synthesis. The best level of evidence we found indicates that multimodal job demand reductions for either at-work or off-work workers will reduce disability-related absenteeism.Conclusion: In general, the impacts of interventions that aim to reduce job demands or increase job control can be positive for the organization in terms of reducing absenteeism, increasing productivity and cost-effectiveness. However, more high quality research is needed to further assess the relationships and quantify effect sizes for the interventions and outcomes reviewed in this study.

  3. Pesquisa sobre mortalidade perinatal no Brasil: revisão da metodologia e dos resultados Perinatal mortality research in Brazil: review of methodology and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Costa Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A mortalidade perinatal persiste como relevante evento em saúde pública, demandando estudos epidemiológicos, tanto para definir sua magnitude e variações temporais, como para identificar seus determinantes e apontar as intervenções adequadas. Existem ainda questões conceituais e metodológicas controversas, gerando heterogeneidade nos estudos e prováveis vieses. No Brasil, nos últimos anos, desponta uma produção crescente sobre o tema, principalmente no Sudeste e Sul. Foram revistos 24 artigos de 1996 a 2003, focalizando: definições e classificações utilizadas, fontes de dados, desenhos de estudo, formas de aferição das variáveis, modelos de análise estatística e principais resultados. A revisão mostrou a progressiva utilização de bancos de dados informatizados, principalmente o SINASC e o SIM, o pequeno número de estudos sobre natimortalidade, a incorporação ainda incipiente das classificações de causas e a discordância em relação a alguns fatores de risco.The perinatal mortality rate remains a public health problem, demanding epidemiological studies to describe its magnitude and time trends, identify risk factors, and define adequate interventions. There are still methodological controversies, resulting in heterogeneous studies and possible biases. In Brazil, there has been a growing scientific output on this theme, mainly in the South and Southeast of the country. Twenty-four articles from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed, focusing on definitions and classifications, data sources, study designs, measurement of variables, statistical analysis, and results. The review showed an increasing utilization of data bases (mainly SINASC and SIM, few studies on stillbirth, the incorporation of classification schemes, and disagreement concerning risk factors.

  4. Ihtisab (Accountability in Waqf Institutions: A Review and Synthesis of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Umar Assegaf

    2013-12-01

    should be good in akhlak (moral and bring his members into a good akhlak too as akhlak is a key success for Islamic institutions. Due to the fact that Synthesis of ihtisab research findings has not been done so far, it is expected that this synthesis of the studies can be the basis for subsequent researchers to continue and develop this findings on the other dimensions of theories and models by developing Islamic science and Islamic empirical methods in line with shariah.

  5. Visual impairment from uveitis in a reference hospital of Southeast Brazil: a retrospective review over a twenty years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Meire Pereira da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the frequency and causes of uveitis leading to visual impairment in patients referred to the Low Vision Service - Department of Ophthalmology - UNIFESP, over a twenty years period. METHODS: In a retrospective study, medical records of 5,461 patients were reviewed. Data from the first clinical evaluation at the Low Vision Service were collected, patient's age, gender and cause of visual impairment were analyzed. Patients with uveitis had their chart reviewed for anatomical classification and clinical diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients referred to the Low Vision Service was 42.86 years and the mean age of patients with uveitis diagnosis was 25.51 years. Retinal disorders were the most common cause of visual impairment (N=2,835 patients; 51.9% followed by uveitis (862 patients, 15.7%. Uveitis was posterior in 792 patients (91.9% of uveitis and toxoplasmosis was the most common diagnosis (765 patients, 88.7%. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, uveitis represents the second cause of visual impairment in patients referred for visual rehabilitation and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis was the most common clinical diagnosis. It affects a young working age population with a relevant social and economic impact, but the early diagnosis and treatment can improve the quality of life of these patients.

  6. Queer Counterpublics in Australia, Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyja Noack-Lundberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Rafaael de la Dehesa, Queering the Public Sphere in Mexico and Brazil: Sexual Rights Movements in Emerging Democracies (Duke, 2010 and Kane Race, Pleasure Consuming Medicine (Duke, 2009.

  7. The Association of HIV-Related Stigma to HIV Medication Adherence: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Shannon M; Vanable, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the quantitative literature on HIV-related stigma and medication adherence, including: (1) synthesis of the empirical evidence linking stigma to adherence, (2) examination of proposed causal mechanisms of the stigma and adherence relationship, and (3) methodological critique and guidance for future research. We reviewed 38 studies reporting either cross-sectional or prospective analyses of the association of HIV-related stigma to medication adherence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapies (ART). Although there is substantial empirical evidence linking stigma to adherence difficulties, few studies provided data on psychosocial mechanisms that may account for this relationship. Proposed mechanisms include: (a) enhanced vulnerability to mental health difficulties, (b) reduction in self-efficacy, and (c) concerns about inadvertent disclosure of HIV status. Future research should strive to assess the multiple domains of stigma, use standardized measures of adherence, and include prospective analyses to test mediating variables.

  8. Prostate cancer and supportive care: a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of men's experiences and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A J L; Evans, M; Moore, T H M; Paterson, C; Sharp, D; Persad, R; Huntley, A L

    2015-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, accounting for an estimated 1.1 million new cases diagnosed in 2012 (www.globocan.iarc.fr). Currently, there is a lack of specific guidance on supportive care for men with prostate cancer. This article describes a qualitative systematic review and synthesis examining men's experience of and need for supportive care. Seven databases were searched; 20 journal articles were identified and critically appraised. A thematic synthesis was conducted in which descriptive themes were drawn out of the data. These were peer support, support from partner, online support, cancer specialist nurse support, self-care, communication with health professionals, unmet needs (emotional support, information needs, support for treatment-induced side effects of incontinence and erectile dysfunction) and men's suggestions for improved delivery of supportive care. This was followed by the development of overarching analytic themes which were: uncertainty, reframing, and the timing of receiving treatment, information and support. Our results show that the most valued form of support men experienced following diagnosis was one-to-one peer support and support from partners. This review highlights the need for improved access to cancer specialist nurses throughout the care pathway, individually tailored supportive care and psychosexual support for treatment side effects.

  9. The Effectiveness and Studies of E-learning in Taiwan: A Review and Synthesis of 2000-2011 Research Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shen Fang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to review and synthesize the research literature on e-learning in Taiwan. In total, 86 journalarticlesand theses/dissertations,which quasi-experimental research methods were utilized inand included in three major domestic and international electronic databases between the years 2000-2011,were selected for review and synthesis. The purest synthesis method of synthesizing multiple areas with single method was employed to investigate the research literature.It is found that the quasi-experimental research studiesand the effectiveness of e-learning in 2000-2011 in Taiwan are as follows:(1 Learning areas or subjects focus on formal sciences;(2 The researches are mainly done in the university/colleges primarily preparing school teachers;(3 The main subjects in descending order of frequency selected by studies are elementary school students, junior high school students, and senior/vocational high school students;(4The most experimental teaching durations are between 101 and 300 minutes; (5 Motivation, learning environment, and technological capability are the three issues mostly concerned about;(6Learning effectiveness are mainly argued from the two starting viewpoints, learning or technology;(7 Teaching theory focus on Piaget and Vygotsky perspectives of cognitive construction;and (8The learning domains in descending order of instructional effectiveness investigation are cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.

  10. Primary cicatricial alopecias: a review of histopathologic findings in 38 patients from a clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Rosyane Duarte Moure

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS: To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS: Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17, lichen planus pilaris (4, pseudopelade of Brocq (12, folliculitis decalvans (3, dissecting folliculitis (1, and non-specific scarring alopecia (1. In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3% previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS: Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite crystals: a review study on the analytical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsopoulos, S.

    2002-01-01

    For the synthesis of hydroxyapatite crystals from aqueous solutions three preparation methods were employed. From the experimental processes and the characterization of the crystals it was concluded that aging and precipitation kinetics are critical for the purity of the product and its crystallogra

  12. Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommelen, J.; Groen, B.; Hamer, H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Objective To ass

  13. Practice and power: a review and interpretive synthesis focused on the exercise of discretionary power in policy implementation by front-line providers and managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Lucy; Schneider, Helen; Orgill, Marsha

    2014-12-01

    Tackling the implementation gap is a health policy concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited attention has so far been paid to the influence of power relations over this gap. This article presents, therefore, an interpretive synthesis of qualitative health policy articles addressing the question: how do actors at the front line of health policy implementation exercise discretionary power, with what consequences and why? The article also demonstrates the particular approach of thematic synthesis and contributes to discussion of how such work can inform future health policy research. The synthesis drew from a broader review of published research on any aspect of policy implementation in LMICs for the period 1994-2009. From an initial set of 50 articles identified as relevant to the specific review question, a sample of 16 articles were included in this review. Nine report experience around decentralization, a system-level change, and seven present experience of implementing a range of reproductive health (RH) policies (new forms of service delivery). Three reviewers were involved in a systematic process of data extraction, coding, analysis, synthesis and article writing. The review findings identify: the practices of power exercised by front-line health workers and their managers; their consequences for policy implementation and health system performance; the sources of this power and health workers' reasons for exercising power. These findings also provide the basis for an overarching synthesis of experience, highlighting the importance of actors, power relations and multiple, embedded contextual elements as dimensions of health system complexity. The significance of this synthesis lies in its insights about: the micropractices of power exercised by front-line providers; how to manage this power through local level strategies both to influence and empower providers to act in support of policy goals; and the focus and nature of future research on

  14. Computational studies on the regioselectivity of metal-catalyzed synthesis of 1,2,3 triazoles via click reaction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnejad, Tayebeh; Fattahi, Bahareh; Heravi, Majid M

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the experimental and computational chemists have been attracted widely to the click synthesis of 1,2,3 triazoles and their derivatives, mainly due to the fact that they are interesting from structural and mechanistic points of view. Moreover, catalyzed click have been well established as a successful strategy showing high regioselectivity and high yield for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles. In this review, we try to highlight the recently reported computational assessments on the origins and predection of regioselectivity in the catalyzed click synthesis of triazoles from the mechanistic and thermodynamical points of view. In this light, density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the free energy profiles of azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions have been underscored. The stereoelectronic features for the role of copper, ruthenium, and iridium as catalyst on regioselectivity of click reactions have also be discussed. Graphical Abstract Computational origins for the regioselective behavior of 1,2,3 triazoles click synthesis.

  15. A review of time-domain and frequency-domain component mode synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Hurty (1965) has conducted a dynamic analysis of structural systems using component modes. The component mode synthesis (CMS) procedure considered by him represents a form of substructure coupling analysis which is often utilized in structural dynamics. Time-domain CMS methods employing real modes are discussed, taking into account real component modes, normal modes, redundant constraint modes, rigid-body modes, attachment modes, inertia-relief modes, statically-complete interface mode sets, dynamic component mode supersets, component modal models, the coupling of components, and the classification of methods. Attention is also given to the experimental determination of component mode synthesis parameters, time-domain CMS methods for damped systems, and frequency-domain CMS methods for damped systems.

  16. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  17. Synthesis of oxazole, oxazoline and isoxazoline derived marine natural products: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Singh, K.S.

    the isolation, biological activities and recent development on total syntheses of oxazole, oxazoline and isoxazoline derived marine natural products reported till 2014. Key words: oxazole, oxazoline, isoxazoline, marine natural products, synthesis 2    1... syntheses are discussed. For easy reading, the content has been divided under three categories; oxazole, oxazoline and isoxazoline containing marine natural products. N O N O N O Oxazole Oxazoline Isoxazoline Figure 1. Chemical structures of oxazole...

  18. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, G

    1999-01-01

    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement.

  19. Self-Management and Self-Management Support Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Mixed Research Synthesis of Stakeholder Views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Boger

    Full Text Available Self-management has received growing attention as an effective approach for long-term condition management. Little is known about which outcomes of supported self-management are valued by patients, their families, health professionals and those who commission self-management services. This study systematically reviewed published empirical evidence in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to determine the outcomes of self-management valued by these key stakeholder groups, using three prominent exemplar conditions: colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke.To systematically review the literature to identify which generic outcomes of self-management have been targeted and are considered important using three exemplar conditions (colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke, which collectively have a range of features that are likely to be representative of generic self-management issues.Systematic searching of nine electronic databases was conducted in addition to hand searches of review articles. Abstracts were identified against inclusion criteria and appraised independently by two reviewers, using a critical appraisal tool. Synthesis of findings was conducted using mixed research synthesis.Over 20,536 abstracts were screened. 41 studies which met the review criteria were fully retrieved and appraised. The majority of evidence related to diabetes. Few studies directly focussed on stakeholders' views concerning desired self-management outcomes; the majority of evidence was derived from studies focusing upon the experience of self-management. The views of health care commissioners were absent from the literature. We identified that self-management outcomes embrace a range of indicators, from knowledge, skills, and bio-psychosocial markers of health through to positive social networks.Patients', families', health professionals' and commissioners' views regarding which outcomes of self-management are important have not been clearly elicited. The extent to which

  20. Science and art of synthesis and crafting of nano/microstructures and devices using ion-crafted templates: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2006-03-01

    The miniaturization of devices and synthesis of new materials have a tremendous role in the development of powerful electronics as well as material based technologies in other areas but for the laws of quantum mechanics posing limitations besides the increasing cost and difficulties in manufacturing at such a small scale. The quest, therefore, for the alternative technologies have stimulated a surge of interest in nano-meter scale materials and devices in the recent years. Metallic nano wires are the most attractive materials because of their unique properties having myriad applications like interconnects for nano-electronics, magnetic devices, chemical and biosensors, where as the hollow tubules are equally considered to be candidate for more potent applications- both in physical as well as biosciences. Materials' processing for nano-structured devices is indispensable to their rational design. The technique, known as "Template Synthesis", using electrochemical/electro less deposition is one of the most important processes for manufacturing nano/micro structures, nano-composites and devices and is relatively inexpensive and simple. The technique involves in using membranes- ion crafted ones (popularly known as Particle Track-Etch Membranes or Nuclear Track Filters), alumite substrate membranes, besides other types of membranes as templates. The parameters viz., diameter as well as length i.e., the aspect ratio, shape and wall surface traits in these membranes are controllable. In the present work, a detailed review of this technique, synthesis of nano/micro materials including hybrid materials and devices like field-ion emitters, resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) etc. will be presented including most of the results obtained in our laboratory.

  1. Influence of physical activity on bone strength in children and adolescents: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vina P S; Macdonald, Heather M; Kim, SoJung; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Gabel, Leigh; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather A

    2014-10-01

    A preponderance of evidence from systematic reviews supports the effectiveness of weight-bearing exercises on bone mass accrual, especially during the growing years. However, only one systematic review (limited to randomized controlled trials) examined the role of physical activity (PA) on bone strength. Thus, our systematic review extended the scope of the previous review by including all PA intervention and observational studies, including organized sports participation studies, with child or adolescent bone strength as the main outcome. We also sought to discern the skeletal elements (eg, mass, structure, density) that accompanied significant bone strength changes. Our electronic-database, forward, and reference searches yielded 14 intervention and 23 observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool to assess the quality of studies. Due to heterogeneity across studies, we adopted a narrative synthesis for our analysis and found that bone strength adaptations to PA were related to maturity level, sex, and study quality. Three (of five) weight-bearing PA intervention studies with a strong rating reported significantly greater gains in bone strength for the intervention group (3% to 4%) compared with only three significant (of nine) moderate intervention studies. Changes in bone structure (eg, bone cross-sectional area, cortical thickness, alone or in combination) rather than bone mass most often accompanied significant bone strength outcomes. Prepuberty and peripuberty may be the most opportune time for boys and girls to enhance bone strength through PA, although this finding is tempered by the few available studies in more mature groups. Despite the central role that muscle plays in bones' response to loading, few studies discerned the specific contribution of muscle function (or surrogates) to bone strength. Although not the focus of the current review, this seems an important consideration

  2. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  3. Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of carbon-based quantum dots: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Pooria; Negahdari, Babak; Eatemadi, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Carbon-based quantum dots (CQDs) are a newly developed class of carbon nano-materials that have attracted much interest and attention as promising competitors to already available semiconductor quantum dots owing to their un-comparable and unique properties. In addition, controllability of CQDs unique physiochemical properties is as a result of their surface passivation and functionalization. This is an update article (between 2013 and 2016) on the recent progress, characteristics and synthesis methods of CQDs and different advantages in varieties of applications.

  4. Synthesis of layered double hydroxides containing Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+ and Al3+ layer cations by co-precipitation methods-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Frederick L.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2016-10-01

    Co-precipitation is a common method for the preparation of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and related materials. This review article is aimed at providing newcomers to the field with some examples of the types of co-precipitation reactions that have been reported previously and to briefly investigate some of the properties of the products of these reactions. Due to the sheer volume of literature on the subject, the authors have had to limit this article to the synthesis of Mg/Al, Zn/Al and Ca/Al LDHs by co-precipitation and directly related methods. LDHs have been synthesised from various reagents including metal salts, oxides and hydroxides. Co-precipitation is also useful for the direct synthesis of LDHs with a wide range of interlayer anions and various bases have been successfully employed to prepare LDHs. Examples of other synthesis techniques including the urea method, hydrothermal synthesis and various mechanochemical methods that are undoubtedly related to co-precipitation have also been included in this review. The effect of post synthesis hydrothermal has also been summarised.

  5. Patients’ perspectives on the medical primary–secondary care interface: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Rod; Cooper, Jamie; Barbour, Rosaline; Polson, Rob; Wilson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To synthesise the published literature on the patient experience of the medical primary–secondary care interface and to determine priorities for future work in this field aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Setting International primary–secondary care interface. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite, Biomedica Reference Collection: Comprehensive Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts, eBook Collection, Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes and Social Sciences Citation Index, and grey literature. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were full research papers employing qualitative methodology to explore patients’ perspectives of the medical primary–secondary care interface. Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results The search identified 690 articles, of which 39 were selected for full-text review. 20 articles were included in the systematic review that encompassed a total of 689 patients from 10 countries. 4 important areas specific to the primary–secondary care interface from the patients’ perspective emerged: barriers to care, communication, coordination, and ‘relationships and personal value’. Conclusions and implications of key findings Patients should be the focus of any transfer of care between primary and secondary systems. From their perspective, areas for improvement may be classified into four domains that should usefully guide future work aimed at improving quality at this important interface. Trial registration number

  6. Theoretical Descriptions of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis in a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lubej, M.; Plazl, I.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which carbon nanotubes nucleate and grow are still poorly understood. Understanding and mathematically describing the process is crucial for its optimization. This paper reviews different models which have been proposed to explain carbon nanotube growth in the chemical vapor deposition process. The review is divided into two sections, the first section describes some nucleation, growth and termination simulations based on molecular dynamics, and the second section describes ...

  7. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed.

  8. The primary care provider (PCP)-cancer specialist relationship: A systematic review and mixed-methods meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Lesly A; Hudson, Janella N; Morris, Arden M; Lee, M Catherine; Roetzheim, Richard G; Fetters, Michael D; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-03-01

    Although they are critical to models of coordinated care, the relationship and communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and cancer specialists throughout the cancer continuum are poorly understood. By using predefined search terms, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in 3 databases to examine the relationship and communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. Among 301 articles identified, 35 met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed in-depth. Findings from qualitative, quantitative, and disaggregated mixed-methods studies were integrated using meta-synthesis. Six themes were identified and incorporated into a preliminary conceptual model of the PCP-cancer specialist relationship: 1) poor and delayed communication between PCPs and cancer specialists, 2) cancer specialists' endorsement of a specialist-based model of care, 3) PCPs' belief that they play an important role in the cancer continuum, 4) PCPs' willingness to participate in the cancer continuum, 5) cancer specialists' and PCPs' uncertainty regarding the PCP's oncology knowledge/experience, and 6) discrepancies between PCPs and cancer specialists regarding roles. These data indicate a pervasive need for improved communication, delineation, and coordination of responsibilities between PCPs and cancer specialists. Future interventions aimed at these deficiencies may improve patient and physician satisfaction and cancer care coordination. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:156-169. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. What design features are used in effective e-health interventions? A review using techniques from Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leanne G; Yardley, Lucy; Powell, John; Michie, Susan

    2012-03-01

    The effectiveness of e-health interventions varies greatly. Despite this, there has been relatively little formal consideration of how differences in the design of an intervention (i.e., how the content is delivered) may explain why some interventions are more effective than others. This review primarily examines the use of the Internet to provide educational and self-management interventions to promote health. The article develops hypotheses about how the design of these interventions may be associated with outcomes. In total, 52 published reports from both a diversity sample and a representative sample were reviewed using techniques from Critical Interpretive Synthesis. Four core interactive design features were identified that may mediate the effects of intervention design on outcomes: Social context and support, contacts with intervention, tailoring, and self-management. A conceptual framework to summarize the design of e-health interventions delivered using the Internet is proposed. The framework provides a guide for systematic research to identify the effects of specific design features on intervention outcomes and to identify the mechanisms underlying any effects. To optimize the design of e-health interventions more work is needed to understand how and why these design features may affect intervention outcomes and to investigate the optimal implementation and dosage of each design feature.

  10. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods: The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015 and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015. Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion: We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions: Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of

  11. Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina M A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1 accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2 the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs, and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature

  12. Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness: Best Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    , which were primarily spine related (e.g., neck and low back pain). The other half of studies assessed workers with mental health or cardiovascular conditions, stroke, cancer, multiple sclerosis or other non-specified health conditions. Many factors have been assessed, but few consistently across......Purpose: To identify common prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) across different health and injury conditions and to describe their association with RTW outcomes. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the grey literature were searched...... synthesized within domains of the International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) model of disability. Results: Of the 36,193 titles screened and the 94 eligible studies reviewed, 56 systematic reviews were accepted as low risk of bias. Over half of these focused on musculoskeletal disorders...

  13. Identification of energy conservation research opportunities: a review and synthesis of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Hauser, S.G.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-eight studies of energy conservation research opportunities are reviewed. The 38 studies chosen for review include many of the major efforts in the identification of energy conservation research and development (R and D) opportunities and provide a representative sample of the types of studies that have been performed. The sample includes studies that focus on specific energy use (e.g., auto transport), as well as studies that focus on specific types of research (e.g., materials science). The sample also includes studies that can be further contrasted in terms of long-term vs. short-term projects, evolutionary vs. revolutionary ideas, generic vs. process-specific activities, and technology base research vs. hardware development. Each of these perspectives contributes toward assuring coverage of the breadth of energy conservation R and D opportunities. In each review the technical or end-use focus is described, the research ideas identified in the study are listed, and a critical summary is given. The reviews also indicate whether the studies present end-use consumption data, estimate potential energy savings, estimate times to commercialization, summarize existing research programs, or describe the identification methodology. In Section 2.0 the various research studies are compared. In Section 3.0 the characteristics of an aggregate list of research ideas are discussed. The characteristics were collected from the research opportunities studies, which are included in Appendix A. Appendix A contains a compilation of energy conservation R and D opportunities arranged by energy end-use applications. Appendix B contains an outline of the format followed in writing the critical reviews of the studies, the individual study reviews, and the extended bibliography of 88 studies that describe energy conservation research opportunities.

  14. Do Psychosocial Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Wellbeing in Adults with Neuromuscular Disorders? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Muse, Kate; Meyrick, Jane; Moss, Tim

    2016-08-30

    Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis. Out of 3,136 studies identified, ten studies met criteria for inclusion within the review. Included studies comprised a range of interventions including: cognitive behavioural therapy, dignity therapy, hypnosis, expressive disclosure, gratitude lists, group psychoeducation and psychologically informed rehabilitation. Five of the interventions were for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The remainder were for patients with post-polio syndrome, muscular dystrophies and mixed disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis and myotonic dystrophy. Across varied interventions and neuromuscular disorders, seven studies reported a short-term beneficial effect of intervention on quality of life and well-being. Whilst such findings are encouraging, widespread issues with the methodological quality of these studies significantly compromised the results. There is no strong evidence that psychosocial interventions improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders, due to a paucity of high quality research in this field. Multi-site, randomised controlled trials with active controls, standardised outcome measurement and longer term follow-ups are urgently required.

  15. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children: a systematic review and best-evidence synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.J.W.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.; Pourier, V.E.C.; Grolman, W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To evaluate the effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation over unilateral implantation in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Data Sources Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science. Review Methods All studies comparing a bilateral cochlear implant group with a unilateral

  16. Multichannel Learning Research Applied to Principles of Television Production: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, LuEtt

    1989-01-01

    Reviews multichannel learning research to find the best ways to combine audio and video in television to improve learning, and summarizes the research findings into principles for instructional television production. Highlights include the effects of redundancy on learning and on audience attention, message clarity, and problems in instructional…

  17. Conceptualizing the Pathways and Processes Between Language Barriers and Health Disparities: Review, Synthesis, and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Sachiko

    2017-02-01

    While many may view language barriers in healthcare settings (LBHS) as a simple, practical problem, they present unique challenges to theoretical development and practice implications in healthcare delivery, especially when one considers the implications and impacts of specific contextual factors. By exploring the differences of contextual factors in the US and Japan, this review explores and highlights how such differences may entail different impacts on patients' quality of care and require different solutions. I conduct narrative review through library database, Google Scholar, and CiNii (a Japanese library database) with multiple search terms, including language barriers, healthcare, medical interpreter, and immigrant. I first present a diagram to show the pathways and process between language barriers and health disparities, using the literature reported in the US. Then, I examined the literature reported in Japan and discuss the needs for re-conceptualizing LBHS. The implications for future research will be discussed.

  18. A review on ROCK-II inhibitors: From molecular modelling to synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Surmil; Savjani, Jignasa

    2016-05-15

    Rho kinase enzyme expressed in different disease conditions and involved in mediating vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling in the pathogenesis. There are two isoforms of Rho kinases, namely ROCK I and ROCK II, responsible for different physiological function due to difference in distribution, but almost similar in structure. The Rho kinase 2 belongs to AGC family and is widely distributed in brain, heart and muscles. It is responsible for contraction of vascular smooth muscles by calcium sensitization. Its defective and unwanted expression can lead to many medical conditions like multiple sclerosis, myocardial ischemia, inflammatory responses, etc. Many Rho kinase 1 and 2 inhibitors have been designed for Rho/Rho kinase pathway by use of molecular modeling studies. Most of the designed compounds have been modeled based on ROCK 1 enzyme. This article is focused on Rho kinase 2 inhibitors as there are many ways to improvise by use of Computer aided drug designing as very less quantum of research work carried out. Herein, the article highlights different stages of designing like docking, SAR and synthesis of ROCK inhibitors and recent advances. It also highlights future prospective to improve the activity.

  19. Benzofuran as a promising scaffold for the synthesis of antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadamali Khodarahmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzofuran as an important heterocyclic compound is extensively found in natural products as well as synthetic materials. Since benzofuran drivatives display a diverse array of pharmacological activities, an interest in developing new biologically active agents from benzofuran is still under consideration. This review highlights recent findings on biological activities of benzofuran derivatives as antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents and lays emphasis on the importance of benzofurans as a major source for drug design and development.

  20. Identifying risks for male street gang affiliation: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, Carlotta; Jones, F.W.

    2016-01-01

    Gang violence has increased in recent years. Individuals are becoming gang affiliated younger, and many have suffered historic maltreatment. Subsequent exposure to violence can result in profound consequences, including acute psychological harm. This review aims to identify predictive risk factors for male street gang affiliation. A systematic literature search was conducted utilising PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of...

  1. Relevance, writing style, and synthesis: key elements in a focused review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lynn C; Harris, Martina S

    2002-01-01

    Have the major points of the topic been covered? Did the slant of the article reflect the major theme being investigated by the author(s)? Were the strengths of the focused literature review emphasized? In this article, the authors were able to address a major gap in the existing body of knowledge impacting patient care. As a result, patients recovering from hip fractures in nursing home settings will have more effective pain management.

  2. Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness: best evidence synthesis of systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Work disability is a major personal, financial and public health burden. Predicting future work success is a major focus of research. Objectives To identify common prognostic factors for return-to-work across different health and injury conditions and to describe their association with return-to-work outcomes. Methods Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the grey literature were searched from January 1, 2004 to September 1, 2013. Syste...

  3. Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: A review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sandra; Jørgensen, B. B.; LaRowe, D. E.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Regnier, P.

    2013-08-01

    Quantifying the rates of biogeochemical processes in marine sediments is essential for understanding global element cycles and climate change. Because organic matter degradation is the engine behind benthic dynamics, deciphering the impact that various forces have on this process is central to determining the evolution of the Earth system. Therefore, recent developments in the quantitative modeling of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are critically reviewed. The first part of the review synthesizes the main chemical, biological and physical factors that control organic matter degradation in sediments while the second part provides a general review of the mathematical formulations used to model these processes and the third part evaluates their application over different spatial and temporal scales. Key transport mechanisms in sedimentary environments are summarized and the mathematical formulation of the organic matter degradation rate law is described in detail. The roles of enzyme kinetics, bioenergetics, temperature and biomass growth in particular are highlighted. Alternative model approaches that quantify the degradation rate constant are also critically compared. In the third part of the review, the capability of different model approaches to extrapolate organic matter degradation rates over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales is assessed. In addition, the structure, functions and parameterization of more than 250 published models of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are analyzed. The large range of published model parameters illustrates the complex nature of organic matter dynamics, and, thus, the limited transferability of these parameters from one site to another. Compiled model parameters do not reveal a statistically significant correlation with single environmental characteristics such as water depth, deposition rate or organic matter flux. The lack of a generic framework that allows for model parameters to be

  4. What do we know about the experience of age related macular degeneration? A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Bennion, Amy E.; Shaw, Rachel L; Gibson, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registerable blindness with a high medical and societal cost burden. Much of the research examining experiences of living with AMD has been conducted independently with small sample sizes and has failed to impact on practice. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research can improve the understanding of the experience of living with AMD by drawing together findings of qualitative studies. This article presents a systematic review and met...

  5. The evolution of the upright posture and gait—a review and a new synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitz, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    During the last century, approximately 30 hypotheses have been constructed to explain the evolution of the human upright posture and locomotion. The most important and recent ones are discussed here. Meanwhile, it has been established that all main hypotheses published until the last decade of the past century are outdated, at least with respect to some of their main ideas: Firstly, they were focused on only one cause for the evolution of bipedality, whereas the evolutionary process was much more complex. Secondly, they were all placed into a savannah scenario. During the 1990s, the fossil record allowed the reconstruction of emerging bipedalism more precisely in a forested habitat (e.g., as reported by Clarke and Tobias (Science 269:521-524, 1995) and WoldeGabriel et al. (Nature 412:175-178, 2001)). Moreover, the fossil remains revealed increasing evidence that this part of human evolution took place in a more humid environment than previously assumed. The Amphibian Generalist Theory, presented first in the year 2000, suggests that bipedalism began in a wooded habitat. The forests were not far from a shore, where our early ancestor, along with its arboreal habits, walked and waded in shallow water finding rich food with little investment. In contrast to all other theories, wading behaviour not only triggers an upright posture, but also forces the individual to maintain this position and to walk bipedally. So far, this is the only scenario suitable to overcome the considerable anatomical and functional threshold from quadrupedalism to bipedalism. This is consistent with paleoanthropological findings and with functional anatomy as well as with energetic calculations, and not least, with evolutionary psychology. The new synthesis presented here is able to harmonise many of the hitherto competing theories.

  6. Risk behaviours among female sex workers in China: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P F Chow

    Full Text Available Commercial sex is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Understanding HIV risk behaviours in female sex workers (FSW is of great importance for prevention. This study aims to assess the magnitude and temporal changes of risk behaviours in Chinese FSW.Five electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed English and Chinese language articles published between January 2000 and December 2012 that reported risk behaviours among FSW in China, including condom use, HIV testing, and drug use. Linear regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to examine temporal trends in these risk factors. The study followed PRISMA guidelines for meta-analyses and was registered in the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews.A total of 583 articles (44 English, 539 Chinese investigating 594,583 Chinese FSW were included in this review. At last sex, condom use was highest with commercial partners (clients, increasing from 53.7% in 2000 to 84.9% in 2011. During this same time period, condom use increased with regular partners from 15.2% to 40.4% and with unspecified partners from 38.6% to 82.5%. Increasing trends were also found in the proportion of sampled FSW who reported testing for HIV in the past 12 months (from 3.2% in 2000 to 48.0% in 2011, while drug use behaviours decreased significantly from 10.9% to 2.6%.During the first decade of 2000, Chinese FSWs' self-reported risk behaviours have decreased significantly while HIV testing has increased. Further outreach and intervention efforts are needed to encourage condom use with regular partners, continue promotion of HIV testing, and provide resources for the most vulnerable FSW, particularly low tier FSW, who may have limited access to sexual health and prevention programs.

  7. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  8. Integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care: a qualitative systematic review and synthesis of client and provider experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Andy; Seguin, Maureen; Mburu, Gitau; McLean, Susie; Grenfell, Pippa; Islam, Zahed; Filippovych, Sergii; Assan, Happy; Low, Andrea; Vickerman, Peter; Rhodes, Tim

    2017-03-10

    People who use drugs in many contexts have limited access to opioid substitution therapy and HIV care. Service integration is one strategy identified to support increased access. We reviewed and synthesized literature exploring client and provider experiences of integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care to identify acceptable approaches to care delivery. We systematically reviewed qualitative literature. We searched nine bibliographic databases, supplemented by manual searches of reference lists of articles from the database search, relevant journals, conferences, key organizations and consultation with experts. Thematic synthesis was used to develop descriptive themes in client and provider experiences. The search yielded 11 articles for inclusion, along with 8 expert and policy reports. We identify five descriptive themes: the convenience and comprehensive nature of co-located care, contrasting care philosophies and their role in shaping integration, the limits to disclosure and communication between clients and providers, opioid substitution therapy enabling HIV care access and engagement, and health system challenges to delivering integrated services. The discussion explores how integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care needs to adapt to specific social conditions, rather than following universal approaches. We identify priorities for future research. Acceptable integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care for people who use drugs and providers is most likely through co-located care and relies upon attention to stigma, supportive relationships and client centred cultures of delivery. Further research is needed to understand experiences of integrated care, particularly delivery in low and middle income settings and models of care focused on community and non-clinic based delivery.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D ceria (CeO2 nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructively dominate their properties and applications. In addition, this work will also provide a perspective on the future technical trends for the development of different dimensional CeO2 nanomaterials.

  10. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  11. A review of resistance training-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and their contribution to hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Phillips, Stuart; Vechin, Felipe Cassaro; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is stimulated by resistance exercise (RE) and is further stimulated by protein ingestion. The summation of periods of RE-induced increases in MPS can induce hypertrophy chronically. As such, studying the response of MPS with resistance training (RT) is informative, as adaptations in this process can modulate muscle mass gain. Previous studies have shown that the amplitude and duration of increases in MPS after an acute bout of RE are modulated by an individual's training status. Nevertheless, it has been shown that the initial responses of MPS to RE and nutrition are not correlated with subsequent hypertrophy. Thus, early acute responses of MPS in the hours after RE, in an untrained state, do not capture how MPS can affect RE-induced muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this review is provide an in-depth understanding of the dynamic process of muscle hypertrophy throughout RT by examining all of the available data on MPS after RE and in different phases of an RT programme. Analysis of the time course and the overall response of MPS is critical to determine the potential protein accretion after an RE bout. Exercise-induced increases in MPS are shorter lived and peak earlier in the trained state than in the untrained state, resulting in a smaller overall muscle protein synthetic response in the trained state. Thus, RT induces a dampening of the MPS response, potentially limiting protein accretion, but when this occurs remains unknown.

  12. Recent progress in design, synthesis, and applications of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Kumar, Anil; Boughton, Robert I; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures (1D TiO2NSHs) have been comprehensively studied during the past two decades because of the possible practical applications in various fields, including photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, lithium batteries, biomedicine, catalysis, and supercapacitors. Combining extensive advancements in materials science and nanotechnology, a 1D TiO2NSH material with well-controlled size, morphology, and composition has been designed and synthesized. More importantly, its superior properties, including a high aspect ratio structure, chemical stability, large specific surface area, excellent electronic or ionic charge transfer, and a specific interface effect, have attracted a great deal of interest in improving current performance and exploring new applications. In this tutorial review, we introduce the characteristics of 1D TiO2 nanostructures, the design principles for the fabrication of 1D TiO2NSHs, and we also summarize the recent progress in developing synthesis methods and applications of 1D TiO2NSHs in different fields. The relationship between the secondary phase and the 1D TiO2 nanostructure and between the performance in applications and the excellent physical properties of 1D TiO2NSHs are also discussed.

  13. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  14. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  15. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil with respect to...

  16. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  17. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  18. Recent climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, Chris M.; Wheater, Howard S.; Carey, Sean K.; Chun, Kwok P.

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that the Earth's climate system has warmed significantly over the past several decades, and in association there have been widespread changes in various other Earth system components. This has been especially prevalent in the cold regions of the northern mid- to high latitudes. Examples of these changes can be found within the western and northern interior of Canada, a region that exemplifies the scientific and societal issues faced in many other similar parts of the world, and where impacts have global-scale consequences. This region has been the geographic focus of a large amount of previous research on changing climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological regimes in recent decades, while current initiatives such as the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) introduced in this review seek to further develop the understanding and diagnosis of this change and hence improve the capacity to predict future change. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the observed changes in various Earth system components and a concise and up-to-date regional picture of some of the temporal trends over the interior of western Canada since the mid- or late 20th century. The focus is on air temperature, precipitation, seasonal snow cover, mountain glaciers, permafrost, freshwater ice cover, and river discharge. Important long-term observational networks and data sets are described, and qualitative linkages among the changing components are highlighted. Increases in air temperature are the most notable changes within the domain, rising on average 2 °C throughout the western interior since 1950. This increase in air temperature is associated with hydrologically important changes to precipitation regimes and unambiguous declines in snow cover depth, persistence, and spatial extent. Consequences of warming air temperatures have caused mountain glaciers to recede at all latitudes, permafrost to thaw at its southern limit, and active layers over permafrost to thicken

  19. Event-related potential studies of post-traumatic stress disorder: a critical review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javanbakht Arash

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the sparseness of the currently available data, there is accumulating evidence of information processing impairment in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Studies of event-related potentials (ERPs are the main tool in real time examination of information processing. In this paper, we sought to critically review the ERP evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD. We also examined the evidence supporting the existence of a relationship between ERP abnormalities and symptom profiles or severity in PTSD patients. An extensive Medline search was performed. Keywords included PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder, electrophysiology or EEG, electrophysiology, P50, P100, N100, P2, P200, P3, P300, sensory gating, CNV (contingent negative variation and MMN (mismatch negativity. We limited the review to ERP adult human studies with control groups which were reported in the English language. After applying our inclusion-exclusion review criteria, 36 studies were included. Subjects exposed to wide ranges of military and civilian traumas were studied in these reports. Presented stimuli were both auditory and visual. The most widely studied components included P300, P50 gating, N100 and P200. Most of the studies reported increased P300 response to trauma-related stimuli in PTSD patients. A smaller group of studies reported dampening of responses or no change in responses to trauma-related and/or unrelated stimuli. P50 studies were strongly suggestive of impaired gating in patients with PTSD. In conclusion, the majority of reports support evidence of information processing abnormalities in patients with PTSD diagnosis. The predominance of evidence suggests presence of mid-latency and late ERP components differences in PTSD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Heterogeneity of assessment methods used contributes to difficulties in reaching firm conclusions regarding the nature of these differences. We suggest

  20. Consumer evaluation of food with nutritional benefits: a systematic review and narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Makokha, Anselimo

    2016-06-01

    As a consequence of the growing interest in, and development of, various types of food with nutritional benefits, the modern consumer views their kitchen cabinet more and more as a medicine cabinet. Given that consumer evaluation of food is considered key to the successful production, marketing and finally consumption of food, a procedure commonly used in medical fields was employed to systematically review and summarize evidence of consumer evaluation studies on nutritious foods. The focus is primarily on consumer understanding of nutritious food and the underlying determinants of consumer evaluation. Our results highlight four groups of key determinants: (1) nutrition knowledge and information; (2) attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and behavioural determinants; (3) price, process and product characteristics; and (4) socio-demographics. The findings also point to the importance of understanding consumer acceptance as one many concepts in the consumer evaluation process, and provide support for developing appropriate strategies for improving health and well-being of consumers.

  1. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  2. The visual perception of motion by observers with autism spectrum disorders: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Martha D; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, psychological research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has focused on social and cognitive abilities. Vision provides an important input channel to both of these processes, and, increasingly, researchers are investigating whether observers with ASD differ from typical observers in their visual percepts. Recently, significant controversies have arisen over whether observers with ASD differ from typical observers in their visual analyses of movement. Initial studies suggested that observers with ASD experience significant deficits in their visual sensitivity to coherent motion in random dot displays but not to point-light displays of human motion. More recent evidence suggests exactly the opposite: that observers with ASD do not differ from typical observers in their visual sensitivity to coherent motion in random dot displays, but do differ from typical observers in their visual sensitivity to human motion. This review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis, and identifies areas ripe for future research.

  3. Pharmacological Activities and Synthesis of Esculetin and Its Derivatives: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyuan Liang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Esculetin, synonymous with 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Fraxini. The twig skin or trunk bark of Cortex Fraxini are used by herb doctors as a mild, bitter liver and gallbladder meridians’ nontoxic drug as well as dietary supplement. Recently, with a variety of novel esculetin derivatives being reported, the molecular mechanism research as well as clinical application of Cortex Fraxini and esculetin are becoming more attractive. This mini-review will consolidate what is known about the biological activities, the mechanism of esculetin and its synthetic derivatives over the past decade in addition to providing a brief synopsis of the properties of esculetin.

  4. Legal aspects of sinkhole development and flooding in karst terranes: 1. Review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, James F.

    1986-03-01

    Structures built within the area of influence of a sinkhole can be affected by collapse, subsidence, or flooding. Unanticipated property losses may be involved, and litigation commonly ensues. Insurance compensation for damages that result from sinkhole collapse or subsidence in a karst terrane are covered by statute only in Florida and by voluntary agreement of companies operating in Tennessee Liability or insurance compensation for damages resulting from sinkhole flooding is not specifically covered by any state or federal statute. Regulations of the National Flood Insurance Program have been interpreted to allow coverage by this program for homes affected by sinkhole flooding in Bowling Green, Kentucky In the present article, case law, legal concepts of groundwater and surface water, liability, and law review articles relevant to sinkhole litigation are summarized The rationales of plaintiffs and defendants are reviewed Liability for damages have been based on allegations of negligence, breach of various water law doctrines, trespass, nuisance, loss of support, breach of contract, and implied warranty of habitability Defenses against these allegations have been based on the merits of each of them and on caveat emptor Several alternative rationales for claiming liability for losses incurred because of sinkhole development or flooding are proposed and discussed. The little-known Henderson v Wade Sand and Gravel is highly recommended as an alternative leading case that clearly and justifiably gives protection to adjacent landowners, and ties liability for damages caused by groundwater pumpage to nuisance law and related interference with property rights. Several little-known litigated cases of sinkhole development in response to groundwater pumpage will be summarized in a second article at a later date. Concepts of liability are evolving It can be expected that the professional geologist or engineer will have an increasing number of claims made against him or her

  5. A SYSTEMIC REVIEW: MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS AS A PART OF GREEN CHEMISTRY FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL 1, 2, 4- TRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave reactions are based on the basic principles of green chemistry, basically involve “Go Green” concept. Purpose of green synthesis is to proceed with all the synthetic procedures which are ecofriendly and economic. Great deal of better yield in lesser time than conventional methods are observed. In medicinal chemistry, 1,2,4- triazoles are the source for potent medicaments for different pharmacological activities. In connection with this, literature is being compiled up for the sake of synthesis of 1,2,4- triazoles derivatives by using microwave irradiations.

  6. A Review of the Genus Oecetis (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in the Northeastern Region of Brazil with the Description of 5 New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Fabio Batagini; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Within Leptoceridae, the genus Oecetis contains about 500 species around the world, including 53 in the Neotropics. In Brazil, there are 15 recorded species of Oecetis. These species were described over several decades by numerous authors with the results that descriptions are not comparable and diagnoses are incomplete. Also, the apparently unbranched M vein, in the forewing, a diagnostic character for Oecetis pointed by McLachlan, is controversial and no consensus has been reached about its homology. Additionally, the only revision for the genus was never published; thus the information and proposed taxa are not available according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. We analyzed specimens collected in the Brazilian Northeast Region and compared these with described species and literature descriptions and Oecetis from other regions. We provide herein the description of five new species, additional characters for diagnosing seven of the species recorded from Brazil, new distributional records, and a dichotomous key to the Brazilian species. Additionally, we contrast the two hypotheses of forewing M vein homology and support the unbranched hypothesis. In this way, we improve the knowledge of the genus in the Neotropics, making the species descriptions comparable in a way that facilitates species identification.

  7. A Review of the Genus Oecetis (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae in the Northeastern Region of Brazil with the Description of 5 New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batagini Quinteiro

    Full Text Available Within Leptoceridae, the genus Oecetis contains about 500 species around the world, including 53 in the Neotropics. In Brazil, there are 15 recorded species of Oecetis. These species were described over several decades by numerous authors with the results that descriptions are not comparable and diagnoses are incomplete. Also, the apparently unbranched M vein, in the forewing, a diagnostic character for Oecetis pointed by McLachlan, is controversial and no consensus has been reached about its homology. Additionally, the only revision for the genus was never published; thus the information and proposed taxa are not available according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. We analyzed specimens collected in the Brazilian Northeast Region and compared these with described species and literature descriptions and Oecetis from other regions. We provide herein the description of five new species, additional characters for diagnosing seven of the species recorded from Brazil, new distributional records, and a dichotomous key to the Brazilian species. Additionally, we contrast the two hypotheses of forewing M vein homology and support the unbranched hypothesis. In this way, we improve the knowledge of the genus in the Neotropics, making the species descriptions comparable in a way that facilitates species identification.

  8. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  9. Eye tracking of attention in the affective disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated that affective disorders are characterized by attentional biases for emotional stimuli. However, this research relies heavily on manual reaction time (RT) measures that cannot fully delineate the time course and components of attentional bias. Eye tracking technology, which allows relatively direct and continuous measurement of overt visual attention, may provide an important supplement to RT measures. This article reviews eye tracking research on anxiety and depression, evaluating the experimental paradigms and eye movement indicators used to study attentional biases. Also included is a meta-analysis of extant eye tracking research (33 experiments; N = 1579) on both anxiety and depression. Relative to controls, anxious individuals showed increased vigilance for threat during free viewing and visual search, and showed difficulty disengaging from threat in visual search tasks, but not during free viewing. In contrast, depressed individuals were not characterized by vigilance for threat during free viewing, but were characterized by reduced orienting to positive stimuli, as well as reduced maintenance of gaze on positive stimuli and increased maintenance of gaze on dysphoric stimuli. Implications of these findings for theoretical accounts of attentional bias in anxiety and depression are discussed, and avenues for future research using eye-tracking technology are outlined. PMID:23059623

  10. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles.

  11. Plant reproductive susceptibility to habitat fragmentation: review and synthesis through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Ashworth, Lorena; Galetto, Leonardo; Aizen, Marcelo Adrián

    2006-08-01

    The loss and fragmentation of natural habitats by human activities are pervasive phenomena in terrestrial ecosystems across the Earth and the main driving forces behind current biodiversity loss. Animal-mediated pollination is a key process for the sexual reproduction of most extant flowering plants, and the one most consistently studied in the context of habitat fragmentation. By means of a meta-analysis we quantitatively reviewed the results from independent fragmentation studies throughout the last two decades, with the aim of testing whether pollination and reproduction of plant species may be differentially susceptible to habitat fragmentation depending on certain reproductive traits that typify the relationship with and the degree of dependence on their pollinators. We found an overall large and negative effect of fragmentation on pollination and on plant reproduction. The compatibility system of plants, which reflects the degree of dependence on pollinator mutualism, was the only reproductive trait that explained the differences among the species' effect sizes. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation between the effect sizes of fragmentation on pollination and reproductive success suggests that the most proximate cause of reproductive impairment in fragmented habitats may be pollination limitation. We discuss the conservation implications of these findings and give some suggestions for future research into this area.

  12. Incorporating student-centered approaches into catchment hydrology teaching: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Thompson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As hydrologists confront the future of water resources on a globalized, resource-scarce and human-impacted planet, the educational preparation of future generations of water scientists becomes increasingly important. Although hydrology inherits a tradition of teacher-centered direct instruction – based on lecture, reading and assignment formats – a growing body of knowledge derived from engineering education research suggests that modifications to these methods could firstly improve the quality of instruction from a student perspective, and secondly contribute to better professional preparation of hydrologists, in terms of their abilities to transfer knowledge to new contexts, to frame and solve novel problems, and to work collaboratively in uncertain environments. Here we review the theoretical background and empirical literature relating to adopting student-centered and inductive models of teaching and learning. Models of student-centered learning and their applications in engineering education are introduced by outlining the approaches used by several of the authors to introduce student-centered and inductive educational strategies into their university classrooms. Finally, the relative novelty of research on engineering instruction in general and hydrology in particular creates opportunities for new partnerships between education researchers and hydrologists to explore the discipline-specific needs of hydrology students and develop new approaches for instruction and professional preparation of hydrologists.

  13. Incorporating student-centered approaches into catchment hydrology teaching: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Ngambeki, I.; Troch, P. A.; Sivapalan, M.; Evangelou, D.

    2012-09-01

    As hydrologists confront the future of water resources on a globalized, resource-scarce and human-impacted planet, the educational preparation of future generations of water scientists becomes increasingly important. Although hydrology inherits a tradition of teacher-centered direct instruction - based on lecture, reading and assignment formats - a growing body of knowledge derived from engineering education research suggests that modifications to these methods could firstly improve the quality of instruction from a student perspective, and secondly contribute to better professional preparation of hydrologists, in terms of their abilities to transfer knowledge to new contexts, to frame and solve novel problems, and to work collaboratively in uncertain environments. Here we review the theoretical background and empirical literature relating to adopting student-centered and inductive models of teaching and learning. Models of student-centered learning and their applications in engineering education are introduced by outlining the approaches used by several of the authors to introduce student-centered and inductive educational strategies into their university classrooms. Finally, the relative novelty of research on engineering instruction in general and hydrology in particular creates opportunities for new partnerships between education researchers and hydrologists to explore the discipline-specific needs of hydrology students and develop new approaches for instruction and professional preparation of hydrologists.

  14. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  15. Thiazole: A Review on Chemistry, Synthesis and Therapeutic Importance of its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabria, Mahesh T; Patel, Shivani; Modi, Palmi; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik S

    2016-01-01

    Thiazole, a unique heterocycle containing sulphur and nitrogen atoms, occupies an important place in medicinal chemistry. It is an essential core scaffold present in many natural (Vitamin B1- Thiamine) and synthetic medicinally important compounds. The versatility of thiazole nucleus demonstrated by the fact that it is an essential part of penicillin nucleus and some of its derivatives which have shown antimicrobial (sulfazole), antiretroviral (ritonavir), antifungal (abafungin), antihistaminic and antithyroid activities. The synthetic importance of thiazole derivatives, its reduced forms and condensed derivatives have been increased much by their recent applications as anticancer (tiazofurin), anthelmintic, vulcanising accelerators (mercaptobenzothiazole) and photographic sensitizers. Thiazole chemistry has developed steadily after the pioneering work of Hofmann and Hantsch. Bogert and co-workers made significant contribution to expand this field. Mills established the importance of thiazole ring in cyanine dyes which is used as photographic sensitizer. Benzothiazole, a fused derivative of thiazole have also proved its commercial value. Present review describes chemical and biological importance of thiazole and its condensed derivatives with an emphasis on recent developments.

  16. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA: Review of synthesis, characteristics, processing and potential applications in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bugnicourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are gaining increasing attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to their promising properties such as high biodegradability in different environments, not just in composting plants, and processing versatility. Indeed among biopolymers, these biogenic polyesters represent a potential sustainable replacement for fossil fuel-based thermoplastics. Most commercially available PHAs are obtained with pure microbial cultures grown on renewable feedstocks (i.e. glucose under sterile conditions but recent research studies focus on the use of wastes as growth media. PHA can be extracted from the bacteria cell and then formulated and processed by extrusion for production of rigid and flexible plastic suitable not just for the most assessed medical applications but also considered for applications including packaging, moulded goods, paper coatings, non-woven fabrics, adhesives, films and performance additives. The present paper reviews the different classes of PHAs, their main properties, processing aspects, commercially available ones, as well as limitations and related improvements being researched, with specific focus on potential applications of PHAs in packaging.

  17. ;Long-hissler; fine structure within auroral hiss: A review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Howard F.; LaBelle, James; Spasojević, Maria

    2017-04-01

    One of the most prominent fine-structures of auroral hiss is the ;long-hissler;, defined here as a dispersed feature embedded within broadband auroral hiss emissions in the frequency range 1-40 kHz and lasting longer than 0.3 s. While theory is limited, there is evidence that hisslers can be used in remote sensing of density characteristics at altitudes of thousands of km. By applying an automatic threshold algorithm to VLF data collected at South Pole 2230-0130 UT daily during June-August 2014, 22 h of auroral hiss are identified on 49 of 93 days analyzed, for an occurrence rate of 9.7% during the applicable MLT interval. From manual inspection of these intervals, 414 groups (trains) of long hisslers are identified on 34 of the 49 days on which hiss occurred. Median lower (upper) frequency bounds of these features are 8 (22) kHz, median frequency-time slope is -10 kHz/s, and median hissler repetition time within a train (hissler period) is 1.2 s. Hissler period and frequency-time slope are inversely related. Data from previous studies are reviewed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenomenon. Contrary to some previous studies, subsequent long hissler features are found to commonly overlap in time, and no evidence is found for an inverse relationship between hissler train duration and geomagnetic activity.

  18. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  19. Research Review of Non-equilibrium Plasma Technology for Ammonia Synthesis%非平衡等离子体合成氨研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛绍渊; 聂勇; 宋小芳; 卢美贞; 计建炳

    2015-01-01

    Non-equilibrium plasma technology is a new method for ammonia synthesis at ambient conditions. In this paper, the present situation of ammonia synthesis by non-equilibrium plasma was reviewed. Non-equilibri-um plasma, such as microwave discharge, radio frequency discharge and glow discharge at low pressure, dielectric barrier discharge ( DBD) at atmospheric pressure were used for ammonia synthesis. In addition, the future directions for ammonia synthesis using atmospheric DBD plasma were proposed.%非平衡等离子体技术是一种能有效降低反应压力和温度的新型合成氨方法. 综述了非平衡等离子体合成氨技术的研究历程,包括在低压下采用微波、射频或交、直流高压激发辉光放电和常压下采用介质阻挡放电产生非平衡等离子体进行合成氨研究. 此外,针对目前国内外研究现状,对常压介质阻挡放电等离子体合成氨发展方向进行了展望.

  20. Low-temperature synthesis of zeolite from perlite waste — Part I: review of methods and phase compositions of resulting products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Magdalena; Morawska, Justyna; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Pichór, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    In this paper a review of the recent studies on the synthesis of zeolites from expanded perlite under hydrothermal conditions is presented. Attention is paid to possible outcomes of synthesis from low cost glass material, such as perlite. The study also investigates the phase composition of zeolitic materials obtained by modification of by-product derived from an expanded perlite production process. The synthesis was made using the hydrothermal method with sodium hydroxide under autogenous pressure at a temperature below 100 °C for 1 to 72 h. It was possible to obtain a zeolitic material at a temperature as low as 60 °C using 4.0 M NaOH. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the biggest peak intensity of zeolite X with 4.0 M NaOH at the temperature of 70 °C. During synthesis at higher temperature zeolite Na-P1 (with 3.0 M NaOH at 90 °C) and hydroxysodalite (with 5.0 M NaOH at 90 °C) were obtained.

  1. Review and synthesis of the effects of climate change on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Cohen, Jeremy M; Rohr, Jason R

    2013-06-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the responses of amphibians to climate change, with successful research carried out on climate change-associated shifts in amphibian phenology, elevational distributions and amphibian-parasite interactions. We review and synthesize the literature on this topic, emphasizing acutely lethal, sublethal, indirect and positive effects of climate change on amphibians, and major research gaps. For instance, evidence is lacking on poleward shifts in amphibian distributions and on changes in body sizes and morphologies of amphibians in response to climate change. We have limited information on amphibian thermal tolerances, thermal preferences, dehydration breaths, opportunity costs of water conserving behaviors and actual temperature and moisture ranges amphibians experience. Even when much of this information is available, there remains little evidence that climate change is acutely lethal to amphibians. This suggests that if climate change is contributing to declines, it might be through effects that are not acutely lethal, indirect, or both, but evidence in support of this suggestion is necessary. In fact, evidence that climate change is directly contributing to amphibian declines is weak, partly because researchers have not often ruled out alternative hypotheses, such as chytrid fungus or climate-fungus interactions. Consequently, we recommend that amphibian-climate research shift from primarily inductive, correlational approach as to studies that evaluate alternative hypotheses for declines. This additional rigor will require interdisciplinary collaborations, estimates of costs and benefits of climate change to amphibian fitness and populations, and the integration of correlative field studies, experiments on 'model' amphibian species, and mathematical and functional, physiological models.

  2. Reviews and synthesis: Carbon capture and storage monitoring - an integrated biological, biophysical and chemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, N.; Vik, U.; Taylor, P.; Ladoukakis, E.; Park, J.; Kolisis, F.; Stahl, H.; Jakobsen, K. S.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a developing technology that seeks to mitigate against the impact of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) production by capturing CO2 from large point source emitters. After capture the CO2 is compressed and transported to a reservoir where it is stored for geological time scales. Potential leakages from CCS projects, where stored CO2 migrates through the overlaying sediments, are likely to have severe implications on benthic and marine ecosystems. Nonetheless, prokaryotic response to elevated CO2 concentrations has been suggested as one of the first detectable warnings if a CO2 leakage should occur. Applying properties of prokaryotic communities (i.e. community composition and metabolic status) as a novel CO2 monitoring application is highly reliable within a multidisciplinary framework, where deviations from the baseline can easily be identified. In this paper we review current knowledge about the impact of CO2 leakages on marine sediments from a multidisciplinary-based monitoring perspective. We focus on aspects from the fields of biology, geophysics, and chemistry, and discuss a case study example. We argue the importance of an integrative multidisciplinary approach, incorporating biogeochemistry, geophysics, microbial ecology and modelling, with a particular emphasis on metagenomic techniques and novel bioinformatics, for future CCS monitoring. Within this framework, we consider that an effective CCS monitoring programme will ensure that large-scale leakages with potentially devastating effects for the overlaying ecosystem are avoided. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary approach suggested here for CCS monitoring is generic, and can be adapted to other systems of interest.

  3. What do we know about the experience of age related macular degeneration? A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Amy E; Shaw, Rachel L; Gibson, Jonathan M

    2012-09-01

    Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registerable blindness with a high medical and societal cost burden. Much of the research examining experiences of living with AMD has been conducted independently with small sample sizes and has failed to impact on practice. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research can improve the understanding of the experience of living with AMD by drawing together findings of qualitative studies. This article presents a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies investigating the experience of AMD (literature searched up to April 2012; published studies identified range from 1996 to 2009). The review highlights themes relating to: functional limitations, adaptation and independence; feelings about the future with vision impairment; interaction with the health service; social engagement; disclosure; and the emotional impacts of living with AMD. Attention to the experience of living with AMD can help us to better understand the needs of patients. This meta-synthesis aimed to bring together the findings of qualitative research studies and highlights important areas for consideration when caring for patients with AMD. Our findings suggest that a holistic approach to service provision and support for AMD is needed which takes into account individuals' needs and experiences when coping with and adjusting to living with AMD. This support should aim to reduce stigma, increase social engagement, and develop the psychological resources of patients with AMD.

  4. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met.

  5. Effects of Roads on Animal Abundance: an Empirical Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Rytwinski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We attempted a complete review of the empirical literature on effects of roads and traffic on animal abundance and distribution. We found 79 studies, with results for 131 species and 30 species groups. Overall, the number of documented negative effects of roads on animal abundance outnumbered the number of positive effects by a factor of 5; 114 responses were negative, 22 were positive, and 56 showed no effect. Amphibians and reptiles tended to show negative effects. Birds showed mainly negative or no effects, with a few positive effects for some small birds and for vultures. Small mammals generally showed either positive effects or no effect, mid-sized mammals showed either negative effects or no effect, and large mammals showed predominantly negative effects. We synthesized this information, along with information on species attributes, to develop a set of predictions of the conditions that lead to negative or positive effects or no effect of roads on animal abundance. Four species types are predicted to respond negatively to roads: (i species that are attracted to roads and are unable to avoid individual cars; (ii species with large movement ranges, low reproductive rates, and low natural densities; and (iii and iv small animals whose populations are not limited by road-affected predators and either (a avoid habitat near roads due to traffic disturbance or (b show no avoidance of roads or traffic disturbance and are unable to avoid oncoming cars. Two species types are predicted to respond positively to roads: (i species that are attracted to roads for an important resource (e.g., food and are able to avoid oncoming cars, and (ii species that do not avoid traffic disturbance but do avoid roads, and whose main predators show negative population-level responses to roads. Other conditions lead to weak or non-existent effects of roads and traffic on animal abundance. We identify areas where further research is needed, but we also argue that the

  6. Detonation-synthesis nanodiamonds: synthesis, structure, properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolmatov, Valerii Yu [Federal State Unitary Enterprise Special Design-Technology Bureau (FSUE SDTB) ' ' Tekhnolog' ' at the St Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University) (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-30

    The review outlines the theoretical foundations and industrial implementations of modern detonation synthesis of nanodiamonds and chemical purification of the nanodiamonds thus obtained. The structure, key properties and promising fields of application of detonation-synthesis nanodiamonds are considered.

  7. Empresas multinacionais e desempenho comercial do Brasil: uma revisão da literatura Multinational enterprises and trade performance in Brazil: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Cinquetti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fazemos uma releitura dos estudos empíricos sobre empresas multinacionais (EMNs e comércio exterior no Brasil a partir dos modelos teóricos e empíricos de comércio internacional com firmas multinacionais. Percebe-se que aqueles estudos não examinam como características econômicas do país (Brasil condicionaram a emergência e tipo das EMNs e, assim, seus respectivos impactos sobre comércio exterior. Conseguem isolar, nas análises de impacto comercial, evidências dos serviços tecnológicos das estrangeiras, relativamente às domésticas do mesmo setor, mas não examinam se essas firmas se concentraram ou não em atividades com vantagens comparativas no país, o que seria crucial para determinar seu impacto comercial comparativo.We revisit the empirical research about multinational firms (MNFs and foreign trade in Brazil from the perspective of the theoretical models of international trade with MNFs, and their empirical tests. We observed that the cited studies did not examine how the economic characteristics of Brazil conditioned the emergence and types, as well as the corresponding impacts of the MNFs on foreign trade. The models analyzing trade impacts succeed to single out the MNF's technology service, as compared to same-sector domestic firms, but do not examine whether or not these firms concentrated in activities with comparative advantages, crucial to determine the comparative trade contribution from these firms.

  8. Políticas para avaliação da qualidade do Ensino Superior no Brasil: um balanço crítico Policies for the assessment of higher education in Brazil: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Dias

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo contribuir para o debate sobre a avaliação do Ensino Superior no Brasil, apresentando um estudo a respeito dos sistemas utilizados para as medidas de qualidade e produtividade. Busca-se analisar, por meio da revisão bibliográfica e da análise documental, as origens do processo de avaliação, a seqüência histórica dos debates políticos que definiram os programas de trabalho na área, as concepções metodológicas adotadas por esses programas, os instrumentos de mensuração e acompanhamento que foram desenvolvidos e os sistemas de indicadores criados para aferir a qualidade de ensino nas instituições, bem como o desempenho dos estudantes. A discussão contempla todos os sistemas de avaliação praticados no Brasil até o ano de 2005 e conclui que, desde os primeiros procedimentos estabelecidos, houve uma evolução contínua na definição de indicadores mais precisos e eficientes. Os resultados alcançados pela pesquisa que fundamenta o trabalho aplicam-se explicitamente à revisão dos instrumentos de avaliação praticados no Brasil. O trabalho sugere indicadores ainda não utilizados no processo histórico de avaliação, buscando o aperfeiçoamento do sistema atual.This work wishes to contribute to the debate on the assessment of higher education in Brazil by describing a study about the systems used to measure quality and productivity. Through bibliographical review and documental analysis we seek to analyze the origins of the process of assessment, the historical sequence of the political debates that defined the work programs in this area, the methodological conceptions adopted by these programs, the measuring and follow-up instruments devised, and the systems of indicators created to evaluate the quality of the teaching of the higher education institutions, as well as the students' performance. The discussion includes all assessment systems used in Brazil up to 2005, and concludes that from

  9. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  10. Exercise prescription for hospitalized people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbidities: a synthesis of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid WD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available W Darlene Reid,1,2 Cristiane Yamabayashi,1 Donna Goodridge,3 Frank Chung,4 Michael A Hunt,1 Darcy D Marciniuk,5 Dina Brooks,6 Yi-Wen Chen,1 Alison Hoens,1,7 Pat Camp1,21Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 2Institute of Heart and Lung Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 3College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 4Physiotherapy, Burnaby Hospital, Fraser Health, British Columbia, 5Division of Respirology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 6Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 7Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, CanadaIntroduction: The prescription of physical activity for hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD can be complicated by the presence of comorbidities. The current research aimed to synthesize the relevant literature on the benefits of exercise for people with multimorbidities who experience an AECOPD, and ask: What are the parameters and outcomes of exercise in AECOPD and in conditions that are common comorbidities as reported by systematic reviews (SRs?Methods: An SR was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. Nine electronic databases were searched up to July 2011. Articles were included if they (1 described participants with AECOPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, or one of eleven common comorbidities, (2 were an SR, (3 examined aerobic training (AT, resistance training (RT, balance training (BT, or a combination thereof, (4 included at least one outcome of fitness, and (5 compared exercise training versus control/sham.Results: This synthesis examined 58 SRs of exercise training in people with AECOPD, COPD, or eleven chronic conditions commonly associated with COPD. Meta-analyses of endurance (aerobic or exercise capacity, 6-minute walk distance – 6MWD were shown to significantly improve in most conditions

  11. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Pititto B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4CPClin Clinical Research Center, 5Albert Einstein Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Brazil, epidemiology, management

  12. Which providers can bridge the health literacy gap in lifestyle risk factor modification education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with low health literacy may not have the capacity to self-manage their health and prevent the development of chronic disease through lifestyle risk factor modification. The aim of this narrative synthesis is to determine the effectiveness of primary healthcare providers in developing health literacy of patients to make SNAPW (smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight lifestyle changes. Methods Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australian Medical Index, Community of Science and Google Scholar from 1 January 1985 to 30 April 2009. Health literacy and related concepts are poorly indexed in the databases so a list of text words were developed and tested for use. Hand searches were also conducted of four key journals. Studies published in English and included males and females aged 18 years and over with at least one SNAPW risk factor for the development of a chronic disease. The interventions had to be implemented within primary health care, with an aim to influence the health literacy of patients to make SNAPW lifestyle changes. The studies had to report an outcome measure associated with health literacy (knowledge, skills, attitudes, self efficacy, stages of change, motivation and patient activation and SNAPW risk factor. The definition of health literacy in terms of functional, communicative and critical health literacy provided the guiding framework for the review. Results 52 papers were included that described interventions to address health literacy and lifestyle risk factor modification provided by different health professionals. Most of the studies (71%, 37/52 demonstrated an improvement in health literacy, in particular interventions of a moderate to high intensity. Non medical health care providers were effective in improving health literacy. However this was confounded by intensity of

  13. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  14. The first cytogenetic characterization of the poisonous black widow spider Latrodectus gr. curacaviensis from Brazil, with chromosomal review of the family Theridiidae (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Douglas; Maia, Ulysses Madureira; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present, for the first time, cytogenetical data on Latrodectus gr. curacaviensis (Theridiidae) from Brazil, as well as the first data on meiosis and sex chromosome system of this genus. Testes were submitted to colchicine, hypotonic, and fixation treatment, and chromosomal preparations were stained with Giemsa solution. The analysis showed 2n=26 telo/acrocentric chromosomes in spermatogonial metaphases. Metaphase I exhibited 12 autosomal bivalents and two sex chromosome univalents (12II + X(1)X(2)). All bivalents revealed one terminal chiasma. Metaphases II confirmed the sex chromosome system, showing 12 autosomes or 12 autosomes plus two X chromosomes, respectively. Male karyotype prevailing in theridiids is formed by 2n=22 chromosomes, including sex chromosome system X(1)X(2) in all species. The Latrodectus species of the geometricus clade analyzed until now showed smaller diploid number (2nfemale symbol=16 and 2nfemale symbol=18) than the species of the mactans clade (2nfemale symbol=24 and 2nfemale symbol=26). Thus, according to the chromosome number, the examined Latrodectus species seems to be related to the mactans clade.

  15. Neuropathology of AIDS: An Autopsy Review of 284 Cases from Brazil Comparing the Findings Pre- and Post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Pre- and Postmortem Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of central nervous system (CNS in 284 autopsy AIDS cases in Brazil (1989–2008 divided into 3 groups: A (without antiretroviral treatment: 163 cases; B (other antiretroviral therapies: 76 cases; C (HAART for 3 months or more: 45 cases. In 165 (58.1% cases, relevant lesions were found, predominantly infections (54.2%; the most frequent was toxoplasmosis (29.9% followed by cryptococcosis (15.8%, purulent bacterial infections (3.9%, and HIV encephalitis (2.8%; non-Hodgkin lymphomas occurred in 1.4% and vascular lesions in 1.1%. There was no difference when compared the frequency of lesion among the groups; however, toxoplasmosis was less common while HIV encephalitis was more frequent in group C related to A. CNS lesions remain a frequent cause of death in AIDS; however, the mean survival time was four times greater in group C than in A. In 91 (55.1% of 165 cases with relevant brain lesions (or 32% of the total 284 cases, there was discordance between pre- and postmortem diagnosis; disagreement type 1 (important disease that if diagnosed in life could change the patient prognosis occurred in 49 (53.8% of 91 discordant cases (17.6% of the total 284 indicating the autopsy importance, even with HAART and advanced diagnostics technologies.

  16. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... respect to Brazil and Spain. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74807) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct expedited reviews (77 FR 18861, March 28... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On the...

  17. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Lumertz Saffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of patients with coronary artery disease, this methodological study aimed to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors (Q-FARCS, lifestyle changes, and treatment adherence for use in Brazil. The questionnaire has three scales: general knowledge of risk factors (RFs; specific knowledge of these RFs; and lifestyle changes achieved. Cross-cultural adaptation included translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretesting. Face and content validity, reliability, and construct validity were measured. Cronbach’s alpha for the total sample (n = 240 was 0.75. Assessment of psychometric properties revealed adequate face and content validity, and the construct revealed seven components. It was concluded that the Brazilian version of Q-FARCS had adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of knowledge of cardiovascular RFs.

  18. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle C. G. Fares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4 and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  19. Evolução da pesquisa epidemiológica em atividade física no Brasil: revisão sistemática Evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Curi Hallal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução da pesquisa epidemiológica em atividade física no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central e High Wire, em periódicos nacionais não indexados, por busca específica por autores e contato com pesquisadores. A seleção dos artigos teve como critérios de inclusão: amostra representativa de alguma população definida; tamanho da amostra de pelo menos 500 indivíduos; coleta de dados realizada no Brasil; mensuração de atividade física e relato dos resultados com base nessa variável. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 42 estudos. O primeiro artigo foi publicado em 1990, observando-se tendência de aumento de publicações a partir de 2000. Foi detectada disparidade regional nas publicações, com concentração de estudos nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. A maioria dos estudos (93% utilizou questionários como instrumentos de pesquisa, cujos conteúdos variaram, assim como as definições operacionais de sedentarismo, dificultando a comparação dos resultados. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a literatura em epidemiologia da atividade física venha crescendo quantitativamente no Brasil, limitações metodológicas dificultam a comparação entre os estudos, tornando a padronização de instrumentos e definições essenciais para o avanço científico da área.OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central and High Wire, non-indexed Brazilian journals, query by specific authors, and contact with other researchers. The inclusion criteria were: the sample should be representative of a defined population; sample size equal to or greater than 500 individuals; data collection in Brazil; measurement of physical activity

  20. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  1. Assessing the State of Knowledge Regarding the Effectiveness of Interventions to Contain Pandemic Influenza Transmission: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Jane; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemics occur when a novel influenza strain, to which humans are immunologically naïve, emerges to cause infection and illness on a global scale. Differences in the viral properties of pandemic strains, relative to seasonal ones, can alter the effectiveness of interventions typically implemented to control seasonal influenza burden. As a result, annual control activities may not be sufficient to contain an influenza pandemic. Purpose This study seeks to inform pandemic policy and planning initiatives by reviewing the effectiveness of previous interventions to reduce pandemic influenza transmission and infection. Results will inform the planning and design of more focused in-depth systematic reviews for specific types of interventions, thus providing the most comprehensive and current understanding of the potential for alternative interventions to mitigate the burden of pandemic influenza. Methods A systematic review and narrative synthesis of existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining intervention effectiveness in containing pandemic influenza transmission was conducted using information collected from five databases (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, and Cinahl/EBSCO). Two independent reviewers conducted study screening and quality assessment, extracting data related to intervention impact and effectiveness. Results and Discussion Most included reviews were of moderate to high quality. Although the degree of statistical heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, the present systematic review examines the wide variety of interventions that can impact influenza transmission in different ways. While it appears that pandemic influenza vaccination provides significant protection against infection, there was insufficient evidence to conclude that antiviral prophylaxis, seasonal influenza cross-protection, or a range of non-pharmaceutical strategies would provide appreciable protection when implemented in isolation. It is likely that an

  2. REESTRUTURAÇÃO PRODUTIVA NO BRASIL: UM BALANÇO CRÍTICO INTRODUTÓRIO DA PRODUÇÃO BIBLIOGRÁFICA PRODUCTIVE RESTRUCTURING IN BRAZIL: AN INTRODUCTORY CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Tumolo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfica acerca da reestruturação produtiva no Brasil, abrangendo as mais diversas áreas do conhecimento correlatas -- sociologia do trabalho, economia do trabalho, economia política, administração de empresas, educação e trabalho, engenharia. Com esta base, procura apreender, apesar de todos os limites, como vem se conformando tal fenômeno neste país e aponta que, no contexto do novo padrão de acumulação de capital, sua principal característica é a intensificação da exploração sobre a força de trabalho. Ao mesmo tempo, empreende uma análise crítica da referida bibliografia, buscando indicar seus limites explicativos.Encompassing various fields of knowledge - sociology of labor, economy of labor, political economy, company administration, education and work and engineering -, this text presents the findings of a bibliographic research on the productive restructuring in Brazil. It then seeks to apprehend, despite all the limits, how such a phenomenon took place in the country and points out that, in the context of the new order of capital accumulation, its main characteristic is the intensification of the labor force exploitation. At the same time, it proposes a critical review of the concerned bibliography, pointing out the limits of its accounts.

  3. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  4. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  5. Experimental studies related to the origin of the genetic code and the process of protein synthesis - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature on the experimental evidence for the genetic code assignments and the chemical reactions involved in the process of protein synthesis. In view of the enormous number of theoretical models that have been advanced to explain the origin of the genetic code, attention is confined to experimental studies. Since genetic coding has significance only within the context of protein synthesis, it is believed that the problem of the origin of the code must be dealt with in terms of the origin of the process of protein synthesis. It is contended that the answers must lie in the nature of the molecules, amino acids and nucleotides, the affinities they might have for one another, and the effect that those affinities must have on the chemical reactions that are related to primitive protein synthesis. The survey establishes that for the bulk of amino acids, there is a direct and significant correlation between the hydrophobicity rank of the amino acids and the hydrophobicity rank of their anticodonic dinucleotides.

  6. Magnitude da depressão pós-parto no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática The extent of post-partum depression in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lobato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: realizar uma revisão sistemática dos estudos sobre a magnitude da depressão pós-parto (DPP no Brasil. MÉTODOS: a busca e seleção da literatura baseouse em artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, nas bases de dados eletrônicas Lilacs, SciELO e Medline. RESULTADOS: foram selecionados 14 estudos, sendo que 13 deles reportavam a prevalência de DPP e apenas um estudo de seguimento com limitada casuística (n=21 trazia estimativa da incidência do agravo (42,8%. A grande heterogeneidade em relação à população de estudo, método diagnóstico utilizado e período pós-parto focalizado dificultou a obtenção de uma estimativa agregada da prevalência de DPP no Brasil. Contudo, estudos conduzidos em unidades básicas de saúde, no âmbito da Estratégia de Saúde da Família ou em populações carentes apontaram uma prevalência entre 30 e 40% de DPP, enquanto pesquisas que incluíram amostras de base populacional e populações de unidades hospitalares terciárias revelaram uma prevalência de cerca de 20%. CONCLUSÕES: embora novos estudos sejam necessários para melhor caracterizar as peculiaridades que envolvem a magnitude da DPP no Brasil, as evidências disponíveis justificam uma atenção prioritária para os agravos à saúde mental materna no âmbito da saúde pública no país.OBJECTIVES: to carry out a systematic review of studies of the extent of post-partum depression (PPD in Brazil. METHODS: articles were searched for and selected from national and international periodicals included in the Lilacs, SciELO and Medline electronic databases. RESULTS: fourteen studies were selected, thirteen of which reported the prevalence of PPD and one, which followed up a limited number of cases (n=21 estimated the incidence of the disorder at 42.8%. The wide range of different populations studied, diagnostic methods used, and post-partum period monitored made it difficult to obtain an aggregate estimate for

  7. Contribuições da antropologia à medicina: uma revisão de estudos no Brasil Contributions from anthropology to medicine: a bibliographic review in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Souza Queiroz

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita revisão e análise, sob um ponto de vista antropológico, da literatura mais representativa sobre saúde e doença e práticas de cura no Brasil. Nessa literatura, em primeiro lugar, houve a preocupação de coletar documentos sobre as tradições regionais do mundo rural, expressando uma ampla variedade de pontos de vista. Em geral, "medicina popular" era vista como um conjunto de práticas e idéias rudes e imitativas, provenientes tanto da medicina erudita do passado como das tradições étnicas brasileiras. Em segundo lugar, as ciências sociais exerceram uma grande influência neste tipo de estudo. Depois dos anos 30 e, principalmente, dos anos 40 aos 70, um número importante de trabalhos tiveram lugar nesse campo de estudo, influenciados pelas posturas acadêmicas como, por exemplo, o funcionalismo, a teoria da aculturação, e as teorias do desenvolvimento. Durante os anos 70 o campo atingiu a sua maturidade com um grande número de pesquisas sob várias influências teóricas. As teorias estruturalistas e funcional-estruturalistas (que variam entre o formalismo abstrato e o substantivismo tiveram um peso mais consistente nessa década. Três importantes estudos recentes foram também analisados, e as principais tendências abertas nesse campo foram também discutidas, particularmente as tentativas marxistas de análise.An analysis was made of the most representative literature both on health and illness representations and on practices of cure in Brazil from an anthropological point of view. Firsttly, there was in this litterature the concern of collecting the folk traditions from the rural world, expressing a great variety of viewpoints. In general, "popular medicine" was seen as a set of rude and imitative ideas and practices stemming from both the erudite medicine of the past and Brazilian ethnic traditions. Secondly, social sciences have had a great influence on this kind of study. After the 30's, particularly from the

  8. Social and cultural dimensions of hypertension in Brazil: a review Dimensões culturais e sociais da hipertensão no Brasil: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevated arterial blood pressure varies substantially in relation to social and cultural variables. Early work on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and blood pressure documented this variation, which could not be explained entirely by conventional factors such as diet, physical activity, or access to medical care. These findings stimulated the development of a model of stress and disease. The stress model emphasizes social and psychological factors that are perceived by individuals to be stressful, as well as factors that help individuals to respond to those stressors. Conventional stress models are, however, problematic because the primary emphasis is on individual perception, with little consideration of the social and cultural context in which stress occurs. This paper describes a complementary model of social and cultural influences on disease risk, placing greater emphasis on how individuals are able to approximate, in their own behaviors, shared cultural models of life, referred to as "cultural consonance". Findings from research in Brazil indicate that the higher an individual's cultural consonance, the lower his or her blood pressure. These results indicate the importance of linking different levels of analysis - the cultural, the individual, and the biological - to understand disease risk.A prevalência de hipertensão arterial varia bastante em relação a fatores sociais e culturais. As pesquisas iniciais sobre aculturação, status sócio-econômico e pressão arterial documentam essa variação, que não pode ser explicada totalmente por fatores convencionais. Tais conclusões estimularam o desenvolvimento de um modelo de estresse e doença. O modelo de estresse enfatiza a participação de fatores sociais e psicológicos que os indivíduos percebem como estressores, e fatores que podem ajudar a responder a tais fatores. Os modelos convencionais de estresse são problemáticos porque sua ênfase primária é na percep

  9. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1995-01-01

    Contiene: M. Carmen África Vidal Claramonte. Traducción, manipulación, desconstrucción. Colección Biblioteca Filológica de Salamanca. Salamanca: Ediciones Colegio de España, 1995 / reviewed by Enrique Alcaraz Varó; Diccionario de uso inglés-español/Spanish-English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 450 pp. Diccionario de uso pocket inglés-español/Spanish- English. Directed by Aquilino Sánchez. Madrid: SGEL, 1993, 274 pages / reviewed by Miguel Ángel Campos Pardillo...

  10. Neuromuscular training to enhance sensorimotor and functional deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Driscoll, Jeremiah

    2011-09-22

    Abstract Objective To summarise the available evidence for the efficacy of neuromuscular training in enhancing sensorimotor and functional deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Design Systematic review with best evidence synthesis. Data Sources An electronic search was conducted through December 2009, limited to studies published in the English language, using the Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases. Reference screening of all included articles was also undertaken. Methods Studies were selected if the design was a RCT, quasi RCT, or a CCT; the patients were adolescents or adults with confirmed CAI; and one of the treatment options consisted of a neuromuscular training programme. The primary investigator independently assessed the risk of study bias and extracted relevant data. Due to clinical heterogeneity, data was analysed using a best-evidence synthesis. Results Fourteen studies were included in the review. Meta-analysis with statistical pooling of data was not possible, as the studies were considered too heterogeneous. Instead a best evidence synthesis was undertaken. There is limited to moderate evidence to support improvements in dynamic postural stability, and patient perceived functional stability through neuromuscular training in subjects with CAI. There is limited evidence of effectiveness for neuromuscular training for improving static postural stability, active and passive joint position sense (JPS), isometric strength, muscle onset latencies, shank\\/rearfoot coupling, and a reduction in injury recurrence rates. There is limited evidence of no effectiveness for improvements in muscle fatigue following neuromuscular intervention. Conclusion There is limited to moderate evidence of effectiveness in favour of neuromuscular training for various measures of static and dynamic postural stability, active and passive JPS, isometric strength, muscle onset latencies, shank\\/rearfoot coupling and injury recurrence rates. Strong

  11. Neuromuscular training to enhance sensorimotor and functional deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability: A systematic review and best evidence synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll Jeremiah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To summarise the available evidence for the efficacy of neuromuscular training in enhancing sensorimotor and functional deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI. Design Systematic review with best evidence synthesis. Data Sources An electronic search was conducted through December 2009, limited to studies published in the English language, using the Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases. Reference screening of all included articles was also undertaken. Methods Studies were selected if the design was a RCT, quasi RCT, or a CCT; the patients were adolescents or adults with confirmed CAI; and one of the treatment options consisted of a neuromuscular training programme. The primary investigator independently assessed the risk of study bias and extracted relevant data. Due to clinical heterogeneity, data was analysed using a best-evidence synthesis. Results Fourteen studies were included in the review. Meta-analysis with statistical pooling of data was not possible, as the studies were considered too heterogeneous. Instead a best evidence synthesis was undertaken. There is limited to moderate evidence to support improvements in dynamic postural stability, and patient perceived functional stability through neuromuscular training in subjects with CAI. There is limited evidence of effectiveness for neuromuscular training for improving static postural stability, active and passive joint position sense (JPS, isometric strength, muscle onset latencies, shank/rearfoot coupling, and a reduction in injury recurrence rates. There is limited evidence of no effectiveness for improvements in muscle fatigue following neuromuscular intervention. Conclusion There is limited to moderate evidence of effectiveness in favour of neuromuscular training for various measures of static and dynamic postural stability, active and passive JPS, isometric strength, muscle onset latencies, shank/rearfoot coupling and injury recurrence

  12. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures: a final review of the ARPA SPICES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs working to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it has been the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multi-organizational team for future incorporating of this new technology into each members respective product lines. Over the twenty-four month program many new improvements in sensors, actuators, modeling, manufacturing/integration and controls have been realized. The paper outlines the four phases of development in the program and the impact some of the key technologies will have on the smart structure development process in the future.

  13. One year after the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil: from hypotheses to evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito

    Full Text Available Abstract Zika virusis an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family with two major strains, an Asian and an African strain. The main vectors involved in the transmission of Zika virus are the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. The first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap Island, which belongs to the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean, and in French Polynesia, where high attack rates occurred and the first cases of associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported. From November 2014 to early 2015, the Northeast states of Brazil reported the first outbreaks of Zika virus infection, with laboratory confirmation of Zika virus circulation in April 2015. In the second quarter of 2015, the association between Zika virus infection and neurological symptoms was confirmed in adults. Moreover, in October 2015 a novel suspicion was raised based on clinical and epidemiological observations: that an association between Zika virus infection and neonatal microcephaly may exist. A year after the first reports on Zika virus in Brazil, many hypotheses and much evidence on the patterns of involvement of the disease and its complications have been produced, both in this country and others; other hypotheses still need to be clarified. This review is a synthesis of a new chapter in the history of medicine; it outlines the main results produced.

  14. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  15. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38 (

  16. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which ca

  17. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1966-01-01

    An exhaustive Flora of Delhi, compiled by J. K. Maheshwari, was published by C.S.I.R. in 1963 (for a review see Blumea 13, 1965, p. 174). During the compilation of that flora, 278 line-drawings, illustrating the habits and chief features of the plants found in Delhi, were prepared; they form a welco

  18. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1998-01-01

    BALGOOY, M.M.J, VAN. 1998. Malesian Seed Plants. Volume 2. Portraits of tree families. 307 pp., numerous text figures. Published by Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Leiden. ISBN 90-71236-36-6. Paperback. Price: NLG 100.00. This is the second volume of a trilogy [see the review of ‘Spot-characters’ b

  19. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  20. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and…

  1. Review on Synthesis of Functional β-Cyclodextrin Monomer%环糊精功能化单体制备的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱久进; 陈志; 张晓凤; 桑雪梅

    2013-01-01

    Cyclodextrin polymers are polymeric derivatives which have multiple cyclodextrins, and they have the high performance of both β-cyclodextrin and polymers, so they are widely used in the areas including molecular recognition, separation and analytical techniques, biomedical engineering, environmental protection, etc. The synthesis of cyclodextrin polymers has been given abroad attention, and the functionalization of β-cyclodextrin monomer is the key step of synthesis of β-cyclodextrin polymers. The synthesis methods of β-cyclodextrin monomer with functional groups were reviewed, including modifying it to β-cyclodextrin monomer with highly active functional groups, to cyclodextrin monomers carrying vinyl group and to cyclodextrin monomers with multiple substituted functional groups, etc.%环糊精聚合物是含有多个环糊精单元的高分子衍生物,兼具环糊精和高聚物二者良好的性能,在分子识别、分离分析技术、生物医学工程、环境等领域得到广泛的应用.环糊精聚合物的合成得到广泛关注,将环糊精单体功能化是制备环糊精聚合物的关键步骤.本文综述了β-环糊精单体功能化的几种制备方法,包括将环糊精修饰成带高反应活性的官能团、修饰成含乙烯基环糊精单体以及多取代官能团环糊精单体等.

  2. A Synthesis of the Evidence for Managing Stress at Work: A Review of the Reviews Reporting on Anxiety, Depression, and Absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep S. Bhui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychosocial stressors in the workplace are a cause of anxiety and depressive illnesses, suicide and family disruption. Methods. The present review synthesizes the evidence from existing systematic reviews published between 1990 and July 2011. We assessed the effectiveness of individual, organisational and mixed interventions on two outcomes: mental health and absenteeism. Results. In total, 23 systematic reviews included 499 primary studies; there were 11 meta-analyses and 12 narrative reviews. Meta-analytic studies found a greater effect size of individual interventions on individual outcomes. Organisational interventions showed mixed evidence of benefit. Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism. The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews. Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions. Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Gaps in the literature include studies of organisational outcomes like absenteeism, the influence of specific occupations and size of organisations, and studies of the comparative effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Conclusions. Individual interventions (like CBT improve individuals’ mental health. Physical activity as an organisational intervention reduces absenteeism. Research needs to target gaps in the evidence.

  3. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  4. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  5. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  6. Revisão sistemática sobre estudos de espacialização da dengue no Brasil Systematic review of spatial analysis studies on dengue in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo de Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre estudos de geoprocessamento do vetor da dengue e da doença no Brasil. A busca dos trabalhos foi realizada nas bases de dados Pubmed, Bireme e Scielo. A seleção foi realizada por critérios de inclusão, sendo estes: artigos originais sobre dengue e emprego de técnicas de geoprocessamento, publicados em inglês ou português de 1998 a 2007; trabalhos de finalização de curso; e trabalhos apresentados em congresso. Trabalhos que avaliaram essa doença em outros países foram excluídos. As palavras-chaves utilizadas na identificação dos artigos foram: "distribuição espacial e dengue", "dengue e geoprocessamento", "análise espacial e dengue", "Sistema de Informações Geográficas e dengue" e suas traduções para língua inglesa. Na base de busca do Scielo foram encontrados 15 artigos, dos quais selecionou-se 8; na Pubmed 11 trabalhos foram identificados, dos quais utilizou-se 3; e na Bireme, 20 trabalhos, dos quais selecionou-se 2. A revisão realizada permitiu analisar 7 estudos de espacialização dos casos de dengue, 5 trabalhos com vetores da dengue e um estudo que avaliou os casos e os vetores, simultaneamente. Foi freqüente a não-utilização de técnicas de geoprocessamento. Aspectos sociais foram freqüentemente associados à distribuição espacial da dengue. Desta forma, concluiu-se que os estudos de espacialização da dengue no Brasil, especialmente aqueles que avaliam os seus vetores, subutilizam as ferramentas do geoprocessamento. Os aspectos socioeconômicos são importantes para o entendimento da distribuição espacial da dengue.The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review of geoprocessing studies on the dengue vector and the disease in Brazil. The search was conducted in the Pubmed and Bireme databases and in Scielo virtual library. The selection was carried out using inclusion criteria, such as: original articles on dengue and the use

  7. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  8. 电化学合成臭氧技术的研究动态%Review on Electrochemical Synthesis of Ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘石军; 崔玉虹; 陈倩; 冯静雅; 章北平

    2012-01-01

    Ozonation and catalytic ozonation have received much attention in water and wastewater treatment especially for waters and wastewaters containing non-biodegradable pollutants. Conventional application of ozone in water treatment is using gaseous ozone which is synthesized from oxygen and gaseous ozone must be dissolved into water. Electrochemical synthesis of ozone is simple in structure and operation, which can produce dissolved ozone directly by water electrolysis, and thus eliminate any possibility of nitrogen oxide formation and avoid the loss and decay during transfer from gaseous ozone to dissolved ozone which is always existed in conventional ozone generation process. The effectiveness of electrochemical synthesis of ozone depends critically on electrode materials and reactor design. Current research of electrochemical synthesis of ozone, including application and research advance of electrode materials and development of reactors were reviewed. Main problem and prospects of electrochemical synthesis of ozone were also discussed.%臭氧/催化臭氧化技术在给水处理、污水深度处理以及难降解废水的处理中引起了广泛关注.传统的臭氧使用方法是将由氧气生成的气相臭氧溶入水中而得以应用.为了使臭氧更好的应用于水处理领域,采用电化学方法直接从水溶液中合成臭氧的技术近年来受到关注并得到重要发展,该技术设备简单,且能避免传统的气相合成臭氧技术的氮氧化物污染和臭氧的气/液转移损失,电极材料的发展和反应器系统的优化是推动此技术应用的关键.文章介绍了电化学合成臭氧技术的基本原理及其研究动态,重点评述了用于该技术的不同电极材料及其研究应用现状,同时也分析了电化学合成臭氧反应器的发展情况,指出了目前电化学合成臭氧技术存在的主要问题和研究重点,并对该技术的发展前景进行了展望.

  9. A Short Review of Chemical Reaction Database Systems, Computer-Aided Synthesis Design, Reaction Prediction and Synthetic Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Wendy A

    2014-06-01

    This article is the text for a pedagogical lecture to be given at the Strasbourg Summer School in Chemoinformatics in June 2104. It covers a very wide range of reaction topics including structure and reaction representation, reaction centers, atom-to-atom mapping, reaction retrieval systems, computer-aided synthesis design, retrosynthesis, reaction prediction and synthetic feasibility. In the time available the coverage of each topic can only be cursory; the main usefulness of this article to the research community is the extensive bibliography.

  10. A Review on the Synthesis of Manganese Oxide Nanomaterials and Their Applications on Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most recently, manganese oxides nanomaterials, including MnO and MnO2, have attracted great interest as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs for their high theoretical capacity, environmental benignity, low cost, and special properties. Up to now, manganese oxides nanostructures with excellent properties and various morphologies have been successfully synthesized. Herein, we provide an in-depth discussion of recent development of the synthesis of manganese oxides nanomaterials and their application in the field of LIBs.

  11. The Genus Cyclospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, with a description of Cyclospora schneideri n.sp. in the snake Anilius scytale scytale (Aniliidae from Amazonian Brazil: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A review is made of the recorded species of the coccidian genus Cyclospora and major events leading up to the discovery of C. cayetanensis, which is responsible for serious outbreaks of diarrhoea in man and is one of the aetiological agents of "traveller's diarrhoea". Humans appear to be the specific hosts, with the entire life-cycle in the intestine: to date there is no convincing evidence that the disease is a zoonosis. A description is given of oocysts and endogenous stages of C. schneideri n.sp., in the snake Anilius scytale scytale. Sporulation is exogenous and completed after about one week at 24-26º. Mature oocysts 19.8 × 16.6 (15.1 × 13.8-25.7 × 20.1, shape-index 1.2 (1.0-1.3: no oocyst residuum or polar bodies. Oocyst wall a single colourless, smooth layer with no micropyle: it is rapidly deformed or broken. Sporocysts 13.6 × 9.4 (11.3 × 8.3-15.1 × 9.9, shape-index 1.4 (1.2-1.5 with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Sporozoites 11-13 × 2.5-3. Endogenous stages are intracytoplasmic in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and with the characters of the Eimeriorina.

  12. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Latulippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011 in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1 there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2 low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3 carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4 validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5 negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6 new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7 there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load, satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management.

  13. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Marie E; Meheust, Agnès; Augustin, Livia; Benton, David; Berčík, Přemysl; Birkett, Anne; Eldridge, Alison L; Faintuch, Joel; Hoffmann, Christian; Jones, Julie Miller; Kendall, Cyril; Lajolo, Franco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Prieto, Pedro Antonio; Rastall, Robert A; Sievenpiper, John L; Slavin, Joanne; de Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2013-01-01

    To stimulate discussion around the topic of 'carbohydrates' and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1-2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut-brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load), satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management.

  14. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bradley W; Chen, C-Y Oliver; McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2011-12-01

    Tree nuts contain an array of phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols and polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAC) and stilbenes, all of which are included in nutrient databases, as well as phytates, sphingolipids, alkylphenols and lignans, which are not. The phytochemical content of tree nuts can vary considerably by nut type, genotype, pre- and post-harvest conditions, as well as storage conditions. Genotype affects phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and phytosterols, but data are lacking for many other phytochemical classes. During the roasting process, tree nut isoflavones, flavanols and flavonols were found to be more resistant to heat than the anthocyanins, PAC and trans-resveratrol. The choice of solvents used for extracting polyphenols and phytosterols significantly affects their quantification, and studies validating these methods for tree nut phytochemicals are lacking. The phytochemicals found in tree nuts have been associated with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antiviral, chemopreventive and hypocholesterolaemic actions, all of which are known to affect the initiation and progression of several pathogenic processes. While tree nut phytochemicals are bioaccessible and bioavailable in humans, the number of intervention trials conducted to date is limited. The objectives of the present review are to summarise tree nut: (1) phytochemicals; (2) phytochemical content included in nutrient databases and current publications; (3) phytochemicals affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions and analytical methodology; and (4) bioactivity and health benefits in humans.

  15. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia, Maddenia, Rosa, Malus, and Pyrus. Prunus is taken in the inclusive sense and has 38 species in India, including a number of non-indigenous but cultivated and sometimes naturalized species. Prinsepia...

  16. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available For a variety of different reasons, increasing use is now being made of the Internet for the delivery of course materials and/or for the support of teaching and learning activities. The details of the mechanisms used will obviously vary from one situation to another, depending upon the types of problem to be addressed. These may involve mentoring, teaching, monitoring, recording, tutoring, assessing, and so on. In this book, the author attempts to review the educational and administrative considerations of offering courses, course materials or course delivery via the Internet.

  17. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  18. Review of Domestic F-18 Multifunctional Module and Synthesis Positron Radiopharmaceuticals%国产氟-18多功能模块及合成正电子放射性药物概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 于璟

    2016-01-01

    The ifeld of radiochemistry is moving towards exclusive use of automated synthesis modules for production of most clinical radiopharmaceutical doses. Such a move comes with many advantages, but also presents radiochemists with many chalenges. This review introduces the characteristic of the PET-MF-2V-IT-I synthesis module, and use it to automate synthetize a series of radiopharmaceutical with the method of single tube synthesis, double tube synthesis, click chemistry synthesis and combined with 1C-CH3I synthesis module, in order to meet the requirements of clinical and scientiifc research .%正电子放射性药品大多采用自动化模块合成以适应临床需要,这种全自动化模块的生产模式有其自身优势,但同时也带来了很大的挑战。本文介绍了国产PET-MF-2V-IT-I型氟-18多功能模块的特点,并运用该模块进行单反应管合成、双反应管合成、点击化学合成、联合11C碘代甲烷模块合成多种放射性药物,以满足临床及科研的需求。

  19. Predictors of children's secondhand smoke exposure at home: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Orton; Jones, Laura L; Sue Cooper; Sarah Lewis; Tim Coleman

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been causally linked to a number of childhood morbidities and mortalities. Over 50% of UK children whose parents are smokers are regularly exposed to SHS at home. No previous review has identified the factors associated with children's SHS exposure in the home. AIM: To identify by systematic review, the factors which are associated with children's SHS exposure in the home, determined by parent or child reports and/or biochemic...

  20. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  1. 76 FR 65496 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR...

  2. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  3. Brazil as an Emerging Power: Its Role in the Transition to a Multipolar Order and the Consequences for Its Relations with the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Roy Leatherman III

    2012-01-01

    This master\\'s thesis examines the effects of Brazil\\'s economic and political rise on the nation\\'s ability to have shaped global order through soft balancing during the presidency of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the consequent impact on Brazil\\'s relations with the United States. In order to contextualize the effects of Brazil\\'s soft balancing on international institutions and Brazilian-American relations, this text first reviews the relevant theoretical and empirical literature on the li...

  4. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Study Guide: «KUBAN STUDIES. KUBAN IN THE XX CENTURY – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY. HISTORY. PEOPLE SOCIETY.» Study Guide (electronic version to grade 11 of educational institutions. A.A. Zaitsev, E.V. Morozova, N.V. Plotichkina and O.A. Borisko, M.A. Egupova, A.B. Sazantovich, I.S. Bashkakov, T.I. Belyaeva. Krasnodar: Perspectives on Education, 2015.In a review of a thorough analysis of all the component parts of the book that will surely attract the attention first of all history teachers and students in 11 classes of educational institutions of the region. A comprehensive presentation of the material significantly adds to the course of modern history of Russia and enrich its specific material about the life of the Russian Cossacks and as part of the – of the Kuban Cossacks. Along with the reference materials of pure nature that is needed for this kind of research are presented and informative sections on the socio-economic condition of the region, the interests of different strata of the population, the multinational factor and the religious beliefs of the population. Cossacks in its warlike mentality, and this trait is passed from generation to generation. But the aspirations of the Cossacks in this respect are transparent – protecting the integrity of the Fatherland, faithful service to him, boundless devotion to the Orthodox faith. The important story is linked with the identity of the Russian Cossacks, its mentality, "Kuban" specificity, especially for the rule on different sections of history, to various of its exponents, both military and civilians. As is known from the Cossacks received a development institute of judging for each Ataman smoking, working village judge. Cossacks series comply with the law as applied his own family, and chic plan – in the state, fought against offenders, it is considered in relation to the Cossacks and representatives of different ethnic communities living with the Cossacks, and

  5. Cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou no Brasil e seus fatores determinantes: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil and its determining factors: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Leite Martins

    2005-08-01

    coberturas abaixo de 70,0% nos últimos três anos. Por outro lado, algumas variáveis foram mais freqüentemente observadas nas mulheres não submetidas ao exame de Papanicolaou: ter baixo nível socioeconômico, ter baixa escolaridade, ter baixa renda familiar e pertencer às faixas etárias mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: os dados aqui apresentados apontam para desigualdades regionais na cobertura do exame de Papanicolaou na população feminina brasileira e para a necessidade de intervenção junto àqueles fatores a ela associados.PURPOSE: to present an overview of the coverage of the Pap smear in Brazil, emphasizing the determinant factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. METHODS: the literature was reviewed using the LILACS (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Sciences of the Health, MEDLINE - 1966 to 2004 (International Literature in Sciences of the Health, PAHO (Collection of the Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, and WHOLIS (System of Information of the Library of OMS databases. The review was enlarged through the search of bibliographical references of relevant studies, request for published and unpublished studies by specialists, and other sources. Articles that fulfilled the following criteria were selected: to be a cross-sectional study, carried out in Brazil, including information about periodicity of the Pap test (some time in life or in the last three years and/or containing information about factors associated with failure of women to submit to the test. Duplicates and articles without summary were excluded. A total of 13 articles fulfilling these criteria were selected. RESULTS: there are few studies on the coverage of Pap smear in Brazil. Most of them are concentrated in the big cities of the South and Southeast regions of the country. Besides the shortage, little methodological standardization exists in relation to the sampling and profile of the investigated women, which turns difficult the comparison among them

  6. 76 FR 38691 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...)] Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey Institution of five-year review concerning the countervailing duty order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey and the antidumping duty orders on certain pipe and tube from Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico,...

  7. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on...

  8. 78 FR 60311 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab Emirates... order on polyethylene terephthalate (``PET'') film, sheet, and strip from Brazil, China, and the United..., China, and the United Arab Emirates (73 FR 66595). The Commission is conducting reviews to...

  9. Understanding of factors that enable health promoters in implementing health-promoting schools: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tommy Tsz Man; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Dawson, Angela; Lee, Regina Lai Tong

    2014-01-01

    Health-promoting schools have been regarded as an important initiative in promoting child and adolescent health in school settings using the whole-school approach. Quantitative research has proved its effectiveness in various school-based programmes. However, few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate the strategies used by health promoters to implement such initiatives. In this study, the researchers conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the qualitative literature to identify important enablers assisting the implementation of health-promoting schools from the perspectives of health promoters. Five enablers have been identified from the review: (a) Following a framework/guideline to implement health-promoting schools; (b) Obtaining committed support and contributions from the school staff, school board management, government authorities, health agencies and other stakeholders; (c) Adopting a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to implementing HPS; (d) Establishing professional networks and relationships; and (e) Continuing training and education in school health promotion. This highlights the importance of developing school health policies that meet local health needs, and socio-cultural characteristics that can foster mutual understanding between the health and education sectors so as to foster health promotion in children and adolescents.

  10. Understanding of factors that enable health promoters in implementing health-promoting schools: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Tsz Man Hung

    Full Text Available Health-promoting schools have been regarded as an important initiative in promoting child and adolescent health in school settings using the whole-school approach. Quantitative research has proved its effectiveness in various school-based programmes. However, few qualitative studies have been conducted to investigate the strategies used by health promoters to implement such initiatives. In this study, the researchers conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the qualitative literature to identify important enablers assisting the implementation of health-promoting schools from the perspectives of health promoters. Five enablers have been identified from the review: (a Following a framework/guideline to implement health-promoting schools; (b Obtaining committed support and contributions from the school staff, school board management, government authorities, health agencies and other stakeholders; (c Adopting a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to implementing HPS; (d Establishing professional networks and relationships; and (e Continuing training and education in school health promotion. This highlights the importance of developing school health policies that meet local health needs, and socio-cultural characteristics that can foster mutual understanding between the health and education sectors so as to foster health promotion in children and adolescents.

  11. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  12. Full Time School in Brazil: Policy, Curriculum and Pedagogic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Valéria Valéria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the project of integral education and full time school which is under construction in Brazil, linking history and policy to thinking the curriculum and pedagogical work in schools for extended journey. The analyzes presented here are the resulted synthesis of two completed researches and another two ongoing, concerning policy and processes of teaching and learning in public full time schools.

  13. Epidemiologia do beber pesado e beber pesado episódico no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Epidemiology of heavy drinking and heavy episodic drinking in Brazil: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O beber pesado episódico (BPE tem sido fortemente associado a danos e a uma carga social consideráveis. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo tem como finalidade avaliar o panorama brasileiro a partir de aspectos sociodemográficos, fatores individuais e sociais relacionados ao beber pesado. MÉTODOS: A busca de artigos científicos foi realizada com base em um programa de computador nos principais bancos de dados científicos. RESULTADOS: Os homens beberam pesado mais freqüentemente que as mulheres. O beber pesado episódico foi mais prevalente em adolescentes e adultos jovens, e a prevalência tende a diminuir com o aumento da idade. As condições socioeconômicas parecem ter um efeito sobre o beber pesado. O início precoce do beber pesado esteve associado com história de dependência do álcool na vida adulta. O beber pesado episódico esteve associado ao uso concomitante de outras substâncias psicoativas. Os fatores de risco para BPE incluíram atividades sociais e disponibilidade de dinheiro. A pressão dos pares mostrou influenciar mais do que o suporte parental especialmente no final de adolescência. O BP também variou de acordo com a cultura, com mais episódios de BP no Sul em comparação com o Norte do País. CONCLUSÕES: Uma variedade de aspectos sociodemográficos e individuais associados ao beber pesado foi identificada. Porém, o conhecimento nessa área ainda é muito limitado. Mais pesquisas no Brasil são urgentemente necessárias visto que os resultados provenientes de outras culturas não podem ser generalizados.BACKGROUND: Heavy episodic drinking has been shown to be closely associated with considerable damage to and burden on society. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to give an overview of the Brazilian reality based on socio-demographic aspects, considering individual and social factors related to heavy drinking. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of relevant articles was conducted in the foremost scientific databases

  14. Dental fluorosis in Brazil: a systematic review from 1993 to 2004 Fluorose dentária no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática do período 1993/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The current article proposes a reflection on several aspect pertaining to dental fluorosis in Brazil, based on a systematic review of epidemiological surveys. The authors assess the prevalence and degrees of severity found in different studies and show that in methodological terms, there is a need for progress in procedures for population-based studies on fluorosis. Despite the different data collection approaches, there is some consensus among the different studies as to the limited severity of fluorosis in Brazil, as well as its association with the independent variables age and socioeconomic status. The authors also highlight the importance of adding subjective aspects to the normative diagnosis as a contribution to public health policy decisions, since the use of exclusively clinical criteria gives dental fluorosis more space than society ascribes to it. There is a lack of empirical evidence to reassess the fluoride content in public water supplies, a method that is known to be necessary to improve dental caries epidemiological indicators.O presente trabalho propõe uma reflexão sobre alguns aspectos relativos à fluorose dentária no Brasil, a partir de uma revisão sistemática de estudos e inquéritos epidemiológicos. A prevalência e os níveis de severidade encontrados nos diferentes estudos são avaliados, verificando-se que, quanto aos aspectos metodológicos, há necessidade de avançar no que diz respeito aos procedimentos para estudo da fluorose em âmbito populacional. Apesar das diferentes abordagens para coleta de dados, há algum consenso, entre os diferentes estudos, quanto à baixa severidade da fluorose no Brasil e a sua associação com as variáveis independentes idade e condição sócio-econômica. Destaca-se também a importância de incluir aspectos subjetivos ao diagnóstico normativo, como uma contribuição às decisões que envolvem o planejamento de políticas públicas de saúde, uma vez que o uso de crit

  15. A Review on Nanoparticles of Titanium Dioxide: Characteristics, Methods of Synthesis and Their Application in Organic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Tamimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of inorganic pigments to improve the polymeric coatings properties and nanocomposite coating with optimized properties is very common. Titanium dioxide is a white pigment used in the coatings industry is the most important because of the abundance of visible light may be used efficiently disperses. Titanium dioxide is available in two main crystal structures of anatase and rutile. Titanium dioxide rutile pigments due to better disperse of the light, reliability, and durability are preferred to anatase. Titanium dioxide due to chemical resistance, photocatalytic properties, self- cleaning properties and non-toxicity is a good choice as a pigment. In this article, we will become familiar with different types of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, their photocatalytic performance, the environment factors, different methods of production and synthesis of nanocomposite and nanocomposite coatings corrosion resistance properties.

  16. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  17. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R, GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis across species. Identification of the regulatory mechanisms governing GnIH expression and release is important in understanding the physiological role of the GnIH system. A nocturnal hormone, melatonin, appears to act directly on GnIH neurons through its receptor to induce expression and release of GnIH in quail, a photoperiodic bird. Recently, a similar, but opposite, action of melatonin on the inhibition of expression of mammalian GnIH was shown in hamsters and sheep, photoperiodic mammals. These results in photoperiodic animals demonstrate that GnIH expression is photoperiodically modulated via a melatonin-dependent process. Recent findings indicate that GnIH may be a mediator of stress-induced reproductive disruption in birds and mammals, pointing to a broad role for this neuropeptide in assessing physiological state and modifying reproductive effort accordingly. This paper summarizes the advances made in our knowledge regarding the regulation of GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic birds and mammals. This paper also discusses the neuroendocrine integration of environmental signals, such as photoperiods and stress, and internal signals, such as GnIH, melatonin and glucocorticoids, to control avian and mammalian reproduction.

  18. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  19. What Influences the Uptake of Information to Prevent Skin Cancer? A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark; Moxham, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasing problem in Europe, America and Australasia, although largely preventable by avoiding excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of qualitative research about the prevention of skin cancer attributable to UV exposure. The aim is to understand elements that may contribute…

  20. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  1. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  2. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  3. Fabrication, Modification, and Emerging Applications of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays by Electrochemical Synthesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titania nanotube arrays (TNAs as a hot nanomaterial have a unique highly ordered array structure and good mechanical and chemical stability, as well as excellent anticorrosion, biocompatible, and photocatalytic performance. It has been fabricated by a facile electrochemical anodization in electrolytes containing small amounts of fluoric ions. In combination with our research work, we review the recent progress of the new research achievements of TNAs on the preparation processes, forming mechanism, and modification. In addition, we will review the potential and significant applications in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, solar cells, water splitting, and other aspects. Finally, the existing problems and further prospects of this renascent and rapidly developing field are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  4. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research findings on visitor impacts to wilderness and protected natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff; Leung, Yu-Fai; Eagleston, Holly; Burroughs, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the US Wilderness Act of 1964 presents a worthy opportunity to review our collective knowledge on how recreation visitation affects wilderness and protected natural area resources. Studies of recreation impacts, examined within the recreation ecology field of study, have spanned 80 years and generated more than 1,200 citations. This article examines the recreation ecology literature most relevant to wilderness and backcountry, with a focus on visitor impacts to vegetation, soil, wildlife, and water resources. We also review relationships with influential factors, such as the amount of use, visitor behavior, and vegetation type. An understanding of these impacts and their relationships with influential factors is necessary for land managers seeking to identify acceptable limits of impact or selecting management actions that will effectively avoid or minimize resource impacts.

  5. Predictors of children's secondhand smoke exposure at home: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Orton

    Full Text Available Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS has been causally linked to a number of childhood morbidities and mortalities. Over 50% of UK children whose parents are smokers are regularly exposed to SHS at home. No previous review has identified the factors associated with children's SHS exposure in the home.To identify by systematic review, the factors which are associated with children's SHS exposure in the home, determined by parent or child reports and/or biochemically validated measures including cotinine, carbon monoxide or home air particulate matter.Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge to July 2014, and hand searches of reference lists from publications included in the review were conducted.Forty one studies were included in the review. Parental smoking, low socioeconomic status and being less educated were all frequently and consistently found to be independently associated with children's SHS exposure in the home. Children whose parents held more negative attitudes towards SHS were less likely to be exposed. Associations were strongest for parental cigarette smoking status; compared to children of non-smokers, those whose mothers or both parents smoked were between two and 13 times more likely to be exposed to SHS.Multiple factors are associated with child SHS exposure in the home; the best way to reduce child SHS exposure in the home is for smoking parents to quit. If parents are unable or unwilling to stop smoking, they should instigate smoke-free homes. Interventions targeted towards the socially disadvantaged parents aiming to change attitudes to smoking in the presence of children and providing practical support to help parents smoke outside the home may be beneficial.

  6. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sionnadh Mairi; Booth, Andrew; Gee, Melanie; Salway, Sarah; Cobb, Mark; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Nancarrow, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and rescheduling of unwanted appointments. "Reminder plus", which provides additional information beyond the reminder function may be more effective than simple reminders (ie, date, time, place) at reducing non-attendance at appointments in particular circumstances. We identified six areas of inefficiency which indicate that reminder systems are being used sub-optimally. Unless otherwise indicated, all patients should receive a reminder to facilitate attendance at their health care appointment. The choice of reminder system should be tailored to the individual service

  7. An Exploration of the Perception of Dance and Its Relation to Biomechanical Motion: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michael; Halaki, Mark; Adams, Roger; Cobley, Stephen; Lee, Kwee-Yum; O'Dwyer, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In dance, the goals of actions are not always clearly defined. Investigations into the perceived quality of dance actions and their relation to biomechanical motion should give insight into the performance of dance actions and their goals. The purpose of this review was to explore and document current literature concerning dance perception and its relation to the biomechanics of motion. Seven studies were included in the review. The study results showed systematic differences between expert, non-expert, and novice dancers in biomechanical and perceptual measures, both of which also varied according to the actions expressed in dance. Biomechanical and perceptual variables were found to be correlated in all the studies in the review. Significant relations were observed between kinematic variables such as amplitude, speed, and variability of movement, and perceptual measures of beauty and performance quality. However, in general, there were no clear trends in these relations. Instead, the evidence suggests that perceptual ratings of dance may be specific to both the task (the skill of the particular action) and the context (the music and staging). The results also suggest that the human perceptual system is sensitive to skillful movements and neuromuscular coordination. Since the value perceived by audiences appears to be related to dance action goals and the coordination of dance elements, practitioners could place a priority on development and execution of those factors.

  8. Corynebacterium ulcerans diphtheria: an emerging zoonosis in Brazil and worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira; Santos, Louisy Sanchez; Sabbadini, Priscila Soares; Santos, Cíntia Silva; Silva Junior, Feliciano Correa; Napoleão, Fátima; Nagao, Prescilla Emy; Villas-Bôas, Maria Helena Simões; Hirata Junior, Raphael; Guaraldi, Ana Luíza Mattos

    2011-12-01

    The article is a literature review on the emergence of human infections caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in many countries including Brazil. Articles in Medline/PubMed and SciELO databases published between 1926 and 2011 were reviewed, as well as articles and reports of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. It is presented a fast, cost-effective and easy to perform screening test for the presumptive diagnosis of C. ulcerans and C. diphtheriae infections in most Brazilian public and private laboratories. C. ulcerans spread in many countries and recent isolation of this pathogen in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, is a warning to clinicians, veterinarians, and microbiologists on the occurrence of zoonotic diphtheria and C. ulcerans dissemination in urban and rural areas of Brazil and/or Latin America.

  9. Synthesis of zeolite membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyang; ZHANG Baoquan; Y. S. Lin; LI Yongdan

    2004-01-01

    Zeolite membranes offer great application potentials in membrane separation and/or reaction due to their excellent separation performance and catalytic ability. Up to present, various synthesis methods of zeolite membranes have been developed, including embedded method,in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, and secondary growth method etc. Compared with the in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, the secondary growth method possesses a variety of advantages such as easier operation, higher controllability in crystal orientation, microstructure and film thickness, leading to much better reproducibility. This review provides a concise summary and analysis of various synthesis methods reported in the literature. In particular, the secondary growth method was discussed in detail in terms of crystal orientation, defects and crystal grain layers. Some critical issues were also highlighted, which were conducive to the improvement in the synthesis technology of zeolite membranes.

  10. The bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people who have lost a partner: A systematic review, thematic synthesis and modelling of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Marshall, Steve; Harding, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socially excluded populations have poorer access to care; however, little attention has been paid to lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people are at increased risk of certain life-limiting illnesses and may not receive the care and support they need at the end of life and into bereavement. Aim: To identify and appraise the evidence of the bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people who have lost a partner and develop an explanatory model of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* partner bereavement. Design: Systematic review (in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines) and thematic synthesis with assessment of reporting and rigour. Quantitative or qualitative articles reporting bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* partners were included, excluding articles reporting multiple losses in the context of HIV or AIDS. Data sources: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library. Inclusion dates: database inception – 30 April 2015. Results: A total of 23 articles reporting on 13 studies were identified. Studies described universal experiences of the pain of losing a partner; however, additional barriers and stressors were reported for lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people, including homophobia, failure to acknowledge the relationship, additional legal and financial issues and the ‘shadow’ of HIV or AIDS. A novel model was developed to explain how the experience for lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people is shaped by whether the relationship was disclosed and acknowledged in life and into bereavement and how this impacts upon needs and access to care. Conclusion: There is a need for healthcare providers to avoid hetero-normative assumptions; be mindful of additional stressors in bereavement for lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people; and consider additional sources of

  11. Estimating travel reduction associated with the use of telemedicine by patients and healthcare professionals: proposal for quantitative synthesis in a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaadinbeigy Kambiz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major benefit offered by telemedicine is the avoidance of travel, by patients, their carers and health care professionals. Unfortunately, there is very little published information about the extent of avoided travel. We propose to undertake a systematic review of literature which reports credible data on the reductions in travel associated with the use of telemedicine. Method The conventional approach to quantitative synthesis of the results from multiple studies is to conduct a meta analysis. However, too much heterogeneity exists between available studies to allow a meaningful meta analysis of the avoided travel when telemedicine is used across all possible settings. We propose instead to consider all credible evidence on avoided travel through telemedicine by fitting a linear model which takes into account the relevant factors in the circumstances of the studies performed. We propose the use of stepwise multiple regression to identify which factors are significant. Discussion Our proposed approach is illustrated by the example of teledermatology. In a preliminary review of the literature we found 20 studies in which the percentage of avoided travel through telemedicine could be inferred (a total of 5199 patients. The mean percentage avoided travel reported in the 12 store-and-forward studies was 43%. In the 7 real-time studies and in a single study with a hybrid technique, 70% of the patients avoided travel. A simplified model based on the modality of telemedicine employed (i.e. real-time or store and forward explained 29% of the variance. The use of store and forward teledermatology alone was associated with 43% of avoided travel. The increase in the proportion of patients who avoided travel (25% when real-time telemedicine was employed was significant (P = 0.014. Service planners can use this information to weigh up the costs and benefits of the two approaches.

  12. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean SM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sionnadh Mairi McLean,1 Andrew Booth,2 Melanie Gee,3 Sarah Salway,2 Mark Cobb,4 Sadiq Bhanbhro,3 Susan A Nancarrow5 1Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 2School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 3Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 4Therapeutics & Palliative Care, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UK; 5School of Health and Human Science, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, Australia Abstract: Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and

  13. Mechanochemical organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Wu

    2013-09-21

    Recently, mechanical milling using a mixer mill or planetary mill has been fruitfully utilized in organic synthesis under solvent-free conditions. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of various solvent-free mechanochemical organic reactions, including metal-mediated or -catalyzed reactions, condensation reactions, nucleophilic additions, cascade reactions, Diels-Alder reactions, oxidations, reductions, halogenation/aminohalogenation, etc. The ball milling technique has also been applied to the synthesis of calixarenes, rotaxanes and cage compounds, asymmetric synthesis as well as the transformation of biologically active compounds.

  14. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior: review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2008-05-01

    Over the past 25 years, scores of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior have been developed and evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to synthesize what is known about such interventions by systematically reviewing and synthesizing extant meta-analyses of the literature. Comprehensive search procedures resulted in a set of 18 meta-analyses that targeted HIV-related sexual risk behavior in a defined target population. The median meta-analysis in the review contained k = 19 primary studies with a cumulative N = 9,423 participants. All meta-analyses (11/11) that examined condom use found a statistically significant increase (median effect: OR = 1.34); 9/11 for reducing unprotected sex (median effect: OR = .76); 3/8 for reducing numbers of sexual partners (median effect: OR = .87); 4/6 for reduction of STDs (median effect: OR = .74); and 5/5 for reducing composite sexual risk (median effect: OR = .78). Summaries of moderator analyses suggested particular participant, intervention, and methodological characteristics that may influence the success of interventions. Implications include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators as well as increasing effectiveness trials and translation/dissemination of efficacious interventions to those populations most at risk.

  15. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...

  16. THE STATE OF RESEARCH ON CLEANER PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of cleaner production (CP practices in companies is not commonplace in Brazil. Moreover, there are significant difficulties in establishing partnerships among universities, companies, and the government. However, an increase in the number of companies concerned about the impacts of industrial activities on the environment has enabled the development of CP research. Hence, using a literature review and a bibliometric analysis to quantify the scientific production of CP, published in a congress promoted by the Journal of Cleaner Production in Brazil, and an analysis of social networks using UCINET-Draw, this study contributes to the current state of CP research in Brazil. Despite remarkable developments, shareholders and entrepreneurs still lack knowledge about the subsidies/funds to implement CP made available by the government, which would improve the implementation of CP practices. Moreover, university research programs may help companies to generate innovations in this field. This study is one of the first to review CP practices in Brazil, and proposes a framework to promote CP practices in Brazil.

  17. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  18. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel,Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  19. Innovation Policies of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    by the other BRIC countries, particularly China. 18 Discussions with experts. See the appendix. 19 Brazil can have a low actual tariff rate of...Cassiolato, J. E., M. G Podcameni, M. C. Couto Soares, M. Szapiro, P. Koeller, F. Stalivieri, and F. Geremia. 2010. “ BRICS Description and Dynamics of...the Future of Internation Order. Center for a New American Security. Koeller, P, and J. L. Gordon. 2010. “ BRICS the Role of the State in National

  20. Review on Synthesis of Polyazides%多叠氮类化合物的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁可伟; 李陶琦; 葛忠学; 刘庆

    2013-01-01

    The investigation progress and current developments of polyazides were reviewed. The methods of synthesizing and characterizing polyazides were extensively summarized and compared. The polyazido anions and acid-base complexes formed by reaction of polyazides and Lewis base were briefly introduced. The structural modification and derivation method of polyazides were outlined.%综述了多叠氮类化合物的研究意义和近期发展请况.详细总结和比较了多叠氮化合物的合成和表征方法.简要介绍了多叠氮化合物与路易斯碱形成的酸碱络合物,以及多叠氮离子化合物.展望了多叠氮类化合物的结构修饰和衍生方法.

  1. Developing an internationally-applicable service specification for continence care: systematic review, evidence synthesis and expert consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian S Wagg

    Full Text Available Global demographic trends suggest that the incidence of both urinary and faecal incontinence will rise in the coming years, bringing significant health and economic implications for both patients and payers. There is limited organisational evidence to guide payers and providers about service configuration which will deliver efficient guideline-compliant, high-quality patient care.To create, using evidence from a systematic review, qualitative data and expert consensus an internationally applicable service specification for continence care.Evidence was obtained from a systematic and grey literature review of published randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies reporting efficacy of continence service design at the level of the community dwelling patient with either bladder or bowel incontinence, governmental reports and policy frameworks supplemented by data from 47 semi-structured interviews with clinicians, patients, patient-representatives and policy experts from four geographies broadly representative of different healthcare systems.A number of themes related to current and potential future organisation of continence care were identified from the data. A modular service specification with eight core components was created including case detection, initial assessment and treatment, case co-ordination, caregiver support, community-based support, specialist assessment and treatment, use of containment products, and use of technology. Within this framework important key recommendations are: ensure robust referral pathways, shift assessment for case coordination to nurses specializing in continence care, promote self-management and technology, use comprehensive assessment tools and service performance targets based on outcome and operational measures.This study has defined practice gaps in the provision of continence services and described eight core components of a service specification for incontinence that commissioners and

  2. Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy J David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (≥ 18 years of age, and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies. These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70% were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting

  3. Nopol Synthesis from Turpentine: Review of State of Art Síntesis de nopol a partir de trementina: revisión del estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A Alarcón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A review about nopol synthesis is included in this contribution. The traditional methodologies include the thermal synthesis and the use of ZnCl2 asa catalyst, and the emergent processes are the heterogeneous catalytic processes. The use of catalysts based on Sn supported on mesoporous materials,as reported by the Environmental Catalysis Research Group 10 years ago, iswidely discussed. Among the reported procedures, the homogeneous catalytic processes have the disadvantage of costs associated with separation andtreatment of inorganic salts generated during the processes. The commercialalternative for nopol production by heterogeneous catalytic processes shouldinclude reduction of costs associated with the production and regenerationof the catalysts. It should also include the minimization of the solvent required for compensating the requirements of time and energy associated withthe thermal process with respect to the moderate reaction conditions of theheterogeneous catalytic processes.En esta contribución se hace una revisión de los métodos para la síntesis delnopol. Los procesos convencionales abarcan la síntesis térmica y la catalíticacon ZnCl2 y los emergentes corresponden a los catalíticos heterogéneos.Se destaca el uso de catalizadores de Sn soportado en materiales mesoporososproducto de las investigaciones de la última década en el Grupo CatálisisAmbiental. La evaluación de las tecnologías existentes de producción de nopolmuestra ventajas de la síntesis térmica y la catálisis heterogénea frenteal uso de ZnCl2, especialmente por los costos potenciales en la separación ytratamiento de las sales inorgánicas. No obstante, cualquier intento de obteneruna alternativa comercial de la tecnología reciente debería reducir los costosrequeridos en la producción y regeneración del material catalítico y minimizarel requerimiento de solvente, con el fin que las condiciones moderadas de reacciónde la catálisis heterog

  4. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  5. Botulism in non-ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins secreted by Clostridium botulinum and characterized by progressive flaccid symmetrical paralysis. Among non-ruminant animals, avian species and dogs are the most commonly affected by botulism, while horses and pigs are less-commonly diagnosed with the disease. Despite the importance of this disease in animals, the Brazilian literature only includes case studies and outbreak descriptions. The aim of this study was to review the main features and to provide recent data on the occurrence of botulism in non-ruminants in Brazil.

  6. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  7. On the Nature and Genesis of EUV Waves: A Synthesis of Observations from SOHO, STEREO, SDO, and Hinode (Invited Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2012-11-01

    A major, albeit serendipitous, discovery of the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory mission was the observation by the Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (EIT) of large-scale extreme ultraviolet (EUV) intensity fronts propagating over a significant fraction of the Sun's surface. These so-called EIT or EUV waves are associated with eruptive phenomena and have been studied intensely. However, their wave nature has been challenged by non-wave (or pseudo-wave) interpretations and the subject remains under debate. A string of recent solar missions has provided a wealth of detailed EUV observations of these waves bringing us closer to resolving the question of their nature. With this review, we gather the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the field and synthesize it into a picture of an EUV wave driven by the lateral expansion of the CME. This picture can account for both wave and pseudo-wave interpretations of the observations, thus resolving the controversy over the nature of EUV waves to a large degree but not completely. We close with a discussion on several remaining open questions in the field of EUV waves research.

  8. Targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain in autism, a systematic review and synthesis of a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Berk, Michael; Farrashbandi, Hassan; Alavi Shoushtari, Ali; Villagonzalo, Kristi-Ann

    2013-09-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with an unknown etiology and without any curative treatment. The mitochondrial electron transfer chains play a major role in the production of ATP, and the generation and management of reactive oxidative stress (ROS). This paper is a systematic review of the role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in autism, and a consequent hypothesis for treating autism is synthesized. An electronic search with pre-specified inclusion criteria was conducted in order to retrieve all the published articles about the mitochondrial electron transport chain in autism. The two databases of PUBMED and Google Scholar were searched. From one hundred twenty five retrieved titles, 12 (three case control study and 9 case reports) articles met inclusion criteria. All of the included studies indicated dysfunction of electron transport chain in autism. The mitochondrial electron transfer chain seems impaired in some children with autism and ROS production is additionally enhanced. It is hypothesized that interventions involving alternative electron shuttling may improve autism through lowering the production of ROS. In addition, it is expected that this alternative electron shuttling to cytochrome c might enhance the production of ATP which is impaired in the disorder.

  9. Nurse-patient interaction in acute adult inpatient mental health units: a review and synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2012-02-01

    Mental health nurses work with acutely unwell patients, and the busy setting is characterised by unpredictable events. This paper is a report of a review conducted to identify, analyse and synthesize research in adult acute inpatient mental health units, which focused on nurse-patient interaction. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1999-present. Qualitative studies published in English were included if they specifically investigated nurse-patient interaction in acute inpatient care in adult settings. Eighteen studies were included (23 papers). Findings were grouped into the following six categories: 1) sophisticated communication; 2) subtle discriminations; 3) managing security parameters; 4) ordinary communication; 5) reliance on colleagues; and 6) personal characteristics. These studies of acute inpatient mental health units reveal that nurse communication involves interpersonal approaches and modalities that exemplify highly developed communication and personal skills designed specifically for this challenging setting. Further quality research should focus on the conditions that enable the development of therapeutic interactional skills and the relationship of these skills to the nuanced context in which they are practiced.

  10. Vaccines in pregnancy: a review of their importance in Brazil Vacinação em gestantes: considerações sobre sua importância no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonates and young children remain susceptible to many serious infectious diseases preventable through vaccination. In general, current vaccines strategies to prevent infectious diseases are unable to induce protective levels of antibodies in the first 6 months of life. Women vaccinated during pregnancy are capable of producing immunoglobulin antibodies that are transported actively to the fetus, and maternal immunization can benefit both the mother and the child. With few exceptions, maternal immunization is not a routine, because of the concerns related to the safety of this intervention. Ethical and cultural issues make the studies on maternal immunization difficult; however, in the last decade, the development of new vaccines, which are very immunogenic and safe has reactivated the discussions on maternal immunization. In this paper we present a review of the literature about maternal immunization based on MEDLINE data (1990 to 2002. The most important conclusions are: 1 there is no evidence of risk to the fetus by immunizing pregnant women with toxoids, polysaccharide, polysaccharide conjugated and inactive viral vaccines; 2 most viral attenuated vaccines are probably safe too, but data is still insufficient to demonstrate their safety; therefore these vaccines should be avoided in pregnant women; 3 in Brazil, there is a need for a maternal immunization program against tetanus. Many new candidate vaccines for maternal immunization are available, but studies should be conducted to evaluate their safety and efficacy, as well as regional priorities based on epidemiological data.Recém-nascidos e lactentes jovens permanecem vulneráveis a diversas doenças causadas por vírus e bactérias. Em geral, as estratégias de imunização são inefetivas para que a criança produza anticorpos em quantidades suficientes nos primeiros seis meses de vida. Gestantes podem produzir anticorpos IgG que são transportados ativamente através da placenta e

  11. Socio-economic gradients in maternal and child health-seeking behaviours in egypt: systematic literature review and evidence synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Benova

    Full Text Available Health-seeking behaviour lies on the direct pathway between socio-economic position (SEP and health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise evidence of socio-economic gradients in health-seeking behaviours related to maternal and child health in Egypt.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science were searched in September 2013 for material published in English from 1992 to 2013 for a combination of terms describing health-seeking behaviours, indicators of socio-economic position and geographical limitation to Egypt. Findings of studies were described and synthesised in a narrative format as meta-analysis was not possible.Among the 786 references identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined maternal and five studies child health-seeking behaviours (one study examined both. For maternal health, three dimensions of health-seeking behaviour (receipt of any care, type of care and intensity of care were covered by studies of ante-natal and one dimension (type of care by analyses of delivery care. For child health, two dimensions of preventive care (coverage of and intensity of immunisation and three dimensions of curative care (receipt of any care, type and cost of care were analysed.Based on two studies of time trends in nationally-representative surveys, socio-economic inequalities in seeking care for basic preventive and curative interventions in maternal and child health appear to have narrowed. Limited evidence of gradients in intensity of maternal preventive and provider selection in child curative care showed that inequalities may have widened. In studies of more geographically and socially homogeneous samples, fewer gradients were identified. Current body of evidence contains numerous limitations and gaps and is insufficient to draw a conclusive summary of such gradients. Improved understanding of SEP gradients is crucial in designing and prioritising

  12. How might ZNF804A variants influence risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? A literature review, synthesis, and bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jonathan L; Glatt, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    The gene that encodes zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) became a candidate risk gene for schizophrenia (SZ) after surpassing genome-wide significance thresholds in replicated genome-wide association scans and meta-analyses. Much remains unknown about this reported gene expression regulator; however, preliminary work has yielded insights into functional and biological effects of ZNF804A by targeting its regulatory activities in vitro and by characterizing allele-specific interactions with its risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). There is now strong epidemiologic evidence for a role of ZNF804A polymorphisms in both SZ and bipolar disorder (BD); however, functional links between implicated variants and susceptible biological states have not been solidified. Here we briefly review the genetic evidence implicating ZNF804A polymorphisms as genetic risk factors for both SZ and BD, and discuss the potential functional consequences of these variants on the regulation of ZNF804A and its downstream targets. Empirical work and predictive bioinformatic analyses of the alternate alleles of the two most strongly implicated ZNF804A polymorphisms suggest they might alter the affinity of the gene sequence for DNA- and/or RNA-binding proteins, which might in turn alter expression levels of the gene or particular ZNF804A isoforms. Future work should focus on clarifying the critical periods and cofactors regulating these genetic influences on ZNF804A expression, as well as the downstream biological consequences of an imbalance in the expression of ZNF804A and its various mRNA isoforms.

  13. Molybdenum oxide nanowires: synthesis & properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Mai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum oxide nanowires have been found to show promise in a diverse range of applications, ranging from electronics to energy storage and micromechanics. This review focuses on recent research on molybdenum oxide nanowires: from synthesis and device assembly to fundamental properties. The synthesis of molybdenum oxide nanowires will be reviewed, followed by a discussion of recent progress on molybdenum oxide nanowire based devices and an examination of their properties. Finally, we conclude by considering future developments.

  14. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  15. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-417 and 731-TA-953, 957-959, 961, and 962 (Second Review)] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Brazil and...

  16. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... determined on January 4, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 5205). The Commission... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation...

  17. 75 FR 54595 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... duty orders on certain iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of... initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders\\1\\ on certain iron construction castings...

  18. Service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health care: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudde CB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Buch Gudde,1,2 Turid Møller Olsø,4 Richard Whittington,1,5,6 Solfrid Vatne,3 1Forensic Department Brøset, Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, 2Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, 3Institute of Health and Social Sciences, Molde University College, Molde, 4Norwegian Resource Centre for Community Mental Health, NTNU Social Research AS, 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Background: Aggressive situations occurring within mental health services can harm service users, staff, and the therapeutic environment. There is a consensus that the aggression phenomenon is multidimensional, but the picture is still unclear concerning the complex interplay of causal variables and their respective impact. To date, only a small number of empirical studies include users’ views of relevant factors. The main objective of this review is to identify and synthesize evidence relating to service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health settings. Methods: We included qualitative studies of any design reporting on service users’ own experiences of conditions contributing to aggressive situations in mental health care and their views on preventative strategies. Eligible articles were identified through an electronic database search (PsycINFO, PubMed, Ovid Nursing Database, Embase, and CINAHL, hand search, and cross-referencing. Extracted data were combined and interpreted using aspects of thematic synthesis. Results: We reviewed 5,566 records and included 13 studies (ten qualitative and three mixed methods. Service users recognized that both their own mental state and negative aspects of the treatment environment affected the development of aggressive situations

  19. Using of Itaipu hydroelectric power plant-Brazil-electric power surplus for ammonia synthesis in nitrogen fertilizers production; Utilizacao da energia junto a Usina Hidreletrica de Itaipu para a sintese de amonia para fertilizantes nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ssouza@unioeste.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2000-07-01

    Secondary energy can be described as a surplus of electrical energy in a hydropower because the lower demand of energy in some period of the day and the excess of water in the reservoir during the rainy periods. This study proposes the using of the excess of energy at Itaipu Bi nacional for electrolytically hydrogen production and ammonia for nitrogenous fertilizers. Ammonia is a raw material for nitrogenous fertilizers synthesis and produced using hydrogen and nitrogen from the atmosphere. This paper determines the minimal cost of hydrogen production and the capacity of hydrogen production, with this data and according the ammonia market for nitrogenous fertilizers in the Centre/South region was estimated the better capacity of ammonia production for one plant near Itaipu. The process of ammonia production using energy excess is the most environmental acceptable. (author)

  20. IN SEARCH OF A TEACHING SOCIOLINGUISTIC PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Cássia Marine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the barriers in teaching Portuguese as mother tongue is the treatment of linguistic variation and fundamentally grammatical knowledge permeated by different linguistic norms. So in this article, we propose some reflections on the current situation of the Portuguese language teaching in Brazil, presenting a literature review on the topic, especially about the concepts of belief and linguistic attitudes studies sociolinguistic and documents the Brazilian government. Still we gather some results of previous studies on language attitudes and beliefs and we quote three factors that show that the Portuguese-speaking education in Brazil is still far from a reflective teaching and culturally sensitive pedagogy. To prove such factors mentioned, we mentioned examples of speeches and activities of students of primary and secondary schools as well as letters of course students. Thus, in this article, we point out how it is still challenging to think of a sociolinguistic conception of Portuguese language teaching in Brazil.

  1. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Dourado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  2. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Book Review Editor, Barbara Hogenboom

    2014-10-01

    Northeast Brazil, by Aaron Ansell (2014; reviewed by Flávio EiróNative and National in Brazil. Indigeneity after Independence, by Tracy Devine Guzmán (2013; reviewed by Edwin Reesink

  5. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    and expanding ties with nontraditional partners, including India and China. Brazil-U.S. cooperation has increased during President Lula’s second...August 21, 2009. 40 Fernanda Odilla, Simone Iglesias & Johanna Nublat, “Brasil vai dobrar efetivo militar no Haiti,” Folha de São Paulo, January 21...defenderá mais regulação no G-20,” O Globo (Brazil), August 6, 2009. 53 Gaurav Singh, “China, India , Brazil Commit to Meet Copenhagen Accord Deadline

  6. Headache research and medical practice in Brazil: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, Marcelo Moraes; da Silva, Amanda Araújo; Bordini, Carlos Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the creation of the Brazilian Headache Society in 1978, substantial developments have taken place in both research and clinical practice in the field of headache medicine in Brazil. The Society now has almost 300 members throughout the country, actively working to improve the health of the general population and, in particular, diagnose and treat headache disorders. In addition, in a few large cities, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Curitiba, and Porto Alegre, headache specialists have come together to promote research projects and increase knowledge in the field through MSc, PhD, and postdoctoral programs. Furthermore, scientific journals have emerged and books have been published to record and disseminate Brazilian scientific production in headache medicine. In this narrative review, we will briefly describe some important aspects of headache medicine in Brazil from prehistoric times to the present day, discuss the origin of headache medicine as a specialty in Brazil, the principal publications dealing with headache disorders, the use of plants and other unconventional forms of treatment used by faith healers, the main training centers, and the research produced to date by Brazilians. In conclusion, in recent years enormous progress has been made in headache medicine in Brazil stimulating us to review and expand our role in an increasingly international scenario.

  7. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Silva de Almeida; Andrey José de Andrade; Alan Sciamarelli; Josué Raizer; Jaqueline Aparecida Menegatti; Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira Hermes; Maria do Socorro Laurentino de Carvalho; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In a...

  8. Strategic pathways for energy in Brazil; Os caminhos da eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Alan Douglas; Hollanda, Jayme Buarque de; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest steps and policies to increase the introduction of cost-effective energy in conservation measures in Brazil. This report first addresses the motivations for a policy of energy efficiency and summarizes experiences in Brazil. It then considers the roles and perspectives of the diverse agents and review the instruments of policy. It concludes with an overview of strategic needs and lines of action.

  9. Notes on Cooperation Between Brazil - Angola Regarding Food Security and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Pires Rocha; José Francisco dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of combating hunger in Brazil and Angola, addressing aspects of cooperation between the two countries as regards the assurance of the Human Right to Adequate Food and Food and Nutrition Security. We conducted desk research reports from international organizations and agencies as well as in official agreements present in the Foreign Ministry website. The discussion is divided into four parts, which involve the historical review of the relationship Brazil - Ango...

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus, Book Review Editor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Improbable Conquest: Sixteenth Century Letters from the Rio de la Plata, por Pablo García Loaeza y Victoria L. Garrett, 2015; reseñado por Judith Farberman Urban Space as Heritage in Late Colonial Cuba: Classicism and Dissonance on the Plaza de Armas of Havana: 1754-1828, by Paul Niell, 2015; reviewed by Joseph L. Scarpaci El Jefe Político. Un dominio negociando en el mundo rural del Estado de México. 1856-1911, por Romana Falcón, 2015; reseñado por Raymond Buve Miedo negro, poder blanco en la Cuba colonial, por Jorge Camacho, 2015; reseñado por Oleski Miranda Navarro Revolutionary Parks: Conservation, Social Justice, and Mexico’s National Parks, 1910-1940, by Emily Wakild, 2011; reviewed by Grant Burrier Sandino’s Nation: Ernesto Cardenal and Sergio Ramírez Writing Nicaragua, 1940-2012, by Stephen Henighan, 2014; reviewed by Grace A. Gomashie La cancha peronista. Fútbol y política (1946-1955, edited by Raanan Rein, 2015; reviewed by Alexis Sossa Rojas Chile y la Guerra Fría global, edited by Tanya Harmer and Alfredo Riquelme Segovia, 2014; reviewed by Ángela Vergara Challenging Social Inequality: The Landless Rural Workers Movement and Agrarian Reform in Brazil, edited by M. Carter, 2015; reviewed by Rebecca Tarlau Brazil: Reversal of Fortune, by Alfred P. Montero, 2014; reviewed by Edgar J. Marcolin Latin American Documentary Filmmaking – Major works, by David William Foster, 2013; reviewed by Leontien Cremers Telling and Being told: Storytelling and Cultural Control in Contemporary Yucatec Maya Literatures, por Paul Worley, 2013; reseñado por Ana Ugarte Bachata and Dominican Identity/La bachata y la identidad dominicana, by Julie Sellers, 2014; reviewed by Grant D. Moss Entrepreneurial Selves: Neoliberal Respectability and the Making of a Caribbean Middle Class, by Carla Freeman, 2014; reviewed by Emiel Martens

  11. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  12. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  13. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Kalpana; Srivastava, Anchal; Srivastava, O N

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes play a fundamental role in the rapidly developing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their unique properties and high potential for applications. In this article, the different synthesis methods of carbon nanotubes (both multi-walled and single-walled) are reviewed. From the industrial point of view, the chemical vapor deposition method has shown advantages over laser vaporization and electric arc discharge methods. This article also presents recent work in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes with ordered architectures. Special carbon nanotube configurations, such as nanocoils, nanohorns, bamboo-shaped and carbon cylinder made up from carbon nanotubes are also discussed.

  14. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  15. Review of species of the Astyanax bimaculatus "caudal peduncle spot" subgroup sensu Garutti & Langeani (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages and coastal systems of southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Carlos Alberto S De; Soares, Helena Gouvea

    2016-01-28

    The species of the Astyanax bimaculatus 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup of the drainages of the rios La Plata and São Francisco, as well as southeastern coastal systems of Brazil and Uruguay, are revised. Two nominal species are considered valid and are redescribed: Astyanax lacustris and A. abramis. Astyanax jacuhiensis, A. asuncionensis and A. altiparanae are recognized as new junior synonyms of A. lacustris. Bertoniolus paraguayensisis recognized as a new junior synonym of A. abramis. The names Astyanax orbignyanus, A. vittatus, and A. borealis are considered species inquirendae. Notes on A. maculisquamis, included in the 'caudal peduncle spot' subgroup from rio Guaporé (rio Madeira drainage), and Astyanax bahiensis from Bahia, mistakenly considered of the same subgroup, are presented.

  16. Facilitating the use of evidence for decision-making – a review of 64 WHO Health Evidence Network synthesis reports and its impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguen, Tim; Takahashi, Ryoko; Kuchenmueller, Tanja;

    in selecting an appropriate literature search and synthesis method and writing specifically for policy-makers in mind. To facilitate the uptake of evidence in policy-making, HEN collaborates with decision-makers in identifying priority health policy areas, framing a synthesis question and disseminating......The stakes of producing evidence-informed policies are high when available evidence is abundant yet often not applicable and useful to policy-makers. The literature indicates that policy-makers need summaries of evidence with policy options and implications that are timely and relevant to health...

  17. Candiduria: up-to-date review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Meneghello Fuentefria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the current knowledge about candiduria, describing theepidemiology in Brazil and worldwide, pathogenesis, laboratorial diagnosis and prescribed therapy. Data Synthesis: A non-systematic review carried out from the databases: Pubmed,Cochrane and Scielo in scientific articles related to the theme candiduria and published in the last twenty years. The terms “candiduria”, “Candida” and “hospital infection” were used as descriptors, individually or in association. Articles that addressed other types of Candida infection or were not suitable for the aim of the study were excluded. The studies reviewed indicate that the most prevalent species are in descending order Candida albicans,C. parasilosis, C. tropic alis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. dubliniensis, C. kefyr and C. rugosa. When treatment is indicated, the drug of choice isfluconazole, provided that the isolates do not possess intrinsic resistance. Conclusion: Despite its high incidence and clinical relevance, the candiduria is not yet been fully elucidated, remaining the need to clarify its epidemiology and pathogenesis in emergingspecies and reach consensus on treatment protocols.

  18. THE STATE OF RESEARCH ON CLEANER PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto; Fábio Ytoshi Shibao; Moacir Godinho Filho

    2016-01-01

    The application of cleaner production (CP) practices in companies is not commonplace in Brazil. Moreover, there are significant difficulties in establishing partnerships among universities, companies, and the government. However, an increase in the number of companies concerned about the impacts of industrial activities on the environment has enabled the development of CP research. Hence, using a literature review and a bibliometric analysis to quantify the scientific production o...

  19. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries and presented at The 1st International Congress on Energy & Environment ranging from electricity end-use analyses, electricity production analyses to socio-economic assessment and large-scale energy scenarios.

  20. The history of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Livramento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in neurological diagnosis has always been considered to be a strong point among the main complementary examinations in Brazil. The present paper reviews the main events in the history of CSF in the neurological sciences, with emphasis on the founders of several CSF schools in our country from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time.

  1. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches; Marina Gulo Alcorinte; Lucas Henrique Sahm; Guilherme Rossi Gorni; Maria Lúcia Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Pau...

  2. Considerations on the food fortification policy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Murilo Martins

    2011-01-01

    Government health authorities approved, in December 2002, the ANVISA (National Sanitary Vigilance Agency) resolution number 344, making the addition of iron and folic acid to all wheat and maize flours industrialized in Brazil obligatory. After a brief review of iron deficiency, iron overload and folic acid deficiency several questions and remarks need to be made about this universal food fortification program. Iron salts and folic acid are drugs widely used in medicine and they may present u...

  3. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  4. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  5. Epidemiological features and the neuropathological manifestations of canine distemper virus-induced infections in Brazil: a reviewAspectos epidemiológicos e as manifestações neuropatológicas associadas à infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina no Brasil: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of current epidemiological trends of canine distemper virus (CDV and syndromes related to canine distemper encephalitis (CDE with specific reference to the situation in Brazil. Epidemiological data relative to susceptible animal populations, prevalence, seasonal occurrence, and age-related patterns associated with CDV are discussed. The participation of mongrel dogs in maintaining CDV within rural and semi-urban canine populations and their importance in the epidemiology of canine distemper is highlighted. The economic impact of treating the clinical manifestations associated with CDV-induced infections in Brazil is estimated. Additionally, neurological and neuropathological manifestations of CDV in Brazil are discussed, and a novel manifestation of CDE is proposed. Esse manuscrito fornece uma revisão crítica das tendências epidemiológicas associadas ao vírus da cinomose canina (CDV e às síndromes relacionadas à encefalite por cinomose com referência específica à situação no Brasil. Os dados epidemiológicos relativos às populações de animais suscetíveis, prevalência, sazonalidade e os padrões relacionados à idade foram discutidos. Também é enfocada nessa revisão a participação de cães de rua na manutenção do CDV nas populações caninas nas áreas rurais e nas regiões semiurbanas e a sua importância na epidemiologia da cinomose. Foi ainda estimado o impacto econômico relacionado ao tratamento das manifestações clínicas associadas à cinomose no Brasil. Adicionalmente, as manifestações neurológicas e neuropatológicas da cinomose no Brasil são discutidas e uma manifestação neuropatológica inédita da infecção é sugerida.

  6. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  7. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus, Book Review Editor

    2016-10-01

    of Rule, edited by Christopher Krupa and David Nugent, 2015; reviewed by Marc Simon ThomasBrazilian Propaganda: Legitimizing an Authoritarian Regime, by Nina Schneider, 2014; reviewed by João Roberto Martins Filho The Invention of the Brazilian Northeast, by Durval Muniz de Albuquerque, 2014; reviewed by José Luiz Ratton A Right to Health; Medicine, Marginality, and Health Care Reform in Northeastern Brazil, by Jessica Scott Jerome, 2015; reviewed by Hudson P. Silva

  8. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brazil. In the review, we analyzed 10 articles, where we obtained data on 41 species. We also sampled 5 macrophyte genera, Egeria, Salvinia, Utricularia, Eleocharis, and Ceratophyllum, in August and December 2012 and in March and April 2013, in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas. We registered 21 Oligochaeta species associated to these macrophytes. With the data obtained in the review along with the inventory of the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas, we found a total of 41 species associated to aquatic macrophytes, with a higher richness of the Naididae family (93.33%, followed by Opistocystidae (4.44%, and Alluroididae (2.22%. Our study inventoried about 48% of the Oligochaeta diversity registered in continental ecosystems in Brazil, thus highlighting the significance of macrophytes as a resource for these invertebrates, mainly for the Naididae family.

  9. Facilitating Students' Review of the Chemistry of Nitrogen-Containing Heterocyclic Compounds and Their Characterization through Multistep Synthesis of Thieno[2,3-"b"]Pyridine Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanlin; Zaplishnyy, Vladimir; Mikhaylichenko, Lana

    2016-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of thieno[2,3-"b"]pyridine derivatives is described that is suitable for the upper-level undergraduate organic laboratory. This experiment exposes students to various hands-on experimental techniques as well as methods of product characterization such as IR and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy, and…

  10. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  11. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  12. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  13. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

    The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

  14. A review of the occurrence of hemoplasmas (hemotrophic mycoplasmas in Brazil Uma revisão da ocorrência dos hemoplasmas (micoplasmas hemotróficos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have been conducted in Brazil using molecular techniques for the detection of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in several mammals. In domestic cats, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum', and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infections have been identified. These species have also been found in free-ranging and captive neotropical felid species. Two canine hemoplasmas, Mycoplasma haemocanis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum', have been identified in dogs. In commercial swine populations, Mycoplasma suis was found to be highly prevalent, especially in sows. Moreover, novel mycoplasma species have been identified in Brazilian commercial pigs and domestic dogs. A hemoplasma infection in a human patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was also recently documented. In conclusion, hemoplasma species are common and important infectious agents in Brazil. Further studies should be conducted to better understand their impact on pets, production animals, and wildlife fauna, as well as their role as zoonotic agents, particularly in immunocompromised patients.Estudos recentes utilizando técnicas moleculares para a detecção de micoplasmas hemotróficos em diferentes mamíferos têm sido conduzidos no Brasil. Em gatos domésticos, infecções por Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' e 'Candidatus M. turicensis' foram identificadas. Estas espécies também foram encontradas em felídeos neotropicais de vida livre e de cativeiro. Dois hemoplasmas caninos, Mycoplasma haemocanis e 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum', foram identificados em cães domésticos. Em populações comerciais de suínos, Mycoplasma suis possui alta prevalência, especialmente em porcas. Além disso, novas espécies de hemoplasmas foram detectadas em suínos comercias e cães. Infecção por um hemoplasma em um paciente humano infectado com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV foi recentemente documentada. Em conclusão, esp

  15. Brazil: Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Ludeña; Maria Netto

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the implications of GHG emissions reduction targets in the Brazilian economy it is important to understand the sector composition of these emissions in Brazil. According to the 2010 Second National Communications of Brazil to the UNFCCC, in 2005, the majority of Brazil's emissions (87.2%) corresponded to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  16. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  17. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  18. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nanocomposites—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ab Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of silica nanoparticles as fillers in the preparation of nanocomposite of polymers has drawn much attention, due to the increased demand for new materials with improved thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide significant boost to development of silica-polymer nanocomposites. This paper is written by emphasizing on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, characterization on size-dependent properties, and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nanocomposites, generally by sol-gel technique. The effect of nanosilica on the properties of various types of silica-polymer composites is also summarized.

  19. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  20. Effect of acute endurance and resistance exercise on endocrine hormones directly related to lipolysis and muscle protein synthesis in adult individuals with obesity: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In subjects with obesity, the implementation of long-term exercise intervention increases lean tissue mass and lowers adipose tissue mass. However, data indicate a blunted lipolytic response, and/or skeletal muscle protein synthesis, when subjects with obesity are exposed to acute endurance or resistance exercise, respectively. Therefore, subjects with obesity seem to display a suboptimal physiological response to acute exercise stimuli. It might be hypothesized that hormonal disturb...

  1. Oral health policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  2. Microwave Multicomponent Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut M. Hügel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the manner that very important research is often performed by multidisciplinary research teams, the applications of multicomponent reactions involving the combination of multiple starting materials with different functional groups leading to the higher efficiency and environmentally friendly construction of multifunctional/complex target molecules is growing in importance. This review will explore the advances and advantages in microwave multicomponent synthesis (MMS that have been achieved over the last five years.

  3. [Iridology: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2008-09-01

    This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.

  4. Risk and prognostic factors for non-specific musculoskeletal pain: A synthesis of evidence from systematic reviews classified into ICF dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of risk factors for the occurrence and prognostic factors for persistence of non-specific musculoskeletal pain (MSP) are mentioned in the literature. A systematic review of all these factors is not available. Thus a systematic review was conducted to evaluate MSP risk factors and prognostic factors, classified according to the dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Candidate systematic reviews were identified in electronic medical ...

  5. e-Health intervention development: a synopsis and comment on "What Design Features are Used in Effective e-Health Interventions? A Review Using Techniques From Critical Interpretive Synthesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Steglitz, Jeremy; Hoffman, Sara A

    2014-12-01

    In this synopsis and commentary on the Morrison and colleagues article published in Telemedicine and e-Health (18:2, 137-144, 2012), we provide a brief review of effective design features of e-Health interventions as well as a discussion on future directions. The Internet is being used more frequently to deliver health behavior interventions; however, it is unclear which design features contribute to intervention outcomes. Morrison and colleagues conducted a review using critical interpretive synthesis techniques to identify design features that mediate the effects of e-Health intervention outcomes. A total of four design features were identified (social context and support, contacts with intervention, tailoring, and self-management) that may mediate the effect of the intervention on outcomes. This review provides a preliminary conceptual framework to guide future evaluations of the effects of e-Health design features on intervention outcomes. Future research should target optimizing e-Health interventions to determine which design features should be included as well as how they contribute to outcomes.

  6. Sustainability indicators to nuclear research centers in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Simone F.; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria D.; Barreto, Alberto A., E-mail: symonfonseca@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The relevance and applicability of sustainability indicators have been discussed in various international and national debates through forums, conferences, seminars and lectures. The information obtained from the use of these indicators is essential to the decision-making process, contributing to the creation of discussion channels and interaction with society; also it is useful for the design and implementation of environmental education programs, perception and risk communication. So far, at least in Brazil, existing indicators for the nuclear area are related only to power generation, as performance and safety in radioactive waste management. According to this reality we see the need to build indicators that contribute to the assessment of environmental, social, cultural, economic and institutional performance of a nuclear innovation and research institute in Brazil. This work aims to highlight, through literature review, the importance of developing sustainability indicators appropriate to nuclear research centers in Brazil, revealing how much they are strategic to measuring the sustainability of these endeavours. The main finding, after the literature review, is that this type of indicator is important not only to identify positive or negative impacts of a project focused on the research and innovation of nuclear area, but also for assessment of his commitment to the sustainable development. (author)

  7. Technology of Iron Carbide Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Bahgat

    2006-01-01

    Iron carbides are very promising metallurgical products and can be used for steelmaking process, where it plays as an alternative raw material with significant economic advantages. Also it has many other applications,e.g. catalysts, magnets, sensors. The present review investigates the different properties and uses of the iron carbides. The commercial production and the different varieties for the iron carbides synthesis (gaseous carburization, mechanochemical synthesis, laser pyrolysis, plasma pyrolysis, chemical vapor deposition and ion implantation) were reviewed. Also the effect of different factors on the carburization process like gas composition, raw material, temperature, reaction time, catalyst presence and sulfur addition was indicated.

  8. Atividades da farmácia hospitalar brasileira para com pacientes hospitalizados: uma revisão da literatura Pharmaceutical services for inpatients provided by hospital pharmacies in Brazil: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Magarinos-Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a produção científica relacionada à farmácia hospitalar brasileira direcionada à internação, na tentativa de ampliar a visão sobre características e prioridades. Foram localizados dezessete artigos nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs condizentes com os critérios de inclusão e exclusão definidos a priori. A maioria ateve-se aos componentes ensino/pesquisa, logística e farmacotécnica, a partir da observação de hospitais públicos localizados no Sudeste. Percebe-se a escassez de textos relacionados a atividades estruturais como gerenciamento e seleção. Estima-se que à formação acadêmica dos farmacêuticos atrele-se a percepção da manipulação como atividade preponderante nos serviços embora, atualmente, esta seja necessária apenas em um número restrito de hospitais. Soma-se a isto a baixa adequação das atividades realizadas a normas legais e padrões estabelecidos e a inexistência de revista brasileira dedicada ao tema e indexada pela BVS. Tendo em vista a maior freqüência de trabalhos oriundos do setor público, há, aparentemente, ou maior liberdade de atuação do farmacêutico neste setor ou menor produção científica, quantificada por publicações, no setor privado.This paper discusses the literature on hospital pharmacy services for in-patients in Brazil, seeking a broader view of its characteristics and priorities. Seventeen papers were located in the Medline and Lilacs databases that complied with the pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Most of them were related to teaching and research, logistics and compounding, based on observations in public hospitals in Southeast Brazil. Few studies focused on core activities such as management and selection. The academic syllabus through which pharmacy students are trained may underlie the perception that compounding is the preponderant aspect of hospital pharmacy services, although this is required in only a few institutions. Added to

  9. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellato, L. P. C.

    2009-04-01

    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by

  10. A review on bis-hydrazonoyl halides: Recent advances in their synthesis and their diverse synthetic applications leading to bis-heterocycles of biological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sami Shawali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review covers a summary of the literature data published on the chemistry of bis-hydrazonoyl halides over the last four decades. The biological activities of some of the bis-heterocyclic compounds obtained from these bis-hydrazonoyl halides are also reviewed and discussed.

  11. Risk and prognostic factors for non-specific musculoskeletal pain : A synthesis of evidence from systematic reviews classified into ICF dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakke, Sandra E.; Soer, Remko; Takken, Tim; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of risk factors for the occurrence and prognostic factors for persistence of non-specific musculoskeletal pain (MSP) are mentioned in the literature. A systematic review of all these factors is not available. Thus a systematic review was conducted to evaluate MSP risk factors and prog

  12. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  13. [Nuptiality among Brazil's black population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-08-01

    Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.

  14. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  15. Brazils Rise to Global Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Família, Real Plan, BRIC , Export Oriented Growth, Import Substitution Industrialization, South-South cooperation. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 113 16...61 F. CAPABILITIES COMPARED TO BRIC ..................................................62 1. India...Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China EU European Union FTA Free Trade Agreement G8 Group of Eight G20 Group of Twenty GNP

  16. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Silveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  17. Chalenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investments in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Barbosa Silva Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign direct investment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review and statistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the business environment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employment and income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with high innovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with some degree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, and the introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways of modernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign direct investments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows that investments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy for investment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil.

  18. Chinese foreign direct investment in Brazil: motivations, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyi Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify motivations presented as established by Chinese companies that perform foreign direct investment in Brazil, as well as the challenges encountered in this process and their future prospects. After a structured bibliography review of topics from foreign direct investment and Chinese investment in Latin America and Brazil, we conducted an empirical study on qualitative basis from the consultation to key informants, the methodological approach that has been used in international business studies that focus on containing China or with managers and / or Chinese managers as respondents. The procedures of data collection involved semi-structured interviews conducted, in person and by phone, in addition to questionnaires containing open questions, while processing the data followed the protocol of classical content analysis. The results of the empirical stage of the research highlight cultural and political issues that underlie strategic business decisions.

  19. CHALENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES BROUGHT BY FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVELINE BARBOSA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the challenges and opportunities brought by foreign directinvestment in general and in Brazil particularly. The study is based on literature review andstatistical data show that foreign direct investments have important effects on the businessenvironment of the host country as they bring productivity improvement, formal employmentand income generation, increase on the export level, establishment of firms with highinnovation standards and the capacity to improve the quality of national products, with somedegree of technology diffusion, increases in the network of suppliers and possible buyers, andthe introduction of new strategies of business management, logistics as well as other ways ofmodernizing industrial structures. It concludes that the major benefits from foreign directinvestments are the change on local companies strategies. The study also shows thatinvestments are concentrated on most developed areas and that there is no specific strategy forinvestment attraction to the less economically favored areas of Brazil

  20. 78 FR 33063 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .......... Mexico Carbon and Certain Jennifer Moats Alloy Steel Wire Rod (202) 482-5047 (2nd Review). A-841-805 731.......... Brazil Carbon and Certain Jennifer Moats Alloy Steel Wire Rod (202) 482-5047 (2nd Review). C-351-833 701-TA-417....... Brazil Carbon and Certain Jennifer Moats Alloy Steel Wire Rod (202) 482-5047...

  1. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  2. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  3. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brisola Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  4. Aditivos microbiológicos em silagens no Brasil: revisão dos aspectos da ensilagem e do desempenho de animais Microbial silage additives in Brazil: review of aspects of ensilage and animal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Zopollatto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O uso de inoculantes microbianos no Brasil vem aumentando nos últimos anos, embora o número de trabalhos ainda seja pequeno quando comparado aos observados no exterior, principalmente no que se refere ao desempenho de animais. Nos estudos com silagens de milho e sorgo os inoculantes avaliados foram compostos exclusivamente de bactérias homofermentativas, que também representaram a maioria das pesquisas em silagens de capins, enquanto que nas silagens de cana-de-açúcar predominou o uso de bactérias heterofermentativas. Em geral, o uso de bactérias homofermentativas apresentou resultados favoráveis apenas para as silagens de milho e capins, traduzidos na maioria das vezes por menores teores de fibra e valor de pH, compensados pelo maior teor de PB. No caso das heterofermentativas foram encontrados bons resultados principalmente para as silagens de cana-de-açúcar, com menor pH e teor de compostos fibrosos em face aos aumentos do teor de carboidratos solúveis, associado à maior recuperação de MS e aumento de estabilidade aeróbia. A associação de bactérias hetero e homofermentativas proporcionou respostas satisfatórias e potencialmente interessantes embora os dados nacionais ainda sejam escassos. Investimentos adicionais na interface forragem:microrganismo poderá permitir exploração de novas perspectivas de aplicação e consolidação das recomendações desses aditivos.In recent years, the use of microbial inoculants has been increased in Brazil, although the number of trials is still behind the international standards, mainly regarding animal performance data. In corn and sorghum silages studies, homofermentative bacteria represented the exclusive source of inoculants evaluated, which in turn, were also the major inoculant used for tropical grass silages research, whereas in sugar cane silages predominated heterofermentative bacteria. Usually, the application of homofermentative bacteria showed favorable results only for

  5. Estudos recentes em Linguística Aplicada no Brasil a respeito de livros didáticos de língua estrangeira A review of recent studies on foreign language coursebooks in Applied Linguistics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Caixeta da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho focaliza pesquisas brasileiras sobre livros didáticos (LD de língua estrangeira em Linguística Aplicada. Considera-se o lugar ocupado na área por pesquisas sobre material didático para o ensino de línguas estrangeiras (Coracini, 1999; Fracalanza; Santoro, 1989; Moita Lopes, 1999; dentre outros, e é apresentado um panorama das pesquisas em Linguística Aplicada no Brasil envolvendo o LD de línguas estrangeiras no período de 1998 a 2008, mostrando os temas enfocados mais recentemente nestas pesquisas. Para tal, foram consultadas páginas da internet dos programas de pós-graduação em Linguística Aplicada, Estudos da Linguagem ou Línguas Estrangeiras de universidades brasileiras, bem como revistas especializadas na área, e, por fim, foi considerada a realização do I SILID e II SILID/ISIMAR na PUC-Rio, eventos específicos sobre o LD de línguas. Ao final, são apresentados novos temas e tendências de pesquisas, as implicações de investigações envolvendo LD de línguas estrangeiras e a necessidade de diálogos entre pesquisadores e professores (Kramsch, 1995; Coracini, 1999.The focus of this paper is foreign language coursebook studies in Applied Linguistics in Brazil. The role such research plays in the field is considered. (Coracini, 1999; Fracalanza; Santoro, 1989; Moita Lopes, 1999; among others and an overview of Brazilian studies developed between 1998-2008 is outlined, in an attempt to show the most recent focused themes. In order to do that some websites of Graduate Programs in Applied Linguistics, Language Studies and Foreign Language at Brazilian universities were accessed as well as some journals in the field, and also two specific events on language coursebooks were considered - I SILID and II SILID / I SIMAR at PUC-Rio. We conclude by suggesting new themes and trends for future studies and the need for dialogue between researchers and teachers (Kramsch, 1995; Coracini, 1999

  6. The diversity and distribution of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) in Brazil A diversidade e distribuição de Heliconia (Heliconiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    John Kress

    1990-01-01

    A review of the phylogenetic relationships of the Zingiberales is presented and the distribution patterns and diversity of Heliconia are discussed. Sixty-five species names have been applied to the heliconias that occur in Brazil. Of these 65 names, 28 are generally recognized synonyms. Of the remaining 37 species of Brazilian Heliconia, some controversy exists over the taxonomic status of at least eight. Two primary areas of distribution of species of Heliconia exist in Brazil: the Amazon ba...

  7. Abordagem das pesquisas em epidemiologia aplicada à gerontologia no Brasil: revisão da literatura em periódicos, entre 1995 e 2005 Approach to research in epidemiology applied to gerontology in Brazil: literature review of papers published between 1995 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Bueno Ribas Pinto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura de forma exploratória e descritiva, buscando determinar a abordagem das pesquisas realizadas em epidemiologia aplicada à gerontologia no Brasil. Com esse intuito, foi efetuado um levantamento bibliográfico por meio da utilização do banco de dados da biblioteca virtual do SciELO, do LILACS e do PubMed. A busca dos artigos foi feita, exclusivamente, em periódicos incluídos nestes bancos de dados, sendo realizada a procura em artigos publicados no período compreendido entre os anos de 1995 a 2005. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram uma grande diversidade e abrangência nos enfoques das pesquisas realizadas, com o predomínio de pesquisas que abordam a área de psicologia, estudos delimitados por regiões e doenças relevantes para o envelhecimento. Houve também, um aumento de forma considerável no número total de pesquisas que foram realizadas a partir do ano de 2001, com aproximadamente 18,4 % do total de artigos publicados encontrados somente no ano de 2005.The present study had the objective of carrying out an exploratory and descriptive literature review, to determine the approach of research in epidemiology applied to gerontology in Brazil. The literature review used the databases of SciELO virtual library, LILACS and PubMed, and only included papers published in journals indexed these databases, in the period between 1995 and 2005. The results found were greatly diversified and comprehensive in terms of research focus with an important prevalence of issues related to psychology and conditions associated to aging. There was also an increase in the amount of research starting from 2001, with approximately 18.4% of the total papers published in 2005.

  8. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences...... of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena...

  9. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods.

  10. Economic missions. Synthetic file: the petroleum sector in Brazil (exploration and production); the refining activity in Brazil; natural gas in Brazil: a fragile market, inferior to forecasts; Missions economiques. Fiche de synthese: le secteur petrolier au Bresil (exploration et production); le raffinage au Bresil; gaz naturel au Bresil: un marche fragile, inferieur aux previsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-12-01

    This dossier prepared by the economic mission of the French embassy in Brazil makes a synthesis of the exploration-production and refining activities of the petroleum industry, and of the natural gas distribution market in Brazil: oil reserves and production, Petrobras company, partnership agreements with Petrobras, legal aspects, concessions, projects financing, refining capacity, refinery projects in progress or under study, para-petroleum market perspectives and opportunities, natural gas market development, pipelines network, gas utilities, privatization and foreign participation, lack of expertise and of gas infrastructures and equipments. (J.S.)

  11. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; de Farias, José Cazuza; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were “high levels of body weight” (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and “lower level of physical activity” (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with “high levels of body weight” and “low levels of physical activity” were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  12. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of 2-Pyrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the recent progresses in the synthesis of 2-pyrones and the application to the synthesis of marine natural products. Especially, much attention was placed on the transition metal catalyzed synthetic methodologies in this review.

  13. Nanoestruturas em fotocatálise: uma revisão sobre estratégias de síntese de fotocatalisadores em escala nanométrica Nanostructures in photocatalysis: a review about synthesis strategies of photocatalysts in nanometric size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A. J. L. Mourão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidative processes (AOPs are based on chemical processes that can generate free radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (.OH which are strong, non-selective oxidant species that react with the vast majority of organic compounds. Nanostructured semiconductors, especially titanium dioxide (TiO2 in the anatase phase, are well-established photocatalysts for this process, which have proved to be useful in the degradation of dyes, pesticides and other contaminants. Research in different strategies for the synthesis of nanostructured semiconductors, with particular characteristic is currently a topic of interest in many studies. Thus, this paper presents a review about various synthesis strategies of nanostructured photocatalysts.

  14. Coinage Metal Hydrides: Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Abraham J; Lalic, Gojko; Sadighi, Joseph P

    2016-08-10

    Hydride complexes of copper, silver, and gold encompass a broad array of structures, and their distinctive reactivity has enabled dramatic recent advances in synthesis and catalysis. This Review summarizes the synthesis, characterization, and key stoichiometric reactions of isolable or observable coinage metal hydrides. It discusses catalytic processes in which coinage metal hydrides are known or probable intermediates, and presents mechanistic studies of selected catalytic reactions. The purpose of this Review is to convey how developments in coinage metal hydride chemistry have led to new organic transformations, and how developments in catalysis have in turn inspired the synthesis of reactive new complexes.

  15. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-417 and 731-TA-953, 957-959, 961, and 962 (Second Review)] Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain...

  16. Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

  17. Plant parasitic nematodes from Bahia State, Brazil: The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Dorylaimoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loof, P.A.A.; Sharma, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the Xiphinema species occurring in the south-eastern part of Bahia, Brazil. Nine species were found, two of which are new: X. dimidiatum with mammillate tail, females are pseudomonodelphic; and X. paritaliae, differing from X. italiae chiefly by larger size, not expanded lip reg

  18. From Tegucigalpa to Teheran: Brazil's diplomacy as an emerging Western country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quirino Steiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Brazil's pursuit for international insertion by: discussing its search for new partners; presenting an overview of the historical, cultural, and political features that render it the most Western of the emerging nations; and analyzing its participation in the management of two major international crises, the Honduran constitutional crisis and the Iranian nuclear crisis.

  19. 75 FR 67395 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-249 and 731-TA-262, 263, and 265 (Third Review)] Iron Construction... countervailing duty order on heavy iron construction castings from Brazil, the antidumping duty order on heavy iron construction castings from Canada, and the antidumping duty orders on iron construction...

  20. Stereoselective Halogenation in Natural Product Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-jin; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2016-03-24

    At last count, nearly 5000 halogenated natural products have been discovered. In approximately half of these compounds, the carbon atom to which the halogen is bound is sp(3) -hybridized; therefore, there are an enormous number of natural products for which stereocontrolled halogenation must be a critical component of any synthesis strategy. In this Review, we critically discuss the methods and strategies used for stereoselective introduction of halogen atoms in the context of natural product synthesis. Using the successes of the past, we also attempt to identify gaps in our synthesis technology that would aid the synthesis of halogenated natural products, as well as existing methods that have not yet seen application in complex molecule synthesis. The chemistry described herein demonstrates yet again how natural products continue to provide the inspiration for critical advances in chemical synthesis.

  1. Risk and prognostic factors for non-specific musculoskeletal pain: a synthesis of evidence from systematic reviews classified into ICF dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakke, Sandra E; Soer, Remko; Takken, Tim; Reneman, Michiel F

    2009-12-15

    A wide variety of risk factors for the occurrence and prognostic factors for persistence of non-specific musculoskeletal pain (MSP) are mentioned in the literature. A systematic review of all these factors is not available. Thus a systematic review was conducted to evaluate MSP risk factors and prognostic factors, classified according to the dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Candidate systematic reviews were identified in electronic medical journal databases, including the articles published between January 2000 and January 2008 that employed longitudinal cohort designs. The GRADE Working Group's criteria for assessing the overall level of evidence were used to evaluate the reviews. Nine systematic reviews were included, addressing a total of 67 factors. High evidence supported increased mobility of the lumbar spine and poor job satisfaction as risk factors for low back pain. There was also high evidence for intense pain during the onset of shoulder and neck pain and being middle aged as risk factors for shoulder pain. High evidence was also found for several factors that were not prognostic factors. For whiplash-associated disorders these factors were older age, being female, having angular deformity of the neck, and having an acute psychological response. Similarly, for persistence of low back pain, high evidence was found for having fear-avoidance beliefs and meagre social support at work. For low back pain, high evidence was found for meagre social support and poor job content at work as not being risk factors.

  2. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  3. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  4. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Souzas, Raquel; Universidade Federal da Bahia; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  7. National epilepsy movement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P T Fernandes; Noronha, A. L. A.; Sander, J. W.; L. M. Li

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a social network of epilepsy lay organization in Brazil to provide advocacy for people with epilepsy and eventually forma powerful National Epilepsy movement. Method.-We actively searched for any associations, support groups or organizations related to epilepsy in the country by personal contacts, internet search and by telephone search. Contact was then established with any entity found. Results: The first meeting was held in Campinas in March 2003, and was attended by ...

  8. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-03

    Currently at least ten bilateral mechanisms are in place through which U.S. and Brazilian government and business leaders interface on issues of...base, 430 kilograms of crack cocaine, 182 metric tons of marijuana, 12 kilograms of heroin, 125,706 dosage units of ecstasy , and 95,653 dosage units of...States continue to work together to address intellectual property issues, primarily through the U.S.-Brazil Bilateral Consultative Mechanism and the

  9. Brazil, A Potential World Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-22

    inadequate transportation system. Much of the difficulty in exploiting the great natural wealth of the country has been the direct result of a poor ...exploding birth rate and high infant mortality; great wealth and degrading poverty . Much of the poverty and high mortality can be attributed to a vicious...circle of poverty creating ignorance and ignorance creating poverty . Brazil’s population is about 80 million and has been increas- ing at the rate of

  10. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  11. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs.

  12. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  13. Social Movements in Brazil and their Educational Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Elie

    1998-03-01

    Using a distinction first proposed by Alain Touraine between historic and social movements, Ghanem's review of grassroots initiatives in Brazil argues that, despite differences in composition and aims, movements such as the landless rural workers, indigenous groups, and the women's movement in Brazil have attempted to shift the current socioeconomic order toward a new equilibrium - a process that is, however, not yet complete. In Ghanem's view, these movements are best described as historic movements. Addressing their educational aims, the author finds that they tend to fall into two types: (1) the self-provision of knowledge related to the set of problems that gave rise to their movement in the first place; (2) the striving for access to knowledge that is due to them as citizens and yet not given to them by the state. Often, social movements in Brazil are obliged to offer educational services through their own resources, services which are characterized by precarious conditions and which make the right to quality education still a distant dream.

  14. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  15. Antimalarials and the fight against malaria in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz MA Carmargo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Luiz MA Carmargo1, Saulo de Oliveira2, Sergio Basano3, Célia RS Garcia21ICBV-USP, Monte Negro, Rondônia, Brasil; 2Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3CEMETRON, Porto Velho, Guaporé, BrazilAbstract: Malaria, known as the “fevers,” has been treated for over three thousand years in China with extracts of plants of the genus Artemisia (including Artemisia annua, A. opiacea, and A. lancea from which the active compound is artemisin, a sesquiterpene that is highly effective in the treatment of the disease, especially against young forms of the parasite. South American Indians in the seventeenth century already used an extract of the bark of chinchona tree, commonly named “Jesuits’ powder.” Its active compound was isolated in 1820 and its use spread all over the world being used as a prophylactic drug during the construction of the Madeira–Mamoré railroad in the beginning of the twentieth century. During the 1920s to the 1940s, new antimalarial drugs were synthesized to increase the arsenal against this parasite. However, the parasite has presented systematic resistence to conventional antimalarial drugs, driving researchers to find new strategies to treat the disease. In the present review we discuss how Brazil treats Plasmodium-infected patients.Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, malaria, antimalarials, calcium

  16. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: pedro.carajlescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  17. [Combating smoking in Brazil: the strategic importance of government actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sandra Tavares da; Martins, Mariana Campos; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2014-02-01

    Brazil is a world benchmark in combating smoking and promoting actions through the National Program for Tobacco Control and other Risk Factors for Cancer (PNCTOFR). This literature review was conducted in order to outline the actions of PNCTOFR and identify evidence of their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of smoking in Brazil. The documents available in the electronic portals of INCA, the National Policy on Health Promotion, the National Tobacco Control Observatory, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization were used, in addition to the Lilacs, PubMed Central, SciELO and ScienceDirect databases. The reference bases for analysis of the actions were the areas/dimensions proposed by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education. The restriction of the availability, control of marketing and commercialization, educational activities in schools, assistance in primary care for health professionals and the general population, control of consumption in public places and work are some of the actions that contributed to reduction in the prevalence of smoking in Brazil from 32.7% in 1997 to 14.8% in 2011. The results indicate the effectiveness of the actions of PNCTOFR, albeit smoking is still a public health problem and needs to be curbed.

  18. Aumento da prematuridade no Brasil: revisão de estudos de base populacional Aumento de la prematuridad en Brasil: revisión de estudios de base poblacional Increase in preterm births in Brazil: review of population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela F Silveira

    2008-10-01

    ínicos, con complicaciones de la prematuridad y gestación, así como cuidados con prematuros. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: estudios de base poblacional sobre prevalencia de prematuridad con datos de Brasil, con muestra representativa del lugar de estudio y con datos primarios. De 71 estudios encontrados, el análisis fue realizado con 12. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de prematuridad varió de 3,4% a 15,0% en las regiones Sur y Sureste, entre 1978 y 2004, sugiriendo tendencia creciente a partir de la década de 1990. Estudios en la región Noreste, entre 1984 y 1998, encontraron prevalencias de prematuridad de 3,8% a 10,2%, también con tendencia a aumentar. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos del Sistema de Informaciones de Nacidos Vivos no corroboran este aumento, ya que muestran diferencias entre las tasas de prematuridad informadas por ese Sistema y las tasas medidas en los estudios incluidos en esta revisión. Debido al importante papel de la prematuridad en la mortalidad infantil en Brasil es importante identificar las causas de este aumento y planificar intervenciones que disminuyan su ocurrencia.OBJECTIVE: The greatest cause of infant mortality in Brazil is perinatal conditions, mostly associated with preterm delivery. The objective of the study was to evaluate the evolution of preterm delivery rates in Brazil. METHODS: A review was conducted using the Medline and Lilacs databases, including published studies in periodicals, thesis and dissertations since 1950. Exclusion criteria were: studies related to clinical trials and those with complications at gestation and preterm delivery and care. Inclusion criteria were: population-based studies on prevalence of preterm delivery in Brazil, with representative sample of the studied population, and using primary data. Out of 71 studies found, analysis was carried out on 12. RESULTS: The prevalence of preterm delivery found ranged from 3.4% to 15.0% in the Southern and Southeastern regions between 1978 and 2004, with a rising trend

  19. Best Practice Models of Effective Vocational Rehabilitation Service Delivery in the Public Rehabilitation Program: A Review and Synthesis of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Allison R.; Del Valle, Roy; Kim, Muwoong; Leahy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation counselors and practitioners are under increased pressure to adopt and pursue evidenced-based practices, and the rehabilitation counseling literature has been criticized for a lack of empirical work providing support for individual-level interventions. The purpose of this literature review was to examine the last 25 years of…

  20. The Experiences of and Attitudes toward Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Used in School Settings: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darren A.; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Richardson, Michelle; Racey, Daniel; Rogers, Morwenna; Stein, Ken; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ford, Tamsin J.; Garside, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    School-based non-pharmacological interventions are an important part of the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimed to systematically review qualitative literature relating to the experience of and attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for ADHD. Systematic searches of 20 electronic…

  1. A taxonomic review of the species of CharaxScopoli, 1777 (Teleostei: Characidae: Characinae with description of a new species from the rio Negro bearing superficial neuromasts on body scales, Amazon basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio A. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species of Charaxwere reviewed by Lucena (1987 who a little later (1989 added three new species to the genus. Examination of recently collected specimens from museum collections documented the more extensive geographic distribution for most species and revealed the existence of a new species in which superficial neuromasts were discovered and are herein described. These skin structures were also detected in C. metae Eigenmann, 1922. Anal- and pelvic-fin hooks previously observed only on the anal-fin of one species of the genus are described herein in some other species. Charax unimaculatus Lucena is considered a junior synonym of C. michaeli Lucena. All the species are redescribed and the new species described.

  2. Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana T. Souza-Chies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed.

  3. Quality of life of Brazilian and Spanish cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: an integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namie Okino Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: characterize the scientific production of Brazil and Spain in regard to methodological aspects and aspects of health-related quality of life experienced by cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in both countries. Method: integrative literature review was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and CUIDEN and the electronic libraries PubMed and SciELO, conducted in September 2013. Results: a total of 28 papers met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis of knowledge was presented in three categories of analysis: assessment of quality of life in different types of cancer; sociodemographic factors that influenced quality of life; and type of cancer and interventions that improve quality of life. Chemotherapy affects health-related quality of life and the most important factors were: age, sex, chemotherapy protocol, type of surgery, stage of the disease, educational level, and emotional intelligence. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, guided visualization, prayers and exercise were positive and reduced side effects. Conclusion: the results showed a poor level of evidence, since 86% of the studies were cross-sectional descriptive studies; the instrument most frequently used to measure health-related quality of life was EORTC QLQ C-30 and more studies were conducted in Brazil than in Spain.

  4. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets with Face Mating Gears. Part 2: Review of Practical Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadjiev Valentin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid1 and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion has threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three type transmissions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three type trans- missions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in Part 1: Basic theoretical and CAD experience of this study. The second part of this article is a brief overview of the innovations and inventions created in this field at the Institute of Mechanics – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last three decades. This study is also dedicated on elaboration of the specialized face gear sets for implementation into bio-robot hand. It is based on the application of 3D software technology, using 3D print for the realization of the physical models of the gear drives.

  5. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets with Face Mating Gears. Part 2: Review of Practical Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-09-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid1 and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion has threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three type transmissions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three type trans- missions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in Part 1: Basic theoretical and CAD experience of this study. The second part of this article is a brief overview of the innovations and inventions created in this field at the Institute of Mechanics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last three decades. This study is also dedicated on elaboration of the specialized face gear sets for implementation into bio-robot hand. It is based on the application of 3D software technology, using 3D print for the realization of the physical models of the gear drives.

  6. Effects of parent and child behaviours on overweight and obesity in infants and young children from disadvantaged backgrounds: systematic review with narrative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Laws, Rachel; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Elliott, Rosalind; Lynch, John,; Ball, Kylie; Taylor, Rachael; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the crucial need to develop targeted and effective approaches for obesity prevention in children most at risk, the pathways explaining socioeconomic disparity in children’s obesity prevalence remain poorly understood. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated causes of weight gain in children aged 0–5 years from socioeconomically disadvantaged or Indigenous backgrounds residing in OECD countries. Major electronic databases were searched fr...

  7. Effects of diet and physiological factors on milk fat synthesis, milk fat composition and lipolysis in the goat: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The current short review summarizes recent data on the specificities of goats compared with cows, of milk fatty acid (FA) secretion and milk fat lipolysis responses to physiological and nutritional factors. The influence of lactation stage on milk fat yield and FA composition is similar between goats and cows. In contrast, changes in milk fat yield and composition to diet, lipid supplements in particular, differs between the two ruminant species. In almost all cases, dietary lipid supplements...

  8. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  9. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  10. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  11. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  12. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  13. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  14. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  15. US and Brazil: Prospective National Security Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5, “National Security,” data as of April 1997. Maxwell, Kenneth. “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” Article published by Council on Foreign...22. [22] Kenneth Maxwell, “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” article published by Council on Foreign Relations, 15 Dec 2000. (Hereafter referred

  16. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  17. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date information on this mushroom including its taxonomy and health promoting benefits. Medicinal properties of A. subrufescens are emphasized in several studies which are reviewed here. In addition, safety issues concerning the use of this fungus will be discussed. PMID:23961172

  18. Developments of VLBI synthesis mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongrong; Wan, Tongshan

    1992-12-01

    The authors review the developments of VLBI synthesis mapping. First they give a brief history of VLBI techniques and a summary of some technical parameters frequently used in VLBI synthesis mapping. They then mention problems, namely, (u,v) coverage, correction of errors in visibility data, image quality, GFF (Global Fringe Fitting), field of view, etc. The new developments which are presented include the improvements of (u,v) coverage and angular resolution, Mk III GFF, phase reference mapping, wide field mapping, difference mapping, the potential of space VLBI mapping, mosaicing and non-linear deconvolution.

  19. Prevalência de infecção do colo do útero pelo HPV no Brasil: revisão sistemática Prevalencia de infección de cuello de útero por HPV en Brasil: revisión sistemática Cervical HPV infection in Brazil: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Rodrigues Gonçalves Ayres

    2010-10-01

    datos PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, en abril/2009, utilizándose los términos "human papillomavirus", "HPV", "prevalence" y "Brazil". De los 155 artículos identificados 82 se mantuvieron luego de leer el título y el resumen y fueron leídos de forma íntegra, siendo seleccionados 14 artículos. RESULTADOS: Los artículos sobre el tema fueron publicados entre 1989 y 2008. Los 14 artículos representaron estudios de cuatro regiones brasileras (Sureste - 43%, Sur - 21,4%, Noreste - 21,4% y Norte - 7,1%. Nueve artículos relatan estudios transversales. En ocho se utilizaron técnicas moleculares para tipaje del HPV e siete de ellos se utilizó captura híbrida para detección del HPV. Las poblaciones estudiadas variaron de 49 a 2.329 mujeres. La prevalencia general de infección de cuello de útero por el HPV varió entre 13,7% y 54,3%, y para las mujeres con citología normal, varió entre 10,4% y 24,5%. Cuatro estudios relataron los tipos de HPV más frecuentes, según resultado de citología. CONCLUSIONES: Las técnicas de citología disponibles resultan en diversas clasificaciones y estimaciones de prevalencia del HPV. Sin embargo, considerando separadamente los estudios según la técnica utilizada, se observa que la prevalencia del HPV ha aumentado. El HPV16 fue el tipo más frecuente entre las mujeres, independientemente del resultado de citología. La concentración de los estudios en la región Sureste del Brasil, especialmente en las regiones metropolitanas, muestra que las investigaciones adicionales serán necesarias para aumentar la amplitud de las informaciones disponibles sobre las mujeres brasileñas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in women in Brazil. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted with an active search in PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the terms "human papillomavirus," "HPV," "prevalence," and "Brazil". Of 155 articles retrieved, 82 were selected after reading

  20. Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yurika Maria Fogaça; Nawa, Ricardo Kenji; Figueiredo, Thais Borgheti; Martins, Lourdes; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability. PMID:28117473