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  1. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  2. Exposure to hepatitis C virus in homeless men in Central Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ferreira, Priscilla Martins; Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Christiane Moreira; Guimarães, Lara Cristina da Cunha; Barros, Cleiciane Vieira de Lima; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Rezza, Giovanni; Spadoni, Lila; Brunini, Sandra Maria

    2017-01-18

    Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people. Participants were tested for anti-HCV markers using rapid tests. Poisson regression analysis was used to verify the risk factors associated with exposure to HCV. The prevalence of HCV exposure was 2.5% (95.0% CI: 1.4 to 4.3%) and was associated with age, absence of family life, injection drug use, number of sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Participants reported multiple risk behaviors, such as alcohol (78.9%), cocaine (37.1%) and/or crack use (53.1%), and inconsistent condom use (82.6%). Injection drug use was reported by 8.7% of participants. The prevalence of HCV infection among homeless men was relatively high. Several risk behaviors were commonly reported, which shows the high vulnerability of this population. These findings emphasize the need for the development of specific strategies to reduce the risk of HCV among homeless men.

  3. Exposure to hepatitis C virus in homeless men in Central Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Priscilla Martins Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. Methods A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people. Participants were tested for anti-HCV markers using rapid tests. Poisson regression analysis was used to verify the risk factors associated with exposure to HCV. Results The prevalence of HCV exposure was 2.5% (95.0% CI: 1.4 to 4.3% and was associated with age, absence of family life, injection drug use, number of sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI. Participants reported multiple risk behaviors, such as alcohol (78.9%, cocaine (37.1% and/or crack use (53.1%, and inconsistent condom use (82.6%. Injection drug use was reported by 8.7% of participants. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV infection among homeless men was relatively high. Several risk behaviors were commonly reported, which shows the high vulnerability of this population. These findings emphasize the need for the development of specific strategies to reduce the risk of HCV among homeless men.

  4. Investigation of musculoskeletal symptoms in a manufacturing company in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Hembecker, Paula K; C Reis, Diogo; Konrath, Andréa C; A Gontijo, Leila; D Merino, Eugenio A

    Musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent and represent the most common health problem among the working population in industrially-developing countries, with considerable costs and impact on quality of life. Despite the high incidence of disability insurance claims among Brazilian manufacturing-sector workers, only a few studies assessed musculoskeletal disorders prevalence. To provide information on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among manufacturing-sector workers and to explore the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and sociodemographic and occupational characteristics in a medium metallurgical company located in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Data was collected through the use of a specifically-designed questionnaire and the items used to collect musculoskeletal disorders data were based on the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used and multivariate logistic regression analysis (pwork pause (p=0.00) were significant risk factors for development of musculoskeletal disorders. Sociodemographic and work-related aspects are influential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. These results add comprehension about musculoskeletal disorders prevalence and suggest a need for greater emphasis on prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Approach towards total knee arthroplasty in Brazil: cross-sectional study

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    Raul Frankllim de Carvalho Almeida

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA has evolved particularly since the 1970s, with improvements in implants and surgical instruments, and has thus become an effective intervention for treating knee arthrosis. Many studies have presented rates of satisfactory clinical and radiological results greater than 90%, from follow-ups of over ten years. Nevertheless, despite scientific evidence showing the efficacy of TKA, the approaches taken present controversies in certain respects. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the Brazilian orthopedists deal with TKA, with investigation of the main aspects of this procedure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey conducted during the 39th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in São Paulo, Brazil, in November 2007. METHODS: We applied a questionnaire to orthopedists registered at the congress. The questionnaire was randomly distributed and participation was voluntary; 858 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Most of the Brazilian orthopedists were members of SBOT and worked in the southeastern region. They used imported cemented implants through an anterior access route centered on the patella, with replacement of the joint surface of the patella and preservation of the posterior cruciate ligament. They did not have experience with simultaneous bilateral TKA. Postoperatively, they used antibiotics and suction drains for 48 hours. There was no consensus regarding prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism or the frequency of the main complications. CONCLUSION: The majority of Brazilian orthopedists work in the southeastern region of the country and agree about the main aspects of the approaches towards TKA.

  6. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Reis-Santos, Bárbara; Gomes, Teresa; Macedo, Laylla R; Horta, Bernardo L; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel L

    2013-08-20

    The number of subjects with tuberculosis (TB) presenting with co-occurrence of multiple chronic medical conditions, or multimorbidity (MM) is increasing in Brazil. This manuscript aimed to characterize subjects with TB, according to their MM status and to analyse factors associated with TB treatment outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study that included 39,881 TB subjects reported in Brazil, in 2011. MM were defined as any (two or more) occurrence of chronic medical conditions in a TB patient (TB-MM). Data analysis was performed by hierarchical logistic regression models comparing TBMM with those with only TB. Of the reported TB cases in 2011, 454 (1.14%) had MM. The subjects in the age group 40-59 years (OR: 17.89; 95% CI, 5.71-56.03) and those ≥ 60 years (OR: 44.11; 95% CI, 14.09-138.06) were more likely to develop TB-MM. The TB-MM subjects were less likely to be male (OR: 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76), institutionalized (OR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.23-0.80) and live in rural areas (OR: 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.95). Death from causes other than TB was higher among TB-MM subjects (OR: 1.76; 95% CI, 1.36-2.28). Of 454 TB-MM subjects 302 (66.5%) were cured and 152 (33.5%) were not cured. The odds of not being cured was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04-2.32) among males, 2.85 (95% CI, 1.12-7.28) among institutionalized subjects, and 3.93 (IC 95%, 1.86-8.30) among those who were infected with HIV. TB retreatment after previous abandonment (OR: 7.53; 95% CI, 2.58-21.97) and transfer from a treatment site (OR: 2.76; 95% CI, 1.20-6.38) were higher for subjects not cured compared to those who were cured. While TB is well recognized to be a disease engendered by social inequity, we found that even among TB patients, those who have MM have greater inequity in terms of socioeconomic status and adverse clinical outcomes. Addressing the problem of TB and TB-MM requires a multisectorial approach that includes health and social service organizations.

  7. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study.

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    Harter, Daniele Lazzarotto; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Dibi, Raquel Papandreus; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Vanin, Carla Maria De Martini

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Women (n = 155) of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  8. Association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil: cross-sectional study

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    Daniele Lazzarotto Harter

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a skeletal abnormality characterized by reduction and alteration of bone microarchitecture that results in increased fragility and greater predisposition to fractures. Age and low bone mass are the main non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The modifiable factors include sedentary lifestyle, inadequate calcium intake, excessive alcohol and/or caffeine consumption, smoking and low body weight. The aim here was to evaluate the association between low bone mass and calcium and caffeine intake among perimenopausal women in Southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in Porto Alegre and Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Women (n = 155 of mean age 53.6 ± 9.5 years were evaluated through a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Food frequency questionnaires, bone mass evaluation using calcaneal ultrasound and anthropometric assessment were used. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 67.7%. In the bone mass screening, 30.3% had low bone mass and 4.5% had osteoporosis. The median calcium intake was 574.94 mg/day and the caffeine intake was 108.11 mg/day. No association was found between bone mass and anthropometric parameters, calcium intake or caffeine intake. It was found that 38.4% of the women had low bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: No association was found between calcium and caffeine intake and bone mass. High prevalence of low bone mass was observed.

  9. A Cross - Sectional Study

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    Afsoon Fazlinezhad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Aortic valve sclerosisis considered as a manifestation of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated an association between aortic valve sclerosis and obstructive coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe correlation betweenaortic valve sclerosis andobstructive coronary artery disease and the extent of coronary artery disease in patients hospitalized for chest pain.   Materials and Methods: A total of 230 consecutive patients were referred to the coronary angiography of GhaemMedical Center and were subjected to transthorasic echocardiography for screening of aortic valve sclerosis and coronary risk assessment. The diagnostic value of obstructive coronary artery disease for aortic valve sclerosis was calculated. Results: The patients with obstructive coronary artery disease had a higher prevalence of aortic valve sclerosis compared to those with no coronary artery disease (P< 0.05. Aortic valve sclerosis was an independent predictor for obstructive coronary artery disease by multivariate analysis (P< 0.05. Aortic valve sclerosis had sensitivity of 47% and specificity of 79% and positive predictor value of 92%. Conclusions: Aortic valve sclerosis was an independent predictor for obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain and was strongly interrelated with the extent of coronary artery disease in these patients.

  10. Comparative analysis of death by suicide in Brazil and in the United States: descriptive, cross-sectional time series study.

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    Abuabara, Alexander; Abuabara, Allan; Tonchuk, Carin Albino Luçolli

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes suicide as a public health priority. Increased knowledge of suicide risk factors is needed in order to be able to adopt effective prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the association between the Gini coefficient (which is used to measure inequality) and suicide death rates over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in Brazil and in the United States (US). The hypothesis put forward was that reduction of income inequality is accompanied by reduction of suicide rates. Descriptive cross-sectional time-series study in Brazil and in the US. Population, death and suicide death data were extracted from the DATASUS database in Brazil and from the National Center for Health Statistics in the US. Gini coefficient data were obtained from the World Development Indicators. Time series analysis was performed on Brazilian and American official data regarding the number of deaths caused by suicide between 2000 and 2013 and the Gini coefficients of the two countries. The suicide trends were examined and compared. Brazil and the US present converging Gini coefficients, mainly due to reduction of inequality in Brazil over the last decade. However, suicide rates are not converging as hypothesized, but are in fact rising in both countries. The hypothesis that reduction of income inequality is accompanied by reduction of suicide rates was not verified.

  11. Neuropathological diagnoses and clinical correlates in older adults in Brazil: A cross-sectional study.

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    Claudia K Suemoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis.In this cross-sectional study, we describe clinical and neuropathological variables related to cognitive impairment in 1,092 participants (mean age = 74 y, 49% male, 69% white, and mean education = 4 y. Cognitive function was investigated using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE; neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Associations between neuropathological lesions and cognitive impairment were investigated using ordinal logistic regression. We developed a neuropathological comorbidity (NPC score and compared it to CDR, IQCODE, and NPI scores. We also described and compared the frequency of neuropathological diagnosis to clinical diagnosis of dementia subtype. Forty-four percent of the sample met criteria for neuropathological diagnosis. Among these participants, 50% had neuropathological diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD, and 35% of vascular dementia (VaD. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, hippocampal sclerosis, lacunar infarcts, hyaline atherosclerosis, siderocalcinosis, and Lewy body disease were independently associated with cognitive impairment. Higher NPC scores were associated with worse scores in the CDR sum of boxes (β = 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.46, IQCODE (β = 0.14, 95% CI 0.13-0.16, and NPI (β = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.33-2.16. Compared to neuropathological diagnoses, clinical diagnosis had high sensitivity to AD and high specificity to dementia with

  12. Common psychiatric symptoms among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. An observational cross-sectional study

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    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Teachers are at great risk of physical and mental stress due to material or psychological difficulties associated with their work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of common psychiatric symptoms measured on the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 scale that would suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, in 2012. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHOD: We assessed 110 municipal teachers in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. They were selected randomly from a list of employees of the Municipal Education Department of Palmas. All of them answered the SRQ-20 questionnaire after giving their consent. RESULTS: Between the years 2008 and 2011, 24 cases of absence from work due to mental disorders were found. We excluded one case and 109 teachers answered the SRQ-20questionnaire. Out of the 109 teachers assessed, 54 had ≥ 7 points on the SRQ-20 scale. This finding suggests that 49.5% of the teachers had symptoms that were sufficient to consider a diagnosis of mental disorder, with the need for treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study found that the prevalence of mental disorders among teachers is as high as seen in the literature. Our results suggest that recognition of mental disorders is low and that the current statistics fail to reach the occupational health sector.

  13. The influence of patient’s knowledge about stroke in Brazil: a cross sectional study

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    Maurício Isaac Panício

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about stroke patients’ awareness about the warning signs of stroke and its therapeutic time window in Brazil. Method We interviewed consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted to a terciary public hospital in Brazil. Data collected included demographics, mode of arrival, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores and knowledge of stroke warning signs and therapeutic time window. Early arrival was defined as within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset. Results Although 66.2% of patients knew the warning signs of stroke, only 7.8% reported to know that stroke had a limited therapeutic time window. Stroke severity measured by the NIHSS was independently associated with early arrival, but not knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms. Conclusion Knowledge about stroke symptoms was not a predictor of early arrival.

  14. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  15. Pain and quality of life in leprosy patients in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Santos, Victor S; Santana, Jamilly C V; Castro, Fabrícia D N; Oliveira, Laudice S; Santana, Julianne C V; Feitosa, Vera L C; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cuevas, Luis E

    2016-03-07

    Pain emerges as a challenge in the treatment of leprosy patients. In this study, we describe the prevalence and type of pain in patients with leprosy, and its effect on patients' quality of life in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional survey of 260 patients attending leprosy reference centres in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil was conducted. Individuals were assessed for the presence and type of pain, skin sensory loss, peripheral nerve enlargement, touch and pinprick sensations, mechanical allodynia and nerve palpation. Participants completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire, and we also used the Brief Pain Inventory scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF instrument to arrive at our results. One hundred and ninety-five (75 %) patients reported pain, mostly of the neuropathic type. Pain was moderate in 84 (43.1 %) and severe in 94 (48.2 %) participants. The presence of pain was associated with disability (p = 0.001), leprosy reactions (p = 0.004) and lower quality of life. Most patients with neuropathic pain were treated with steroids, despite their low efficacy for this type of pain. Pain is highly prevalent among leprosy patients and is associated with low quality of life. Leprosy management should include a systematic assessment of the type of pain a patient experiences in order to provide adequate treatment.

  16. Frailty syndrome in an independent urban population in Brazil (FIBRA study: a cross-sectional populational study

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    Larissa Barradas Calado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a multifactorial syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of frailty syndrome in an elderly urban population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out at the homes of a randomized sample representing the independent elderly individuals of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and criteria of the frailty phenotype were obtained at the subjects' homes; 385 individuals were evaluated. Frailty was defined based on detection of weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness and low physical activity level. Individuals with three or more of these characteristics were classified as frail and those with one or two as pre-frail. Specific cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level were calculated. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 73.9 ± 6.5 years, and 64.7% were women. 12.5% had lost weight over the last year; 20.5% showed exhaustion, 17.1% slowness, 24.4% low physical activity level and 20.5% weakness. 9.1% were considered frail and 49.6% pre-frail. Frail subjects were older, attended more medical visits, had a higher chance of hospitalization within the last 12 months and had more cerebrovascular events, diabetes, neoplasms, osteoporosis and urinary and fecal incontinence. CONCLUSION: In this independent elderly population, there were numerous frail and pre-frail individuals. Frailty syndrome was associated with high morbidity. Cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level should be adjusted for the population under study. It is essential to identify frail and pre-frail older individuals for appropriate interventions.

  17. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns in the southern region of the Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study.

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    Carlos, Aline Menezes; Souza, Renata Andréia Volpe; Souza, Bruna Maria Bereta de; Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo; Tostes Júnior, Sebastião; Martins, Paulo Roberto Juliano; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are among the commonest and most widespread genetic disorders worldwide. Their prevalence varies according to ethnic composition and/or geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of hemoglobinopathies and their association with ethnicity among 1,004 newborns, to confirm the guideline of the Brazilian National Neonatal Screening Program. Cross-sectional study conducted in a public referral hospital in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Qualitative assessment of hemoglobin was performed through electrophoresis on cellulose acetate: at alkaline pH to identify the hemoglobin (Hb) profile and at acid pH to differentiate Hb S from Hb D and Hb C from Hb E and others that migrate to similar positions at alkaline pH. Neutral pH was used to detect Hb Bart's identified in alpha thalassemia (α-thal). The elution method after electrophoresis was used to quantitatively assess hemoglobins. There was predominance of α-thal, with 105 cases (10.46%), followed by Hb S with 61 cases (6.08%, comprising 46 Hb AS, 2 Hb SS and 13 Hb S/α-thal), 9 cases (0.9%) of Hb AC and 6 cases (0.6%) suggestive of beta thalassemia (β-thal). The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was significantly higher among Afro-descendants. These findings corroborated of the National Neonatal Screening Program for diagnosing sickle cell disease and Hb C, Hb D, Hb E and β-thal hemoglobinopathies.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of Viral Hepatitis Perception among Residents from Southeast and North Regions of Brazil.

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    Cruz, Helena Medina; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Villar, Livia Melo

    2018-01-24

    Few data are available regarding viral hepatitis perception among the general global population. The present study aims to estimate the perception of viral hepatitis in a cohort of individuals living in two geographical regions of Brazil: North (Manaus city (MA)) and Southeast (Rio de Janeiro city (RJ)). A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out among 287 subjects recruited in MA (134) and RJ (153). All individuals answered a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic characteristics and viral hepatitis awareness. Participants' responses were scored and divided using interquartile values. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge were also evaluated. Interquartile analysis scored 0-21 correct answers as "Very Weak"; 22-27 as "Weak"; 28-31 as "Intermediate"; and 32-47 as "Desirable". Mean ± standard deviations (SD) of correct responses were weak in both MA (24.1 ± 7.0) and RJ (26.3 ± 7.3). Bivariate analysis showed an association between viral hepatitis awareness and both education level ( p < 0.001) and family income ( p < 0.01). Desirable scores were more common in female participants (61%), those aged between 21-30 years (40%), those with a secondary education (51.7%), those who received high income (31.6%), and those from RJ (70.0%). Health education campaigns in these cities are recommended to increase knowledge and reduce the transmission of these viruses.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Viral Hepatitis Perception among Residents from Southeast and North Regions of Brazil

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    Helena Medina Cruz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available regarding viral hepatitis perception among the general global population. The present study aims to estimate the perception of viral hepatitis in a cohort of individuals living in two geographical regions of Brazil: North (Manaus city (MA and Southeast (Rio de Janeiro city (RJ. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out among 287 subjects recruited in MA (134 and RJ (153. All individuals answered a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic characteristics and viral hepatitis awareness. Participants’ responses were scored and divided using interquartile values. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge were also evaluated. Interquartile analysis scored 0–21 correct answers as “Very Weak”; 22–27 as “Weak”; 28–31 as “Intermediate”; and 32–47 as “Desirable”. Mean ± standard deviations (SD of correct responses were weak in both MA (24.1 ± 7.0 and RJ (26.3 ± 7.3. Bivariate analysis showed an association between viral hepatitis awareness and both education level (p < 0.001 and family income (p < 0.01. Desirable scores were more common in female participants (61%, those aged between 21–30 years (40%, those with a secondary education (51.7%, those who received high income (31.6%, and those from RJ (70.0%. Health education campaigns in these cities are recommended to increase knowledge and reduce the transmission of these viruses.

  20. Cross-sectional study of serum reactivity to Anisakis simplex in healthy adults in Niterói, Brazil.

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    Figueiredo Junior, Israel; Vericimo, Mauricio Afonso; Cardoso, Luciana Ramos; São Clemente, Sergio Carmona; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; Teixeira, Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil

    2013-09-01

    Although the incidence of anisakiasis is rising worldwide, its frequency is still unknown in Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify immunoreactivity to Anisakis simplex antigens in healthy adults and determine its possible relationship with frequency of fish consumption and allergy symptoms. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with 67 volunteers recruited from a military facility in Niterói, Brazil. The subjects completed a structured questionnaire and serum titers of specific anti-Anisakis IgE and IgG antibodies were measured. The association between frequency of fish intake and IgE reactivity was evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Almost all subjects (97.0%, 65/67) that consumed seafood; 64.6% (42/65) ate fish at least once weekly. Of all seafood consumers, 56.9% (37/65) reported allergy symptoms, being gut allergies most often cited (35.5%). IgE seroreactivity to Anisakis simplex was found in 20.9% of subjects (14/67), with 13.4% (9/67) reacting exclusively to somatic antigen, 3.0% (2/67) exclusively to excretory/secretory antigens and 4.5% (3/67) to both antigens. There was a significant association between frequency of fish consumption and positive serology (p = 0.019). An immunoblot assay for Anisakis antigens showed different positive bands for IgG. The direct relationship between ELISA reactivity and frequency of fish intake and absence of association with allergy symptoms suggests previous contact with Anisakis simplex antigens.

  1. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

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    C. Murto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil’s Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5% were birth migrants, 105 (26.6% were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9% were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1 alcohol consumption, (2 separation from family/friends, and (3 difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships.

  2. Dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in South Brazil.

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    Alves, Luana Severo; Brusius, Carolina Doege; Damé-Teixeira, Nailê; Maltz, Marisa; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    To assess the epidemiology and risk indicators for dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 1,528). Dental erosion was recorded according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Parents answered questions on socio-economic status, brushing frequency and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary habits. Anthropometric data were collected. Statistical analysis included logistic and Poisson regression models. The prevalence of dental erosion was 15% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.6-16.5], being mainly mild erosion. Boys [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.10], private school attendees (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and schoolchildren reporting the daily consumption of soft drinks (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.17-21.71) were more likely to have at least one tooth with dental erosion. Gender [boys, rate ratio (RR) = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.28-2.17], type of school (private, RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.53-2.35), the consumption of soft drinks (sometimes: RR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.46-19.05; daily: RR = 6.82, 95% CI: 1.39-33.50) and the daily consumption of lemon (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00) were significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces. The present study found a moderate prevalence of dental erosion among young schoolchildren, with mild erosion being the most prevalent condition. Socio demographic variables and dietary habits were associated with dental erosion in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil

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    C.A.T. Pinheiro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected adults being treated with antiretroviral drugs at a reference service in Southern Brazil. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were tested by scales assessing sociocognitive variables. Adherence to treatment was assessed by a self-report inventory developed for the study. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' records. Significance tests were conducted using univariate logistic regressions followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients participated in the study and 56.9% of them reported > or = 95% adherence on the previous two days. In univariate analysis, the odds of adherence increased with self-efficacy (a person's conviction that he/she can successfully execute the behavior required to produce a certain desired outcome in taking medications as prescribed (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.90-6.55, and decreased with perception of negative affect and physical concerns (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95. The odds were lower for taking antiretroviral medications >4 times a day (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.94 and higher for patients with 8 years of schooling (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.12-4.66. In the multivariate analysis, self-efficacy (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.69-6.56 and taking medication >4 times a day (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80 were independently associated with adherence. Self-efficacy was the most important predictor of adherence, followed by number of times antiretroviral medication was taken per day. Among sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the number of years of schooling was associated with adherence. Motivational interventions based on self-efficacy may be useful for increasing treatment adherence.

  4. Influence of the family nucleus on obesity in children from northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Oliveira Nelson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is considered to be caused by a combination of heredity and environmental factors with typical onset during childhood. The aim of this study was to identify family risk factors for the development of obesity in children from Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with 699 children, randomly and proportionally selected, ranging from 5 to 9 years of age, from public and private schools in Feira de Santana-BA. Overweight and obesity were defined using IOTF standards. Analyses of the interviews with the children's guardians were used to determine the influence of the family nucleus on obesity. Results The children were classified into four groups based on weight percentiles (underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Significant differences between the groups in relation to ethnicity, social and economical status (ρ = 000.0 for all were found. The following variables were associated with the development of childhood obesity: fathers' obesity (ρ = 0.001, mothers' (ρ = 0.021 and both parents' (ρ = 0.000. There was no significant statistical difference between fathers and mothers who did (ρ = 0.81 or did not work out (ρ = 0.15. Obesity (ρ = 0.07 tended to be less prevalent in the child whose parents were separated. Family history of obesity (OR = 3.3; IC = 2.0 – 5.5; ρ = 0.000 and high social class (OR = 3.0; IC = 1.1 – 7.7; ρ = 0.020 were predictive and independent associated factors. Conclusion This study confirms the influence of genetic and/or behavioral factors on the origin of childhood obesity. Thus, effective intervention strategies must be focused not only on the children but on the entire family nucleus.

  5. Influence of the family nucleus on obesity in children from northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Oliveira, Ana M; Oliveira, Antônio C; Almeida, Marcele S; Oliveira, Nelson; Adan, Luis

    2007-09-07

    Obesity is considered to be caused by a combination of heredity and environmental factors with typical onset during childhood. The aim of this study was to identify family risk factors for the development of obesity in children from Brazil. Cross-sectional study with 699 children, randomly and proportionally selected, ranging from 5 to 9 years of age, from public and private schools in Feira de Santana-BA. Overweight and obesity were defined using IOTF standards. Analyses of the interviews with the children's guardians were used to determine the influence of the family nucleus on obesity. The children were classified into four groups based on weight percentiles (underweight, normal, overweight and obese). Significant differences between the groups in relation to ethnicity, social and economical status (rho = 000.0 for all) were found. The following variables were associated with the development of childhood obesity: fathers' obesity (rho = 0.001), mothers' (rho = 0.021) and both parents' (rho = 0.000). There was no significant statistical difference between fathers and mothers who did (rho = 0.81) or did not work out (rho = 0.15). Obesity (rho = 0.07) tended to be less prevalent in the child whose parents were separated. Family history of obesity (OR = 3.3; IC = 2.0 - 5.5; rho = 0.000) and high social class (OR = 3.0; IC = 1.1 - 7.7; rho = 0.020) were predictive and independent associated factors. This study confirms the influence of genetic and/or behavioral factors on the origin of childhood obesity. Thus, effective intervention strategies must be focused not only on the children but on the entire family nucleus.

  6. Factors associated with syphilis seroreactivity among polydrug users in Northeast Brazil: A cross-sectional study using Respondent Driven Sampling.

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    Baptista, Cremildo João; Dourado, Ines; Brignol, Sandra; Andrade, Tarcísio de Matos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2017-01-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 Brazilian cities between September and November 2009 using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Participants answered an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) and were rapid tested for HIV and syphilis. We performed multivariable regression models for correlates of syphilis on Stata 10.0. Estimates were weighted by the inverse size of the individual social network size and homophily. Mean age was 29.3 years (range: 18-62), 74.0% were males, and 89.8% were non-white. Syphilis prevalence was 16.6%. Females (adjwOR:2.14; 95%CI:1.09-4.20), individuals over 29 years old (adjwOR:4.44; 95%CI:2.41-8.19), those who exchanged sex for money or drugs (adjwOR:3.51; 95%CI:1.84-6.71), "No/low" self-perceived risk of HIV infection (adjwOR:5.13; 95%CI:1.36-19.37), and having nine or less years of education (adjwOR:2.92; 95%CI:1.08-7.88) were associated with syphilis. One of the most pressing needs for syphilis prevention/control is the availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests and treatment. Interventions should be tailored to PDU needs and their multiple burdens as shown in the present study, that may contribute to future studies aiming to better understand the relationships between drug use and syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns in the southern region of the Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study

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    Aline Menezes Carlos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hemoglobinopathies are among the commonest and most widespread genetic disorders worldwide. Their prevalence varies according to ethnic composition and/or geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of hemoglobinopathies and their association with ethnicity among 1,004 newborns, to confirm the guideline of the Brazilian National Neonatal Screening Program. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a public referral hospital in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Qualitative assessment of hemoglobin was performed through electrophoresis on cellulose acetate: at alkaline pH to identify the hemoglobin (Hb profile and at acid pH to differentiate Hb S from Hb D and Hb C from Hb E and others that migrate to similar positions at alkaline pH. Neutral pH was used to detect Hb Bart's identified in alpha thalassemia (α-thal. The elution method after electrophoresis was used to quantitatively assess hemoglobins. RESULTS: There was predominance of α-thal, with 105 cases (10.46%, followed by Hb S with 61 cases (6.08%, comprising 46 Hb AS, 2 Hb SS and 13 Hb S/α-thal, 9 cases (0.9% of Hb AC and 6 cases (0.6% suggestive of beta thalassemia (β-thal. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was significantly higher among Afro-descendants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborated of the National Neonatal Screening Program for diagnosing sickle cell disease and Hb C, Hb D, Hb E and β-thal hemoglobinopathies.

  8. Violence at work and depressive symptoms in primary health care teams: a cross-sectional study in Brazil.

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    da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Implementation of primary care has long been a priority in low- and middle-income countries. Violence at work may hamper progress in this field. Hence, we examined the associations between violence at work and depressive symptoms/major depression in primary care teams (physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, and community health workers). A cross-sectional study was undertaken in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We assessed a random sample of Family Health Program teams. We investigated depressive symptoms and major depression using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and exposure to violence at work in the previous 12 months using a standardized questionnaire. Associations between exposure to violence and depressive symptoms/major depression were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of 3141 eligible workers, 2940 (93 %) completed the interview. Of these, 36.3 % (95 % CI 34.6-38.1) presented intermediate depressive symptoms, and 16 % (95 % CI 14.6-17.2), probable major depression. The frequencies of exposure to the different types of violence at work were: insults (44.9 %), threats (24.8 %), physical aggression (2.3 %), and witnessing violence (29.5 %). These exposures were strongly and progressively associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 1.67 for exposure to one type of violence; and 5.10 for all four types), and probable major depression (adjusted odds ratio 1.84 for one type; and 14.34 for all four types). Primary care workers presenting depressive symptoms and those who have experienced violence at work should be assisted. Policy makers should prioritize strategies to prevent these problems, since they can threaten primary care sustainability.

  9. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

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    Helian Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6% and men (57.8%. Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59, age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o. (aOR = 1.40, lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73 and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69. Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o. (aOR = 1.90, history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71, previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.52, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.41, lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine (aOR = 1.54, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.47, lifetime history of incarceration (aOR = 2.07. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of physical violence in this population was high for both sexes. Although there were similar factors independently associated with physical violence among men and women, there are important differences, such as age of sexual debut and lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use for women, but not for men, while younger age, history of homelessness, and lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were associated factors for men only. Screening for history of violence upon admission and early

  10. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns in the southern region of the Triângulo Mineiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study

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    Carlos, Aline Menezes; Souza, Renata Andréia Volpe; Souza, Bruna Maria Bereta de; Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo; Tostes Júnior, Sebastião; Martins, Paulo Roberto Juliano; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hemoglobinopathies are among the commonest and most widespread genetic disorders worldwide. Their prevalence varies according to ethnic composition and/or geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of hemoglobinopathies and their association with ethnicity among 1,004 newborns, to confirm the guideline of the Brazilian National Neonatal Screening Program. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in a public referra...

  11. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  12. Medical students’ personal choice for mode of delivery in Santa Catarina, Brazil: a cross-sectional, quantitative study

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    Watanabe Tatiane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in overall rates of cesarean sections (CS in Brazil causes concern and it appears that multiple factors are involved in this fact. In 2009, undergraduate students in the first and final years of medical school at the University of Santa Catarina answered questionnaires regarding their choice of mode of delivery. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the education process affects decision-making regarding the waay of childbirth preferred by medical students. Methods A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted based on data obtained from questionnaires applied to medical students. The questions addressed four different scenarios in childbirth, as follows: under an uneventful pregnancy; the mode of delivery for a pregnant woman under their care; the best choice as a healthcare manager and lastly, choosing the birth of their own child. For each circumstance, there was an open question to explain their choice. Results A total of 189 students answered the questionnaires. For any uneventful pregnancy and for a pregnant woman under their care, 8.46% of the students would opt for CS. As a healthcare manager, only 2.64% of the students would recommend CS. For these three scenarios, the answers of the students in the first year did not differ from those given by students in the sixth year. In the case of the student’s own or a partner’s pregnancy, 41.4% of those in the sixth year and 16.8% of those in the first year would choose a CS. A positive association was found between being a sixth year student and a personal preference for CS according to logistic regression (OR = 2.91; 95%CI: 1.03–8.30. Pain associated with vaginal delivery was usually the reason for choosing a CS. Conclusions A higher number of sixth year students preferred a CS for their own pregnancy (or their partner’s compared to first year students. Pain associated with vaginal delivery was the most common reason given for haven chosen

  13. Medical students' personal choice for mode of delivery in Santa Catarina, Brazil: a cross-sectional, quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatiane; Knobel, Roxana; Suchard, Guilherme; Franco, Mario Julio; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Consonni, Elenice Bertanha; Consonni, Marcos

    2012-07-20

    The increase in overall rates of cesarean sections (CS) in Brazil causes concern and it appears that multiple factors are involved in this fact. In 2009, undergraduate students in the first and final years of medical school at the University of Santa Catarina answered questionnaires regarding their choice of mode of delivery. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the education process affects decision-making regarding the way of childbirth preferred by medical students. A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted based on data obtained from questionnaires applied to medical students. The questions addressed four different scenarios in childbirth, as follows: under an uneventful pregnancy; the mode of delivery for a pregnant woman under their care; the best choice as a healthcare manager and lastly, choosing the birth of their own child. For each circumstance, there was an open question to explain their choice. A total of 189 students answered the questionnaires. For any uneventful pregnancy and for a pregnant woman under their care, 8.46% of the students would opt for CS. As a healthcare manager, only 2.64% of the students would recommend CS. For these three scenarios, the answers of the students in the first year did not differ from those given by students in the sixth year. In the case of the student's own or a partner's pregnancy, 41.4% of those in the sixth year and 16.8% of those in the first year would choose a CS. A positive association was found between being a sixth year student and a personal preference for CS according to logistic regression (OR = 2.91; 95%CI: 1.03-8.30). Pain associated with vaginal delivery was usually the reason for choosing a CS. A higher number of sixth year students preferred a CS for their own pregnancy (or their partner's) compared to first year students. Pain associated with vaginal delivery was the most common reason given for haven chosen a CS. The students' preference for childbirth changed over time during

  14. Smoking prevalence, reduction, and cessation during pregnancy and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in public maternities, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; da Silva, K?tia Silveira; da Rocha, Penha Maria Mendes; Silva, Rosana Garcia; Pires, Alinne Christina Alves; Cavalcanti, Maria de Lourdes Tavares; Costa, Antonio Jose Leal; de Torres, Tania Zdenka Guill?n

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking epidemic in Brazilian women has later onset, smaller magnitude, and slower decreasing trend, compared to men. Among pregnant women, smoking has an additional deleterious effect. The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking prevalence during pregnancy and associated factors, and to describe the frequency of smoking reduction and cessation in public maternities of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two mate...

  15. Childhood overweight and obesity in a region of Italian immigration in Southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Renata; Cimadon, Hosana Maria Speranza; de Souza, William Brasil; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-04-02

    The main modifiable risk factors for obesity are related to lifestyle and significantly influenced by the family, environment and culture. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and associated lifestyle factors in children from Bento Gonçalves, a southern Brazil city with strong Italian immigration influence. Italian traditional foods were locally adapted since the immigrants' arrival in the XIX century, to include more fat and fewer vegetables, and physical activity levels have decreased. Cross-sectional study of a population-based cluster sample with students aged 9-18 years. We assessed time spent in sedentary behaviors, hours of physical activity, food frequency and family history. All children underwent physical examination with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Overweight and obesity were classified according to WHO percentile curves. A total of 590 students were evaluated. Mean age was 12.45 ± 1.49 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.3% and 8.3%, respectively. Boys were more frequently overweight and obese than girls (16.3% and 12.2% versus 16.2% and 5.5%, respectively). Vegetables and fruits were consumed less than 4 times per week in 49% and 36.8%, while soft drinks, fast food and sweets were consumed more than 4 times a week by 71%, 70.3% and 42.7%, respectively. The habit of omitting breakfast was associated with overweight (p = 0.007). The average screen time was 5.38 ± 2.88 hours/day. Overweight/obesity was present in 12.2% (n = 5), 24.8% (n = 122) and 36.8% (n = 14) children with low birth weight, normal birth weight and high birth weight respectively (p = 0.04). The prevalence of high blood pressure was higher in obese (30.6%) and overweight (21.2%) children, comparing to eutrophic children (6.8%; p < 0.001). Excess weight was more frequent among fathers (62.8%) than in mothers (46.3%), but excess weight in mothers was positively associated with excess weight in

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study

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    Pereira Leila MMB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%. Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65, sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59, hospitalization (OR = 1.90, groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53, and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value. The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care

  17. Daily intake of dairy products in Brazil and contributions to nutrient intakes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Toth, Lindsey D; Harkness, Laura S; Bolster, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    Dairy products are sources of protein and micronutrients important in a healthy diet. The purpose of the present analysis was to estimate consumption of dairy products by Brazilians and identify contributions of dairy products to nutrient intakes. Dairy consumption data were obtained from 24 h dietary records. Dairy products were defined as milk (including flavoured), cheese and yoghurt. Estimates of dairy product intakes were generated for all individuals, individuals in urban and rural households and for age groups 10-18 years, 19-59 years and ≥60 years. Contributions to nutrient intakes were estimated for the total sample and sub-populations. Nationwide cross-sectional survey, 2008-2009. Nationally representative sample of individuals aged ≥10 years in the Individual Food Intake survey, a component of the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (n 34 003). Among individuals aged ≥10 years, per capita intake of dairy products was 142 (se 2.1) g/d. Dairy product intake was higher among individuals in urban compared with rural areas and among groups 10-18 years and ≥60 years compared with adults aged 19-59 years. Dairy products accounted for 6.1% of daily energy intake, 7.3% of protein, 16.9% of saturated fat, 11.1% and 4.3% of total and added sugars, respectively, and 10.2-37.9% of daily Ca, vitamin D, P, vitamin A and K. Dairy products were substantial contributors to daily intakes of selected nutrients of concern in Brazil, although mean daily dairy product consumption was less than a typical portion. Education efforts in Brazil to raise awareness about the nutritional role of dairy foods may serve to improve overall diet quality.

  18. Association between early childhood caries and maternal caries status: A cross-section study in S?o Lu?s, Maranh?o, Brazil

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    de Souza, Pedrita Mara do Esp?rito Santo; Mello Proen?a, Mariana Almeida; Franco, Mayra Moura; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pinheiro; Costa, Jos? Ferreira; Costa, Elizabeth Lima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate the association between early childhood caries (ECC) and maternal caries status, and the maternal perception of ECC risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 77 mother-child pairs, the children ranging from 12 to 36 months of age and their mothers, who were seeking dental care at a health center in S?o Lu?s, Maranh?o, Brazil. Data collection was conducted using a specific questionnaire for mothers. Oral clinical ex...

  19. Genetic education, knowledge and experiences between nurses and physicians in primary care in Brazil: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Júnior, Luís Carlos; Carvalho Júnior, Paulo Marcondes; de Faria Ferraz, Victor Evangelista; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Van Riper, Marcia; Flória-Santos, Milena

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in genomics and related technologies have the potential to improve health care throughout the world. In this cross-sectional study, we examine genetics education, knowledge, and genetics-related experiences among the nurses and physicians who provide primary care in a Brazilian city. Fifty-four healthcare professionals from family health units participated in the study (response rate: 90%). Data were collected using a structured 36-item questionnaire divided into five axes: sociodemographic data and academic background; genetics education; genetics knowledge; genetics-related experiences in family practice; and knowledge regarding the National Policy for Comprehensive Care in Clinical Genetics in the Unified Health System. Although most participants (85.2%) acknowledged receiving some genetic content during their undergraduate education, the majority (77.8%) advised that they did not feel prepared to deliver genomics-based health care in primary care. The results suggest that nurses and physicians often lack the knowledge to provide genomics-based health care in primary care. Therefore, continuing education in genetics/genomics should be provided to primary healthcare professionals in order to enhance family practice and compliance with national policies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. A snapshot of the nutritional status of Crohn's disease among adolescents in Brazil: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Camila Ortiz Prospero Cavalcante; Carrilho, Flair José; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Rodrigues, Maraci

    2015-12-08

    The relationship between nutrition and Crohn's disease (CD) is complex and involves several therapeutic possibilities including: nutrition treatment for malnourished patients, optimization of growth and development, prevention of osteoporosis, first-line therapy for active disease, and maintenance of disease remission. In children and adolescents with CD, malnutrition is a common problem that adversely affects the prognosis. In at-risk adolescent CD patients, it is important to assess body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, nutrient balance and serum levels of nutrients before planning interventions for this population. The aim of this study was to provide a snapshot of the nutritional status of adolescents with CD in Brazil. We prospectively selected 22 patients with mildly to moderately active CD, 29 patients with inactive CD and 35 controls (first-degree relatives of and in the same age bracket as the CD patients). The age range of participants was between 13.2 and 19.4 years old. We collected anthropometric data including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), which were expressed as Z scores: weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age, respectively, as well as using bioimpedance to determine body composition and assessing the Tanner stage. We also assessed macronutrients and micronutrients (serum levels and dietary intake of both). We used the chi-square test to determine whether any of the studied variables were associated with inactive or active CD. The level of significance was set at 5 % (p body mass, Tanner stage, height-for-age Z score and BMI-for-age Z score were lower in the active CD group than in the inactive CD and control groups (p nutritional risk, which makes it important to conduct nutritional assessments in such patients.

  1. Family health strategy and equity in prenatal care: a population based cross-sectional study in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya Valéria Micaela de Souza; Queiroz Barbosa, Allan Claudius; Souza, Michelle Nepomuceno; Calazans, Júlia Almeida; Carvalho, Lucas Resende de; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Silva, Núbia Cristina

    2017-01-21

    Prenatal care coverage is still not universal or adequately provided in many low and middle income countries. One of the main barriers regards the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in prenatal care utilization. In Brazil, prenatal care is supplied for the entire population at the community level as part of the Family Health Strategy (FHS), which is the main source of primary care provided by the public health system. Brazil has some of the greatest income inequalities in the world, and little research has been conducted to investigate prenatal care utilization of FHS across socioeconomic groups. This paper addresses this gap investigating the socioeconomic and regional differences in the utilization of prenatal care supplied by the FHS in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data comes from a probabilistic household survey carried out in 2012 representative of the population living in urban areas in the state of Minas Gerais. The sample size comprises 1,420 women aged between 13 and 45 years old who had completed a pregnancy with a live born in the last five years prior to the survey. The outcome variables are received prenatal care, number of antenatal visits, late prenatal care, antenatal tests, tetanus immunization and low birthweight. A descriptive analysis and logistic models were estimated for the outcome variables. The coverage of prenatal care is almost universal in catchment urban areas of FHT of Minas Gerais state including both antenatal visits and diagnostic procedures. Due to this high level of coverage, socioeconomic inequalities were not observed. FHS supplied care for around 80% of the women without private insurance and 90% for women belonging to lower socioeconomic classes. Women belonging to lower socioeconomic classes were at least five times more likely to receive antenatal visits and any of the antenatal tests by the FHS compared to those belonging to the highest classes. Moreover, FHS was effective in reducing low birthweight. Women who

  2. Mistreatment in an academic setting and medical students' perceptions about their course in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: High prevalence of mistreatment among medical students has been described in the worldwide literature since the 1980s. However, studies addressing the severity and recurrence of victimization and its effects on students' perceptions of their medical course are scarce. This study had the aim of estimating the prevalence of exposure to mistreatment that was considered to be severe and recurrent and its association with medical students' perceptions about their medical course. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Three hundred and seventeen students from the first to the sixth year answered the online questionnaire. RESULTS: High prevalence of mistreatment during the course was found. Two thirds of the students considered the episodes to be severe, and around one third reported experiencing recurrent victimization. Occurences of mistreatment that the students considered to be severe were correlated with feeling overloaded and wanting to abandon the medical course. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrences of mistreatment within the academic environment are frequent in Brazil. The results suggest that mistreatment that was considered to be severe might negatively affect students' perceptions about their course.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants.

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    Santos, Betânia R; Mascarenhas, Luis P G; Satler, Fabíola; Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2012-06-08

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI) percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236), and BsmI (rs1544410) SNPs. The median and interquartile range (25-75%) of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 - 84.9). The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OH)D (≥ 30 ng/mL) were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20-29 ng/mL); and deficient in 36.3% (children and adolescents.

  4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis: a cross-sectional clinical, epidemiological and laboratory study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    de Carvalho, Livia Martins Veloso; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Vasconcellos, Érica de Camargo Ferreira e; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro Javier; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Atypical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis include sporotrichoid leishmaniasis (SL), which is clinically described as a primary ulcer combined with lymphangitis and nodules and/or ulcerated lesions along its pathway. Aims To assess the differences between patients with sporotrichoid leishmaniasis and typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods From January 2004 to December 2010, 23 cases of SL (4.7%) were detected among 494 CL patients diagnosed at a reference center for the disease in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. These 23 cases were compared with the remaining 471 patients presenting CL. Results SL predominated in female patients (60.9%, p = 0.024), with older age (p = 0.032) and with lesions in upper limbs (52.2%, p = 0.028). CL affected more men (64.5%), at younger age, and with a higher number of lesions exclusively in lower limbs (34.8%). Conclusions Differences in clinical and epidemiological presentation were found between SL patients as compared to CL ones, in a region with a known predominance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The results are similar to the features of most of the sporotrichosis patients as described in literature, making the differential diagnosis between ATL and sporotrichosis more important in overlapping areas for both diseases, like in Rio de Janeiro State. PMID:28591261

  5. Potentially inappropriate prescribing and associated factors in elderly patients at hospital discharge in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mori, Ana Luiza Pereira Moreira; Carvalho, Renata Cunha; Aguiar, Patricia Melo; de Lima, Maria Goretti Farias; Rossi, Magali da Silva Pacheco Nobre; Carrillo, José Fernando Salvador; Dórea, Egídio Lima; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2017-04-01

    Background The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria is used to identify instances of potentially inappropriate prescribing in a patient's medication regimen. Objective To determine the prevalence and predictors of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) among elderly patients at hospital discharge. Setting A university hospital medical clinic in Brazil. Method Discharge prescriptions were examined using the STOPP/START criteria. Subjects were inpatients aged ≥60 years receiving at least one medication prior to hospitalization and with a history of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of PIMs and PPOs was determined and a multivariable binary regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors associated with PIMs or PPOs. Main outcome measure Prevalence of PIMs and PPOs. Results Of the 230 subjects, 13.9% were prescribed at least one PIM. The most frequently prescribed PIMs were glibenclamide or chlorpropamide prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus (31.0%), and aspirin at doses >150 mg/day (14.3%). Ninety patients had at least one PPO (39.1%). The most prevalent PPOs were statins (29.8%) and antiplatelet therapy (13.7%) for diabetes mellitus when coexisting major cardiovascular risk factors were present. No predictors for PIMs were found. In contrast, diabetes was a risk factor while dyslipidaemia was a protective factor for PPOs. Conclusion PIMs and PPOs commonly occur with elderly people at hospital discharge. Diabetes and dyslipidaemia were significantly associated with PPOs. Our findings show the need for interventions to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing, such as a pharmacist medication review process at hospital discharge.

  6. Cross-sectional study of the frequency of helminths and protozoa in buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Da Silva J.B., Corrêa F.N., de Meireles G.S., Flausino W. & Fonseca A.H. [Cross-sectional study of the frequency of helminths and protozoa in buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Estudo transversal da frequência de helmintos e protozoários em búfalos no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:239-243, 2014. Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho”, Campus de Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brasil. E-mail: jenevaldo@hotmail.com Buffaloes and cattle are affected by a large number of helminth and protozoan common to these hosts. Although studies related to prevalence, symptoms and intensity of helminth and protozoan infections of the gastrointestinal tract of cattle are vast, the same is not true for buffaloes, particularly in Latin America. Thus, through a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included six mesoregions the state of Rio de Janeiro. The average data of faecal egg counts were compared using Kruskal-willis and the percentages of infective larvae form submitted to chi-square (χ2, both at 5% probability. Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Bunostomum spp., Trichuris spp., Strongyloides papilosus, Toxocara vitulorum, Moniezia expansa and coccidia Eimeria spp. were observed by counting the eggs and oocysts in the feces. Although there have been anemic animals, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, total plasma protein and fibrinogen levels remained within the normal range. We observed an inverse correlation between counting helminth eggs in feces and hematocrit (r = -0 75.2, P <0.05. Although the six mesoregions the state of Rio de Janeiro have different

  7. Iodine Nutritional Status in Schoolchildren from Public Schools in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study Exposes Association with Socioeconomic Factors and Food Insecurity.

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    Campos, Renata de Oliveira; Reboucas, Sara Cristina Lima; Beck, Rebeca; de Jesus, Lorena Rejane Maia; Ramos, Yanne Rocha; Barreto, Iasmin Dos Santos; Marques, Tamires Xavier; Cerqueira, Taise Lima Oliveira; Santos, William Alves; Oliveira, Clotilde Assis; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando; Ramos, Helton Estrela

    2016-07-01

    National programs of salt iodization were implemented in Brazil to combat iodine deficiency (ID) in children of school age. Currently, there are limited data in Brazil on those still vulnerable to this deficiency and the state of nutritional iodine status in the northeast region of Brazil, where children are vulnerable to malnutrition. The aim of this study was to analyze the iodine nutritional status, household food insecurity, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among schoolchildren from the public school system living in state the state of Bahia, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1419 schoolchildren in Bahia between the ages of 6 and 14 years old. Anthropometric parameters, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), and thyrotropin (TSH) measurements were evaluated from blood spots on filter paper. The mean UIC was 206.4 ± 80.5 μg/L, with a median of 221.6 μg/L, indicating sufficient iodine intake in the region. Low urinary iodide concentration (300 μg/L, indicating the coexistence of excessive iodine intake (EII). The mean TSH was 1.0 ± 0.6 mIU/L. The body mass index category "overweight/obesity" was a protective factor against EII (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64 [confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.0]; p = 0.07). Urban areas (73%) had a mean UIC of 213.1 ± 80 μg/L compared with 176.8 ± 76.1 μg/L in rural areas. The risk for EII increased in children living in a house with more than six people (OR = 1.62 [CI 0.9-2.6]; p  0.05). A significant proportion of schoolchildren still have ID or EII in the northeast region of Brazil, emphasizing the importance of committed public policies to address this problem. Socioeconomic factors and the lack of education about nutritional importance of iodine were important influencing factors in the presence of ID in schoolchildren.

  8. The association of intrafamilial violence against children with symptoms of atopic and non-atopic asthma: A cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil.

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    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to describe the types of intrafamilial violence perpetrated against children according to living conditions, family factors, and child characteristics, and to identify the association between types of intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,370 caregivers as part of the Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) study, conducted in 2006 in Brazil. The study population was selected by random sampling. The main outcome measures were atopic and non-atopic asthma. We investigate the association between intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A backward multivariate logistic polytomous regression was performed to verify the main association. Nonviolent discipline (NVD) and maltreatment nonviolent discipline (MNVD) were positively associated with non-atopic asthma symptoms (NVD: odds ratio (OR)=1.95/95% confidence interval (CI)=1.17-3.25; MNVD: OR=1.95/95% CI=1.19-3.20). However, for the most severe intrafamilial violence, this association was not found after control of potential confounders. This study demonstrates the effect of types of intrafamilial violence on non-atopic asthma. Intrafamilial violence against children represents one more component in the determination of non-atopic asthma in Latin America. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and common mental disorders among military students at the Police Academy, São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study.

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    Perez, Arlene de Maria; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2015-01-01

    The lifestyle of military personnel has been little studied in Brazil. This study evaluated the frequencies of tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and mental health among military students. Cross-sectional study at the Police Academy, in São Paulo. Students answered a questionnaire about tobacco use, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior and common mental disorders (CMDs). To analyze associations among the frequencies of smoking and alcohol use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and CMDs during the undergraduate years, we built a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. All 473 students were invited to participate and 430 (90.9%) agreed (10.5% were women). Most were white (76.6%), aged < 30 years, from the upper middle class (78.1%). The frequency of smoking was 6.5%, alcohol consumption 69.3%, STDs 14% and CMDs 15.6%. The use of condoms was low. Fourth-year students presented a lower odds ratio (OR) for STDs than the first-year students: 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.90). Third-year students presented a lower OR for CMDs than the first-year students. The frequencies of smoking and CMDs were low, while the frequency of alcohol consumption was similar to that of the Brazilian population. The use of condoms was low, in comparison with previous studies with similar samples. The results suggest that there was a certain degree of protection against CMDs and STDs during the undergraduate years.

  10. Socio-demographic caracteristics and prevalence of risk factors in a hypertensive and diabetics population: a cross-sectional study in primary health care in Brazil

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    Julio Baldisserotto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and their related morbidity and mortality, are currently the most common public health problems and also a higher burden of disease in Brazil. They represent a real challenge for primary health care. This study describes the methodology and baseline data of an adult population with hypertension and diabetes attending in primary health care. Methods It is a cross sectional study which presents data from a longitudinal research. 3784 adults were randomly selected from the registry of a health service in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of hypertension and/or diabetes, consulted at least once in the prior 3 years and 18 years of age or older. Home data collection consisted of a questionnaire with information on demographic, medical history, life style and socio-economic factors. Results A total of 2482 users were interviewed (response rate of 71 %. The median age was 64 (IQR = 55.7 and the majority were women (68 %, and married (52 %. Whereas 66.5 % (CI 95 % 64.5-68.3 of the sample had only hypertension, 6.5 % (CI 95 % 5.5-7.5 had diabetes and 27.1 % (CI 95 % 25.3-28.8 had both diseases. The prevalence of diseases increased with age and with fewer years of study (p < 0.05. Subjects with both diseases had significantly more associated comorbidities. Conclusions Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent in older individuals, especially women, and less educated people. People suffering with both chronic conditions simultaneously are more likely to have additional comorbidities.

  11. Mammographic density among indigenous women in forested areas in the state of Amapá, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    José Mauro Secco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There is no register of breast cancer cases among indigenous populations in Brazil. The objective here was to evaluate the association of clinical and demographic characteristics with mammographic density among indigenous women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted in indigenous territories in the state of Amapá, Brazil. METHODS: Women were recruited from three indigenous territories and underwent bilateral mammography and blood collection for hormonal analysis. They were interviewed with the aid of an interpreter. Mammographic density was calculated using computer assistance, and was expressed as dense or non-dense. RESULTS: A total of 137 indigenous women were included in this study, with an average age of 50.4 years, and an average age at the menarche of 12.8 years. Half (50.3% of the 137 participants had not reached the menopause at the time of this study. The women had had an average of 8.7 children, and only two had never breastfed. The average body mass index of the population as a whole was 25.1 kg/m2. The mammographic evaluation showed that 82% of women had non-dense breasts. The clinical characteristics associated with mammographic density were age (P = 0.0001, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH (P < 0.001 and estrogen levels (P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the indigenous women had non-dense breasts. Age, menopausal status and FSH and estrogen levels were associated with mammographic density.

  12. [Domains of physical activity and education in São Paulo, Brazil: a serial cross-sectional study in 2003 and 2008].

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    Nunes, Ana Paula de Oliveira Barbosa; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Barros, Marilisa Berti Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luis Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of physical activity in different domains and the association with schooling, using a serial cross-sectional population-based design comparing data from two editions of a health survey in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participation included 1,667 adults in 2003 and 2,086 in 2008. Probabilistic sampling was performed by two-stage clusters. The long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) allowed evaluating multiple domains of physical activity. Poisson regression was used. Men were more active in their leisure time and at work and women in the home. Schooling was associated directly with leisure-time activity (2003 and 2008) and inversely with work-related physical activity (2003) for men and for women in housework. The studies showed that Brazilians with less schooling are becoming less active, so that intervention strategies should consider different educational levels. Interventions in the urban space and transportation can increase the opportunities for physical activity and broaden access by the population.

  13. Association between early childhood caries and maternal caries status: A cross-section study in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil.

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    de Souza, Pedrita Mara do Espírito Santo; Mello Proença, Mariana Almeida; Franco, Mayra Moura; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pinheiro; Costa, José Ferreira; Costa, Elizabeth Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the association between early childhood caries (ECC) and maternal caries status, and the maternal perception of ECC risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 77 mother-child pairs, the children ranging from 12 to 36 months of age and their mothers, who were seeking dental care at a health center in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. Data collection was conducted using a specific questionnaire for mothers. Oral clinical examination of the mother-child binomial to assess caries incidence, gingival bleeding (GB) and visible plaque was done. Home visits were performed in 10% of the sample in order to observe the environmental conditions, dietary habits and dental hygiene practices. The findings showed that the caries prevalence in children was 22.5 times higher in the mother who had decayed tooth (prevalence ratio [PR] = 22.5, confidence interval [CI] 95% = 3.2-156.6, P children, the PR in pair was 12.2 (CI95% = 1.6-88.9, P caries status was associated with ECC.

  14. Hepatitis C: evaluation of outcomes and georeferencing of cases in Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, between 2002 and 2015. A cross-sectional study.

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    Possuelo, Lia Goncalves; Perin, Daiane; Breunig, Patricia Faber; Schroeder, Daniel Felipe; Allgayer, Manuela Filter; Darsie, Camilo; Carneiro, Marcelo; Hermes, Vanda; Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo

    2017-12-18

    Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease, with high death rates. The aim here was to analyze case outcomes, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and spatial distribution among patients diagnosed with hepatitis C in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS), Brazil. Cross-sectional study on 200 cases of hepatitis C in Santa Cruz do Sul that were notified between 2002 and 2015. Secondary data including sociodemographic and clinical variables and type of outcome (death, follow-up, abandonment or clinical cure) were gathered. The spatial distribution analysis on hepatitis C virus cases according to outcome was based on information regarding residential address. 58.5% of the patients were 41 years of age and over, 67% were males and 92.5% had the chronic form of the disease. The most frequent transmission route was illicit drug injection (29%); 15.1% of the patients presented coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Regarding outcomes, 31% achieved clinical cure, 10% died and 20% abandoned follow-up. The cases studied were mainly located in regions of the city characterized by lower socioeconomic status, with high frequency of places used for drug trafficking. The population consisted of adults aged 41 years and over, mostly with chronic hepatitis C. The most common transmission routes were illicit drug injection and blood transfusions. There were high rates of HIV coinfection and abandonment of disease monitoring and predominance of cases in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status.

  15. Menstrual bleeding patterns: A community-based cross-sectional study among women aged 18-45 years in Southern Brazil

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    Pereira Guilherme AR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population variation in the duration and amount of menstrual bleeding has received little attention in the literature. This study describes these characteristics and investigates the distribution of self-perceived amount of menstrual bleeding according to socio-demographic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 years old women users of the 31 primary health care (PHC facilities in Pelotas city (Brazil. Interviews with structured questionnaire were carried out in the waiting rooms during two work shifts. Heaviness of menstrual bleeding was determined through the answer to the question: "Usually how much blood do you lose in every period?" Crude and adjusted analyses through Poisson regression took into account the aggregation per PHC facility. Results A total of 865 women were enrolled. Prevalence of heavy menstrual flow was 35.3% (95% CI 32.1-38.6%. In adjusted analyses, heavy menstrual bleeding was higher among the older, less educated and obese women, with higher number of pregnancies and who reported longer menstrual periods, extra-menstrual bleeding and clots in the flow. Use of hormonal contraceptive methods was protective against heavy menses. Conclusion Heavy menstrual bleeding is highly prevalent at the community level, and is associated with socio-demographic and anthropometric women's characteristics, as well as with duration of menstruation, extra-bleeding and presence of clots.

  16. Risk and protection factors for self-reported hypertension and diabetes in João Pessoa, Brazil. The VIGITEL survey, 2014. A cross-sectional study

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    Ana Paula Leite Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic diseases are the main cause of death among adults and are responsible for most outpatient and hospital care expenses in Brazil. The objective here was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and to analyze the associations with risk and protection factors among adults. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Cross-sectional study in a state capital in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Data on adults of both sexes aged ≥ 45 years who were interviewed in the Vigitel telephone survey in 2014 were analyzed. Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression, to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Among women, the prevalence of hypertension was 48.4% and of diabetes, 12.7%; among men, the prevalences were 41.9% and 13.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that for women, age group ≥ 65 years, overweight, self-assessed poor health and dyslipidemia remained associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. For men, overweight and self-assessed poor health remained associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. Regarding diabetes, in the multivariate model for women, age group 55-64 years, schooling level between zero and four years and no regular consumption of beans remained associated with higher prevalence. For men, age groups 55-64 years and ≥ 65 years and being married or in a stable partnership were associated with higher prevalence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the prevalences of hypertension and diabetes were high and that preventable factors were associated with this situation, thus providing support for public policies aimed towards coping with this.

  17. Prevalence and associations of symptoms of upper extremities, repetitive strain injuries (RSI) and 'RSI-like condition'. A cross sectional study of bank workers in Northeast Brazil.

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    Lacerda, Eliana M; Nácul, Luis C; Augusto, Lia G da S; Olinto, Maria Teresa A; Rocha, Dyhanne C; Wanderley, Danielle C

    2005-10-11

    The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI) is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk) increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population.

  18. Prevalence and associations of symptoms of upper extremities, repetitive strain injuries (RSI and 'RSI-like condition'. A cross sectional study of bank workers in Northeast Brazil

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    Rocha Dyhanne C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repetitive strain injury syndrome (RSI is a worldwide occupational health problem affecting all types of economic activities. We investigated the prevalence and some risk factors for RSI and related conditions, namely 'symptoms of upper limbs' and 'RSI-like condition'. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 395 bank workers in Recife, Northeast Brazil. Symptoms of upper limbs and 'RSI-like condition' were assessed by a simple questionnaire, which was used to screen probable cases of RSI. The diagnosis of RSI was confirmed by clinical examination. The associations of potential risk factors and the outcomes were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results We found prevalence rates of 56% for symptoms of the upper limbs and 30% for 'RSI-like condition'. The estimated prevalence of clinically confirmed cases of RSI was 22%. Female sex and occupation (as cashier or clerk increased the risk of all conditions, but the associations were stronger for cases of RSI than for less specific diagnoses of 'RSI-like condition' and symptoms of upper limbs. Age was inversely related to the risk of symptoms of upper limbs but not to 'RSI-like' or RSI. Conclusion The variation in the magnitude of risk according to the outcome assessed suggests that previous studies using different definitions may not be immediately comparable. We propose the use of a simple instrument to screen cases of RSI in population based studies, which still needs to be validated in other populations. The high prevalence of RSI and related conditions in this population suggests the need for urgent interventions to tackle the problem, which could be directed to individuals at higher risk and to changes in the work organization and environment of the general population.

  19. Who are the children and adolescent patients of a national referral service of eating disorders in Brazil?: a cross-sectional study of a clinical sample

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    Vanessa Dentzien Pinzon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%. Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our young Brazilian patients with ED present epidemiological and symptomatic characteristics very similar to those found in the scientific literature, including a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. The higher frequency of full syndrome ED, the predominance of cases with an early onset, the delay in beginning specialized treatment, and the more severe state of inpatients provide grounds for concern because these factors differ from what has been reported in reference studies and indicate greater ED severity.

  20. Hepatitis C: evaluation of outcomes and georeferencing of cases in Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil, between 2002 and 2015. A cross-sectional study

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    Lia Goncalves Possuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease, with high death rates. The aim here was to analyze case outcomes, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and spatial distribution among patients diagnosed with hepatitis C in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul (RS, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 200 cases of hepatitis C in Santa Cruz do Sul that were notified between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: Secondary data including sociodemographic and clinical variables and type of outcome (death, follow-up, abandonment or clinical cure were gathered. The spatial distribution analysis on hepatitis C virus cases according to outcome was based on information regarding residential address. RESULTS: 58.5% of the patients were 41 years of age and over, 67% were males and 92.5% had the chronic form of the disease. The most frequent transmission route was illicit drug injection (29%; 15.1% of the patients presented coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Regarding outcomes, 31% achieved clinical cure, 10% died and 20% abandoned follow-up. The cases studied were mainly located in regions of the city characterized by lower socioeconomic status, with high frequency of places used for drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: The population consisted of adults aged 41 years and over, mostly with chronic hepatitis C. The most common transmission routes were illicit drug injection and blood transfusions. There were high rates of HIV coinfection and abandonment of disease monitoring and predominance of cases in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status.

  1. Frequency of nutritional disorders and their risk factors among children attending 13 nurseries in São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study

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    Tulio Konstantyner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nutritional disorders are associated with health problems earlier in life. The objective here was to estimate the frequency of nutritional disorders and their risk factors among children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in nurseries at 13 day-care centers in São Paulo, Brazil.METHODS: The mothers of 482 children were interviewed, with anthropometry on these children. Children whose anthropometric indices for weight and height were greater than two standard deviations were considered to have nutritional disorders.RESULTS: Children in families with lower per capita income (odds ratio [OR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.08-4.67 and who presented neonatal risk (OR 8.08; 95% CI: 2.29-28.74, had incomplete vaccinations (OR 3.44; 95% CI: 1.15-10.31 or were male (OR 3.73; 95% CI: 1.63-8.56 were more likely to be malnourished. Children in families with lower per capita income were also less likely to be overnourished (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.88. Children who were exclusively breastfed for less than two months (OR 2.95; 95% CI: 1.35-6.44 or who were male (OR 2.18; 95% CI: 1.02-4.65 were also at greater risk of being overnourished. Children who presented neonatal risk (OR 3.41; 95% CI: 1.04-11.23, had incomplete vaccinations (OR 3.18; 95% CI: 1.307.76, or were male (OR 2.76; 95% CI: 1.56-4.90 were more likely to have a nutritional disorder.CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional disorders remain present in children attending nurseries in São Paulo. Actions should focus on boys, children who were exclusively breastfed for less than two months and those without up-to-date vaccinations.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants

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    Santos Betânia R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Methods Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232, TaqI (rs731236, and BsmI (rs1544410 SNPs. Results The median and interquartile range (25-75% of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 – 84.9. The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/mL were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20–29 ng/mL; and deficient in 36.3% (vs. GA + AA, two-tailed Student’s t-test p vs. GT + TT, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.031 and TaqI (TT vs. TC + CC, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.005 SNPs and the GGT haplotype (two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.036 were significantly associated with lower 25(OHD levels. Conclusions 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in this sample. The BsmI, ApaI and TaqI wild variants of the VDR gene, as well as the GGT haplotype, were associated with lower vitamin D levels, suggesting that VDR gene polymorphisms could be linked to higher susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency in a sub-population of children and adolescents.

  3. Intention to leave profession, psychosocial environment and self-rated health among registered nurses from large hospitals in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    de Oliveira, Daiana Rangel; Griep, Rosane Härter; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lucia

    2017-01-10

    Nurses' intention to leave their profession is a worldwide concern. Studies have shown that it can take the form of a chain reaction: many nurses first leave the unit, then the hospital, and finally the profession. Organisation and other labour factors, personal and conjunctural, have been associated with the intention to quit nursing. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with the intention to leave the profession among registered nurses (RNs) at large public hospitals in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from 2010 to 2011: all RNs at Rio de Janeiro's 18 largest public hospitals (>150 beds) were invited to participate. The study sample comprised 3,229 RNs (82.7% of those eligible), who answered a self-completed, multidimensional paper questionnaire. The outcome was defined as thoughts of leaving the profession sometimes a month or more. We based the analyses on hierarchical logistic regression models, considering three blocks of determinants: socio-demographic data (block I), occupational factors (block II), and health conditions (block III). Of the study population, 22.1% indicated the intention to leave the profession. In the final model after adjustment, the variables associated with the intention to leave were as follows: male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65), not holding a leadership position (OR = 1.28), highly demanding work (OR = 2.49), passive work (OR = 2.10), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 2.00), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.92), over-commitment to the job (OR = 1.87), and poor supervisor support (OR = 1.33). The likelihood of expressing the intention to leave increased with age (OR = 0.98 for the oldest). Self-rated health and factors connected with the work environment, particularly those that generate psychosocial strain, were most strongly associated with the intention to leave the profession. From the profiles of nurses who wished to leave the profession, we found that for many people

  4. The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Haddad, João Paulo A; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2012-07-31

    In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24). The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.

  5. Associations between body composition and lifestyle factors with bone mineral density according to time since menopause in women from Southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Silva, Thaís R; Franz, Roberta; Maturana, Maria A; Spritzer, Poli M

    2015-11-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body composition, dietary pattern and habitual physical activity are associated with BMD according to time since menopause in women from Southern Brazil with no clinical evidence of disease. 99 participants were enrolled and anthropometry, body composition and BMD by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, rest metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, dietary pattern by semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire and habitual physical activity by pedometer were performed. Mean age was 55.2 ± 4.9 years and mean time since menopause was 6.8 ± 1.0 years. Weight, BMI, lean and fat mass and RMR were higher in women with less than 5 years since menopause with normal versus low bone mass. No differences were found in the studied variables between participants with normal or low bone mass and more than 5 years of menopause. Women with > 5 years since menopause had higher prevalence of osteoporosis, as well as lower BMD in all sites when compared to those with less time since menopause. Calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat and micronutrients intake were similar between groups. When the sample was adjusted for time since menopause, the odds ratio (OR) for low bone mass was 5.21 (95% CI 1.57-17.25, P = 0.004) for BMI <25 kg/m(2), for lean mass <37.5 Kg an OR of 4.4 (95% CI 1.64-11.80, P = 0.004, for fat mass <26.0 Kg an OR of 3.39 (95% CI 1.29-8.85, P = 0.010) and for the intake of vitamin A < 700 mcg/day an OR of 3.00 (95% CI 1.13-7.94, P = 0.012). Low meat and eggs intake or low protein intake did not influence the odds ratio for low bone mass. In this cross-sectional study with postmenopausal women with no clinical evidence of disease, time since menopause, low lean and fat mass were associated with low bone mass. Calories and macronutrients intake as well as habitual physical activity did not interfere with BMD, but participants were mostly sedentary. Further studies are needed in order to

  6. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago

    2017-01-01

    Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic

  7. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Mario Ivo Serinolli

    Full Text Available Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6, at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7% were male, and 228 (56.3% were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis.Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain. In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain. Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain. Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain.This study has provided novel insights into the effects of

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized patients in inland northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

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    Almeida, Gilmara Celli Maia; dos Santos, Marquiony Marques; Lima, Nara Grazieli Martins; Cidral, Thiago André; Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2014-06-13

    Infections by Staphylococcus spp. are often associated with wounds, especially in hospitalized patients. Wounds may be the source of bacteria causing cross-contamination, and are a risk factor for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp., especially S. aureus and MRSA, in hospitalized patients, and to identify the factors associated with such colonization. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients with wounds who were hospitalized in a remote and underdeveloped inland region of northeastern Brazil with extreme poverty. Samples were collected using sterile swabs with 0.85% saline solution, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., S. aureus, and MRSA were identified using standard laboratory procedures. Data regarding the sociodemographic characteristics, antibiotic use, and comorbidities of the patients were collected using the medical records and a questionnaire. A total of 125 wounds were analyzed. The patients had a mean age of 63.88 years and a mean 3.84 years of school education. Eighty-one wounds (64.80%) were colonized by Staphylococcus spp. Twenty-five wounds (20%) were colonized by S. aureus, 32% of which were colonized by MRSA. Wound colonization by Staphylococcus spp. was associated with pneumonia or other respiratory disease (p = 0.03). Wound colonization by S. aureus was associated with nasal colonization by S. aureus (p 65 years (p = 0.05). Among patients with wound colonization by MRSA, 37.50% had a history of prior antibiotic use, 75% had two or more comorbidities, 25% had cancer or diabetes, 50% had cardiovascular disease, and 50% died. Wounds can be the source of Staphylococcus spp. infection, and high proportions of wounds are colonized by S. aureus and MRSA. Nasal colonization by S. aureus may be a source for wound colonization by S. aureus, illustrating the importance of preventing cross-contamination in hospital

  9. Quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil

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    Mónica Narváez Betancur

    Full Text Available Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. Objective To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. To be included in the study patients had to be 18 through 65 years old, diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, having the two previous viral loads above 500 copies, a surrogate for poor adherence to antiretrovirals. The following instruments were applied to all eligible patients: the sociodemographic questionnaire “Adherence Follow-up Questionnaire”, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the 36-Item Short Form Survey. Results 47 patients were evaluated, 70.2% were female, mean age of 41.9 years (±10.5, 46.8% were single, 51.1% self-reported adherence ≥95%, 46.8% mentioned depression as the main reason for not taking the medication, 59.5% presented symptoms of moderate to severe depression, and 44.7% presented symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety. Finally, regarding health-related quality of life these patients obtained low scores in all dimensions, physical component summary of 43.96 (±9.64 and mental component summary of 33.19 (±13.35. Conclusion The psychological component is considered to be fundamental in the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Psychoeducation should be conducted at the initial evaluation to reduce negative beliefs regarding antiretroviral therapy Assessment of anxiety and depression symptoms should be done throughout therapy as both psycological

  10. Quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Mónica Narváez; Lins, Liliane; Oliveira, Irismar Reis de; Brites, Carlos

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. This was a cross-sectional study. To be included in the study patients had to be 18 through 65 years old, diagnosed with HIV/AIDS, having the two previous viral loads above 500 copies, a surrogate for poor adherence to antiretrovirals. The following instruments were applied to all eligible patients: the sociodemographic questionnaire "Adherence Follow-up Questionnaire", the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the 36-Item Short Form Survey. 47 patients were evaluated, 70.2% were female, mean age of 41.9 years (±10.5), 46.8% were single, 51.1% self-reported adherence ≥95%, 46.8% mentioned depression as the main reason for not taking the medication, 59.5% presented symptoms of moderate to severe depression, and 44.7% presented symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety. Finally, regarding health-related quality of life these patients obtained low scores in all dimensions, physical component summary of 43.96 (±9.64) and mental component summary of 33.19 (±13.35). The psychological component is considered to be fundamental in the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Psychoeducation should be conducted at the initial evaluation to reduce negative beliefs regarding antiretroviral therapy Assessment of anxiety and depression symptoms should be done throughout therapy as both psycological conditions are associated with patient adherence, success of

  11. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

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    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

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    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.

  13. Television viewing and abdominal obesity in women according to smoking status: results from a large cross-sectional population-based study in Brazil.

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    Cortes, Taísa Rodrigues; Schlussel, Michael Maia; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Rebelo, Fernanda; Kac, Gilberto

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the associations between television viewing and abdominal obesity (AO) in Brazilian women, according to smoking status. Data of 13,262 adult women (18-49 years) from the 2006's Demographic Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with complex probabilistic sample and national representativeness, were analyzed. AO, defined as waist circumference ≥ 80.0 cm, was the outcome. Television viewing frequency (≥ 5 times/week, 1-4 times/week, television viewing (p television viewing ≥ 5 times/week amounted to 59.0%, higher than the 35.0% for those with television viewing (p-value = 0.020). The values for non-smokers were 55.2% and 55.7%, respectively. Smokers with television viewing ≥ 5 times/week were 1.7 times (95% CI: 1.1 - 2.5) more likely to pre-sent AO, compared to those who reported a frequency Television viewing ≥ 5 times/week may increase the prevalence of AO among women who smoke. More detailed information on media use, as hours per day, may offer better estimates.

  14. The relationship between genotype, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in adult patients with sickle cell disease in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Érika Bergamini Mastandréa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL may be worsened in sickle cell patients due to the presence of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to describe the psychiatric symptoms in Brazilian sickle cell patients and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms to the genotype of the disease and the subject's HRQoL. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the hematology outpatient clinic, Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: Adult patients with sickle cell disease completed the Medical Outcome Study - Short Form 36 and the Patients' Health Questionnaire. Clinical data were gathered from their medical files. Linear regression models were developed to study the dependency of HRQoL domains on the genotype controlling for psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: In the study period, 110 patients were evaluated. The most frequent psychiatric symptom was depression (30%, followed by anxiety (12.7% and alcohol abuse (9.1%. Patients with the more severe genotype (SS and Sβthal0 showed lower scores for the "general health" and "role-physical" HRQoL domains, without interference from psychiatric symptoms. In the "role-physical" domain, the more severe genotype operated as a protective factor for HRQoL (β = 0.255; P = 0.007. CONCLUSION: The more severe genotypes worsened HRQoL in two domains of physical health (general health and role-physical, but they did not have any influence on mental health, thus suggesting that physicians should be more attentive to aspects of HRQoL relating to the functionality of sickle cell disease patients, so as to be aware of the limitations that these patient live with.

  15. An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Interlanguage Pragmatic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of an exploratory cross-sectional study of pragmatic development among three groups of primary school students in Hong Kong who complete a cartoon oral production task designed to elicit requests, apologies, and compliment responses. (Author/VWL)

  16. A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil.

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    Fortes, Isabela S; Paula, Cristiane S; Oliveira, Melaine C; Bordin, Isabel A; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about specific learning disorder (SLD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and even less from representative school samples in small size cities outside huge urban centers. Few studies addressed the new DSM-5 criteria for SLDs. We investigated the prevalence of DSM-5 SLDs, their comorbidities and correlates in school samples of students from the second to sixth grades living in median cities from four different geographic regions in Brazil. A national test for academic performance covering reading, writing and mathematical abilities was applied. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the K-SADS-PL applied to the primary caregiver. A total of 1618 children and adolescents were included in the study. The following prevalence rates of SLDs were found: 7.6% for global impairment, 5.4% for writing, 6.0% for arithmetic, and 7.5% for reading impairment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the only comorbidity significantly associated with SLD with global impairment (p = 0.031). Anxiety disorders and ADHD were associated with SLD with arithmetic impairment. Significant differences were detected in prevalence rates among cities, and several socio-demographic correlates (age, gender, IQ, and socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with SLD with global impairment in our sample. Careful validation and normatization of instruments to assess academic performance is a major problem in LMICs. As expected, we found a significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates of SLD according to geographic regions considering that Brazil is a country with a robust diversity. SLD with global and arithmetic impairment was significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidities.

  17. [Epidemiology of overweight and obesity and its determinants in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Pimenta, Adriano M; Kac, Gilberto

    2004-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to study potential risk factors for these conditions in persons over 18 years of age in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were obtained from a population-based study conducted in 1996 and 1997 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE) with a random sample of 1 105 individuals. Height and weight were measured by trained personnel. Overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25.0 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI > or = 30.0 kg/m2) were the dependent variables. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify potential risk factors for overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.1% (95% confidence interval 195% CI]: 27.3 to 35.2) and 5.7% (95% CI: 4.0 to 8.1), respectively, in men, and 25.9% (95% CI: 22.4 to 29.8) and 14.7% (95% CI: 11.9 to 17.9), respectively, in women. Multivariate analysis revealed that age and marital status were independent risk factors for overweight, whereas age, sex, and education were independent risk factors for obesity. Being female and well-educated showed a protective effect against overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.83), but not against obesity (OR = 3.01; IC 95%: 1.14 to 7.94). Women with low education had a significantly greater risk (OR = 5.95; 95%CI: 2.51 to 14.12) of developing obesity than men having a high educational level. These results suggest that overweight and obesity may be serious public health problems in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is important to carry out further studies in order to explore the potential relationship between overweight and obesity on the one hand, and behavioral variables, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, on the other.

  18. Dental pain in Brazilian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

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    de Lacerda, Josimari T; de Bem Pereira, Mariana; Traebert, Jefferson

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence, intensity and associated factors of dental pain in 7- and 8-year-old schoolchildren in a Southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving a representative sample (n=401) of schoolchildren of Tubarão, Brazil. The data were obtained through oral examinations, following WHO criteria. Dental pain was analysed using a specific questionnaire developed to measure it. Prevalence and intensity of spontaneous pain and pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids were analysed. Association studies were carried out using chi-square test followed by nonconditional multiple logistic regression analysis to test for independence of association between outcomes and explanatory variables. The prevalence of spontaneous dental pain and dental pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids was 31.7 and 28.1%, respectively. Females and schoolchildren who had visited the dentist at least once showed statistically higher prevalence of spontaneous pain and pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids. Eight-year-old schoolchildren and those presenting cavities in the primary dentition also showed higher prevalence of spontaneous dental pain. The prevalence and intensity of dental pain were considered high. The prevalence showed to be associated with female gender, higher age, the presence of cavities in the primary dentition and dental visit. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  1. Influence of demographics on clinical outcome of dengue: a cross-sectional study of 6703 confirmed cases in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, C R; Cerutti Junior, C; Fröschl, G; Romano, C M; Cabidelle, A S A; Herbinger, K-H

    2017-01-01

    Dengue presents a wide clinical spectrum of signs and symptoms, with characteristics of the host potentially influencing the disease evolution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender and age on dengue clinical outcomes in a recent outbreak situation in Brazil, applying a cross-sectional design and including 6703 dengue cases with laboratory confirmation, occurring in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, between 2007 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. Overall, 11·3% of the sample presented with severe dengue, which affected 13·0% of males, 10·0% of females, 8·8% of children, 12·5% of adolescents, 10·5% of adults and 15·5% of the elderly. Age was higher in the severe dengue group (P = 0·03). Severe dengue was associated with males and the elderly (P dengue cases, taking into consideration host factors like age. These findings also suggest the elderly and children as priority groups for immunization in a future implementation of a vaccine.

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the perceptions and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting among Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students of selected tertiary institutions in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 434 pharmacy students from three ...

  3. Quasiclassical trajectory study on the integral cross-section and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quasiclassical trajectory study on the integral cross-section and stereodynamics information of the reaction O(1D) + H2(v = 0, j = 0) → OH + H ... School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China; Department of Chemistry, Hebei Normal University of Science and ...

  4. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp...

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valquíria Pereira Ferreira; Maria Arleide da Silva; Carlos Noronha Neto; Gilliatt Hanois Falbo Neto; Cynthia Vasconcelos Chaves; Rodrigo Pereira Bello

    2014-01-01

      The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's...

  6. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Tourinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  7. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-06-30

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0-10 years, 84% in 11-20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  8. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  9. [Degree of physical activity and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study among the Khisêdjê group in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Kennedy Maia Dos; Tsutsui, Mario Luiz da Silva; Galvão, Patrícia Paiva de Oliveira; Mazzucchetti, Lalucha; Rodrigues, Douglas; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to verify the existence of an association between degree of physical activity and presence of metabolic syndrome in the Khisêdjê indigenous group. The authors evaluated 170 individuals 20 years or older, based on demographic data, physical examination, and laboratory tests. The data were analyzed with the chi-square test (p physical activity according to the number of steps/day. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.8% and was higher in women, the 39-49-year and ≥ 50-year age groups, and in individuals with lower performance on the cardiorespiratory endurance test, horizontal impulse, and number of steps/day. The results indicate the need for greater surveillance in the control and prevention of risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities are still a barrier to full child vaccine coverage in the Brazilian Amazon: a cross-sectional study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Codeço, Claudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-11-27

    Vaccines are very important to reduce morbidity and mortality by preventable infectious diseases, especially during childhood. Optimal coverage is not always achieved, for several reasons. Here we assessed vaccine coverage for the first 12 months of age in children between 12 and 59 months old, residing in the urban area of a small Amazonian city, and factors associated with incomplete vaccination. A census was performed in the urban area of Assis Brasil, in the Brazilian Amazon, in January 2010, with mothers of 282 children aged 12 to 59 months old, using structured interviews and data from vaccination cards. Mixed logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with incomplete vaccination schemes. Only 82.6% of all children had a completed the basic vaccine scheme for the first year of life. Vaccine coverage ranged from 52.7% coverage (oral rotavirus vaccine) to 99.7% coverage (for Bacille Calmette-Guérin). The major deficiencies occurred in doses administered after the first six months of life. Incomplete vaccination was associated with not having enough income to buy a house (aOR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.21), low maternal schooling (aOR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.28 - 5.29) , and time of residence of the child in the urban area of the city (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 - 0.95). This study showed that vaccine coverage in the first twelve months of life in Assis Brasil is similar to other areas in the Amazon and it is below the coverage postulated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Low vaccine coverage was associated with socioeconomic inequities that still prevail in the Brazilian Amazon. Short and long-term strategies must be taken to update child vaccines and increase vaccine coverage in the Amazon.

  11. Stress in medical students: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Hiteshkumar Muktilal; Shah, Hirendra R; Chauhan, Sumitraben Hiteshkumar; Chaudhary, Sucheta M

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Stress occurs when pressure is greater than resources available. Medical education has many factors causing stress among the medical students. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of stress among medical students and to know the factors causing stress in them.Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted on the Ist MBBS to III/IInd MBBS students of B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, using a semistructured self administered questionnaire, in Oct...

  12. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated f...

  13. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Laura Delbue Bernardi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85 and Z-scores ( +1 were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006. The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. RESULTS: The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  14. Sleep Bruxism, Awake Bruxism and Sleep Quality among Brazilian Dental Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Negra,Júnia Maria; Scarpelli,Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa,Débora; Guimarães,Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; PAIVA,Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (th...

  15. A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugênia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P

    2012-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection.

  16. Nutritional status and coronary artery disease: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Khaleghparast, Shiva; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is among the most important factors influencing coronary artery disease. Here we aimed to study the nutritional status of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a cross-sectional study on 600 patients referred to a cardiology clinic with the signs of ACS. The patients were then classified in to two groups (CAD group and the normal group) based on angiographic findings. The amount of nutritional profile was questioned from all participants. Men were more often diagnosed with CAD compared to women (198/362 vs. 102/238; P nutritional factors predicting CAD. White mean and type of tea were the most important predictors of CAD. Dietary prevention strategies from childhood could prevent early CAD.

  17. Child and adolescent labor and smoking: a cross-sectional study in southern Brazil A associação entre trabalho de crianças e adolescentes e tabagismo: um estudo transversal no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Mór Dall'Agnol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the association between smoking and child and adolescent labor among 3,269 individuals 10 to 17 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil (excluding higher income census tracts in 1998. Adjusted hierarchical analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of child labor was 13.8%. Current smoking prevalence was 6.3% in the sample as a whole (15.7% among working versus 3.4% among non-working children. In the multivariate analysis, smoking was significantly associated with child labor, with a prevalence ratio of 1.75 (95%CI: 1.30-2.36. Smoking was also associated with family characteristics (lower maternal schooling, mother currently without husband/partner, household members with alcohol or drug problems, single mother, and history of serious injuries, and the children's characteristics (age greater than 16 years, inadequate school performance, and externalizing behavior. The findings point to smoking as one of the harmful consequences of child labor and suggest the workplace as an appropriate target for smoking prevention.Este estudo transversal avaliou a associação entre o tabagismo e o trabalho de crianças e adolescentes, através de análise multivariada hierárquica por regressão de Poisson. Foram entrevistados, em seus domicílios, 3.269 jovens (10 a 17 anos, da população urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (excluídas áreas de maior renda, em 1998. A prevalência de trabalho infantil foi 13,8%. As prevalências de tabagismo atual foram 6,3% na amostra, 15,7% entre trabalhadores e 3,4% entre não trabalhadores. Após o ajuste para fatores de confusão, o tabagismo manteve-se associado ao trabalho infantil com razão de prevalência de 1,75 (IC95%: 1,30-2,36. O tabagismo manteve-se associado a características da família (menor escolaridade da dona da casa, ausência de seu companheiro, problemas como uso de álcool ou drogas, mãe solteira e acidente

  18. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Suzuki

    Full Text Available Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance.

  19. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidest Getu Melese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all. Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  1. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  2. Silicosis among Stone- Cutter Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghilinejad, Mashaallah; Naserbakht, Ali; Naserbakht, Morteza; Attari, Ghavamedin

    2012-01-01

    Production process of most factory-made products is harmful to our health and environment. Silica is the most important stone used in stone cutting factories. Numerous researches have reported respiratory diseases due to the inhalation of these particles in various occupations. Silicosis is a disease with typical radiographic pattern caused as the result of inhalation of silica particles. According to the intensity of exposures and onset of initiation of clinical symptoms silicosis is classified into three groups of acute, chronic and accelerated forms. The present study evaluated silicosis among stone cutter workers. This cross sectional study was performed on stone cutter workers in Malayer city (Azandarian) between 2008 and 2009. Respiratory data of our study participants were collected with a respiratory questionnaire and performing spirometry tests and chest radiography. Among our participants, 16 silicosis cases were diagnosed by radiographic changes. Among them, 10 workers had exposure for more than three years and 6 workers were smokers. Eleven workers had an abnormal radiographic pattern on their chest x-rays. Seven workers had obstructive and 4 workers had restrictive spirometric patterns. Prevalence of silicosis was high among our understudy workers and preventive strategies are required to control it.

  3. Incontinence care in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Manuela; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2015-09-01

    To describe the quality of incontinence care in nursing homes. Main outcome measures were: (1) availability of structural quality indicators on ward and institutional levels; (2) use of nursing interventions as quality indicators on a process level; (3) prevalence of incontinence as an outcome indicator. Incontinence in older people is a major problem in nursing care that presents a high workload for nurses, increases costs and places a high burden on affected individuals. The availability of structural indicators, and the use of nursing interventions, is recommended to improve the quality of care. Only limited amounts of reliable and valid data are available regarding the quality of incontinence care in nursing homes. A cross-sectional multicentre study in 16 nursing homes (N = 1302) in 2013. A standardized and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Each resident was assessed by two trained nurses. The primary outcome of the study indicated that structural indicators, such as the availability of information brochures, are limited in nursing homes. On a process level, the provision of body worn pads or underlay pads to protect beds or chairs were most frequently used and training interventions were only delivered to a small proportion of residents with incontinence. The prevalence of all types of incontinence, particularly double incontinence, was high (69·2%). Due to the high prevalence of double incontinence and low rate of training interventions regarding this type of incontinence, ongoing efforts to improve the quality of incontinence care are warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Determinants of burn first aid knowledge: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Hilary J; O'Neill, Tomas B; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W; Rea, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated demographic factors, experience of burn/care and first aid course attendance as factors influencing burn first aid knowledge. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using convenience sampling of members of sporting and recreation clubs. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct responses to multiple-choice questions relating to four burn scenarios: (1) scald, (2) contact burn, (3) ignited clothing, and (4) chemical burn. A total of 2602 responses were obtained. Large gaps (30-50% incorrect answers) were identified in burn first aid knowledge across all scenarios. 15% more individuals gave correct answers if they had attended a first aid course compared to those who had not (pfirst aid knowledge. Gender and age were significant predictors of first aid course attendance, with males and younger (≤25 years) and older (≥65 years) age-groups less likely to have attended a first aid course. In this sample, first aid training undertaken within the last 5 years with a specific burns component was associated with enhanced burn first aid knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

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    Getasew Legas Molla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  6. Exploring resilience in Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To explore the state of resilience and its predictors among nurses in mainland China. Resilience is considered as an important ability to influence the prevention of job dissatisfaction and burnout. There are few studies on resilience in Chinese nurses, particularly investigating the predictors of resilience. A cross-sectional survey was employed and 1061 nurses from six three-level hospitals in Hunan responded to participate in the study. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Nurses experienced moderate levels of resilience and self-efficacy and tended to use a positive coping style. Multiple linear regression showed that a high level of self-efficacy and education, having a positive coping style rather than a negative coping style, exercising regularly and not using cigarettes predicted a high level of resilience (P resilience among nurses and suggests that a high level of self-efficacy and education, as well as having a positive coping style and choosing a healthy lifestyle may increase nurses' resilience. Hospital administrators and nursing managers need to explore the resilience state among nurses and understand the predictors of resilience. Then, scientific and evidence-based interventions for improving resilience should be adopted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (Pwork engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  8. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  9. Headache in chronic cocaine users: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofi, Luisa; Orlandi, Valerio; Vanacore, Nicola; Mizzoni, Maria C; Rosa, Alba; Aurilia, Cinzia; Egeo, Gabriella; Casella, Pietro; Barbanti, Piero

    2014-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common symptoms after cocaine use. We investigated headache frequency and characteristics and the correlation between headache and acute cocaine intake in a cross-sectional study in a consecutive series of chronic cocaine users. Participation rate was 94.1%. Of the 80 subjects enrolled, 72 (90%) reported current headaches, in most cases migraine or probable migraine without aura. Of these 72, 29 (40.3%) had a headache history, whereas 43 (59.7%) reported de novo headache after beginning to use cocaine. After acute cocaine use, a large percentage of users reported headache attacks: 86.2% of previous headache sufferers (migraine or probable migraine without aura in all cases) and 93% of de novo headache sufferers (migraine/probable migraine without aura = 35; episodic tension-type headache = three patients; cocaine-induced headache= two patients). Most subjects reported that when they used cocaine headaches worsened. Chronic cocaine use frequently seems to worsen or induce headache with migraine or migraine-like characteristics, probably owing to a serotoninergic and dopaminergic system impairment. In headache sufferers, especially those with migraine headaches, clinicians should enquire into possible cocaine use. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Organizational home care models across Europe: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Liza; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Jonsson, Palmi V; Draisma, Stasja; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Decision makers are searching for models to redesign home care and to organize health care in a more sustainable way. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize home care models within and across European countries by means of structural characteristics and care processes at the policy and the organization level. At the policy level, variables that reflected variation in health care policy were included based on a literature review on the home care policy for older persons in six European countries: Belgium, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Italy, and the Netherlands. At the organizational level, data on the structural characteristics and the care processes were collected from 36 home care organizations by means of a survey. Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 during the IBenC project. An observational, cross sectional, quantitative design was used. The analyses consisted of a principal component analysis followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Fifteen variables at the organizational level, spread across three components, explained 75.4% of the total variance. The three components made it possible to distribute home care organizations into six care models that differ on the level of patient-centered care delivery, the availability of specialized care professionals, and the level of monitoring care performance. Policy level variables did not contribute to distinguishing between home care models. Six home care models were identified and characterized. These models can be used to describe best practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Swimming and spinal deformities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of spinal deformities and low back pain (LBP) in adolescent competitive swimmers and normal controls. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sample of 112 adolescent competitive swimmers (62 females) compared with 217 students (106 females) of the same age (12.5 years). We designed a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and measured the angle of trunk rotation with a Bunnell scoliometer to screen for scoliosis, along with the plumbline distances for kyphosis and lordosis. Clinical cutoffs defined in the literature for detection of spinal deformities were applied. Analyses were performed using the t test and χ(2) test, and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Swimming was found to increase the risk of trunk asymmetries (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Swimming also increased the risk of hyperkyphosis (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.77) and hyperlordosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.73), and increased LBP in females by 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.08-4.06). Swimming is associated with an increased risk of trunk asymmetries and hyperkyphosis. Although swimming has been considered a complete sport and a treatment option for scoliosis, our data contradict that approach, and also show a higher prevalence of LBP in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Annual Cross-Sectional Study of Nurse-Sensitive Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Jane; Tewes, Marianne; Overgaard, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional evaluation of nurse-sensitive problems in hospitalized patients is conducted once per year to monitor patient problems identified by nurses, whether nurses implement interventions to overcome the problems, and if the problems are solved. This article describes a systematic method...... of data collection and illustrates how the data can be used to improve the quality and documentation of the nursing care. The annual cross-sectional evaluation allows us to identify relevant target areas of future nursing interventions and research....

  14. Nursing Student Attitudes toward Euthanasia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Kazem; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia is among the most common and controversial end-of-life care issues. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may well encounter these issues during the course of their clinical placements. Research aims: This study aims to examine the attitudes of a sample of Iranian nursing students towards euthanasia. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants and research context: Using convenience sampling, 382 Muslim nursing students were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using a demographic variables checklist and a self-administered questionnaire that included a definition of euthanasia and 11 closed questions that sought to record participants' level of agreement with euthanasia based on a Likert scale. Ethical consideration: Consent for participation was implicit, indicated by the participants having returned the completed questionnaires. Participants were assured that their data would remain anonymous, be kept confidential and be stored safely. Of the 382 participants, 61.5% were female, and the remainder were male. The mean age was 62.6 ± 14.1 years (range: 32-91 years). In total, 34.2%, 41.6% and 24% of students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. Most students with clinical experience, and 38.5% of students with no clinical experience, indicated their agreement with active euthanasia. There are a number of misconceptions among Iranian Muslim nursing students regarding the definition of euthanasia. Nonetheless, most students exhibit positive attitudes to euthanasia consistent with their clinical experiences. It is recommended to explore the factors that induced nursing students' tendency to euthanasia.

  15. Optimizing muscle power after stroke: a cross-sectional study

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    Stavric Verna A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide and results in muscle performance deficits and limitations in activity performance. Rehabilitation aims to address muscle dysfunction in an effort to improve activity and participation. While muscle strength has an impact on activity performance, muscle power has recently been acknowledged as contributing significantly to activity performance in this population. Therefore, rehabilitation efforts should include training of muscle power. However, little is known about what training parameters, or load, optimize muscle power performance in people with stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate lower limb muscle power performance at differing loads in people with and without stroke. Methods A cross-sectional study design investigated muscle power performance in 58 hemiplegic and age matched control participants. Lower limb muscle power was measured using a modified leg press machine at 30, 50 and 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM strength. Results There were significant differences in peak power between involved and uninvolved limbs of stroke participants and between uninvolved and control limbs. Peak power was greatest when pushing against a load of 30% of 1RM for involved, uninvolved and control limbs. Involved limb peak power irrespective of load (Mean:220 ± SD:134 W was significantly lower (p  Conclusions Significant power deficits were seen in both the involved and uninvolved limbs after stroke. Maximal muscle power was produced when pushing against lighter loads. Further intervention studies are needed to determine whether training of both limbs at lighter loads (and higher velocities are preferable to improve both power and activity performance after stroke.

  16. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse; Cross-sectional study

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    Elham Bazmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: A total of 230 patients (5.9% had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9% were <20 years old and 196 (85.2% were male. In total, 119 (51.7% used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3% used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%, followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%. Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1% were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3% of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%, three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion: According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings.

  17. Perimenopausal contraception in Turkish women: A cross-sectional study

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    Kharbouch Sema B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic research has shown that perimenopausal contraception is an important medical issue, because women during the perimenopause still need effective contraception. The objective of the study was to assess the contraceptive choices of perimenopausal Turkish women. Methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that in a non – random fashion recruited 202 perimenopausal and naturally menopausal women who lived in a suburban area of Istanbul. Women who took part were aged between 45–59 years old. Chief database used to identify the suitable participants in the district. Subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were interviewed in their homes by the researcher. The analysis of the data was evaluated using percentages. Results The percentage of sexually active women among the participants was 87.6%. A large majority – 80.2% – of the participants did not have any idea of when they should bring contraception to an end. The method most commonly used was withdrawal (Coitus Interruptus, represented by 38.8%. In regard to the participants' choices of medical contraception, those being utilized were the IUD (24.3%, tubal sterilization (8.9%, condom (5.9% and COC (6.4%. Additionally, 18% of women used other traditional methods including vaginal lavage, vaginal aspirin, and even inserting a small sponge presoaked with fresh lemon juice or cola deep into the vagina. Among the perimenopausal women who participated, the IUD was the most popular and appropriate contraceptive method. Conclusion Most perimenopausal Turkish women are still using traditional methods and women's knowledge about contraception in the menopausal stages is very limited. Health professionals should provide information about perimenopausal contraception.

  18. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  19. Control of asthma in primary care: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Şule Gümüştakım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays asthma treatment is focused on control. Asthma control is used as a term to express the reduction of asthma signs and the goal of treatment. Asthma control is not at the desired level in the world and in our country. The aim of this study is to assess the level of asthma control in primary care and to raise awareness about asthma.Methods: The universe of research consists of asthma patients admitted to Karaman Sarıveliler State Integrated Hospital. The researcher conducted face-to-face interview using 19-item questionnaire asking demographic features, Asthma Control Test (ACT and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ. This clinical research is a cross sectional descriptive study and SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The numerical values indicated in the form of continuous and discrete numeric values and percentage. Results were evaluated in 95% confidence interval, p<0.05 was accepted as the value for statistical significance.Results: The average ACT score was 12.89, and the ACQ score was 14.86. 30% of patients had hypertension with asthma while 18% of patients had no additional disease. 91% of patients (n= 91 is not under control, and 9% (n= 9 was partially under control. There was no patient under full control. 94.9% of women and 76.2% of men were not under control. A statistically significant difference was found between the control status and gender, profession, tobacco use. It was found that other demographic factors had no effect on the control of asthma.Conclusion: Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have high prevalence in our country. So asthma control is very important. In this regard, patients should be evaluated by a simple test like ACT in the primary care and if necessary they should be referred to the secondary care by the physician.

  20. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  1. Pet ownership and adolescent health: cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Megan; Canterford, Louise; Olds, Tim; Waters, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether adolescent health and well-being are associated with having a pet in the household (any pet, or specifically dogs, cats or horses/ponies) or average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Design, setting and participants--Cross-sectional data from the third wave of the Health of Young Victorians Study (HOYVS), a school-based population study in Victoria, Australia. Predictors--Adolescent-reported pet ownership and average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Outcomes--Self-reported quality of life (KIDSCREEN); average 4-day daily physical activity level from a computerised diary; parent-proxy and self-reported physical and psychosocial health status (PedsQL); measured BMI status (not overweight, overweight, obese) and blood pressure. Statistical Analysis--Regression methods, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, and non-parametric methods. Household pet data were available for 928 adolescents (466 boys; mean age of 15.9 (SD 1.2) years). Most adolescents (88.7%) reported having a pet in their household. Of these, 75.1% reported no activity involving pets over the surveyed days. It appeared that neither owning a pet nor time spent caring for/playing with a pet was related, positively or negatively, to adolescent health or well-being. Despite high rates of pet ownership, adolescents had little interaction with pets. It appears that owning a pet and time spent caring for/playing with a pet was not clearly associated with adolescents' health or well-being. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Alcohol misuse among university staff: a cross-sectional study.

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    Susanna Awoliyi

    Full Text Available To examine the prevalence of hazardous drinking among staff in a UK university and its association with key socio-demographic features.A cross-sectional study.A university in the UK.All employees on the university employee database were eligible to participate. Those who completed and returned the questionnaire were included in the sample. Respondents were 131 university employees.An AUDIT cut-off score of ≥8 was used as a measure of hazardous drinking. AUDIT total score as well as a score of ≥1 in each of the three conceptual domains of alcohol consumption (questions 1-3, dependence symptoms (questions 4-6 and alcohol-related problems (questions 7-10 were used as indicators of levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Secondary outcomes were employees' demographics.Over one third (35% of respondents were classified as hazardous drinkers. Twenty three per cent reported having blackouts after drinking and 14% had injuries or had injured someone. The odds of being a hazardous drinker for an employee in central departments (Human Resources, Registry etc is only one third of that of an employee in science and health-related departments (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.91. The proportion of hazardous drinkers was higher in males compared to females (43% and 30% respectively, part-time compared to full-time (46% and 34% respectively, and academic compared to non-academic employees (39% and 32% respectively, although these were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Furthermore, age, religion and ethnic origin were not found to be significantly associated with hazardous drinking, although total scores were significantly lower for ethnic minorities compared to white employees (p = 0.019.In this study, hazardous drinking was highly prevalent among university employees. However, overt recruiting of staff to address sensitive issues such as alcohol misuse is problematic.

  3. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity: an institutional cross-sectional study of preterm infants in Brazil Prevalencia de retinopatía del prematuro: estudio transversal institucional de niños prematuros en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Fortes Filho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the leading cause of childhood blindness in most developed countries. This study aimed to verify ROP prevalence among all very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants admitted to a level-3 teaching hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Institutional cross-sectional study of 407 premature infants with birth weight OBJETIVO: La retinopatía del prematuro (RP es la principal causa de ceguera infantil en la mayoría de los países desarrollados. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la prevalencia de esta afección en todos los niños prematuros de muy bajo peso al nacer ingresados en un hospital docente de tercer nivel de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal institucional de 407 niños prematuros que nacieron entre 2002 y 2007 con un peso de 1500 g o menos, o 32 semanas de edad gestacional o menos. Todos los niños tamizados para RP se examinaron después de la cuarta semana de vida y tuvieron seguimiento hasta la semana 45 de edad gestacional ajustada. La prevalencia de RP se estimó con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: De los niños tamizados, 104 (25,5% presentaron algún grado de RP en uno o ambos ojos, mientras 24 (5,8% presentaron RP grave (estadio 3 o mayor; requerían de tratamiento para evitar la pérdida de la visión, según los criterios del Estudio Multicéntrico de Crioterapia para la Retinopatía del Prematuro, CRYO-ROP, realizado en los Estados Unidos de América. Según los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de la Retinopatía del Prematuro (ICROP, 1984/1987, la enfermedad alcanzó los estadios 1, 2 y 3 en 46 (11,3%, 34 (8,4% y 22 (5,4% niños, respectivamente. Un niño desarrolló la enfermedad hasta el estadio 4 (desprendimiento parcial de la retina y uno alcanzó el estadio 5 (desprendimiento completo de la retina, lo que representó una prevalencia general de ceguera por RP de 0,2%. CONCLUSIONES: La

  4. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  5. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Johannes M; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-12-09

    Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design. We searched public databases for drug-related celebrity deaths between 1970 and 2015. They were categorized for sex, profession, age at death, year of death and substances involved. The main outcome measures are descriptive values including number of drug deaths per year and substances involved. Secondary outcome measures are analytical questions to examine whether and which factors influence age at death and year of death (e.g. type of substance use disorder). We identified 220 celebrities who died a drug-related death with a clear indication of involved substances between 1970 and 2015. The average age at death was 38.6 years; 75% were male. Most celebrities died between the age of 25 and 40. The number of drug-related deaths increased in the 21st century, with a significant increase in the use of prescription opioids. Deaths involving prescription opioids and heroin were associated with a significantly lower mean age at death compared to deaths where these substances were not involved. Compared to the 20th century, the total number of celebrities who died from a drug-related death in the 21st century increased, possibly due to an increased involvement of prescription opioids. Negative effects on individual health decisions of celebrity's followers could be the result.

  6. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  7. Doctors' Attitude Towards Euthanasia: A Cross-sectional Study Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Sonu Hangma; Khullar, Varun; Latafat, Yusra; Chawla, Khushboo; Nirmal, Apoorva; Chaudhary, Tanvi

    2016-06-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue that puts doctors into a dilemma and can have the capacity to end the patients' sufferings. However, it is never an easy decision; hence, this study was planned to find the attitude of practicing doctors of medical colleges in a South Indian city of Mangalore towards euthanasia. A cross sectional study was conducted in March-April 2010 among the doctors practicing in the four medical colleges of Mangalore city. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 220 doctors after their informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mean age of the doctors was 37.9 years (SD=9. 4), most of them were males and belonging to the Hindu religion. Euthanasia was justified according to 46.8% of the doctors in order to curtail the sufferings of the patients or to ameliorate the emotional and financial burden. Another 41% said it should be legalized and 39% said that they would use it if it was legalized. Nevertheless 84.5% of them were concerned that it may be misused if legalized. More than half of them felt it was not justified in the face of moral obligations and legal complications. Religion and department were independently associated with the doctors feeling that euthanasia was justified with 69.4% of Muslim doctors saying it was justified as compared to 59.2% of Hindu doctors (OR=2.82; p=.001) and 59.3% of doctors from medical specialities said it was justified as opposed to 39.8% of doctors from surgical specialities (OR=2.3; p=.008). Despite the illegality of it, 25% of the doctors had received requests from patients and 22.3% from relatives for euthanasia. Though euthanasia is illegal in the country, there are doctors who feel it is justified in some situations, yet not without reservations. The fact that they had been requested for euthanasia by the patients and relatives show that even the public are being aware and accepting the practice. Yet, the law in our country has not changed and it

  8. Latex allergy in dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangveeravong, Mukda; Sirikul, Jintana; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa

    2011-08-01

    Latex allergy is a major occupational health problem in health care workers who regularly use latex gloves. Dentists are one of the high risk groups for latex allergy and sensitization as it is generally found that healthcare workers (HCW) have 3 times greater prevalence of latex allergy. There are very few studies of latex allergy in HCW in Thailand. To study the prevalence of latex-related symptoms, latex-sensitization and possible risk factors in dental students. A cross-sectional study was performed on all dental students of the Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, during Dec 2007 to May 2008, using questionnaires and skin prick tests (SPT), using 3 latex extracts prepared from Proglove, Doctor Plus gloves and a commercial latex allergen (Stallergenes, France). SPT was done only in those who were willing and signed informed consents. There were 617 completed questionnaires (87.3%). The mean age of the volunteers was 20.9 +/- 1.7 years with 29.3% male and 70.7% female. The prevalence of latex glove-related symptoms was 5.0%. These symptoms were all local, cutaneous symptoms, ranging from hand pruritus (64.5%), hand eczema (19.4%) and contact urticaria (16.1%). Eight subjects (1.3%) reported pruritus or urticaria on exposure to other rubber products while 12 subjects (1.9%) reported reactions to some fruits. The risk factors for latex-glove allergy were personal history of allergic diseases (atopic dermatitis, urticaria, pruritus and rubber allergy), duration of using gloves more than 18 hours per week, more than 3 pairs of gloves used per day and timing of glove exposure. The 4th to 6th year students were observed significantly more prevalence of symptoms than the 1st to 3rd year students (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.73-7.87; p = 0.0003). SPT for 3 extracts of latex was done in 247 cases (40.0%); overall latex sensitization rate was 14.2%. The commercial extract had higher incidence of latex sensitization compared to the 2 gloves extract. The 1st year

  9. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ventura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital.METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3% were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6% were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7% for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  10. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Aline; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Shiozawa, Maria Beatriz Cacese; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther Buzaglo; Canalli, Maria Heloisa Busi da Silva; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2014-12-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients. Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital. This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011. Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3%) were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6%) were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7%) for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy. The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  11. Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassa Anaclaudia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well.

  12. Engagement in physical education classes and health among young people: does sports practice matter? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Physical education classes aim to promote health but it is unknown whether benefits occur independently of sports practice. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between engagement in physical education classes and physical fitness and obesity according to sports practice among Brazilian students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional school-based study involving 737 students aged 10-17 years in southern Brazil. METHODS: Engagement in physic...

  13. Vitamin B12 in metformin-treated diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in Brazil Vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos usando metformina: um corte transversal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Nervo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency and the factors associated with serum vitamin B12 levels in a sample of metformin-treated Brazilian diabetic patients. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. RESULTS: 144 patients were included. Serum vitamin B12 levels were low (OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos brasileiros tratados com metformina e os fatores associados aos níveis séricos de vitamina B12. MÉTODO: Corte transversal. RESULTADOS: 144 pacientes foram incluídos. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram baixos (< 125 pmol/L em 10 pacientes (6,9% e possivelmente baixos (125 - 250pmol/L em 53 pacientes (36,8%. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram associados negativamente à idade (B = -3,17; β = -0,171; p = 0,037 e à duração do uso de metformina (B = -33,36; β= -0,161; p = 0,048 e positivamente com a ingestão estimada de vitamina B12 (B = 67,96; β = 0,249; p = 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem alta prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos tratados com metformina. Pacientes mais velhos, em uso de metformina há muito tempo e com ingestão baixa de vitamina B12 estão provavelmente mais predispostos a essa deficiência.

  14. Cross-sectional Integration of the Water-energy Nexus in Brazil

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    Theodoros Semertzidis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the cross-sectoral integration of the water-energy nexus in Brazil. Recent droughts resulted in unprecedented water scarcity. This caused water shortages for population and agriculture, as well as for electricity production (hydropower being the main source of electricity production. As a result, the system became more vulnerable to blackouts. To alleviate the problem, fossil fuels were used as a back up. Droughts, floods and other water-related problems will not dissipate as time goes by in Brazil. The dependency on one single predominant source (hydropower makes Brazil’s electricity supply vulnerable. This study shows through data analysis, flow diagrams and metrics the interrelation between water and energy. Based on historical data, the analysis shows the importance of the water demand for hydropower, cooling for thermal plants, and the extraction and production of biofuels, as well as of the energy demand of water services (water supply, wastewater treatment.

  15. Como são tratadas as fraturas diafisárias fechadas do fêmur no Brasil? Estudo transversal How are closed femoral diaphyseal fractures treated in Brazil? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Esteves Santos Pires

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal no 36º Congresso Brasileiro de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, onde foi pesquisada a opinião de ortopedistas brasileiros sobre aspectos do tratamento de fraturas diafisárias do fêmur no adulto. Quinhentos e sete questionários foram respondidos integralmente e encontrou-se concordância entre os ortopedistas em relação aos seguintes aspectos: configuração do traço de fratura e lesão de partes moles ou de estruturas neurovasculares como parâmetros principais para decisão sobre o tratamento; classificação das fraturas, em que a AO foi a mais adotada; haste intramedular anterógrada bloqueada fresada para tratamento das fraturas transversas e oblíquas curtas no istmo; placa ponte para o tratamento das fraturas com traço complexo; tração esquelética pré-operatória; infecção como complicação mais freqüente e uso de heparina de baixo peso molecular no pós-operatório. Houve conflito de opiniões nas seguintes questões: uso de mesa de tração para realização de osteossíntese intramedular; intervalo de tempo entre o trauma e a cirurgia; tempo de utilização de antibióticos e tempo médio de hospitalização. Em relação à literatura, houve concordância em relação aos parâmetros principais para decisão sobre o tratamento; método de fixação das fraturas com traço simples no istmo; classificação adotada; profilaxia antitrombótica. Diferiram da literatura questões como o método de fixação das fraturas com traço complexo; tempo de utilização dos antibióticos, intervalo médio entre o trauma e a osteossíntese e tempo de internação.A cross-sectional study was performed during the 36th Brazilian Congress of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, where the opinions of Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons addressing the treatment of femoral diaphyseal fractures in adults were surveyed. Five hundred and seven questionnaires were fully completed and the results show agreement in the following

  16. Prevalence and Phenotypic Expression of Mutations in the MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 Genes in Families with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the South of Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Beatriz Piva e Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Mutations in sarcomeric genes are found in 60-70% of individuals with familial forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. However, this estimate refers to northern hemisphere populations. The molecular-genetic profile of HCM has been subject of few investigations in Brazil, particularly in the south of the country. Objective: To investigate mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 in a cohort of HCM patients living in the extreme south of Brazil, and to evaluate genotype-phenotype associations. Methods: Direct DNA sequencing of all encoding regions of three sarcomeric genes was conducted in 43 consecutive individuals of ten unrelated families. Results: Mutations for CMH have been found in 25 (58% patients of seven (70% of the ten study families. Fourteen (56% individuals were phenotype-positive. All mutations were missense, four (66% in MYH7 and two (33% in MYBPC3. We have not found mutations in the TNNT2 gene. Mutations in MYH7 were identified in 20 (47% patients of six (60% families. Two of them had not been previously described. Mutations in MYBPC3 were found in seven (16% members of two (20% families. Two (5% patients showed double heterozygosis for both genes. The mutations affected different domains of encoded proteins and led to variable phenotypic expression. A family history of HCM was identified in all genotype-positive individuals. Conclusions: In this first genetic-molecular analysis carried out in the south of Brazil, we found mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7 and MYBPC3 in 58% of individuals. MYH7-related disease was identified in the majority of cases with mutation.

  17. Severe maternal morbidity due to respiratory disease and impact of 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic in Brazil: results from a national multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitscher, L C; Cecatti, J G; Pacagnella, R C; Haddad, S M; Parpinelli, M A; Souza, J P; Quintana, S M; Surita, F G; Sousa, M H; Costa, M L

    2016-05-21

    The aim of this study was to assess the burden of respiratory disease, considering the influenza A pandemic season (H1N1pdm09), within the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, and factors associated with worse maternal outcome. A multicenter cross-sectional study, involving 27 referral maternity hospitals in five Brazilian regions. Cases were identified in a prospective surveillance by using the WHO standardized criteria for potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC) and maternal near miss (MNM). Women with severe complications from respiratory disease identified as suspected or confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza or respiratory failure were compared to those with other causes of severe morbidity. A review of suspected H1N1 influenza cases classified women as non-tested, tested positive and tested negative, comparing their outcomes. Factors associated with severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD) were assessed in both groups, in comparison to PLTC, using PR and 95 % CI adjusted for design effect of cluster sampling. Among 9555 cases of severe maternal morbidity, 485 (5 %) had respiratory disease. Respiratory disease occurred in one-quarter of MNM cases and two-thirds of MD. H1N1 virus was suspected in 206 cases with respiratory illness. Around 60 % of these women were tested, yielding 49 confirmed cases. Confirmed H1N1 influenza cases had worse adverse outcomes (MNM:MD ratio  50 %, in comparison to 7.4 % in other causes of severe maternal morbidity. Delay in medical care was associated with SMO in all cases considered, with a two-fold increased risk among respiratory disease patients. Perinatal outcome was worse in cases complicated by respiratory disease, with increased prematurity, stillbirth, low birth weight and Apgar score Respiratory disease, especially considering the influenza season, is a very severe cause of maternal near miss and death. Increased awareness about this condition, preventive vaccination during

  18. Como são tratadas as fraturas expostas da tíbia no Brasil? Estudo transversal How are tibial open fractures treated in Brazil? A cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Balbachevsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal foi realizado durante o 36º Congresso Brasileiro de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, para identificar a opinião do ortopedista brasileiro a respeito das preferências de tratamento das fraturas expostas da tíbia nos adultos. Foram respondidos 507 questionários, sendo que os resultados demonstram consenso em relação aos seguintes aspectos: classificação, 78,5% utilizam a de Gustilo-Anderson; indicação de tratamento cirúrgico, 76,3% preferem operar todos as fraturas; pressão de irrigação e produto utilizado, 80,3% utilizam irrigação manual e 85,4% solução salina; método de estabilização da fratura, fixador externo foi apontado em 52,1% das fraturas expostas tipo II, 74,4% nas IIIA, 88,6% nas IIIB e 89% nas IIIC; e indicação de fechamento primário, escolhido em 74,2% nas tipo I. Não houve consenso em relação ao tempo para cobertura de partes moles e tempo de uso de antibióticos. Os principais aspectos que discordaram da literatura foram: método de estabilização, tempo de uso de antibióticos e indicações de fechamento primário.This cross-sectional study was performed during the 36th Brazilian Congress of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, aiming to know the Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons’ opinion regarding the standards of care in cases of tibial diaphyseal open fractures in adults. Five hundred and seven questionnaires were considered and the results show agreement in the following topics: classification, 78.5% uses the Gustilo-Anderson; surgical treatment indication, with the majority (76.3% preferring to operate all kinds of fracture with manual irrigation (80.3% and saline solution (85.4%; stabilization method, predominantly the external fixator, with 52.1%, 74.4%, 88.6%, and 89.0% for types II, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, respectively, and; primary closure indication, chosen by 74.2% for the type I. There was no consensus regarding the timing of soft tissues reconstruction and the duration of

  19. Radar Cross Section Studies/Compact Range Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the achievements of NASA Grant NsG-1613 by Ohio State University from May 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of design studies; and (7) antenna studies. Major progress has been made in each of these areas as verified by the numerous publications produced.

  20. Cross sectional study of malarial parasite among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to find out prevalence of malarial parasite among patients attending Hadejia General Hospital. A total of 227 people were screened in the study area. Out of this number 150(66.1%) were males, while 77(33.9%) were females. Overall prevalence of malarial parasite was found to be 114(50.2%).

  1. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  2. Are nurse presenteeism and patient safety culture associated: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hana Brborović; Ognjen Brborović; Vlatka Brumen; Gordana Pavleković; Jadranka Mustajbegović

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nurse presenteeism affected patient safety culture and to look deeper into the characteristics of nurse presenteeism and patient...

  3. Occupational injuries among children and adolescents in Cusco Province: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlick, Cornelia; Joachin, Manuela; Briceño, Leonardo; Moraga, Daniel; Radon, Katja

    2014-01-01

    .... A cross-sectional study was conducted at five public night schools. 375 students (response 91.5%) completed an interview-based questionnaire on socio-demographics, work-related factors, and lifetime prevalence of occupational injuries...

  4. Dry Eye in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villani, Edoardo; Strologo, Marika Dello; Pichi, Francesco; Luccarelli, Saverio V; De Cillà, Stefano; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative cross-sectional study was to investigate the use of standardized clinical tests for dry eye in pediatric patients with active and quiet vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC...

  5. Perception of preparedness for clinical work among new residents: A cross-sectional study from Oman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Sinawi, Hamed; Al Alawi, Mohammed; Al Qubtan, Ali; Al Lawati, Jaber; Al Habsi, Assad; Jose, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    ...: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on August 20-23, 2016. New residents accepted for postgraduate training by Oman Medical Specialty Board were asked to complete the Preparation for Hospital Practice Questionnaire (PHPQ...

  6. A Cross Sectional Study of Food Safety Related Perceptions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Obtaining enough information on the knowledge and practices of a target group is essential for the development of effective health education programs. This study was conducted to assess food safety knowledge, perception and practices among women working in a north Indian University. Materials and methods: ...

  7. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to in...

  8. Treatment of 5413 hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Margit; Sondergaard, J; Reuther, Lene Ørskov

    2011-01-01

    Most hypertensive patients are managed in primary care in Denmark, but previous studies have shown that only 21-43% of hypertensive patients achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control. Antihypertensive drug treatment, risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are some of the important factors...... to consider when optimizing the individual treatment strategy in hypertensive patients....

  9. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe and 20-22G needles for ... Salivary gland tumours make up 10% of all head and neck tumours (parotid gland tumours ..... A two centre retrospective study. The surgeon, 2005; 3:2: 67-72. 8. Howlett DC. Diagnosing a parotid lump: fine needle aspiration cytology or core biopsy?

  10. Quasiclassical trajectory study on the integral cross-section and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: zhangwp@dlut.edu.cn. MS received 5 March 2010; revised 28 September 2010; accepted 6 January 2011. Abstract. Integral .... pared with those of Lin's.28 the vector correlation are also studied at four collision energies, ..... Phys. Lett. 253 177. 9. Tsukiyama, Katz B and Bersohn R 1985 J. Chem. Phys. 83 2889. 10.

  11. A cross-sectional study of socioeconomic status and cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affects more people of lower socioeconomic status (SES), and positive in developing ... disease that has SES patterning will be of significant impact in SA, which has ..... divorced.[18] Differences in marital status in our context are significant, as our study has shown that widowed and single participants face different CVD risk.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study Of Mastitis In Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camelus dromedarius) were examined in Somali Region, southeastern Ethiopia to study the prevalence and bacterial causes of mastitis between Nov. 2002 – April 2003. Out of the 137 lactating camels, 10.2% (14/137) were positive for clinical ...

  13. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disc golf is rapidly increasing in popularity and more than two million people are estimated to regularly participate in disc golf activities. Despite this popularity, the epidemiology of injuries in disc golf remains under reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study...

  14. DENTAL MATERIAL BIOCOMPATIBILITY: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Carmen SAVIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of the students in the Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi on the biocompatibility of the dental materials used in current practice. To this end, we elaborated our own questionnaire, including 10 questions to which 92 students from the last 2 years of study answered. The questionnaire cotains assertions on the potential toxic reactions of the most frequently used dental materials. The students answered correctly to the questions related to the biocompatibility of certain dental materials, such as glass-ionomer cement and calcium hydroxide, and they recognized that allergic reactions determined by acrylic resins may occur. We also noticed the lack of knowledge referring to the irreversible modifications produced by the tooth whitening substances on the enamel and dentin, as well as to the side effects produced by dental amalgam.

  15. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-01

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al. [1], improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of 6He at the breakup threshold, EB = 0.973 MeV.

  16. Factors Precipitating Hypokalemia in Diabetic Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Sheikh Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypokalemia is a very common electrolyte imbalance in diabetic patients which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Severe hypokalemia is associated with lifethreatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. There are no adequate studies regarding the incidence and factors precipitating hypokalemia in Bangladeshi diabetic subjects. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the factors precipitaing hypokalemia in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A total 95 admitted diabetic patients with hypokalemia were studied. Specimens were collected from all adult diabetic patients with serum potassium level <3.5 mmol/L irrespective of cause of admission. Informations were obtained in a semistructured data collection form and analyzed. Results: Most of the subjects (61.1% belonged to the age group of 60 years and above, 31.5% to the age group 40–59 years and 7.4% belonged to the age group of 20–39 years. Sixty one (64.2% patients were females and 34 (35.8% were males. In 63.2% cases, vomiting was found as a factor causing hypokalemia in the diabetic patients. Other common factors precipitaing hypokalemia were diarrhea (42.1%, inadequate diet (9.5%, severe hyperglycemia (3,2%, diabetic ketoacidosis (6.3% and drugs especially diuretics (18.9%, bronchodilators (6.3% and steroids (5.3%. The commonest comorbidity associated with diabetes was hypertension. Conclusion: In this study the commonest precipitating factor causing hypokalemia was vomiting. Majority of hypokalemic patients were female and of older age group. When hypokalemia is identified, the underlying precipitating factor should be sought and the disorder treated. Diuretics should be used with caution in the elderly patients having hypertension, a common comorbid condition of diabetes, as these patients are susceptible to develop hypokalemia.

  17. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Deed E; Normand Martin C; Descarreaux Martin; Lafond Danik

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet databas...

  18. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

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    Hollund BE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41, as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64 in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest. Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms

  19. Flow visualization studies of bodies with square cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G. T.; Clarkson, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    A water-tunnel study was conducted of four bodies. A solution of sodium fluorescein coating the body provided visualization of vortices and feeding sheets and isolated dots of methyl blue dye provided visualization of stream lines. These data, along with published oil-flow photos, were analyzed to develop the topological representation of the flows in cross-flow planes. Presented are the development of the flow along the body at fixed angles of attack and at a fixed body station with changes in angle of attack. Effects of roll angle, body corner radius, and nose bluntness are illustrated.

  20. TREATMENT OF TRAUMATIC GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnsztejn, André; Sugawara Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Belotti, João Carlos; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Faloppa, Flavio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate Brazilian orthopedists' opinions regarding the main aspects of the treatment of glenohumeral traumatic dislocation and compare these to literature's current concepts. Two hundred questionnaires containing 13 items were randomly distributed to orthopedists who were attending a Brazilian orthopedics congress; 158 were filled, in correctly and were considered in this study. The preferred maneuver was traction-countertraction (60.8%). Among the respondents, 68.4% stated that glenohumeral dislocation reduction was achieved in the first attempt in 90% of the cases. The first attempt of reduction occurred mainly in the Emergency room (96.5%). Seventy-nine individuals (50%) reported that they do not use any analgesic prior to reduction. The majority of the participants immobilize their patients after the reduction (98.1%). 75.4% of them keep their patients immobilized from 2 to 3 weeks. Generally, Brazilian orthopaedists perform tractioncountertraction maneuvers, achieving reduction in the first attempt in more than 90% of the cases in the Emergency room. No previous analgesic agent is used prior to reduction. Immobilization of the patient is made with a Velpeau dressing or a sling for 2 to 3 weeks.

  1. Sarcopenia in diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Meral; Selçuk, Mustafa Yavuz; Olt, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15,1% in healthy control group to 21,4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p=0.029),. The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR=2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression). In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healty co`ntrols.

  2. The prevalence of childhood dysphonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carding, Paul N; Roulstone, Sue; Northstone, Kate

    2006-12-01

    There is only very limited information on the prevalence of voice disorders, particularly for the pediatric population. This study examined the prevalence of dysphonia in a large cohort of children (n = 7389) at 8 years of age. Data were collected within a large prospective epidemiological study and included a formal assessment by one of five research speech and language therapists as well as a parental report of their child's voice. Common risk factors that were also analyzed included sex, sibling numbers, asthma, regular conductive hearing loss, and frequent upper respiratory infection. The research clinicians identified a dysphonia prevalence of 6% compared with a parental report of 11%. Both measures suggested a significant risk of dysphonia for children with older siblings. Other measures were not in agreement between clinician and parental reports. The clinician judgments also suggested significant risk factors for sex (male) but not for any common respiratory or otolaryngological conditions that were analyzed. Parental report suggested significant risk factors with respect to asthma and tonsillectomy. These results are discussed in detail.

  3. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

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    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  4. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Đinđić, Nataša; Jovanović, Jovica; Đinđić, Boris; Jovanović, Milan; Pešić, Milica; Jovanović, Jovana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI) and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers). The OSI...

  5. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

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    Vrbova K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S] and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]. Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results: The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of

  6. The Iraqi medical brain drain: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalisi, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the independent predictors of physicians' emigration from Iraq and the emigration temporal trends of Iraqi doctors. We used a convenience sample of Iraqi physicians, extracting their e-mail addresses from public records of Iraqi Medical Association websites and asking them to complete an online survey. Of the 1,395 Iraqi physicians contacted, 599 responded and 567 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 202 reside in Iraq and the rest live abroad. Doctors abroad describe better work atmospheres, job satisfaction, and training quality. The majority live in English-speaking countries. Of these, 60 percent left Iraq for security reasons, 99 percent left when they were juniors, and 66 percent of those completed their specialty training and settled abroad forever. Of doctors abroad, 17 percent want to return to Iraq, while 50 percent of doctors in Iraq want to leave. Iraqi doctors' rate of emigration peaked in 2006; these figures have since declined, but remain relatively high. Iraq has lost many of its doctors, and emigration is ongoing. The predictors of emigration shifted from financial issues during the 1990s to security and training concerns after 2003. The mass exodus will impact the health care system in the long term.

  7. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  8. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

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    Harrison Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation. Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years. Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary normative data for the alignment of a child's sagittal plane posture.

  9. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  10. Prevalence and Phenotypic Expression of Mutations in the MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 Genes in Families with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the South of Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Beatriz Piva E; Scolari, Fernando Luís; Torres, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Simon, Laura; Freitas, Valéria Centeno de; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Úrsula

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in sarcomeric genes are found in 60-70% of individuals with familial forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, this estimate refers to northern hemisphere populations. The molecular-genetic profile of HCM has been subject of few investigations in Brazil, particularly in the south of the country. To investigate mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 in a cohort of HCM patients living in the extreme south of Brazil, and to evaluate genotype-phenotype associations. Direct DNA sequencing of all encoding regions of three sarcomeric genes was conducted in 43 consecutive individuals of ten unrelated families. Mutations for CMH have been found in 25 (58%) patients of seven (70%) of the ten study families. Fourteen (56%) individuals were phenotype-positive. All mutations were missense, four (66%) in MYH7 and two (33%) in MYBPC3. We have not found mutations in the TNNT2 gene. Mutations in MYH7 were identified in 20 (47%) patients of six (60%) families. Two of them had not been previously described. Mutations in MYBPC3 were found in seven (16%) members of two (20%) families. Two (5%) patients showed double heterozygosis for both genes. The mutations affected different domains of encoded proteins and led to variable phenotypic expression. A family history of HCM was identified in all genotype-positive individuals. In this first genetic-molecular analysis carried out in the south of Brazil, we found mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7 and MYBPC3 in 58% of individuals. MYH7-related disease was identified in the majority of cases with mutation. Mutações em genes do sarcômero são encontradas em 60-70% dos indivíduos com formas familiares de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica. (CMH). Entretanto, essa estimativa refere-se a populações de países do hemisfério norte. O perfil genético-molecular da CMH foi tema de poucos estudos no Brasil, particularmente na região sul do país. Realizar a pesquisa de mutações dos genes sarcoméricos MYH

  11. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Paloma; Garbín, Raíssa Rigo; Santos, Catielma Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Rigo, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers' anxiety on their children's anxiety during dental care. Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT) scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%). Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%). Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%). Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children's anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers' anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  12. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Santos, Shirley Andrade; Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues de Abreu; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.

  13. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Fontes de Oliva Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369. The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47, those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76, and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68. CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.

  14. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  15. Cross-sectional study of anal intraepithelial lesions in women with cervical neoplasia without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heráclio, Sandra A; de Souza, Alex S R; de Souza, Paulo R E; Katz, Leila; Lima Junior, Sergio F; Amorim, Melania M R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of anal intraepithelial lesions and associated risk factors in women with cervical neoplasia. The present cross-sectional study enrolled patients with intraepithelial or invasive cervical neoplasia who had been referred to the lower genital tract pathology outpatient department of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, Recife, Brazil, between December 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009; patients with HIV infections were excluded. All participants underwent anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy; sociodemographic and clinical risk factors were identified using multivariate analysis. There were 324 patients included and 37 (11.4%) had anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Factors associated with anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the multivariate analysis were being older than 35 years of age (P=0.002), having completed no more than 4 years of education (P=0.012), anomalous anal cytology (P=0.003), and anomalous high-resolution anoscopy findings (Panal intraepithelial neoplasia. The prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia was high among patients with cervical neoplasia who did not have HIV, particularly patients older than 35 years. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. Prevalence of overweight preschool children in public day care centers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Brazil is undergoing a period of epidemiological transition associated with demographic and nutritional changes. The prevalence of obesity is also increasing in children and is causing numerous health problems that are becoming public health issues. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight among children of two and three years of age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in municipal day care centers in Taubaté, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Weight and height measurements were made on 447 preschool children forming a probabilistic randomized sample. Their body mass index (BMI was calculated. Their nutritional status was classified using the World Health Organization reference cutoff points (2006. Their mean weight, height and BMI were compared according to their age and sex. RESULTS: The mean values for the final sample (n = 447 were as follows: mean age: 38.6 months (± 3.5 and Z scores for: weight/height (W/H: 0.50 (± 1.22; height/age: -0.03 (± 1.07; weight/age (W/A: 0.51 (± 1.23; and BMI: 0.51(± 1.23. The prevalence of overweight children (BMI > 1 z was 28.86%, while the prevalence of underweight children (BMI < -2 z was 0.89%. There were no differences in mean BMI among the two and three-year age groups (P = 0.66. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of overweight was observed in the sample of two and three-year-old children, with practically no malnutrition, thus showing that a significant nutritional transition may already be occurring, even in medium-sized cities of developing countries.

  17. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  18. Do we still need cross-sectional studies in Nephrology? Yes we do!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripepi, Giovanni; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Jager, Kitty J; Stel, Vianda S; Dekker, Friedo W; Zoccali, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional studies represent the second line of evidence (after case reports) in the ladder of evidence aimed at defining disease aetiology. This study design is used to generate hypotheses about the determinants of a given disease but also to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic tests and to assess the burden of a given disease in a population. The intrinsic limitation of cross-sectional studies, when applied to generate aetiological hypotheses, is that both the exposure under investigation and the disease of interest are measured at the same point in time. For this reason, generally the cross-sectional design does not provide definitive proofs about cause-and-effect relationships. An advantage of cross-sectional studies in aetiological and diagnostic research is that they allow researchers to consider many different putative risk factors/diagnostic markers at the same time. For example, in a hypothetical study aimed at generating hypotheses about the risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with chronic kidney disease, investigators could look at several risk factors as potential determinants of LVH (age, gender, cholesterol, blood pressure, inflammation, etc.) with minimal or no additional costs. In this article, we make examples derived from the nephrology literature to show the usefulness of cross-sectional studies in clinical and epidemiological research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  20. Risk factors affecting occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among dental students: a cross-sectional study in a brazilian federal university

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Fernandes Dantas Filho; Eunice Beatriz Martin Chaves; Maria Carlota Borba Brum; Francisco Arsego Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dental students are often exposed to bloodborne pathogens during dental training. Several factors are involved in increased risk of human deficiency, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HIV, HBV, and HCV) infection. However, there are few studies that address the risks and forms of prevention among dental students in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study of occupational exposure to blood or body fluids among dental students of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil,...

  1. Advances in neutron-induced resonance reaction cross section studies at GELINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borella, A.; Kopecky, S.; Ivanov, I.; Mihailescu, C. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel (Belgium); Gunsing, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Moxon, M. [Hyde Copse 3, Marcham, (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA at the IRMM Geel, Belgium has been especially designed for neutron-induced reaction cross section studies in the resonance region. It is a multi-user facility, serving up to 10 different experiments simultaneously, and providing a pulsed white neutron source, with a neutron energy range between 1 meV and 20 MeV, a time resolution of 1 ns and flight path lengths ranging from 10 m to 400 m. The main effort of the experimental program at GELINA is devoted to applied research. Over the last decade, the IRMM has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. Due to the progress made, neutron-induced reaction cross section data, including full covariance information, can be obtained at GELINA from thermal up to the unresolved resonance region. (authors)

  2. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  3. Use of a child health surveillance instrument focusing on growth. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Morganna Neves de Araujo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Proper use of a child health handbook is an important indicator of the quality of care provided to children at healthcare services. This study aimed to evaluate the use of child health surveillance tool (by health professionals?, especially focusing on growth. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out in the context of the Family Health Strategy in two municipalities in Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-one children under five years of age from areas covered by health workers were included in the study. Mothers answered a questionnaire asking for information on sociodemographic characteristics. Growth charts, records of iron and vitamin A supplementation and notes on immunization schedules registered in the instrument were analyzed. In the case of children for whom the third version of the child health handbook was used, the association between completion of this handbook and sociodemographic characteristics was analyzed. RESULTS: All the parameters studied showed high frequencies of inadequate data entry, ranging from 41.1% for the weight-versus- age chart to 95.3% for the body mass index-versus-age chart. Higher frequency of inadequate data entry was found among children aged 25 months and over and among those living in areas of these municipalities with minimal numbers of professionals in the healthcare teams. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a child health handbook to monitor children’s growth in the municipalities studied appeared to be faulty. Data entry to this instrument was better at locations with larger healthcare teams.

  4. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Busato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers’ anxiety on their children’s anxiety during dental care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. RESULTS: 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%. Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%. Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%. CONCLUSION: Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children’s anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers’ anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  5. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  6. Comparison of red autofluorescing plaque and disclosed plaque—a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Fernandez y Mostajo, M.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van der Weijden, F.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the correlation between dental plaque scores determined by the measurement of red autofluorescence or by visualization with a two-tone solution. Clinical photographs were used for this study. Materials and methods Overnight plaque from

  7. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsitsika, A.; Janikian, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavela, E.C.; Olafsson, K.; Wojcik, S.; Macarie, G.F.; Tzavara, C.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N= 13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8 – 0.7) of 14–17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of

  8. Underreporting of energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Denise; Moraes, Cristiane; Leal, Viviane O; Farage, Najla E; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Fouque, Denis

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the reported energy intake (EI(rep)) in hemodialysis (HD) patients by total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by a dedicated device. Cross-sectional study. RenalCor and RenalVida Clinics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Forty-eight HD patients (51.4 ± 12.2 years, 62% men, body mass index [BMI], 23.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) were studied. EI(rep) was evaluated using a 3-day food record. TEE was measured over a 2-day period by SWA (SenseWear Pro2 Armband, BodyMedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). Subjects were identified as underreporters (URs), acceptable reporters (ARs), or overreporters (ORs) from their EI(rep)/TEE ratio. ARs were defined as having the EI(rep)/TEE ratio in the range of 0.76 to 1.24, URs as EI(rep)/TEE 1.24 according to Goldberg index. The mean TEE and EI(rep) were 34.7 ± 9.4 kcal/kg/day and 22.8 ± 10.6 kcal/kg/day, respectively, and 37.5% of patients presented overweight or obesity. Thirty-one patients (65%) were identified as URs, and the mean of Goldberg index was 0.54 ± 0.12 (0.23 to 0.75), versus 0.95 ± 0.12 (0.79 to 1.2) for ARs. There were no ORs among the patients studied. There were negative correlations between Goldberg index and BMI (r = -0.35, P < .01) and % body fat (r = -0.4, P < .01) and between EI(rep) and BMI (r = -0.58, P < .001). These results confirm a high prevalence of underreporting of EI in HD patients, particularly in patients with high BMI. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguimoto S Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

  10. Psychosocial Work Conditions and Burnout Among Brazilian Bank Employees: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria do Socorro da Silva; Lopes, Cláudia S; Pastor-Valero, Maria; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2016-06-01

    Changes in the modern economy have affected the financial sector. Time pressures, excessive work demands, and job stress are frequent concerns among bank employees, which might predispose them to burnout symptoms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between burnout symptoms and exposure to psychosocial work conditions in bank employees. A cross-sectional study of 1046 bank employees was carried out in Pará and Amapá, northern Brazil. We applied a self-administered questionnaire evaluating socio-demographic characteristics, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and two job stress models (Demand-Control-Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance). Two levels of burnout symptoms were analysed: moderate level of burnout (MLB) and high level of burnout (HLB). Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between the two levels of burnout and the two stress models, controlling for relevant covariates. The overall prevalence of burnout was 71.8% (31.1% for HLB; 40.7% for MLB), regardless of gender. Exposure to adverse psychosocial conditions in the workplace, such as high strain, low social support at work, high effort/low reward, and over commitment showed strong association with HLB and MLB, and these associations were independent of age, gender, and other occupational characteristics. We found that psychosocial conditions in the financial sector involving high strain, low social support at work, high effort/low reward, and over commitment represent possible risk factors for moderate and HLB symptoms in bank employees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  11. African ancestry is associated with facial melasma in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Brandão, Marcela Calixto; de Andrade Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-02-17

    Melasma is a chronic acquired focal hypermelanosis affecting photoexposed areas, especially for women during fertile age. Several factors contribute to its development: sun exposure, sex steroids, medicines, and family history. Melanic pigmentation pathway discloses several SNPs in different populations. Here, we evaluated the association between genetic ancestry and facial melasma. A cross-sectional study involving women with melasma and an age-matched control group from outpatients at FMB-Unesp, Botucatu-SP, Brazil was performed. DNA was extracted from oral mucosa swabs and ancestry determined by studying 61 INDELs. The genetic ancestry components were adjusted by other known risk factors by multiple logistic regression. We evaluated 119 women with facial melasma and 119 controls. Mean age was 39 ± 9 years. Mean age at beginning of disease was 27 ± 8 years. Pregnancy (40%), sun exposure (37%), and hormonal oral contraception (22%) were the most frequently reported melasma triggers. All subjects presented admixed ancestry, African and European genetic contributions were significantly different between cases and controls (respectively 10% vs 6%; 77% vs 82%; p ancestry (OR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), first generation family history (OR = 3.04; 95% CI 1.56 to 5.94), low education level (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 1.56 to 5.94), and use of antidepressants by individuals with affected family members (OR = 6.15; 95% CI 1.13 to 33.37) were associated with melasma, independently of other known risk factors. Facial melasma was independently associated with African ancestry in a highly admixed population.

  12. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnant adolescents: proinflammatory cytokine and bacterial sialidase profile. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI. Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991 as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6% were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68 or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52. Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05. RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05. Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2% with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.

  13. A Cross-sectional, Descriptive Study of Medication Use Among Persons With a Gastrointestinal Stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Paula, Bianca Augusta; da Silva Alves, Geisa Cristina; PercÍnio, Álvaro; Pereira, Mariana Linhares; Moraes, Juliano Teixeira; Sanches, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Research on the use of medications in people with intestinal stomas is lacking, creating gaps in knowledge of pharmacoepidemiology in these patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted over a period of 4 months in Divinópolis, Brazil to describe the profile of medication use among people enrolled in the Health Support Service for People with Stoma - Level II (SSPS II) of a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All patients from SSPS II with a colostomy or ileostomy were invited by phone to participate; those with incomplete registration data and/or who were stoma reversed were excluded from participation. During home interviews, researchers obtained sociodemographic profiles (age, gender, education, occupation, and family income) and information on comorbidities, medication use, adherence to medication protocols (per the Morisky Green Levine test), polypharmacy, and adult/pharmaceutical care (medication description and indication, expiration date, self-medication). Drug storage was assessed by visual evaluation. The information was entered onto individual data sheets, numbered to ensure patient anonymity. The data then were entered into and analyzed using SSPS II statistical software using frequency measurements, measures of central tendency, and dispersion of demographic variables, health conditions, and medicine use. The study population included 59 persons (average age 66.9 ± 13.27 years), 36 (61.0%) women, 38 (64.4%) with an incomplete/primary level education, and 44 (74.5%) retired. Forty-nine (49) patients had a colostomy and 10 had an ileostomy; cancer was the main reason for stoma creation (61.1%). Half of the survey participants reported having 1 or 2 comorbidities (average 2.3); the most prevalent (52) was circulatory system disease among which hypertension (38, 64.4%) was most common. Analysis of the pharmacotherapeutic profile (prescribed and used) showed 89.8% of the study population used medication, and 52.8% were

  14. Cross-sectional study of 168 patients with hepatorenal tyrosinaemia and implications for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Gokcay, Guelden; Segarra, Nuria Garcia; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; van Spronsen, Francjan; Zeman, Jiri; de laet, Corinne; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Thimm, Eva; Maiorana, Arianna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Brunner-Krainz, Michaela; Lotz-Havla, Amelie Sophia; de Juan, Jose Angel Cocho; Pico, Maria Luz Couce; Santer, Rene; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine; Mandel, Hanna; Bliksrud, Yngve Thomas; Freisinger, Peter; Aldamiz-Echevarria, Luis Jose; Hochuli, Michel; Gautschi, Matthias; Endig, Jessica; Jordan, Jens; McKiernan, Patrick; Ernst, Stefanie; Morlot, Susanne; Vogel, Arndt; Sander, Johannes; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatorenal tyrosinaemia (Tyr 1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. Without treatment, patients are at high risk of developing acute liver failure, renal dysfunction and in the long run hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to collect cross-sectional data.

  15. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews : cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H.; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C.; Bero, Lisa A.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Design Cross sectional study. Data sources

  16. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis in Jawi district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2008 to March 2009 in Jawi district of Amhara Regional State northwest Ethiopia to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. Blood sample was collected randomly from a total of 300 cattle through piercing of the marginal ear vein to determine the prevalence ...

  17. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  18. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Heydari; Hossein Kareshki; Mohammad Reza Armat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, sh...

  19. A cross-sectional retrospective study of Boda boda injuries at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the Musculo -Skeletal Injuries that directly or indirectly result from Boda Boda Traffic "accidents", with a view of assisting the policy makers in their efforts of reducing Road Traffic Accidents in Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at Mulago ...

  20. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey include...

  1. Influence of the Visual Attention Span on Child Reading Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Valdois, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis was found successfully to account for variability in developmental dyslexia (Bosse, Tainturier & Valdois, 2007). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 417 typically developing children from first, third and fifth grades examining the role of VA span on the development of reading skills. A battery…

  2. A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on the quality of life of patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy pain in Hospital Tegku Ampaun Afzan, Kuantan, Malaysia. ... it seems that individuals with diabetes and PDNP have a low QoL, with regard to “freedom to eat”, “freedom to drink”, “physical health”, “family life”, and “living condition”.

  3. 3. A Cross-sectional Study on Factors Associated With Perforated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    and 57.2% of patients had symptoms lasting 24 hours or less. Furthermore, the commonest blood group was group O+(33.2%),with 40% confirming history of use of NSAIDs. 57% were regular alcohol. A Cross-sectional Study on Factors Associated With. Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease in Adults Presenting to UTH, Lusaka.

  4. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  5. A cross-sectional study of home-based management of malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was designed to assess knowledge on signs, symptoms and treatment options for malaria in Bakaano, a suburb of Cape Coast, to determine the extent to which malaria is managed at homes. Our observations showed that the community had good knowledge of signs and ...

  6. Prevalence of HIV and malaria: a cross-sectional study on Bioko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of HIV and malaria: a cross-sectional study on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Xiangbin Zheng, Min Lin, Dong-De Xie, Jian Li, Jiang-Tao Chen, Urbano Monsuy Eyi, Santiago-m Monte-Nguba, Juan Carlos Sala Ehapo, Hui Yang, Hui-Tian Yang, Li-Ye Yang ...

  7. LIPID PROFILE OF CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PROGNOSTIC SCORES: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian BASSANI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn cirrhosis the production of cholesterol and lipoproteins is altered.ObjectiveEvaluate the lipid profile by measuring total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in patients with cirrhosis caused by alcoholism and/or hepatitis C virus infection and determine its association with Child-Pugh and MELD scores.MethodsCross-sectional retrospective study of patients treated at the outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010.ResultsIn total, 314 records were reviewed, and 153 (48.7% met the inclusion criteria, of which 82 (53.6% had cirrhosis that was due to hepatitis C virus infection, 50 (32.7% were due to alcoholism, and 21 (13.7% were due to alcoholism and hepatitis C virus infection. The total cholesterol levels diminished with a Child-Pugh progression (P20 was associated with lower total cholesterol levels (<100mg/dL; P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (<16 mg/dL; P=0.006, and low-density lipoprotein (<70 mg/dL; P=0.003. Inverse and statistically significant correlations were observed between Child-Pugh and all the lipid fractions analyzed (P<0.001. The increase in MELD was inversely correlated with reduced levels intotal cholesterol (P<0.001, high-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.030 and triglyceride (P=0.003.ConclusionA reduction in the lipid profile in patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection and/or alcoholism was significantly associated with the Child-Pugh and MELD prognostic markers. These results suggest that the lipid profile may be used as a tool to assist in evaluating liver disease.

  8. Underlying factors associated with anemia in Amazonian children: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly A Cardoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. METHODOLOGY: We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B(12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37-0.98. Child age (2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40-2.87 were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4-3.0, vitamin B(12 (1.4; 1.0-2.2, and folate (2.0; 1.3-3.1 deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1-2.2. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia.

  9. Risk indicators for tooth loss in Kiriri Adult Indians: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Livia S F E; Dos Santos, Jean N; Ramalho, Luciana M P; Chaves, Sonia; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Cury, Patricia Ramos

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk indicators of tooth loss in adult Kiriri Indians from Brazil. A representative sample of 225 Indians (≥ 19 years of age) was assessed. Interviews using a structured written questionnaire were performed to collect data on demographics and socio-economic status, and health-related data. Probing depth, the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the free gingival margin, and decayed, missing or filled teeth were evaluated. Bivariate and logistic models were used to assess associations between tooth loss and age, sex, income, education, diabetic status, smoking habits, dental caries, severe periodontitis, plaque index and previous dental visit. Eighty per cent of subjects had lost one tooth or more, and 20% had lost eight teeth or more. Mean (± standard deviation) tooth loss was 5.09 (± 5.83) teeth. After adjustment for covariates, loss of one tooth or more was associated with older age [≥ 35 years; odds ratio (OR) = 4.06, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.38-11.94, P = 0.01], severe periodontitis (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 0.99-11.24, P = 0.05), higher dental caries (OR = 3.24, 95% CI: 1.35-7.78, P = 0.01) and previous dental visit (OR = 23.32, 95% CI: 5.75-94.63, P Older age, severe periodontitis, higher caries index and previous dental visit were associated with tooth loss. Prevention and treatment programmes, targeting high-risk groups, are required to promote the oral health of the population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Anti-HBs levels among children and adolescents with complete immunization schedule against hepatitis B virus. A cross-sectional study in Blumenau, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa do Livramento

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is the main tool for preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV infection; however, following the completion of the vaccination series, the concentrations of anti-HBs can decline over the years and reach levels less than 10mIU/mL. The persistence of protection in these individuals is still unknown. The present study aimed to determine the anti-HBs antibody levels among children and adolescents who had received a complete vaccination course for hepatitis B. METHODS: Antibodies against HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs were tested in 371 individuals aged 10 to 15 years-old. RESULTS: Volunteers who showed undetectable quantities of anti-HBs accounted for 10.2% of the population studied and 39.9% presented antibody titers of less than 10mIU/mL. Anti-HBs > 10mIU/mL were verified in 49.9%. CONCLUSIONS: These results corroborate other studies indicating levels of anti-HBs below 10mIU/mL in vaccinated individuals. Additional studies are required to assess whether this indicates susceptibility to HBV infection and the need and age for booster doses.

  11. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xia; Ge Meng; Qing Zhang; Li Liu; Hongmei Wu; Hongbin Shi; Xue Bao; Qian Su; Yeqing Gu; Liyun Fang; Fei Yu; Huijun Yang; Bin Yu; Shaomei Sun; Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire...

  12. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Indicators of Obesity among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun; Liao, Dan

    2015-01-01

    No previous study has investigated dietary pattern in association with obesity risk in a middle-aged Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of obesity in the city of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang Province, east China. In this cross-sectional study of 2560 subjects aged 45–60 years, dietary intakes were evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). All anthropometric measurements were ob...

  13. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A.; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H.; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A.; Addar, Abdullah M.; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H.; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A.; Al-Omair, Abdullah A.; Ahmed I. Al-Sheddi; Hussam I. Al-Nowaiser; Al-Kathiri, Omar A.; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire fro...

  14. Effect of stress on sleep quality in young adult medical students: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Lohitashwa; Ningamma Kadli; Ravikiran Kisan; Sindhuja A; Dileep Deshpande

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of demanding clinical and academic duties, medical students are at an increased risk for development of sleep disruption. Studying the relation between sleep quality and psychological stress can be useful in implementing an organized mental health program in medical colleges. The main objective is to study the prevalence and the effect of stress on sleep quality in young adult medical students. Methods: A cross sectional study to recognize the effect of stress on sleep ...

  15. The Clustering of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: A Population Based Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Takele Tadesse; Meaza Demissie; Yemane Berhane; Yigzaw Kebede; Markos Abebe

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collec...

  16. Practice and Pattern of Antenatal and Postnatal Exercise among Nigerian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada; Olubukayomi EbunOluwa Adebayo; Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe; Funmilola Adenike Faremi; Monisola Omoyemi Oginni; Abiola Oladele Ogundele; Anne Antonette I. Emechete

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The African culture seems to play a major prohibiting role in physical exercise during pregnancy and immediate postpartum. This study was designed to assess practice and pattern of antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five women (189 pregnant women and 179 nursing mothers) from six selected hospitals in south-west Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained on socio-demographic and obste...

  17. Level of stress in final year MBBS students at Rural Medical College: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Narwane Sandeep P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress, defined as an imbalance between environmental conditions necessary for survival and the ability of individuals to adapt to those conditions, have a high prevalence in MBBS students. A variety of stressors play a significant role in developing stress. Objective:To study the level of stress and stressors responsible in Final MBBS students of Rural Medical College, Loni. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in 100 students (50 of either sex) willing ...

  18. Factors influencing hospitalized patients? perception of individualized nursing care: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    K?berich, Stefan; Feuchtinger, Johanna; Farin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Individualized care is a cornerstone of patient-centered nursing care. To foster individualized care, influencing factors should be known. The aim of this study was to identify the individual and organizational factors influencing hospitalized patients? perception of individualized care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 606 patients from 20 wards from five hospitals across Germany. Individualized care and potential influencing factors were assessed via structured qu...

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in K...

  20. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, AA; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Kar...

  1. Nursing Burnout: Cross-Sectional Study at a Large Army Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175, 6:435, 2010 Nursing Burnout : Cross-Sectional Study at a Large Army Hospital LTC Gary Morris Lang, AN USA; 1LT Elizabeth A...Rfister, AN USA; 1LT Michelle J. Siemens, AN USA ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of burnout among U,S, Army and civilian...364) completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 7"-test and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze data. Findings suggest that both groups

  2. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  3. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Delpisheh, Ali; Montazeri, Ali; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data coll...

  4. Musculoskeletal pain and school bag use: a cross-sectional study among Ugandan pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaka, Erisa S; Munabi, Ian G; Buwembo, William; Kukkiriza, John; Ochieng, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Though seen as a convenient method of carrying books and other scholastic materials including food items, schoolbags are believed to contribute to back and other musculoskeletal problems in school going children. This study set out to determine the prevalence of low back and other musculoskeletal pains and describe their relationship with schoolbag use in pupils. Results This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 532 pupils from six primary schools with a mean age of 13...

  5. Paradoxical attitudes toward premarital dating and sexual encounters in Tehran, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Motamedi, Mahnaz; MERGHATI-KHOEI, Effat; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Rahimi-Naghani, Shahrzad; Salehi, Mehrdad; Karimi, Mehrdad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Khalajabadi-Farahani, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to assess attitudes toward premarital dating and sexual encounters in individuals aged 15?49 years in Tehran. Methods Utilizing the attitudes section of an original cross-sectional study (n?=?755) aimed at assessing sexual health needs of adults, this paper examined personal attitudes towards premarital dating, non-sexual relationships and sexual encounters in both male and female adults aged between 15?49 years. Multi-stage cluster random sampling and ...

  6. Association between elder abuse and poor sleep: A cross-sectional study among rural older Malaysians

    OpenAIRE

    Raudah Mohd Yunus; Syeda Wasfeea Wazid; Hairi, Noran N; Wan Yuen Choo; Hairi, Farizah M.; Rajini Sooryanarayana; Sharifah N Ahmad; Inayah A Razak; Devi Peramalah; Aziz, Suriyati A.; Mohamad, Zaiton L.; Rosmala Mohamad; Ali, Zainudin M.; Awang Bulgiba

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between elder abuse and poor sleep using a Malay validated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Design This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the construct validity and reliability of the Malay version of PSQI. Phase II was a population-based, cross-sectional study with a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Home-based interviews were conducted by trained personnel using a structured questionnaire, to determine exposure and ou...

  7. Satisfaction with and adherence to warfarin treatment: A cross-sectional study among Sudanese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eltayeb, Tarig Yousif Mohamed; Mohamed, Malik Suliman; Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; Elsayed, Ahmed Sayed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Satisfaction with and adherence to oral anticoagulant treatment are important measures that decrease morbidity and mortality. Higher satisfaction and adherence to warfarin therapy was found to be associated among other factors with good International Normalized Ratio (INR) control. Objectives: To assess patient satisfaction with and adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy and to identify predictors of the two studied domains. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at...

  8. Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Arebu I.; Zelalem Tilahun; Tariku Shimels; Yewubdar B. Gelan; Osman, Ebrahim D.

    2016-01-01

    The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmeti...

  9. Obese Chinese Primary-School Students and Low Self-Esteem: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Xue-Yan; Li Dong-Mei; Xu Dan-Dan; Zhou Le-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine several factors related to low self-esteem among obese Chinese primary-school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and June 2010. A total of 1,410 primary-school students (China grades 4 - 6) in Changsha city were divided into normal weight (n = 1,084), overweight (n = 211), and obese groups (n = 115) according to world health organization (WHO) g...

  10. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  11. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ?50 and women ?60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 norther...

  12. Assessment of medical students? attitudes on social media use in medicine: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Avc?, Kadriye; ?elikden, Sevda Gerek; Eren, Semih; Aydeniz?z, Do?ukan

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has created a revolution in health services. Information available on the Internet and via social media is now being used as reference guides for sensitive health issues by nonprofessionals, physicians, and medical students. When used by physicians and medical students, social media has the potential to raise issues such as the blurring of the line between professional and private lives, patient relations, and medical ethics. The aim of this cross-sectional study was t...

  13. Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, H; Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G.; Adler, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of patients attending a general practitioner. Active H pylori infection was measured by the 15C-urea breath test and detailed quantitative information on smoking and on alcohol and coffee consumption was obtained by a standardised self administered questionnaire. SETTING: One general practice in Germany. SUBJECTS: 447 patients aged 15-79 who ha...

  14. SATISFACTION LEVEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS WORKING IN TEACHING INSTITUTIONS : A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sudeshna Chatterjee; Krishnangshu Ray; Anup Kumar Das; Arcojit Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    In a resource-limited and high-burden disease setting, satisfied health professional is an asset in terms of maximized productivity, efficiency and quality health care. Job Satisfaction Index is a validated measure to identify the components that influence those issues. A multi-faceted structured questionnaire study was conducted upon a cross-section of medical educators (n=160) serving two tertiary care teaching institutions under different management set-up. Multiple demographic...

  15. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal compon...

  16. Interdependence of Physical (In-) Activity, Fitness and Cognition: A Cross-Sectional Study in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Krell-Rösch, Janina

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for possible associations between physical exercise, fitness and cognitive performance in elderly, but research in young adults is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the interdependence between physical (in-) activity, fitness, and cognition in young adults. The methods included a number of physical performance tests, a physical activity questionnaire, and a test battery to measure executive functions and event-related brain potentials.

  17. The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Manchaiah, Vinaya K. C.; Molander, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities. Design Cross-sectional. Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK. Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and dep...

  18. Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    operates ). This can have a significant effect in improving the radar detection performance. However, these bistatic radar configurations also...the bistatic RCS of this target placed in a fixed, upright position, without any reference to specific radar implementations or operational ...ARL-TR-8045 ● JUNE 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round by

  19. Disparities in safe sex counseling & behavior among individuals with substance dependence: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    D’Amore Meredith M; Cheng Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies Donald; Samet Jeffrey H; Saitz Richard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the vast literature examining disparities in medical care, little is known about racial/ethnic and mental health disparities in sexual health care. The objective of this study was to assess disparities in safe sex counseling and resultant behavior among a patient population at risk of negative sexual health outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among a sample of substance dependent men and women in a metropolitan area in the United States. Multi...

  20. Studies of jet cross-sections and production properties with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, Nuno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of jet production in pp collisions have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The jet production cross sections probe the dynamics of QCD and can constrain the parton proton structure. Double-differential cross sections for inclusive, di-, three- and four-jet final states are measured at different centre-of-mass energies of pp collisions with the ATLAS detector and are compared to expectations based on NLO QCD calculations. The distribution of the jet charge has been measured in dijet events using pp collision data at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector. Jet-jet energy correlations are sensitive to the strong coupling constant. Measurements of multi-jet systems with a veto on additional jets, probe QCD radiation effects. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime. Studies of large-radius jet properties including N-subjettines, splitting scales and other jet substructure related quantities will be presented.

  1. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Vulnerability of caregivers of the elderly with dementia: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Bruna Silva; Camacho, Alessandra Conceição Leite Funchal; Joaquim, Fabiana Lopes; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio; Lima, Thiago Rodrigues; Queiroz, Raquel Santos de

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of the caregivers and its relation with the overburden from the care of the elderly with dementia. a cross-sectional descriptive study; the sample was non-probabilistic, developed with caregivers of elderly people with dementia. The field of investigation was the Health Care Center of the Elderly and their Caregivers (CASIC), in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data collection took place from February to June 2016, with the following instruments: a sociodemographic questionnaire and Zarit scale. fifty percent of the caregivers presented moderate overburden; 38% presented little overburden; and 12% moderate/severe overburden. It was observed that the median of weekly care hours increases as the overburden increases. Caregivers with moderate to severe overburden, in the majority, do not share care. it is clear that the overburden of care places the caregiver in conditions of biological and psychological vulnerability. avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico dos cuidadores e sua relação com a sobrecarga proveniente do cuidado ao idoso com demência. estudo descritivo transversal, a amostra foi do tipo não probabilística, desenvolvida com os cuidadores de idosos com demência. O campo de investigação foi o Centro de Atenção à Saúde do Idoso e seus Cuidadores (CASIC), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu de fevereiro a junho de 2016, com os seguintes instrumentos: questionário sociodemográfico e escala de Zarit. 50% dos cuidadores apresentaram sobrecarga moderada, 38% apresentaram pouca sobrecarga e 12%, sobrecarga moderada/severa. Observou-se que a mediana das horas de cuidados semanais aumenta conforme a sobrecarga aumenta. Cuidadores com sobrecarga de moderada a severa, em caráter majoritário, não dividem o cuidado. Dessa forma, fica claro que a sobrecarga do cuidado coloca o cuidador em condições de vulnerabilidade biológica e psicológica.

  3. SAFE-PML approach for modal study of waveguides with arbitrary cross sections immersed in inviscid fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave is an important non-destructive tool for large area inspections of immersed structures as well as fluid characterizations. In this paper, a numerical tool is developed for the modal study of immersed waveguides with arbitrary cross sections, by coupling the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method with Perfectly Matched Layer (PML). The model is first validated on waveguides with regular cross sections with analytical solutions. It is then applied to immersed waveguides with rectangular cross sections and L-shaped cross sections, showing the potential of guided waves for NDT applications and fluid characterizations.

  4. Mindfulness and satisfaction in physical activity: A cross-sectional study in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; De Ridder, Denise Td; van Ee, Raymond; Lacroix, Joyca Pw

    2016-09-01

    Both satisfaction and mindfulness relate to sustained physical activity. This study explored their relationship. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 398 Dutch participants who completed measures on trait mindfulness, mindfulness and satisfaction with physical activity, physical activity habits, and physical activity. We performed mediation and moderated mediation. Satisfaction mediated the effect of mindfulness on physical activity. Mindfulness was related to physical activity only when one's habit was weak. The relation of mindfulness with satisfaction was stronger for weak compared to strong habit. Understanding the relationship between mindfulness and satisfaction can contribute to the development of interventions to sustain physical activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Establishing normative foot posture index values for the paediatric population: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Montes-Alguacil, Jesus; Alfageme-Garcia, Pilar; Cervera-Marin, Jose Antonio; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is an observational tool designed to measure the position of the foot. Its reliability is well established, and it provides normative reference values for the general population. However, this is not so for the paediatric population. The aim of this study is to determine FPI reference values in childhood, taking into account age and gender. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,762 school children (863 boys and 899 girls) aged 6?11 years, from M...

  6. Academic stress and depression among adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, P; Thirunavukarasu, M; Rajkumar, Rajamanickam

    2015-03-08

    To examine the relationship between academic stress and depression among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted at higher secondary schools in Tamil Nadu. 1120 adolescents were included in the study after screening by MINI-kid tool. Modified Educatonal Stress Scale for Adolescents was administered to all children. Adolescents who had academic stress were at 2.4 times (95% CI=0.9-2.4) (Pacademic stress. Adolescents with severe academic stress need to be identified early as interventions to reduce academic stress is likely to affect the occurrence and severity of depression.

  7. The burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in Constanta, Romania: a cross-sectional study

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    Cazacu Andreaa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By 1990, 94 percent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS cases in Romania were in children less than 13 years of age. The majority of the cases were identified in the city of Constanta. The purpose of this paper was to describe the current burden of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the Constanta county. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to address the primary objective. Between April 1999 and March 2000, all living cases of pediatric HIV infection in the Constanta county were identified from records at the HIV hospital clinic which serves the Constanta county. Standard demographic, social, clinical, treatment and hospitalization data were collected for each study subject. Data were analyzed according to cross-sectional study design methodology. Results Of the 762 subjects, the majority were seven to 11 years of age, lived with their parents and attended school. Only 70% of the fathers and 13% of the mothers were employed. Horizontal transmission accounted for 90% of the cases. Most of the children had moderate to severe disease as indicated by their AIDS-defining signs; 40% had AIDS. Less than half of the children were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and children of mothers with a high school or greater education were independent predictors of long-term non-progression of HIV disease. Conclusions This cross-sectional study demonstrated that ten years after the HIV epidemic was identified in Romania, it remains a health and economic burden. The infected children are very ill, but ART is not available for all. The proportion with vertical transmission has increased from an estimated four % to nine %. Our findings support the need to get HIV therapy to economically challenged countries such as Romania.

  8. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with herniated lumbar disc: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Dadian, Mohammad; Firouznia, Keykavous; Alalawi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    To determine the relative frequency of sacroiliac joint dysfunction in a sample of patients with image proven lumbar disc herniation. A single group cross-sectional study was conducted in a three year period from 2007 in an outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Overall, 202 patients aged more than or equal to 18 years with image proven herniated lumbar disc and with physical findings suggestive of lumbosacral root irritation were included. Overall, 146 (72.3%) participants had sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in females (pdisc pathology, sacroiliac joint dysfunction must be considered in clinical decision making.

  9. The relationship between cyberbullying and friendship dynamics on adolescent body dissatisfaction: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ursula; Sullivan, Lindsay; Callaghan, Mary; Molcho, Michal; Kelly, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cyberbullying and friendship dynamics on adolescent body dissatisfaction was examined. Data from the Irish contribution to the international cross-sectional 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study were used. Results showed that girls were three times more likely than boys to report that their body is too fat, and adolescents who were cyberbullied were almost twice as likely as adolescents who were not cyberbullied to consider themselves too fat. Stronger friendship dynamics were associated with decreased levels of body dissatisfaction, and friendship dynamics were found to partially mediate the relationship between cyberbullying and body dissatisfaction.

  10. Low Back Pain among Medical Students in Belgrade (Serbia): A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vujcic, Isidora; Stojilovic, Nemanja; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Ladjevic, Ivana; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Aim. To examine the prevalence of low back pain, to identify self-perceived triggers of low back pain, and to investigate the impact of perceived pain on the daily activities and mood among medical students. Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 459 fourth year students at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade during December 2014. The anonymous questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, the chi-square test and t-test were used. Results. The lifetime prevalence of low ...

  11. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among chewing tobacco users: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Prashanth, Radha; Yashodha Devi, B K; Chugh, Nidhi; Kaur, Aninditya; Thomas, Nithin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of chewing tobacco (CT) in the last 10-12 years has led to an increased incidence of potentially malignant oral disorders and frank oral malignancies. To determine the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and to correlate the dose-response relationship among CT users of Bengaluru North province. This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomized cluster sample of adults in low-income group (slums), of Bengaluru North, Karnataka state, India. Nine hundred and one subjects, all CT users were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. A prestructured questionnaire which included information on type and amount of CT used, duration and frequency of use, and location of placement of tobacco in the oral cavity was used for assessment, which was followed by oral examination for the presence of lesions. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the statistical significance. Of the 901 subjects with CT habits, 55.8% revealed no clinically detectable oral mucosal changes and 44.1% showed mucosal changes of which 63.8% were males and 36.1% were females. The most common finding was chewers mucositis (59.5%) followed by submucous fibrosis (22.8%), leukoplakia (8%), lichenoid reaction (6.5%), oral cancer (2.7%), and lichen planus (0.5%). This study provides information about different CT habits and associated mucosal lesions among this population.

  14. Effects of everyday radiofrequency electromagnetic-field exposure on sleep quality: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Fröhlich, Jürg; Neubauer, Georg; Röösli, Martin

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between exposure to various sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) in the everyday environment and sleep quality, which is a common public health concern. We assessed self-reported sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness in a random population sample of 1,375 inhabitants from the area of Basel, Switzerland. Exposure to environmental far-field RF EMFs was predicted for each individual using a prediction model that had been developed and validated previously. Self-reported cordless and mobile phone use as well as objective mobile phone operator data for the previous 6 months were also considered in the analyses. In multivariable regression models, adjusted for relevant confounders, no associations between environmental far-field RF EMF exposure and sleep disturbances or excessive daytime sleepiness were observed. The 10% most exposed participants had an estimated risk for sleep disturbances of 1.11 (95% CI: 0.50 to 2.44) and for excessive daytime sleepiness of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.31 to 1.05). Neither mobile phone use nor cordless phone use was associated with decreased sleep quality. The results of this large cross-sectional study did not indicate an impairment of subjective sleep quality due to exposure from various sources of RF EMFs in everyday life.

  15. Trust and quality of life: A cross-sectional study of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Asiyeh; Harris, Neil; Coyne, Elisabeth; Sebar, Bernadette

    2015-08-01

    Trust is increasingly identified as a psychosocial determinant of well-being. However the relationship between trust and well-being outcomes has not been comprehensively examined, particularly in socially and economically transitioning countries such as Iran and among young women. This cross-sectional study examined the association between trust and the quality of life of young Iranian women. A total of 391 young Iranian women aged between 18 and 35 years (M: 27.3, standard deviation (SD): 4.8) were recruited through cluster convenience sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. The measures used included the 'Trust scale' adapted from the British General Household Survey (GHS) Social Capital scale, and the Persian version of the WHOQOL-BREF (World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire--brief version). The participants (n = 391, mean age of 27 years) reported a relatively low level of trust. For the participants, trust was positively associated with better quality of life (r = .24, p value: .01). The findings also showed that there is a significant difference between socio-demographic factors such as the level of religiosity, occupation and income with the domains of trust. Policies are needed to improve participation and reciprocity at the level of individuals and informal social groups, including local to broader communities in order to increase the sense of community belonging, improving trust and consequently quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Prevalence of HIV and malaria: a cross-sectional study on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangbin; Lin, Min; Xie, Dong-De; Li, Jian; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Monte-Nguba, Santiago-M; Ehapo, Juan Carlos Sala; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Yang, Li-Ye

    2017-03-01

    Malaria and HIV are two of the most severe public health problems in Africa. However, epidemiological data on Bioko Island is scarce. To investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV infections and assess association of malaria and HIV infections and possible confounding factors, we performed a cross-sectional survey of people of malaria-endemic Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. A cross-sectional study of 1 526 subjects was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV infection in Malabo region hospital on Bioko Island. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were drawn for malaria parasites and HIV detection. The prevalence of participants infected with malaria and HIV in this area were 13.8% and 6.6% respectively. The average prevalence of co-infection for malaria and HIV was 0.92%. HIV-infection was significantly associated with the age and gender. Malaria infections were significantly associated with the age. This study showed that the prevalence of HIV and malaria on Bioko Island was higher than expected, although the co-infection prevalence of malaria and HIV was low. The results also indicated that malaria and HIV infections lead to more public health risk to youngsters and women.

  17. A cross-sectional study of the plantar flexor muscle and tendon during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, K; Teshima, T; Hirose, N; Tsunoda, N

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate growth changes in human plantar flexor muscle and tendons. In addition, we ascertained whether growth changes in muscle and tendon were more closely related to skeletal age than chronological age. 22 elementary school children (ESC), 19 junior high school students (JHS), and 23 young adults (ADT) men participated in this study. Maximal strain and hysteresis of tendon structures and cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, skeletal age was assessed using Tanner-Whitehouse III method. Maximal strain of ESC was significantly greater than that of other groups, while no significant difference was observed between JHS and ADT. There was no difference in hysteresis among 3 groups. Relative cross-sectional area (to body mass(2/3)) of ADT was significantly smaller than that of other groups. For ESC and JHS, measured variables of muscle and tendon were significantly correlated to both chronological and skeletal ages. These results suggested that immature musculoskeletal system was protected by more extensible and larger tendon structures in ESC and only by larger tendon structures in JHS, respectively. Furthermore, there were no differences in correlation coefficient values between measured variables of muscle and tendon and chronological or skeletal ages. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction: A cross-sectional-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Wu, Shu-Chen; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2018-02-01

    Patient empowerment is a paradigm of clinical practice. The goal of patient empowerment is to lead patients' health and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction based on multi-hospital cross-sectional study design in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional survey, 609 inpatients in four teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from August 2009 to July 2010 were recruited. Data were collected using Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES), Sufficiency of Patient Education Questionnaire (SPEQ) and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the independent effects of relevant factors on patient empowerment after controlling for the covariates. The overall mean empowerment scores was 44.80±5.94. There was a significant difference between the total scores and four dimensions of patient empowerment at different hospitals (t=5.44, p≤0.01). Sufficient patient education (β=0.568, 95%CI: 0.486-0.649) and patient satisfaction (β=0.317, 95%CI: 0.259-0.375) could significantly predict patient empowerment based on the multiple linear regression analysis, with a total variance was 54.4%. In conclusion, both sufficient patient education and patient satisfaction were positively related to patient empowerment. Hospitals in Taiwan should try to improve their patients' active involvement toward empowerment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between intrauterine inflammation and spontaneous vaginal delivery at term: a cross-sectional study.

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    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different factors contribute to the onset of labor at term. In animal models onset of labor is characterized by an inflammatory response. The role of intrauterine inflammation, although implicated in preterm birth, is not yet established in human term labor. We hypothesized that intrauterine inflammation at term is associated with spontaneous onset of labor. METHODS/RESULTS: In two large urban hospitals in the Netherlands, a cross-sectional study of spontaneous onset term vaginal deliveries and elective caesarean sections (CS, without signs of labor, was carried out. Placentas and amniotic fluid samples were collected during labor and/or at delivery. Histological signs of placenta inflammation were determined. Amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured using ELISA. A total of 375 women were included. In term vaginal deliveries, more signs of intrauterine inflammation were found than in elective CS: the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was higher (18 vs 4%, p = 0.02 and amniotic fluid concentration of IL-6 was higher (3.1 vs 0.37 ng/mL, p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for IL-8 (10.93 vs 0.96 ng/mL, p<0.001 and percentage of detectable TNF-alpha (50 vs 4%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This large cross-sectional study shows that spontaneous term delivery is characterized by histopathological signs of placenta inflammation and increased amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djindjić, Natasa; Jovanović, Jovica; Djindjić, Boris; Jovanović, Milan; Pesić, Milica; Jovanović, Jovana J

    2013-06-01

    Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI) and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers). The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict) were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk factors were done. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 +/- 3.5, 81.28 +/- 3.7, 73.75 +/- 3.5, 71.61 +/- 4.4, respectively; p stress and coronary heart disease. Regular periodical examinations and workplace interventions aimed to decrease total OSI and underload are important aspects in primary prevention and additional reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  1. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy in Brazil: cross-sectional results from the Birth in Brazil National Survey, 2011/2012

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    Mariza Miranda Theme-Filha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy, a pregnancy that have been either unwanted or mistimed, is a serious public health issue in Brazil. It is reported for more than half of women who gave birth in the country, but the characteristics of women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence and the association between unintended pregnancy and a set of sociodemographic characteristics, individual-level variables and history of obstetric outcomes. Methods Birth in Brazil is a cross-sectional study with countrywide representation that interviewed 23,894 women after birth. The information about intendedness of pregnancy was obtained after birth at the hospital and classified into three categories: intended, mistimed or unwanted. Multinomial regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between intendedness of a pregnancy, and sociodemographic and obstetric variables, calculating odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. All significant variables in the bivariate analysis were included in the multinomial multivariate model and the final model retaining variables that remained significant at the 5 % level. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 55.4 % of postpartum women. The following variables maintained positive and significant statistical associations with mistimed pregnancy: maternal age < 20 years (OR = 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.68–2.14; brown (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27 or yellow skin color (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI: 1.05–2.32; having no partner (OR = 2.32, 95 % CI: 1.99–2.71; having no paid job (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27; alcohol abuse with risk of alcoholism (OR = 1.25, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.50 and having had three or more births (OR = 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.63–2.47. The same factors were associated with unwanted pregnancy, though the strength of the associations was generally stronger. Women with three or more births were 14

  2. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Fang, Zhuo; Di, Xin; Ye, Zhuo'er; Xu, Guiping; Lin, Huiyan; Cheng, Yongmin; Li, Yongjie; Xu, Yong; Rao, Hengyi

    2017-01-01

    Representational momentum (RM) has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players) with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM.

  3. Effects of Badminton Expertise on Representational Momentum: A Combination of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Representational momentum (RM has been found to be magnified in experts (e.g., sport players with respect to both real and implied motion in expert-familiar domains. However, it remains unclear whether similar effects can be achieved in expert-unfamiliar domains, especially within the context of implied motion. To answer this question, we conducted two independent experiments using an implied motion paradigm and examined the expert effects of badminton training on RM in both adult and child players. In Experiment 1, we used a cross-sectional design and compared RM between adult professional badminton players and matched controls. The results revealed significantly enhanced RM for adult players, supporting the expert effect in expert-unfamiliar domains for implied motion. However, cross-sectional studies could not ascertain whether the observed expert effect was due to innate factors or expertise acquirement. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we used a longitudinal design and compared RM between two groups of child participants, naming child players who had enrolled professional badminton training program at a sports school and age-matched peer non-players who attended an ordinary primary school without sports training. Before training, there were no differences in RM among child players, their non-player peers, and adult non-players. However, after 4 years of badminton training, child players demonstrated significantly enhanced RM compared to themselves prior to training. The increased RM observed in both adult and child players suggests that badminton expertise modulates implied motion RM.

  4. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research (MTA Atomki), H-4001 Debrecen, POB.51 (Hungary); Rauscher, T. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-02

    The cross sections of the {sup 162}Er(α,γ){sup 166}Yb and {sup 162,164,166}Er(α,n){sup 165,167,169}Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between E{sub c.m.} = 11.21 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T{sub 9} = 3 GK). The {sup 162}Er(α,n){sup 165}Yb, {sup 164}Er(α,n){sup 167}Yb and {sup 166}Er(α,n){sup 169}Yb reactions were studied between E{sub c.m.} = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, E{sub c.m.} = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  5. Influence of Land or Water Exercise in Pregnancy on Outcomes: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ruben; Perales, Maria; Cordero, Yaiza; Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the cross-sectional results from three experimental studies conducted on land, in water, and in mixed form (land + water) during pregnancy on maternal and newborn outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze the results of three randomized clinical trials in healthy pregnant women from Madrid (Spain) and Buenos Aires (Argentina). Five hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women were recruited. For each of the studies, the number of women in the exercise group totaled 107 for study 1 (land), 49 women for study 2 (water), and 101 women for study 3 (land + water). A total of 311 women represented the control group (CG) (pooled together from all three studies). Total maternal weight gain was different between study 1 and CG (11.7 vs 13.4 kg, P = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.38) as well as the percentage of pregnant women with excessive weight gain (20.6%, n = 22, vs 37.9%, n = 118, respectively, P = 0.005, χ = 16.6, OR = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-0.71). The number of pregnant women with gestational diabetes in CG was significantly higher than that in studies 2 and 3 (CG n = 22/7.1%; study 2, n = 0/0%; and study 3, n = 1/1%; P = 0.03, χ = 8.9). Exercise performed on land is more effective than aquatic activities in preventing excessive maternal weight gain, whereas combined programs (land + aquatic) or water exercise programs may be more effective in preventing gestational diabetes.

  6. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Takele; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Kebede, Yigzaw; Abebe, Markos

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (pTuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  7. Cross sections for electron collision with fluoroacetylene: A comparative study with acetylene and difluoroacetylene along with fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik

    2017-09-01

    Low energy electron impact cross sections of fluoroacetylene (HCCF) are investigated using the R-matrix method. The best target model, which gave good target properties in comparison with literature values, is used for the final scattering calculation. The fluorination effect on the various elastic, momentum transfer, differential, excitation and ionization cross section is studied by comparing the present results with the recent theoretical results of difluoroacetylene (FCCF) and acetylene (HCCH). This is the first reported detailed investigation of cross sections for HCCF along with the fluorination effect.

  8. The communication skills and the empathic tendency levels of nursing students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazar, Berrin; Demiralp, Meral; Erer, İmren

    2017-06-01

    The most basic component of communication skills is the complex and multidimensional skill of empathy. This study was conducted to assess the communication skills and empathic tendency levels of female nursing students Turkish university. This cross-sectional study sample consisted of 342 nurse student. There was a significant difference between the classes in terms of communication skills (0.021, p  .05). The mean communication skills score increased in the final year but empathic tendency levels did not increase with increasing school years. This result suggests that the empathic tendency level could not be increased with the courses in the curriculum in our study. The results suggest that empathic tendency levels were not increased with subsequent nursing coursework. Determining empathic predisposition levels prior to entry into nursing programs should therefore be considered.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  11. Impact of Micronutrient Malnutrition on the Health of Preschool Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Ullah Shah, Farid; Ud-Din Khan, Salah; Ali Rana, Usman; Shoaib Khan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zahoor

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to diagnose the prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies in apparently healthy preschool children in Pakistan. Children with any organic illnesses, abnormal blood parameters or genetic disorder were excluded. Amongst the studied samples, 56 % were healthy, 7 % were overweight, 7 % were obese, and 30 % were underweight. The body mass index (BMI) of female children was reduced compared to male children, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, zinc and iron deficiencies, ranging from moderate to severe, were found in 50 % and 25 % of the studied population, respectively. Copper and vitamin A concentrations were insufficient in 7 % and 25 % of the subject children, respectively. Micronutrient malnutrition is a recurrent health problem in children below the age of 5 years worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Serum micronutrient deficiencies and imbalances were more prevalent in children from rural than from urban areas.

  12. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  13. Staple foods consumption and irritable bowel syndrome in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqiu Zheng

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can cause gastrointestinal symptoms due to incomplete absorption in the small bowel. Thus, high-carbohydrate diets may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS.This observational and cross-sectional study assessed the association between consumption of several carbohydrate-enriched staple foods, such as rice, Japanese wheat noodles, Chinese noodles, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles, and the prevalence of IBS in Japanese adults.One thousand and eighty-two (837 men Japanese adult employees aged 19-85 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. IBS diagnosis was based on the Rome III criteria. Consumption of staple foods was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and divided into three categories (low, middle, high depending on their distribution.In the multivariate analysis, daily consumption of rice (odds ratios [ORs] and [95% confidence interval (CI]: middle, 1.36 [0.93-1.99]; high, 1.67 [1.12-2.49]; P for trend = 0.01, bread (middle, 1.88 [1.28-2.75]; high, 1.63 [1.10-2.41]; P for trend = 0.01, pasta (middle, 1.47 [1.01-2.15]; high, 1.68 [1.12-2.52]; P for trend = 0.01, and buckwheat noodles (middle, 1.76 [1.18-2.61]; high, 1.98 [1.31-3.00]; P for trend = 0.001 were associated with higher prevalence of IBS after adjustment for socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle-related factors. Buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, retained an association with the prevalence of IBS even after adjustment for daily intake of carbohydrates or plant proteins.This cross-sectional study demonstrated that the consumption of staple foods, such as rice, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles is associated with the prevalence of IBS. Of these, the consumption of buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, is associated with IBS independent of carbohydrate or plant protein contents.

  14. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

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    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  15. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myer Landon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

  16. Does androgyny have psychoprotective attributes? A cross-sectional community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In our society, adherence to feminine traits by the female gender had been culturally promoted and socially desired. A few studies, however, entertained the possibility that healthy men and women have some common attributes in their gender orientation. Androgyny and masculinity were found related to positive mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of masculinity and femininity and its relationship with the perception of stress and various psychopathology including anxiety and depression. Results: Masculinity scores of the participants negatively correlated while femininity scores positively correlated with the scores on General Health Questionnaire, Beck′s Depressive Inventory, Beck′s Anxiety Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale. Conclusion: Androgyny is psychoprotective. Empowerment-oriented psychological approaches aimed to encourage psychological androgyny, and masculinity might be therapeutic.

  17. Causes and outcomes of sepsis in southeast Asia: a multinational multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Improved understanding of pathogens that cause sepsis would aid management and antimicrobial selection. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative pathogens of sepsis in southeast Asia. In this multinational multicentre cross-sectional study of community-acquired sepsis and severe sepsis, we prospectively recruited children (age ≥30 days and southeast Asia is caused by a wide range of known and emerging pathogens, and is associated with substantial mortality. National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, USA, and Wellcome Trust, UK. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Organisational culture in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Venturato, Lorraine; Horner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture is increasingly recognised as important for provision of high-quality long-term care. We undertook this study to measure organisational culture in residential aged care facilities in two Australian states. Cross-sectional observational study in 21 residential aged care facilities in Western Australia (n = 14) and Queensland (n = 7), Australia. Staff and next-of-kin of residents participated. Measurement comprised surveys of facility staff and residents' next-of-kin, and structured observation of indicators of care quality. Staff tended to rate organisational culture positively. Some qualitative feedback from staff emphasised negative perceptions of communication, leadership and teamwork. Staffing levels were perceived as a dominant challenge, threatening care quality. Direct observation revealed variability within and between facilities but suggested that most facilities (n = 12) were in the typical range, or were quality facilities (n = 8). There was scope to strengthen organisational culture in participating aged care facilities.

  19. Dietary glycemic index and retinal microvasculature in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Aguadero, Natalia; Alonso-Dominguez, Rosario; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-10-18

    To analyze the relationship between dietary glycemic index (GI) and retinal microvasculature in adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 300 subjects from the EVIDENT II study. Dietary GI was calculated using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Retinal photographs were digitized, temporal vessels were measured in an area 0.5-1 disc diameter from the optic disc and arteriolar-venular index (AVI) was estimated with semi-automated software. AVI showed a significant difference between the tertiles of GI, after adjusting for potential confounders. The lowest AVI values were observed among subjects in the highest tertile of GI, whereas the greatest were found among those in the lowest tertile (estimated marginal mean of 0.738 vs. 0.768, p = 0.014). In adults, high dietary GI implies lowering AVI values regardless of age, gender and other confounding variables. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02016014 . Registered 9 December 2013.

  20. Folate and MMA predict cognitive impairment in elderly stroke survivors: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Linden, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Elderly stroke survivors are at risk of malnutrition and long-term cognitive impairment. Vitamin B-related metabolites, folate and methylmalonic acid, have been implicated in cognitive function. We conducted a study exploring the relationship between blood folate, methylmalonic acid and post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is a cross sectional study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149) 20 months post-stroke, assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and red blood cell levels of folate. Linear modeling indicated that low levels of blood folate and elevated methylmalonic acid significantly contributed to cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. Half of the stroke survivors were shown to have folate deficiency at 20 months after stroke. Folate deficiency is common long term after stroke and both low folate and elevated methylmalonic acid appear to be associated with long term cognitive impairment, in elderly Swedish stroke survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Preventive Maintenance Therapy Compliance and Peri-Implant Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Nart, José

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate association between peri-implant maintenance therapy (PIMT) and the frequency of peri-implant diseases and to further identify factors that contribute to failure of PIMT compliance. A cross-sectional study on patients who were healthy and partially edentulous was conducted. They were grouped in the following categories according to PIMT compliance: 1) regular compliers (RC) (≥2 PIMT/year); 2) erratic compliers (EC) (maintenance compliance ≥2 PIMT/year seems to be crucial to prevent peri-implantitis in healthy patients. Furthermore, history of periodontal disease and disease severity, as well as its extent and a smoking habit, appear to be factors that influence the compliance risk profile (NCT02789306).

  2. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Danish Construction Workers. A Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 899 Danish male.......7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5) and for insulators compared to carpenters was 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-3.9). Demolition workers had significantly lower odds compared to all other groups for forced vital capacity prevalence of COPD among construction workers...... mass index. Results:COPD (Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease 2-4) was found in 2.4% of carpenters, 4.7% of insulators, 7.8% of demolition workers and 6.1% of hospital porters (P = 0.055). Compared to hospital porters, demolition workers had significantly increased odds of coughing more than...

  3. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Das Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  4. Life style and nutritional status in university students: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Córdoba Adaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle is the set of behaviors that an individual practices consciously and voluntarily in the course of his or her life. The assessment of nutritional status by anthropometry can lead to the adoption of preventive measures for health. This is especially important in young people, as many authors have noted that the university population is particularly vulnerable for risky customs and habits. Aim. The purpose of this study is to assess and relate lifestyle with nutritional status of university students. Design. Observational descriptive, cross-sectional. Nutritional status was evaluated and the FANTASTIC questionnaire was applied. Results. 88.1% of students have a healthy lifestyle and 65% were classified as normal according to body mass index. Conclusion. The study found that there is a relationship between lifestyle and nutritional status. On the other hand risk behaviors were identified in the dimensions of nutrition, tobacco smoking, sleep and stress.

  5. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48...... on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm...

  6. Tobacco Usage among Males in Rural Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Annadurai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowing the prevalence of tobacco use and the socio-demographic profile of users might prove useful in further strengthening the information, education, communicationand regulatory activities, thereby by decreasing tobacco use. The objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among rural men aged 18 years and above in rural area of Tamil Nadu.Methods: A cross sectional study was performed among 714 males aged 18 years and above in Vadagarai village of Tamil Nadu during 2010 and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was used to select the participants. Results: Prevalence of smoking was found to be 36.7%. Cigarette smoking was more common than beedi and smokeless tobacco.Conclusion: Strict enforcement of anti-tobacco legislation and awareness measures targeting ill-effects of tobacco can be intensified to reduce tobacco related morbidity and mortality.

  7. Dental health behavior of parents of children using non-fluoride toothpaste: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ota, Junko; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Ando, Yuichi; Aida, Jun; Hirata, Yukio; Arai, Seishiro

    2013-01-01

    ...% or more of schoolchildren. This goal was not achieved. The aim of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to evaluate the characteristics of parents whose children use non-fluoride toothpaste...

  8. Maternal common mental disorders and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in an urban slum area of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahad Mahmud Khan; Meerjady Sabrina Flora

    2017-01-01

    ...) in an urban slum area of Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from September to November 2013 among conveniently selected 264 mothers having under-five children at Kamrangirchar area of Dhaka...

  9. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in seventh day adventist adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beezhold, Bonnie L; Johnston, Carol S; Daigle, Deanna R

    2010-01-01

    .... We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day...

  10. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years...

  11. Medical errors in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study of medical practitioners in Abia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human errors in health-care delivery have always been a challenge since the Hippocratic dictum “First, do no harm.” However, to achieve a complete error-free health care is a goal yet to be achieved by health professionals despite technological advances in patient care. Aim: The study was aimed at describing medical errors in a cross-section of medical practitioners in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on a cross-section of 145 medical practitioners in Abia State, Nigeria. Data collection was done using pretested, self-administered questionnaire that elicit information on types, committal, disclosure, and attitude to medical errors. Lawsuits and psychological disturbances associated with committal of medical errors were also studied. Results: The prevalence of medical errors was 42.8%. The three most common errors committed by the participants were an error of medication prescription (95.2%, error of radio-laboratory investigation ordering (83.9%, and error of physician diagnoses (69.4%. Sixty-two (100% of the participants who committed medical errors had a negative attitude to error disclosure to the patients and their families. Of the 62 participants who committed medical errors, 33.8% were depressed. Among those that committed medical errors, none was involved in a lawsuit for medical errors. Committal of medical errors was associated with years of practice <10 years (P = 0.011. Conclusion: Medical errors occurred among the study participants with the most common error committed being prescription errors. The attitude to error disclosure to the patient was negative. There is a need for the use of safety net and other protocols especially during prescription while avoidable errors should be disclosed, studied, and openly discussed for error mitigation.

  12. Do "Myths" of low back pain exist among Irish population? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Basavaraju, Navya; Jadaan, Dima Y; Devitt, Aiden T; McCabe, John P

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain remains major public health problem in the Western industrialized world. The known prevalence of low back pain in Ireland is approximately 13 %. It is one of the leading causes of sickness compensation and disability pension in our justification. We hypothesized that there is a widespread misconception about the perception of low back pain among the Irish population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the "Myths" of low back pain existed among the Irish population. We carried out a cross-sectional study in the Republic of Ireland from April 2013 to August 2013. The Irish population who visited Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland, was contacted randomly at point of entry to the hospital. During the survey, the authors obtained verbal consent before handing the questionnaire, which contained the Deyo's seven myths. The responders were asked to mark their response in a three-point scale (agree, unsure, disagree) to the seven statements. Out of 500 responders, 59 (11.8 %) people answered none of the questions correctly. Fifty-six (11.2 %) answered one question correctly, 106 (21.2 %) answered two questions correctly, 85 (17 %) people disagreed with three myths, 88 (17.6 %) disagreed with four myths, 55 (11 %) people answered five questions correctly, and 34 (6.8 %) answered six questions correctly. Therefore, only 17 (3.4 %) people disagreed with all the seven myths. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that myths of low back pain widely exist among Irish population studied . The level of education played an important role. The findings from this study suggest that public health information regarding low back pain is inadequate and has not affected attitudes to low back pain in an Irish population.

  13. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatially balanced provision of health equipment: a cross-sectional study oriented to the identification of challenges to access promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Pedro Vasconcelos; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Lein, Adriana; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig

    2017-12-04

    Access to health services is in part defined by the spatial distribution of healthcare equipment. To ensure equity in the provision of health services, it is important to examine availability across different health care providers taking into account population demand. Given the importance of the equitable provision of health equipment, we evaluate its spatial distribution in Brazil. This study is classified as cross-sectional with an ecological design. We evaluate Brazilian data on distance to available health equipment considering: dialysis machines (385), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (257), hospital beds (3675) and bone densitometers (429). We define two distance thresholds (50 km and 200 km) from a municipality to the center of services provision. The balance between infrastructure capacity and potential demand was evaluated to identify a lack or surplus of health services. The distribution of dialysis equipment and bone densitometers is not balanced across Brazilian states, and unmet demand is high. With respect to MRIs, the large capacity of this equipment results in a large excess of supply. However, this characteristic alone cannot account for excesses of supply of over 700%, as is the case of the Federal District when the range is limited to 50 km. At the same time, four states in the Northeastern region of Brazil show a net excess of demand. Some regions do not meet the standard amount of supply defined by Brazilian Ministry of Health. The quantity and distribution of hospital beds are not sufficient to provide full coverage to the population. Our main focus was to evaluate the network of the provision of health equipment in Brazil, considering both private and public sectors conjointly. We take into account two main aspects of a spatially balanced health system: the regional availability of health equipment and the geographic distance between its demand and supply at the municipality level. Some regions do not meet the minimum requirement defined

  15. Início da vida sexual na adolescência e relações de gênero: um estudo transversal em São Paulo, Brasil, 2002 Sexual debut in adolescence and gender relations: a cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo transversal com o objetivo de identificar os diferenciais de gênero presentes no início da vida sexual de adolescentes. Foram entrevistados 406 adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos de idade inscritos em uma unidade de saúde da família da zona leste do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, entre maio e dezembro de 2002. Quase a metade dos adolescentes já havia iniciado sua vida sexual, em média aos 15 anos de idade, fossem homens ou mulheres. O início da vida sexual ocorreu, em grande parte, de forma não planejada (72,7% e dentro de casa (86,1%. O uso de um método contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual foi similar entre homens e mulheres (61,0%, entretanto, foi observado um aumento maior na proporção de uso de algum anticonceptivo entre os homens na última relação sexual. Pelo fato de terem iniciado sua vida sexual em relacionamentos estáveis com vínculos afetivo-amorosos, as mulheres mostraram-se mais vulneráveis às DST/AIDS, pois substituíram o preservativo masculino por outros métodos na última relação sexual, enquanto os homens permaneceram utilizando largamente o condom, provavelmente por estarem inseridos em relacionamentos não estáveis.This cross-sectional study aimed to assess gender differences in adolescents in relation to onset of sexual activity. A total of 406 15-19-year-old adolescents from a family health unit in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were interviewed from May to December 2002. Nearly half had already had their first sexual intercourse, at a mean age of 15, independently of gender. Sexual debut was usually unplanned (72.7% and inside the home (86.1%. An equal proportion (61.0% of males and females used some contraceptive method in their first sexual intercourse; however, more males had used a contraceptive method in their most recent intercourse. Having initiated their sexual activity in stable, affective relationships, females proved to be more vulnerable to STD/ AIDS, since they

  16. Adolescentes e suas relações com serviços de saúde: estudo transversal em escolares de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Adolescents and their relationship to health services: a school-based cross-sectional study in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Barreto Lorena Claro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal, realizado nas escolas de um bairro do Município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, descreve a relação de adolescentes, entre 12 e 17 anos, com os serviços de saúde, através dos indicadores ­ morbidade referida, auto-avaliação do estado de saúde, necessidade de saúde sentida, demanda, utilização, fidelidade aos serviços de saúde e adesão aos cuidados de saúde ­ e sua associação com variáveis sócio-demográficas. O nível sócio-econômico, representado pelo tipo de escola, mostrou-se associado a todos os indicadores. Os alunos das escolas públicas tinham uma chance maior do que os alunos das escolas privadas de avaliarem seu estado de saúde como regular ou ruim e uma chance menor de expressarem necessidade sentida positivamente, demandarem serviços de saúde, obterem acesso aos serviços procurados e manterem-se fiéis aos serviços utilizados. As meninas apresentaram maior chance de auto-avaliarem seu estado de saúde como ruim ou muito ruim e de demandarem serviços de saúde. A adesão, tanto à realização de exames quanto ao tratamento prescrito por médicos, mostrou-se elevada na amostra investigada.This cross-sectional study describes the relationship between adolescents and health services using several indicators (self-reported diseases, self-rated health status, the need and search for health care, health care utilization and fidelity, adherence to medical prescription and their association with socio-demographic variables. The adolescents (aged 12 to 17 years were enrolled in schools from a district in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Type of school, representing the participants' socioeconomic status, was associated with all the indicators. Adolescents in public schools tended to rate their health status as fair or poor. They also showed lower odds of reporting health needs, the search for health care, obtaining access, and remaining faithful to health services. Girls rated

  17. Patterns of electronic cigarette use in current and ever users among college students in France: a cross?sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Vasiliu, Anca; Romo, Lucia; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence; Ladner, Jo?l

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is sparse information on electronic cigarette use and health behaviours among college student populations. Our objectives were to identify the patterns of electronic cigarette use in current and ever users among college students in France. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted on two major campuses in France. Students filled in an anonymous questionnaire on their use of electronic cigarettes and on targeted behaviours such as ...

  18. Inequalities in the spiritual health of young Canadians: a national, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Valerie; Freeman, John; King, Nathan; Ascough, Hannah; Davison, Colleen; Trothen, Tracy; Phillips, Sian; Pickett, William

    2016-11-28

    Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 25,036). Principal components analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the psychometric properties of the spiritual health items and the associated composite scale describing perceived importance of spiritual health. Associations among this composite scale, its individual sub-domains, and key socio-demographic factors were then explored. The principal components analysis best supported a four-factor structure where the eight scale items loaded highly according to the original four domains. This was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses. We then combined the eight items into composite spiritual health score as supported by theory, principal components analysis findings, and acceptable tests of reliability. Further confirmatory factor analysis suggested the need for additional refinements to this scale. Based upon exploratory cross-sectional analyses, strong socio-demographic inequalities were observed in the spiritual health measures by age, gender, relative material wealth

  19. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P Marca G, Solito M, Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698

  20. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88, systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39, diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59, or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. Conclusion These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  1. Multicollinearity may lead to artificial interaction: an example from a cross sectional study of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, P; Weaver, V M; Diener-West, M; Strickland, P T

    1997-06-01

    Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of the extreme situations of collinearity that one variable can substantially increase the multiple correlation when combined with a variable that is only modestly correlated with the response variable. In this study, we describe the process by which we disentangled and discovered multicollinearity and its consequences, namely artificial interaction, using the data from cross-sectional quantification of several biomarkers. We showed how the collinearity between one biomarker (blood lead level) and another (urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) and their interaction (blood lead level* urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) can lead to the observed artificial interaction on the third biomarker (urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid).

  2. Epidemiology of hookworm infection in Itagua, Paraguay: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Labiano-Abello

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in Itagua, Paraguay tested 192 people for the presence, intensity and species of hookworm infection. Fifty-nine percent of these individuals were found to be infected. Intensity of infection was determined on 92% of infected individuals by quantitative egg counts. The high intensity hookworm infections, which cause the greatest morbidity, were clustered between the ages of five and 14 years. No differences were seen between genders. The species of hookworm was determined for parasites reared from 72% of infected individuals. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were identified, although the former species predominated. We conclude that hookworm infection continues to be a public health problem in Paraguay, particularly among children and adolescents who suffer from high intensity infections. A. duodenale continues to persist in the Western Hemisphere and has not been completely displaced by N. americanus.

  3. Palliative therapy in adults with cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Visentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the socioeconomic and clinical profile of adult cancer patients in palliative therapy. Method: Cross-sectional study in an oncology hospital in Paraná, with 124 adult patients who started palliative therapy in the period from Jan. 2 to June 30, 2015. Results: Of the participating population, 60.5% were women, 68.5% white, 48.4% married, 72.6% catholic and with income of one to two minimum wages. Non-smokers, 45.2%, non-alcoholics 75%, and 92% had Performance Status 1 and 2. The predominant primary diagnosis was breast cancer, with previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The sites of metastasis were lung/mediastinum/bronchi and lymph nodes. Conclusion: The socioeconomic and clinical context characterized the profile of adult patients in palliative therapy. The demand arising from the increase in cases of advanced cancer requires nursing care at all stages of treatment.

  4. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, G.; Jeppesen, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls....... An interview and medical examination were performed by one doctor, an ultrasound scan was performed within 3 days of the examination, and the thymus index, a marker of thymus size, was measured. The thymus index was on average 32% higher (95% CI 3%-67%) in children with active atopic dermatitis compared...... with healthy controls. It declined with age in both children with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls, but the reduction in size was only significant for healthy controls. We demonstrate increased size of thymus among children with active atopic dermatitis compared with healthy controls. The larger size...

  5. Hyperuricemia and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Poletto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and associated risk factors among Japanese-Brazilians. We obtained data on demographic, health history, food intake, and laboratory variables. Chi-square and prevalence ratios were used as measures of association. 35.3% of the subjects presented hyperuricemia, which was more frequent in smokers, males, age > 55 years, with co-morbidities, individuals on uric acid-increasing medication, serum creatinine > 1.4mg/dL, high alcohol consumption, and low consumption of milk and dairy products. In the multivariate analysis, the associations remained significant with gender, overweight, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and use of specific drugs. Among males, low intake of saturated fat was associated with hyperuricemia. Individuals with hypertension showed a negative association with dairy product consumption. The high hyperuricemia prevalence suggests that changes in nutritional profile and control of associated co-morbidities could help minimize occurrence of this condition.

  6. Psychosomatic symptoms and stressful working conditions among Palestinian nurses: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Yousef; Nijem, Khaldoun; Lien, Lars; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background: High levels of perceived stressful working conditions have been found to have an adverse effect on physical and mental health. Objectives: To examine the associations between self-reported stressful working conditions and Psychosomatic Symptoms (PSS), and to investigate possible gender differences. Methods: The present cross-sectional study comprises 430 nurses employed in Hebron district, Palestine. Self-reported stressful working conditions were recorded, and a Psychosomatic Symptoms Check list was used to assess prevalence of PSS. Findings: Median score on the psychosomatic symptom checklist for the group was 11, (range 1–21). Women reported more symptoms than men, with medians 11.6 and 10.0, respectively (p = .0001). PSS were associated with more self-reported stressful working conditions for both men (p working conditions, and this association was strongest among the men. PMID:27160155

  7. Studying the capture cross sections of structural elements by measuring neutron balance in multiplying media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, V.N.; Dulin, V.A.; Kazanskij, Yu.A.

    1986-10-01

    To refine neutron capture cross sections for structural elements used in fast power reactors the neutron balance in multiplying media with neutron multiplication factor K/sub infinity/=1 has been studied at KBR and ERMINE critical assemblies. Reactivity of multiplying cells consisting of uranium and structural elements is measured as well as reactivity coefficients of individual structural materials. Corresponding calculations are performed using the versions of group constants applied in designing the fast reactors in the USSR and France. The CARNAVAL 4 constant version predicts well a fraction of neutron absorptions in steel and nickel for the spectra typical for a power reactor (ERMINE assembly). For softer spectra (KBR assembly) the agreement with experiment is better when the BNAB-78 constant version is used.

  8. Causal attribution and illness perception: a cross-sectional study in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment.

  9. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.F.; Jørgensen, L.C.; Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) it is a challenge to identify who should be treated with antibiotics. According to international guidelines, antibiotics should be prescribed to patients with suspected pneumonia while acute bronchitis is considered a viral...... infection and should, generally, not be treated with antibiotics. Overdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients with LRTIs may lead to antibiotic overprescribing. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of presumed pneumonia in patients with LRTI in two countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates (Denmark...... and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2...

  10. Medical Students' Stress, Psychological Morbidity, and Coping Strategies: a Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Tariq, Khaula Fatima; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz; Jawaid, Masood; Haider, Imran Ijaz

    2016-02-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stresses, as well as coping strategies in Pakistani medical students. Medical students in Lahore, Pakistan, completed a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire in 2013 on the sources and severity of various stressors. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Brief COPE assessed the psychological morbidity and coping strategies. Out of 1500 students, 527 responded to the survey. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 23.3%; 52.3% respondents showed evidence of distress. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-12 caseness was associated with being male and occurrence of health-related stressors. The most common stressors were related to academic concerns. Coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness. The significant psychological morbidity and distress warrants establishing support systems to support students and bringing about evidence-based changes to teaching and evaluation systems. Adequate counseling facilities should be made available and students encouraged to seek help.

  11. Central Obesity and Albuminuria: Both Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Chia-Ing; Davidson, Lance E.; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Albuminuria is recognized as a marker of vascular dysfunction. Central obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the association between albuminuria and central obesity in Chinese. We aimed to assess the association between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in a middle-aged population-based cohort study. Methods This is a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study. A total of 2350 subjects aged ≥40 years were recruited in 2004 in Taiwan for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal analysis included 1432 baseline normoalbuminuria subjects with a mean 2.8 years follow-up, 67 of whom exhibited incident albuminuria. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g creatinine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, renal function, glucose, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Results At baseline, albuminuria is significantly associated with central obesity. The adjusted odds ratio of having albuminuria among subjects with central obesity was 1.73(95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.85), compared to the subjects without central obesity. In multivariable models, participants with central obesity at baseline had a 112% increase in risk of incident albuminuria (adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% CI): 2.12(1.01–4.44)) compared with participants with non-central obesity. Conclusions Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with increased prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in Chinese. The mechanisms linking adiposity and albuminuria need to be addressed. PMID:23251329

  12. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  13. Central obesity and albuminuria: both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Lin

    Full Text Available Albuminuria is recognized as a marker of vascular dysfunction. Central obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about the association between albuminuria and central obesity in Chinese. We aimed to assess the association between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in a middle-aged population-based cohort study.This is a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study. A total of 2350 subjects aged ≥ 40 years were recruited in 2004 in Taiwan for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal analysis included 1432 baseline normoalbuminuria subjects with a mean 2.8 years follow-up, 67 of whom exhibited incident albuminuria. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between central obesity and prevalence and incidence of albuminuria after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, renal function, glucose, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking, and physical activity.At baseline, albuminuria is significantly associated with central obesity. The adjusted odds ratio of having albuminuria among subjects with central obesity was 1.73(95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04-2.85, compared to the subjects without central obesity. In multivariable models, participants with central obesity at baseline had a 112% increase in risk of incident albuminuria (adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% CI: 2.12(1.01-4.44 compared with participants with non-central obesity.Abdominal adiposity was independently associated with increased prevalence and incidence of albuminuria in Chinese. The mechanisms linking adiposity and albuminuria need to be addressed.

  14. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  15. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma. Design Community based cross sectional observational study. Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas. Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma. Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma. Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. PMID:28903935

  16. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2017-09-13

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma.Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma.Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. SPECTRUM OF SKULL FRACTURES IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhola Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality in India and around the world. Head injury provides one of the major contributions to death and better practical understanding of intracranial injuries is essential to the forensic expert. The cross sectional CT imaging makes the radiologic contribution to forensic autopsy more valuable and may improve accuracy of forensic investigation. To this reason we retrospectively evaluated the patterns of skull fractures on CT scan imaging of deceased patients. METHODS This cross sectional analysis was conducted in the department of forensic medicine Career institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow over a period of two years 2013-2015. In this study, we reviewed images of all the deceased patients (died in our hospital who underwent CT scanning at index admission for head injury. Demographic details and mode of injury was recorded from available data. Age was presented using mean and standard deviation, gender, mode of injury and type of skull fractures were presented as numbers and percentages. RESULTS Linear skull fractures were 172 out of which RTA due to unknown was 99 followed by fall of unknown reason was 32, RTA fall from two wheeler was 32. The cause of death in all these cases was due to head injury associated with fracture of skull or intracranial hemorrhages or brain injury. CONCLUSION Majority of fatal head injuries are due to road traffic accidents (RTA especially in younger and middle age, followed by fall from height. The common skull fracture type was linear (fissured skull fractures followed by depressed fractures. Retrospective CT evaluated has reinforced reporting medico legal of these cases.

  18. Walkability and cardiometabolic risk factors: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, LM; Rodríguez, DA; Evenson, KR; Hirsch, JA; Moore, KA; Diez Roux, AV

    2016-01-01

    We used data from 3,227 older adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2004–2012) to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between walkability and cardiometabolic risk factors. In cross-sectional analyses, linear regression was used to estimate associations of Street Smart Walk Score® with glucose, triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference, while logistic regression was used to estimate associations with ...

  19. A study on empirical systematic for the (d,n) reaction cross sections at 8.6 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, M. [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Tel, E. [Osmaniye Korkut Ata, Univ., Osmaniye (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2014-12-15

    Recently, many formalizations have been developed to explain some reaction mechanisms such as neutron or proton induced reactions. In this study, (d, n) reaction mechanism was investigated developing the cross-section systematic formula. The (d, n) cross sections at 8.6 MeV deuteron energy have been calculated using these formula for some target nuclei (A = 10 ∝ 123). The cross sections calculated are important for the development of fusion reactor technology. Obtained calculation results from the formula have been also compared and discussed with results calculated by the codes ALICE/ASH (equilibrium and pre-equilibrium theories) and TENDL-2012 (Talys-based), and with results of available experimental values. It is shown, that the suggested empirical equation at the 8.6 MeV deuteron energy works very well for a quick estimation of (d, n) nuclear cross sections.

  20. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    .... Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five...

  1. A study of the ability of the D0 detector to measure the single jet inclusive cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astur, Richard Vincent [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The D0 experiment began accumulating data at the Fermilab Tevatron in May of 1992. Protons are collided with antiprotons at √s = 1.8 TeV and an expected peak luminosity of 5 x 1030 cm-2 sec-1. The D0 detector is an all-purpose detector that will have exceptional jet reconstruction capabilities derived from superior calorimetry and nearly 4π angular coverage. One of the many physics measurements that will be made at D0 is the inclusive jet cross section. Comparison of this cross section with theoretical predictions allows us to test the accuracy of the standard model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This comparison is usually in the form of a measurement of the differential cross section with respect to the transverse energy of the jet. The extended angular coverage of the D0 detector allows measurements of the differential cross section as a function of jet rapidity as well. Recently completed calculations of the next-to-leading-order contribution to the inclusive cross section result in predictions with reduced theoretical errors. In addition, recent fits to data from deep inelastic scattering and single photon experiments further restrict the quark and gluon structure functions of the proton which are necessary in the theoretical predictions of the cross section. It may be that an experimental measurement of the inclusive cross section would favor some of these fits over others. We have studied extensive computer simulations of both the Tevatron and the D0 detector in order to determine D0`s ability to reconstruct the inclusive cross section. We present a discussion of this analysis as presently understood.

  2. ENLIST 1: An International Multi-centre Cross-sectional Study of the Clinical Features of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Walker

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a severe multisystem immune mediated complication of borderline lepromatous leprosy and lepromatous leprosy. ENL is associated with skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis. The treatment of ENL requires immunosuppression, which is often required for prolonged periods of time and may lead to serious adverse effects. ENL and its treatment is associated with increased mortality and economic hardship. Improved, evidence-based treatments for ENL are needed; however, defining the severity of ENL and outcome measures for treatment studies is difficult because of the multiple organ systems involved. A cross-sectional study was performed, by the members of the Erythema Nodosum Leprosum International STudy (ENLIST Group, of patients with ENL attending seven leprosy referral centres in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. We systematically documented the clinical features and type of ENL, its severity and the drugs used to treat it. Patients with chronic ENL were more likely to be assessed as having severe ENL. Pain, the most frequent symptom, assessed using a semi-quantitative scale was significantly worse in individuals with "severe" ENL. Our findings will determine the items to be included in a severity scale of ENL which we are developing and validating. The study also provides data on the clinical features of ENL, which can be incorporated into a definition of ENL and used for outcome measures in treatment studies.

  3. Mediators between education and dental pain: a cross-sectional study to assess the role of dental services utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Helena M; Peres, Marco A; Schroeder, Fernanda C; Bastos, João L

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether the pattern of dental services utilization and the reason for the last dental visit mediate the association between educational attainment and dental pain. This is a cross-sectional analysis (n = 1099) based on data from a prospective cohort study in adults, southern Brazil. The mediating effects were assessed by including interaction terms in logistic regression models and by the KHB method, which estimated the direct, mediated, and total effects of education on dental pain. The prevalence of dental pain was 17.5%. Individuals with less than 12 yr of study who visited the dentist to solve dental problems had a 20% higher odds of reporting dental pain than those with 12 or more years of study, who sought the dentist for preventive reasons. Dental services should also focus on preventive measures, especially if less-educated individuals visit the dentist only to treat problems; this may help reduce the frequency of negative oral health outcomes, including dental pain. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. A cross- sectional

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... National cholesterol education program; adult treatment panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions in Turkish adults. A cross-sectional study was ... and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Kirkendoll et al., 2010;. WHO Consultation, 1999). ..... and level of physical activity contribute significantly to the frequency of MetS, other ...

  5. Engagement in physical education classes and health among young people: does sports practice matter? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli

    2017-01-01

    Physical education classes aim to promote health but it is unknown whether benefits occur independently of sports practice. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between engagement in physical education classes and physical fitness and obesity according to sports practice among Brazilian students. Cross-sectional school-based study involving 737 students aged 10-17 years in southern Brazil. Engagement in physical education classes and sports practice were analyzed using a self-report questionnaire. The health indicators analyzed were cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, obesity and combinations thereof. The covariates were sex, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for confounding variables were estimated using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified according to sports practice. Engagement in physical education classes was associated with achievement of health-related criteria for cardiorespiratory fitness (PR = 1.52), muscle strength (PR = 1.55), obesity + cardiorespiratory fitness (PR = 1.51), obesity + muscle strength (PR = 1.70), cardiorespiratory fitness + muscle strength (PR = 2.60) and the three outcomes combined (PR = 2.43), only among non-sports practitioners, all P education classes was not associated with obesity (PR = 1.00, P > 0.05). No associations were found for sports practitioners (P > 0.05). Engagement in physical education classes was associated with health among non-sports practitioners. However, to protect students from obesity and promote additional health benefits for sports practitioners, the conventional physical education program offered to the sample studied should be reformulated.

  6. Does malocclusion influence the adolescent's satisfaction with appearance? A cross-sectional study nested in a Brazilian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Barros, Aluísio J D; Anselmi, Luciana; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-04-01

    To test whether malocclusion had an impact on adolescents' appearance satisfaction regardless of other physical aspects. A cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil. A random sample of 900 15-year-old adolescents was selected. WHO criteria were used to define malocclusion and a questionnaire was administered including self-reported skin colour and appearance satisfaction. Dental caries were assessed. Height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Data concerning gender and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained from the cohort's perinatal study. Adjusted analyses including all confounding variables investigated were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance in order to identify the potential risk factors for appearance dissatisfaction. All analyses were carried out separately by gender. The sample included 867 individuals, 54.1% men. The prevalence of moderate or severe malocclusion was 30.6% (95% CI: 26.5-34.7) among boys, and 32.8% (95% CI: 28.2-37.4) among girls (P = 0.524). Dissatisfaction with appearance was reported by 29.8% of the boys and by 46.5% of the girls (P appearance dissatisfaction, controlling for other physical, dental caries and socioeconomic characteristics was observed only in girls [prevalence ratio = 1.4 (1.3-1.7)]. Malocclusion is a common condition and is positively associated with appearance dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. The effect of different types of malocclusion on appearance dissatisfaction should be the focus of further investigation.

  7. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  8. Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study

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    Costa Patrício

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasized in international recommendations for medical education. Paradoxically, some studies in the North-American context using self-reported measures have found that empathy declines during undergraduate medical training. Empathy is also known to be gender dependent- (highest for female medical students and related to specialty preference - (higher in patient-oriented than technology-oriented specialties. This factor has not been studied in Portuguese medical schools. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students on self-rated measures of empathy collected at entrance and at the conclusion of the medical degree, and on the association of empathy measures with gender and specialty preferences in one medical school in Portugal. Empathy was assessed using the Portuguese adaptation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-students version (JSPE-spv among three cohorts of undergraduate medical students in the first (N = 356 and last (N = 120 year. The construct validity of JSPE-spv was cross-validated with Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach' Alpha. Global JSPE-spv score differences were examined by year of medical school, gender and specialty preferences (people-oriented vs technology-oriented specialties. Results The empathy scores of students in the final year were higher as compared to first year students (F (1,387 = 19.33, p 2p = 0.48; π = 0.99. Female students had higher empathy scores than male students (F (1,387 = 8.82, p 2p = 0.23; π = 0.84. Significant differences in empathy were not found between the students who prefer people-oriented specialties compared to those who favor the technology-oriented specialties (F (1,387 = 2.44, p = .12, ɳ 2p = 0.06; π = 0.06. Conclusions This cross-sectional study in one medical school

  9. Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasized in international recommendations for medical education. Paradoxically, some studies in the North-American context using self-reported measures have found that empathy declines during undergraduate medical training. Empathy is also known to be gender dependent- (highest for female medical students) and related to specialty preference - (higher in patient-oriented than technology-oriented specialties). This factor has not been studied in Portuguese medical schools. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students on self-rated measures of empathy collected at entrance and at the conclusion of the medical degree, and on the association of empathy measures with gender and specialty preferences in one medical school in Portugal. Empathy was assessed using the Portuguese adaptation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-students version (JSPE-spv) among three cohorts of undergraduate medical students in the first (N = 356) and last (N = 120) year. The construct validity of JSPE-spv was cross-validated with Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach' Alpha. Global JSPE-spv score differences were examined by year of medical school, gender and specialty preferences (people-oriented vs technology-oriented specialties). Results The empathy scores of students in the final year were higher as compared to first year students (F (1,387) = 19.33, p empathy scores than male students (F (1,387) = 8.82, p empathy were not found between the students who prefer people-oriented specialties compared to those who favor the technology-oriented specialties (F (1,387) = 2.44, p = .12, ɳ 2p = 0.06; π = 0.06). Conclusions This cross-sectional study in one medical school in Portugal showed that the empathy measures of senior year students were higher than the scores of freshmen. A

  10. Dental Fear Survey: A Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Brazilian Portuguese Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Antônio Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS, previously translated to the Brazilian Portuguese language and validated. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 1,256 undergraduates from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was carried out. The DFS and a questionnaire about previous dental experiences were self-administered. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, principal components analysis (PCA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Results. PCA identified a three-factor structure. CFA confirmed the multidimensionality of the Brazilian version of the DFS. A modified model of the Brazilian version of the DFS fits better than the hypothesized model. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total DFS scale was 0.95. Conclusion. The DFS demonstrated acceptable construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. These results supported the reliability and validity of the DFS among Brazilian undergraduates.

  11. The influence of depressive symptoms and substance use on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A cross-sectional prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Siqueira Tufano

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART is not a stable condition, but is dynamic, like mental conditions. The aim of this study was to examine whether non-adherence to ART is related to demographic and immunological variables, substance use and presence of depressive symptoms.DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a cross-sectional prevalence study carried out at a public AIDS treatment center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between July 2006 and January 2007.METHODS:438 patients on regular ART schedules with recent laboratory tests answered a demographic questionnaire, questions about substance use, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ.RESULTS:The prevalence of non-adherence over the past three months (a pattern of treatment interruption was 46.3%, and 27.2% also reported this in the past week (a pattern of missed doses. ART interruption was significantly related to older age, lower CD4+ cell count and homosexual/bisexual transmission. The pattern of missed doses was significantly related to younger age, higher HDRS scores and higher viral load of RNA HIV.CONCLUSION:ART interruption may reflect recall errors and changes to the Brazilian demographic characteristics of HIV infection. The missed doses may reflect lifestyle characteristics of younger individuals. Attendance for HIV-positive individuals, particularly younger patients, should involve interventions and counseling in relation to the presence of depressive symptoms.

  12. Social support network, mental health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Correia, Celina Ragoni; Gonçalves, Daniel Almeida; Ballester, Dinarte; Tófoli, Luis Fernando; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Gask, Linda; Dowrick, Christopher; Bower, Peter; Fortes, Sandra

    2016-12-22

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between emotional distress and social support networks with quality of life in primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,466 patients in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument were used. The Social Support Network Index classified patients with the highest and lowest index as socially integrated or isolated. A bivariate analysis and four multiple linear regressions were conducted for each quality of life outcome. The means scores for the physical, psychological, social relations, and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. In the multivariate analysis, the psychological domain was negatively associated with isolation, whereas the social relations and environment domains were positively associated with integration. Integration and isolation proved to be important factors for those in emotional distress as they minimize or maximize negative effects on quality of life.

  13. Prevalence of depression in mothers of intellectually disabled children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Chandravanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a permanent and highly disabling condition. The birth of a disabled child induces complex feelings in mother and other family members. This study was planned to investigate phenomenology of ID and the prevalence of depression in their mothers. Objective: To find prevalence, influence of various sociodemographic variables, and its clinical correlation with depression in mothers of ID children. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as ID were included in the study. Objective data were collected in a special Pro forma, and mothers of these patients were evaluated with the Beck's Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory. Results: The mean age of patients with ID was 11.52 years, had received an average of 3.01 years of schooling, mean age at diagnosis was 6.01 years, mean intelligence quotient was 45.17, and 79% had significant comorbidities. The prevalence of depression in mothers was 79%; it was more in mothers of female ID child, ID child with significant comorbidities, severer forms of retardation, and with higher levels of anxiety in the mother. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in mothers of ID children in the present study seems to be much greater than those reported from the previous studies. The determination of predictors of depression among mothers of ID children may help health professionals in identifying mothers at risk. Regular screening of mothers of ID children should be included in the protocol for management.

  14. Comparison of Dermatoglyphic Pattern among Cleft and Noncleft Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Mayall, Sandeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kaur, Harsimran; Manuja, Naveen; Ravishankar, Telegi; A Sinha, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Oral clefts are among the common congenital birth defects with a broad phenotypic gamut. Since the epidermal ridges of the fingers and palms as well as the facial structures like lip, alveolus, and palate are formed from the same embryonic tissues during the same embryonic period, the genetic and environmental factors responsible for causing cleft lip and palate might also affect dermatoglyphic patterns. Thus, study was undertaken to compare the dermato-glyphic pattern of children with orofacial clefts and normal children and to determine the correlation of dermatoglyphics with orofacial clefts. Total study sample consisted of 120 children in the age group of 3 to 16 years being divided into study and control groups. Dermatoglyphic data obtained from both control and study groups were then subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically no significant difference was found in the dermatoglyphic pattern and atd angle for both the groups. It was observed that dermatoglyphics in orofacial clefts may not be distinctive. Further, large-scale studies are recommended to confirm the same. Mayall SS, Chaudhary S, Kaur H, Manuja N, Ravishankar T, Sinha AA. Comparison of Derma-toglyphic Pattern among Cleft and Noncleft Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):245-249.

  15. Burnout syndrome in surgical oncology and general surgery nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Ilona; Stefaniak, Tomasz J; Stadnyk, Magdalena; Książek, Janina

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome is strongly associated with and modulated by multiple personality and environmental factors. In Poland, nurses experience a discrepancy between the demands, expectations and social status of the position of their profession and low salaries. Such a situation provokes frustration and depression, and further leads to problems of adaptation including burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout syndrome among nurses working in general surgery and surgical oncology specialties. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It was undertaken in the largest Hospital in the Pomeranian region of Poland. The participants included 60 nurses working in two departments: General Surgery and Surgical Oncology. The study was based upon an anonymous self-test composed of a questionnaire and three psychological measures: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Psychological Burden Scale and a self-constructed questionnaire on job satisfaction. Intensity of burnout syndrome was significantly higher among oncology nurses than among surgical ones. There was also a strong but not significant trend towards higher Psychological Burden Scale in the group of oncology nurses. The study revealed a high degree of emotional burden and burnout in nurses working in the study hospital suggesting that nurses are at great occupational risk. The findings of the study provide evidence of the potential need to restructure the system and suggest that nurses need more control of their work including a higher degree of involvement in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health related quality of life among adolescents with premenstrual disorders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delara Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premenstrual disorders usually refer to premenstrual syndrome (PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD. This study was designed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL in a sample of Iranian adolescents with premenstrual disorders. Methods This was a cross sectional study. A sample of adolescent schoolgirls aged between 14 and 19 years were included in the study. Premenstrual disorders were indicated according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion and were compared among subgroups of the study sample. Results In all 602 female students were studied. All students reported at least one premenstrual symptom. Of these, 224 (37.2% met the diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD. Comparing the SF-36 scores between female students with and without PMDD, it was found that there were significant differences between these two groups in all measures (P Conclusion The study findings affirm the fact that adolescents with premenstrual disorders suffer from poor health-related quality of life. In order to improve quality of life in female adolescents appropriate support should be provided for this population especially for those who suffer from more severe premenstrual disorders.

  17. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebo, Paul; Jackson, Yves; Haller, Dagmar M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2011-06-01

    Undocumented migrants face major barriers in accessing prevention and health care. Whereas the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health is well documented only few studies have addressed specific health issues in undocumented migrants. The aim of the present study is to describe sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva. This descriptive cross sectional study included consecutive undocumented migrants presenting from November 2007 to February 2008 to a health facility offering free access to health care to this population. Following informed consent, they completed a self administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic profile and sexual and reproductive health behaviors. A total of 384 patients were eligible for the study. 313 (82%) agreed to participate of which 77% (241 patients) completed the survey. Participants were mainly young, Latino-American, single, well-educated and currently working women. They had multiple partners and reported frequently engaging in sexual intercourse. Use of contraceptive methods and strategies of prevention against sexually transmitted infections (STI) were rare. Nearly half of the women had had at least one induced abortion and 40% had had an unplanned pregnancy. One in four participants reported a current or past STI or other genital infection. The results of our study suggest that undocumented migrants engage in frequent and high risk sexual intercourse with insufficient use of contraceptive methods and suboptimal strategies of prevention against STI. Our study underlines the real need for specific sexual and reproductive educational programs targeting this hard to reach population.

  18. Erectile dysfunction in methadone maintenance patients: a cross sectional study in northern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction affects quality of life and is a common dysfunction in drug abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of erectile dysfunction in drug abusers on methadone maintenance therapy to reduce this drug side effect in the future studies.This cross-sectional study was conducted with two hundred addicted individuals on methadone maintenance therapy. Erectile dysfunction was surveyed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF. Finally, all data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics such as measures of variability and central tendency and Chi-squared (χ(2 test using SPSS Version18.0 software.The amount of the total frequency of erectile dysfunction was pointed 30 or less among the two hundred patients and included the moderate and severe cases. In this study, the number of patients with erectile dysfunction was fifty three (26.5%.The frequency of erectile dysfunction in our study was approximately 1.5 times of prevalence of the public (16.1%. In this study, all the factors related to sexual function such as erectile function, libido, orgasm, and sexual pleasure showed a decline among drug abusers.

  19. Relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular risk factors among young and middle-aged Brazilians. Cross-sectional study

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    Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested in the literature that periodontal disease (PD is associated with cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to appraise the relationship between periodontal disease (gingivitis and periodontitis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome among young and middle-aged adults attended at a health promotion and check-up center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Health Promotion and Check-up Center of Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We consecutively evaluated 539 subjects without prior cardiovascular disease who were seen within a health promotion program that included cardiovascular and dental evaluation between February and November 2012. Odds ratios (OR with respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the association between PD and cardiovascular risk factors were ascertained through multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: In this sample of mean age 45 years (standard deviation, SD ± 8.8, which was 82% male, we found PD in 63.2% (gingivitis 50.6% and periodontitis 12.6%. Individuals with PD were older, more obese (without PD 15.2%; versus gingivitis 22.1% and periodontitis 32.4% and more diabetic (without PD 5.1%; versus gingivitis 4.8% and periodontitis 13.2%, compared with those without PD. Among all cardiovascular risk factors evaluated, obesity was associated with periodontitis (multivariate OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.23-4.52. However, after additional adjustment for oral hygiene, this finding was no longer significant (multivariate OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.79-3.37. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any significant associations between cardiovascular risk factors and periodontal disease in this sample.

  20. A cross-sectional study of the temporal evolution of electricity consumption of six commercial buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan M Pickering

    Full Text Available Current approaches to building efficiency diagnoses include conventional energy audit techniques that can be expensive and time consuming. In contrast, virtual energy audits of readily available 15-minute-interval building electricity consumption are being explored to provide quick, inexpensive, and useful insights into building operation characteristics. A cross sectional analysis of six buildings in two different climate zones provides methods for data cleaning, population-based building comparisons, and relationships (correlations of weather and electricity consumption. Data cleaning methods have been developed to categorize and appropriately filter or correct anomalous data including outliers, missing data, and erroneous values (resulting in < 0.5% anomalies. The utility of a cross-sectional analysis of a sample set of building's electricity consumption is found through comparisons of baseload, daily consumption variance, and energy use intensity. Correlations of weather and electricity consumption 15-minute interval datasets show important relationships for the heating and cooling seasons using computed correlations of a Time-Specific-Averaged-Ordered Variable (exterior temperature and corresponding averaged variables (electricity consumption(TSAOV method. The TSAOV method is unique as it introduces time of day as a third variable while also minimizing randomness in both correlated variables through averaging. This study found that many of the pair-wise linear correlation analyses lacked strong relationships, prompting the development of the new TSAOV method to uncover the causal relationship between electricity and weather. We conclude that a combination of varied HVAC system operations, building thermal mass, plug load use, and building set point temperatures are likely responsible for the poor correlations in the prior studies, while the correlation of time-specific-averaged-ordered temperature and corresponding averaged variables method

  1. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  2. Counselling practices in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah O

    2015-12-15

    Community pharmacists play a crucial role in optimising medication use and improving patient outcomes, whilst preventing medication misuse and reducing costs. Evidence suggests that pharmacists counselling improves clinical outcomes, quality of life, drug and disease knowledge and reduces health service utilisation. This study aims to investigate the counselling practices of community pharmacists in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of two parts: simulated patients (SPs) visits to observe actual counselling practices, and a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists to assess their reported counselling practices. In the SPs method, there were four scenarios involving four medications. Scenarios 1 and 2 concerned drug-drug interactions, scenario 3 concerned the proper time of administration, and scenario 4 concerned side effects. The simulated visits were conducted between April and May 2012. A four-sections questionnaire was distributed in the same period. We conducted 161 simulated visits. Out of the 161 visits a medicine was dispensed in 150 visits. When SPs requested medications, pharmacists asked questions during 15 visits (10.0%), provided information during 7 visits (4.6%), and both asked questions and provided information, i.e. provided counselling, during 4 visits (2.6%). When the SPs started to be inquisitive and demanded information, pharmacists asked SPs questions during 71 visits (47.3%), provided information during 150 visits (100%), and both asked questions and provided information, i.e. provided counselling, during 65 visits (43.3%). Information regarding dose was the most common type of information provided in 146 visits (97.3%). After the SPs started to be inquisitive and probed for information, only 10% were counselled on precautions. In the cross-sectional survey, four hundred pharmacists were approached and 350 agreed to participate in the questionnaire (87% response rate). Of the respondents, 223 (63.7%) reported

  3. Major depressive episode among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Tiago N; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2013-09-05

    Despite the fact that there is extensive scientific research on depression very few population-based studies have been conducted in Brazilian cities. A sampling design of two-stage conglomerates with probability proportional to size. All adults aged 20 or more living in the selected households were invited to participate in the study. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with a cutoff ≥9. The study sample comprised 2925 respondents. The prevalence of depression in the sample studied was 20.4% (95% CI 18.9;21.8). After adjustment for confounding factors according to a conceptual analysis model the following variables were associated with a higher prevalence of depression: female gender; younger age; white skin color; lower socioeconomic condition; lower education; smoking; being single or separated; being unemployed; and reporting a heart condition. Alcohol use, arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not found to be associated with depression. The difference in the proportion of males among losses and refusals compared to that in the sample analyzed. Another limitation is reverse causality bias that is a problem inherent to cross-sectional studies. Our findings support the relevance of depression as a prevalent condition among adults. It also provided evidence of the factors associated with depression, and that some are potentially modifiable risk factors may have implications for policy and health service planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

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    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  5. Choosing Public Health Dentistry as a Career: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Prasad, Ghanasyam M.; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Babburi, Suresh; KVNR, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included dental students from different years of study. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on five point Likert scale. Results: A total of 293 of the 320 registered undergraduate students participated in the study, with an overall response rate of 91.5%. Among the sample, 80 (27%) were males and 213 (73%) were females. Among the total sample which was studied, it was observed that only one third (35.4%) of them had high attitude towards selecting Public Health Dentistry as a future career, and nearly two thirds of them (58.02%) had an average attitude, with very few students having low attitude (6.48%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was an average attitude of 58% among dental students, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing post graduation in this speciality. Efforts should be intensified, both by dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this speciality, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates towards it. This also helps in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, which does not exist in India. PMID:24701534

  6. The Profile of Saudi Nursing Workforce: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mohammad Alboliteeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.

  7. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti; Nogueira, Paula Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions. Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university. The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC) and non-stuttering children (NSC), with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering. There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses. The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  8. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

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    Takele Tadesse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001 spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  9. Examining the quality of childhood tuberculosis diagnosis in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Frieze, Julia B; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Sokhan, Khann; Ngak, Song; Khim, Team Bak

    2017-03-06

    Cambodia is one of the 22 countries with the highest TB burden. While childhood TB is estimated to make up 10-20% of total TB cases in high-burden settings, this proportion ranges from 1.3 to 39.4% throughout Cambodia's provinces, suggesting potential under- and over-diagnosis of childhood TB, subnationally. The proportion of case notifications classified as extrapulmonary TB out of total TB case notifications in children is 87%, greatly exceeding the expected global range of 20-30%. There is a gap in the literature on how childhood TB is diagnosed in resource-poor settings, and the quality of diagnoses. The study's aim is to quantitatively assess the quality of clinician performance and availability of diagnostic tools, for diagnosing childhood TB in high-burden Operational Districts in Cambodia. Between August and September of 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted at referral hospitals and villages in 24 high-burden Operational Districts. 40 clinicians, and 104 parents whose child was recently diagnosed with TB were interviewed. Questionnaires assessed availability of diagnostic tools, and clinician knowledge and practice during a clinical examination. Descriptive statistics were calculated to provide cross-sectional data. Availability of advanced diagnostic tools was low. Only 27.5% of clinicians had Xpert machines available at their facility, and 5% had equipment to perform gastric aspiration. 77.5% of clinicians reported that they had a chest X-ray at their facility, but only 34.6% of parents reported that the clinician conducted a chest X-ray. 72.5% of clinicians could name 5 out of 7 main TB screening criteria; however, parent data suggests that clinicians may not be applying knowledge to practice. The mean number of examinations/tests the clinician conducted during the clinical assessment of the child was 1.64. Of the parents whose child had an enlarged lymph node, 60.22% described lymph node characteristics that were not suggestive of TB. Limited

  10. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  11. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Meilin Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1 a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2 an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3 a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.87–5.30. The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  12. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

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    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  14. Interest in nursing among academic degree holders in Israel: A cross-sectional quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav

    2016-03-01

    The shortage of nurses is a global problem. One strategy for producing more registered nurses worldwide and in Israel in particular is to offer graduate entry nursing programs for individuals with non-nursing academic degrees. In order to recruit academic degree holders into the nursing profession, it is important to identify factors that might attract them. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the perception of nurse characteristics by academic degree holders is associated with their interest in enrolling in a graduate entry nursing program or in recommending this program to a family member, and whether ethnic background, gender and interaction with a nurse have an effect on this interest. A cross-sectional quantitative study. The setting of the study was on the campus of Tel Aviv University. A convenience sample of 522 individuals with an academic education, men and women, aged 18-60 and equally distributed between Jewish and Arab Israelis, took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire based on the Porter Nursing Image Scale. A moderate positive correlation was found between perception of nurses and interest in nursing (r=0.32, pacademic education. Recruitment strategies should be tailored to each of this population's subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Disruptive behavior in Down syndrome children: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Sohier; El-Hadidy, Mohamed; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Amdel-Hady, Dina; Wahba, Yahya; Al-Haggar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with intellectual disability, and patients with DS show significant psychopathology. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of disruptive behavior in DS patients compared to their siblings, and to find any association between the disruptive behavior and the degree of intelligence. This is a cross-sectional comparative study done in Mansoura University Children's Hospital during the period March 1, 2012-February 28, 2013. In this study, 100 cases of DS and an equal number of their brothers/sisters were enrolled in the study. The Arabic version of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used for assessing social and mental intelligence quotient (IQ). The Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (MINI-KID) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) rating scale were used for assessing disruptive behavior disorders. Both social and mental IQs were significantly higher in non-DS than in DS cases. The prevalence of different variants of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-impulsive, inattentive, and combined types-was significantly lower in non-DS than in DS cases; however, there was no statistical difference between both groups as regards oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (CD). Also among DS cases, impulsive and combined types varied significantly with the degree of their IQ. ADHD was more common among DS patients with a special impact of IQ on the type of psychiatric illness. We recommend psychiatric assessment for DS patients as a part of multidisciplinary management.

  16. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students

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    Japhereena Murugavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. Aim: The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Results: Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Conclusion: Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  17. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugavel, Japhereena; Chellaiyan, Vinoth Gnana; Krishnamoorthy, Dhivyatharani

    2017-01-01

    Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  18. Insomnia in nursing students and related factors: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Zeynep; Arslantaş, Hülya

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors affecting insomnia in nursing students. This study was conducted with 379 nursing students, studying at a university in western Anatolia/Turkey between 2014 and 2015 as a descriptive and cross-sectional analytic study. Data of the survey were collected using the Personal Inquiry Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory, and a self-administered questionnaire. The Insomnia Severity Index score for the students is 11.51 ± 5.04 on average. It was found that as anxiety and depression increased, the Insomnia Severity Index score for the students also increased and there was a weak positive correlation. Also, a moderate positive correlation between sleep quality and insomnia severity was found. Significant correlations were found between some of the socio-demographic characteristics (lower socio-economic situation, irregular bedtime, and smoking) and insomnia, sleep quality, anxiety, and depression. Anxiety, depression, irregular bedtime, and lower socio-economic situation are factors that make falling asleep difficult. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, A A; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, from June 2012 to January 2013. The study population comprised of junior doctors (house physicians and house surgeons). A consecutive sample of 350 physicians was drawn from the above-mentioned study setting. The subject underwent two validated self-administered questionnaires, that is, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A total of 334 physicians completely filled out the questionnaire with a response rate of 95.4% (334/350). Of 334 physicians, 36.8% (123/334) were classified as "poor sleepers" (global PSQI score > 5). Poor sleep quality was associated with female gender (P = 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (P sleep time (P sleep onset latency (P sleep disturbances (P 10) were more prevalent among poor sleepers (P Sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians is significantly poor. Efforts must be directed towards proper sleep hygiene education. Regulations regarding duty hour limitations need to be considered.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Iranian Internists Regarding Diabetes: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroomand, Mahtab; Ghasemi, Seyedeh Najmeh; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies investigated the general practitioners' and family physicians' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on diabetes. However, studies on internists' KAP on diabetes management are limited. This study aimed to investigate the Iranian internists' KAP on diabetes mellitus and its management. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of internists who participated in the 26th annual congress of internists in Tehran, Iran. The level of KAP and affecting factor was evaluated by a validated instrument. One-hundred internists with the mean age of 41.98±9.26 years were evaluated. Totally, the physicians possessed 66.29%±19.5%, 50.44%±19.39%, and 64.5%±15.3% of the scores in KAP, respectively. The time since graduation in general medicine had significant negative correlation with their knowledge and practice, that was along with the subjects' age (P0.05). Attitude, and practice scores were significantly higher in physicians who were working at diabetes clinic (Pattitude was more in physicians working at teaching hospitals compared to those who were not working (57.82 vs. 47.72, P=0.020). According to our results, subjects' age and time since graduation in general medicine and specialty were inversely correlated by knowledge and practice. So internists with older age seems to be in priority for educational programs. And holding CME programs in current forms seems to be not suitable to increase the KAP regarding diabetes.

  1. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Charles Kwame R. Gyamfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44% of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA and severely (71–90 dBA impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84. Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  2. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Yohannes Gebreegziabhere Haile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study (p value = 0.01, worshiping frequency (p value = 0.048, marital status (p value = 0.03, and common mental disorder (p value < 0.001 were identified associated factors of insomnia. There was no significant association between insomnia and academic performance (p value = 0.53, β = −0.04. Insomnia explained 1.2% (r2 = 0.012 of the difference in academic performance between students. Conclusions. Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students.

  3. Epidemiology of Cerebellar Ataxia on the Etiological Basis: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Simindokht Hosseini Seyede

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias are a heterogenous group of disorders, clinically and etiologically, that result in considerable health burden. Finding out about the various etiologies, and their relative prevalences in the population suffering from cerebellar ataxia helps the clinician to perform a better management, in treatment process. This is a cross sectional study designed to estimate the relative prevalence of each etiologic factor. One-hundred and thirty-five patients ,in the range of 6 to 73 years from march 1993 to march1999, were classified in different groups on the basis of etiological findings. Relative prevalence of each of the etiological factors , common accompanying disorders besides ataxia in the patients,CT and MRI changes,and CSF alterations are studied and recorded. A widely spread age group, and the extended number of the cases under study, are the advantages of the current study over the previously reported case series. Among the etiologic groups, multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular accidents and hereditary cerebellar ataxia, were the most common etiologic factors associated with cerebellar ataxia respectively.

  4. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region.

  5. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  6. Psoriatic Arthritis and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiher, Jacob; Freud, Tamar; Cohen, Arnon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Diabetes has been associated with psoriasis, but little is known about the association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Methods. Patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis by a rheumatologist were compared to age- and sex-matched patients without psoriatic arthritis regarding the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study using logistic multivariate models. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Results. The study included 549 patients with psoriatic arthritis ≥21 years and 1,098 patients without psoriatic arthritis. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with psoriatic arthritis was increased as compared to the prevalence in patients without psoriatic arthritis (15.3% versus 10.7%, P value = 0.008). The difference was prominent among females (18.7% versus 10.3%, P < 0.001) but not among males (11.2% in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis, P = 1.000). In a multivariate analysis, psoriatic arthritis was associated with diabetes among females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02–2.52, P = 0.040) but not among males (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42–1.22, P = 0.213). Conclusion. Our study suggests a possible association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes in women. Women with psoriatic arthritis might be candidates for diabetes screening. PMID:23843781

  7. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseh, Ladan; Rafiei, Hossein; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have an important role in caring for terminally ill patients. They are often confronted with euthanasia but little is known about their attitudes towards it. The present study aimed to examine Iranian Muslim nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, all qualified registered nurses working in two teaching hospitals (Kashani and Hajar hospitals) in Iran were invited to participate. The Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) was used to assess the nurses' attitude towards euthanasia. Of 266 nurses who fit the criteria, 190 participated in the study (response rate 72.9%); 91.1% (n=173) were female and 8.9% (n=17) were male. In total, 57.4%, 3.2% and 39.5% of nurses reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia respectively. Nurses reported their most negative attitude to the domain 'practical consideration' with mean of 2.36±0.9 and most positive attitude to the domain 'treasuring life' with a mean EAS score of 2.85±0.4. The majority of Muslim nurses were found to have negative attitudes to euthanasia. We recommend that future studies should be conducted to examine Muslim nurses' attitudes to euthanasia in different cultures to determine the role of culture and religious beliefs in attitude to euthanasia.

  8. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  9. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Ali

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major health problems in prisons.This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons.A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect.765 (4.9% TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67% and 20 (2.8% new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000. Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa.The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  10. Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Arebu I. Bilal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%, shampoos and conditioners (35%, and deodorants and perfumes (29%. Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44% of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area.

  11. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  12. Occupational musculoskeletal pain in cardiac sonographers compared to peer employees: a multisite cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Nicholas M; Geske, Jeffrey B; Pislaru, Sorin V; Askew, John Wells; Lennon, Ryan J; Lewis, Bradley R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Pellikka, Patricia A; Singh, Mandeep

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence and impact of work-related musculoskeletal pain in cardiac sonographers to a large control group of peer employees with similar demographics. Cardiac sonographers are known to have high levels of occupational musculoskeletal pain. Comparative studies with other employees within cardiology/radiology departments have never been performed. An electronic survey was administered to Mayo Clinic employees at six major patient care facilities in four different states. There were 2682 employees within the departments of cardiology and radiology who were contacted, and 1532 (57%) completed the survey. After excluding those who wore protective lead aprons, 517 employees comprised the control group and 66 cardiac sonographers made up the study group. Cardiac sonographers reported work-related musculoskeletal pain more frequently than the control group (88% vs 40%; Pnurses, technicians, and physicians working in the interventional laboratory who regularly wear a protective lead apron (P<.001). In this multisite cross-sectional study, cardiac sonographers experienced significantly more work-related pain and missed more work due to pain than peer employees within cardiology/radiology departments. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

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    Ahmed A. Al-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  14. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A; Addar, Abdullah M; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A; Al-Omair, Abdullah A; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I; Al-Nowaiser, Hussam I; Al-Kathiri, Omar A; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  15. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere; Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show that 9.4% to 38.2% of university students are suffering from insomnia. However, research data in developing countries is limited. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess insomnia and its temporal association with academic performance. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 388 students at Debre Berhan University. Data were collected at the nine colleges. Logistic and linear regression analysis was performed for modeling insomnia and academic performance with a p value threshold of 0.05, respectively. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of insomnia was 61.6%. Field of study (p value = 0.01), worshiping frequency (p value = 0.048), marital status (p value = 0.03), and common mental disorder (p value academic performance (p value = 0.53, β = -0.04). Insomnia explained 1.2% (r(2) = 0.012) of the difference in academic performance between students. Nearly 3 out of 5 students had insomnia. We recommended that universities would endorse sleep quality and mental health illness screening programs for students.

  17. Oral and salivary changes among renal patients undergoing hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

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    A Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to assess oral and salivary changes in end stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD and to understand the correlation of such changes with renal insufficiency. The cross-sectional study was performed among 100 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Among these, 25 patients were randomly selected to assess the salivary changes and compared with 25 apparently healthy individuals who formed the control group. Total duration of the study was 15 months. Oral malodor, dry mouth, taste change, increased caries incidence, calculus formation, and gingival bleeding were the common oral manifestations. The flow rates of both unstimulated as well as stimulated whole saliva were decreased in the study group. The pH and buffer capacity of unstimulated whole saliva was increased in the study group, but stimulated whole saliva did not show any difference. ESRD patients undergoing HD require special considerations during dental treatment because of the various conditions inherent to the disease, their multiple oral manifestations and the treatment side-effects.

  18. Oral and salivary changes among renal patients undergoing hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, A.; Reddy, S. S.; Umesh, L.; Devi, B. K. Y.; Santana, N.; Rakesh, N.

    2013-01-01

    We wanted to assess oral and salivary changes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and to understand the correlation of such changes with renal insufficiency. The cross-sectional study was performed among 100 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Among these, 25 patients were randomly selected to assess the salivary changes and compared with 25 apparently healthy individuals who formed the control group. Total duration of the study was 15 months. Oral malodor, dry mouth, taste change, increased caries incidence, calculus formation, and gingival bleeding were the common oral manifestations. The flow rates of both unstimulated as well as stimulated whole saliva were decreased in the study group. The pH and buffer capacity of unstimulated whole saliva was increased in the study group, but stimulated whole saliva did not show any difference. ESRD patients undergoing HD require special considerations during dental treatment because of the various conditions inherent to the disease, their multiple oral manifestations and the treatment side-effects. PMID:23716919

  19. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

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    Vanagas, Giedrius; Bihari-Axelsson, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197). Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p stress. Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's. PMID:15946388

  1. Association of premature hair graying with family history, smoking, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Ryu, Hyeong Ho; Yoon, Junghee; Jo, Seongmoon; Jang, Sihyeok; Choi, Mira; Kwon, Ohsang; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have been concerned about the association of hair graying with systemic diseases. However, the common factors associated with hair graying and systemic diseases have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for premature hair graying (PHG) in young men. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires in young men. After a pilot study that included 1069 men, we surveyed 6390 men younger than 30 years about their gray hair status and various socioclinical characteristics. The age of participants in the main survey was 20.2 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD). Of the 6390 participants, 1618 (25.3%) presented with PHG. Family history of PHG (odds ratio [OR], 12.82), obesity (OR, 2.61), and >5 pack-years history of smoking (OR, 1.61) were significantly associated with PHG. In the multivariate analysis, family history of PHG (OR, 2.63) and obesity (OR, 2.22) correlated with the severity of PHG. Owing to the use of questionnaires, the possibility of recall bias exists. Women were not evaluated in this study. Smoking, family history of PHG, and obesity are important factors associated with PHG. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  3. Health Impact of Domestic Violence against Saudi Women: Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases.

  4. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Rodrigues Godinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Medical Outcomes Study (MOS, and Demand-Control-Support (DCS. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7; 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95% had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11, ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points, with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002, health conditions (p-value=0.094, and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054. Conclusion: this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  5. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Setting Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. Objective This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. Results 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. Conclusions The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates. PMID:26641654

  6. Osteoporosis, fragility fracture, and periodontal disease: a cross-sectional study in Spanish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Maestre, Maria Angeles; Machuca, Guillermo; González-Cejudo, Carmen; Flores, José Ramón Corcuera; Cardoso, Rafael Torrejón; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are common disorders that affect aging populations. It has been hypothesized that both conditions may be related. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis using vertebral fragility fracture as a real marker of osteoporosis and periodontal clinical examination to define periodontitis. Six hundred thirty-four women aged 55 to 70 years, with fragility spine fractures, and living in the same healthcare region of Seville, Spain, were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study conducted from 2008 to 2010. All the women included in the study were referred to undergo spine radiological examination, spinal densitometry, and full-mouth periodontal assessment. With the exception of number of teeth (19 in the fractured postmenopausal group and 23 in the control group; P 7 mm). None of the definitions of periodontitis used resulted in significant differences between groups. The relationship between periodontitis and osteoporosis remains unclear, and further studies considering fragility fracture as a real marker of osteoporosis are warranted to clarify the exact role and effect of one condition on the other and the corresponding clinical implications.

  7. Factors associated with no dental treatment in preschoolers with toothache: a cross-sectional study in outpatient public emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Geovanna C M; Daher, Anelise; Costa, Luciane R

    2014-08-08

    Many parents rely on emergency services to deal with their children's dental problems, mostly pain and infection associated with dental caries. This cross-sectional study analyzed the factors associated with not doing an oral procedure in preschoolers with toothache attending public dental emergency services. Data were obtained from the clinical files of preschoolers treated at all nine dental emergency centers in Goiania, Brazil, in 2011. Data were children's age and sex, involved teeth, oral procedures, radiography request, medications prescribed and referrals. A total of 531 files of children under 6 years old with toothache out of 1,108 examined were selected. Children's mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.0) years (range 1-5 years) and 51.6% were girls. No oral procedures were performed in 49.2% of cases; in the other 50.8%, most of the oral procedures reported were endodontic intervention and temporary restorations. Primary molars were involved in 48.4% of cases. With the exception of "sex", the independent variables tested in the regression analysis significantly associated with non-performance of oral procedures: age (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.8), radiography request (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.7-8.2), medication prescribed (OR 7.5; 95% CI 4.9-11.5) and patient referred to another service (OR 5.7; 3.0-10.9). Many children with toothache received no oral procedure for pain relief.

  8. Psychological violence in the health care settings in iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam

    2015-03-01

    Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients' families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential.

  9. Correlates of khat use during pregnancy: A cross-sectional study.

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    Nakajima, Motohiro; Jebena, Mulusew G; Taha, Mohammed; Tesfaye, Markos; Gudina, Esayas; Lemieux, Andrine; Hoffman, Richard; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Khat is widely used in East African countries including Ethiopia. A growing body of evidence indicates that long-term khat use is associated with various health consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and correlates of khat use in pregnant women. This study used a cross-sectional, face-to-face interview design that included 642 pregnant women receiving antenatal care services at primary care centers in Ethiopia. A series of chi-square tests and regression models were conducted to examine whether khat use status (i.e., 123 current khat users, 41 former khat users, and 478 non-users) was associated with socio-demographic, mental distress, and substance use measures. As compared with non-users, current and former khat users had higher levels of depressive symptoms and distress. Khat users minimized potential health risks associated with khat use. Social and motivational factors related to khat use were different between current and former khat users. Findings of this study suggest a substantial prevalence of khat use among pregnant women in Ethiopia and highlight the role of socio-demographic and cultural influences on khat use during pregnancy. Health care professionals in the region where khat is available are encouraged to ask their female patients about khat use and encourage them to refrain from use while they are pregnant. The positive link between khat and mental distress warrants further research focusing on biological, psychological, and social mechanisms of this relationship. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cross-sectional study identifying forms of tobacco used by Shisha smokers in Pakistan.

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    Sameer-ur-Rehman; Sadiq, Mohammed Ali; Parekh, Maria Adnan; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Frossard, Philippe M; Khan, Javaid Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    To estimate the frequency of different forms of tobacco intake such as smoker's tobacco, chewable tobacco and snuff tobacco among shisha smoker's and to study the patterns and predictors of shisha smoking affecting youth from different cities of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted including youth from four cities. Participants were asked to fill out a data collection tool at shisha cafes, shopping malls and restaurants. Data was analyzed using SPSSv.18. A total of 406 participants, 296 (73%) males and 110 (27%) females were included in the study. There were 163 (40%) cigarette smokers; 65 (16%) chewed tobacco and 33 (8%) snuffed it. The median age at initiation of Shisha smoking was 20 years. 280 (69%) considered Shisha smoking to be less deleterious to health than cigarettes. Respiratory disease was the most commonly cited health effect reported. Most 248 (61%) of the participants were infrequent shisha smokers. There is high frequency of tobacco usage in the form of cigarettes, chewable tobacco and snuff tobacco among shisha smokers of Pakistan. The highest frequency is for cigarette smoking. The rise in Shisha smoking as a trendy social habit appears to be occurring despite emerging scientific evidence of its potential health risks.

  11. A Multi-Center, Cross-Sectional Study on the Burden of Infectious Keratitis in China

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    Song, Xiusheng; Xie, Lixin; Tan, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhichong; Yang, Yanning; Yuan, Yuansheng; Deng, Yingping; Fu, Shaoying; Xu, Jianjiang; Sun, Xuguang; Sheng, Xunlun; Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and demographic characteristics of infectious keratitis and infectious corneal blindness. Methods A multi-center, population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to August 31, 2010. A total of 191,242 individuals of all age groups from 10 geographically representative provinces were sampled using stratified, multi-stage, random and systematic sampling procedures. A majority, 168,673 (88.2%), of those sampled participated in the study. The examination protocol included a structured interview, visual acuity testing, an external eye examination, and an anterior segment examination using a slit lamp. The causes and sequelae of corneal disease were identified using uniform customized protocols. Blindness in one eye caused by infectious keratitis was defined as infectious corneal blindness. Results The prevalence of past and active infectious keratitis was 0.192% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.171–0.213%), and the prevalence of viral, bacterial, and fungal keratitis was 0.11%, 0.075%, and 0.007%, respectively. There were 138 cases of infectious corneal blindness in at least one eye in the study population (prevalence of 0.082% [95%CI, 0.068%–0.095%]). Statistical analysis suggested that ocular trauma, alcoholic consumption, low socioeconomic levels, advanced age, and poor education were risk factors for infectious corneal blindness. Conclusions Infectious keratitis is the leading cause of corneal blindness in China. Eye care strategies should focus on the prevention and rehabilitation of infectious corneal blindness. PMID:25438169

  12. Perception of Preparedness for Clinical Work Among New Residents: A Cross-sectional Study from Oman

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    Hamed Al Sinawi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate new residents’ perceptions of their own preparedness for clinical practice and examine the associated factors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on August 20−23, 2016. New residents accepted for postgraduate training by Oman Medical Specialty Board were asked to complete the Preparation for Hospital Practice Questionnaire (PHPQ. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Results: A total of 160 residents were invited to participate in this study. Out of 160, 140 residents participated (87.5%, 70.7% were female and 59.3% were graduates from Sultan Qaboos University (SQU. Ninety-nine percent of the graduates were either ‘well prepared’ or ‘fairly well prepared’ for hospital practice. Male residents scored higher in the confidence scale, while residents who did a post-internship general practice placement scored higher in understanding science. Graduates from Oman Medical College felt more prepared compared to graduates from SQU. Conclusions: Most of the new residents were well prepared to clinical work. Factors such as place of undergraduate study, training, and duration of internship significantly influenced the residents’ perception of preparedness. Addressing these factors will enhance residents’ preparedness for clinical work.

  13. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

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    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  14. Role stress and personal resources in nursing: a cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement.

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    Garrosa, Eva; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2011-04-01

    The experience of role stress has been linked to burnout as an important job stressor, but the impact of this stressor in the context of engagement (characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) has not yet been sufficiently studied among nurses. Personal resources also appear to influence the process of burnout and engagement. This study examines the influence of role stress and personal resources (optimism, hardy personality and emotional competence) in nursing on burnout and engagement dimensions. Cross-sectional data from 508 nurses from general hospitals in Madrid (Spain) showed that both role stress and personal resources were related to burnout and engagement dimensions, although role stress was more closely related to nursing burnout, whereas personal resources were more closely related to nursing engagement. In addition, optimism as a personal resource, showed a moderator effect on exhaustion and the three dimensions of engagement. The study provides additional support about role stress as an important predictor of burnout and engagement in nursing, even after controlling for personal resources and socio-demographic variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

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    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conflict management styles among Iranian critical care nursing staff: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Conflict among nurses has been recognized as an extremely important issue within health care settings throughout the world. Identifying the conflict management style would be a key strategy for conflict management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of conflict management styles and its related factors among Iranian critical care nursing staff. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 149 critical care nurses who worked in the critical care units of 4 teaching hospitals in Sari (Iran) were evaluated. A 2-part self-reported questionnaire including personal information and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II was used for data collection. Although Iranian critical care nurses used all 5 conflict management styles to manage conflict with their peers, the collaborating style was the most prevalent conflict management style used by them, followed by compromising, accommodating, avoiding, and competing. Male gender was a predictor for both compromising and competing styles, whereas position and shift time were significant predictors for compromising and competing styles, respectively. Based on the results of this study, nurse managers need to take these factors into account in designing programs to help nurses constructively manage unavoidable conflicts in health care setting.

  17. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study.

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    Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-09-01

    To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners.

  18. CRP AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS, A NESTED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Talia Weinstein T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CRP is a recognized marker of systemic inflammation. The degree to which CRP is associated with carotid and/or femoral intima media thickness (IMT, markers of atherosclerosis, may quantify the degree to which inflammation explains cardiovascular disease in patients with end stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between CRP and both carotid and femoral IMT in hemodialysis (HD patients. The present cross-sectional study is nested in the Sevelamer hydrochloride and ultrasound-measured femoral and carotid intima media thickness progression in end stage renal disease (SUMMER clinical trial. Carotid (common, internal and bifurcation and femoral arteries were visualized in B-mode ultrasonography. CRP was measured in serum. The study cohort included 177 HD patients (39.5% female, mean age 67.8±11.5 years. All measures of both carotid and femoral IMT were significantly, positively associated with CRP. Compared to subjects without, subjects with PVD, coronary revascularization and hypertension had significantly higher CRP levels. Conversely, subjects treated with sevelamer hydrochloride had significantly lower CRP levels than those not exposed to this medication. CRP was significantly, positively associated with serum phosphorus, calcium and PTH, and significantly inversely associated with HDL. In conclusion, CRP is significantly, positively associated with both femoral and carotid IMT and suggests an association between inflammation and atherosclerosis in HD patients.

  19. Alcoholism and risk factors: a cross-sectional study in Cumanayagua, Cuba

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    Yesica Hidalgo Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world. It is estimated that there are 40 million alcoholics in Latin America, who in addition to their condition, must also face impoverished health care systems. Cuba implemented an Alcoholism Control Program in primary care. Purpose. To identify the risk factors that are associated most frequently with alcoholism. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Popular Council of Cuatro Vientos in Cumanayagua, Cuba. The Diagnostic Indicators Questionnaire and CAGE, the family perception test and a questionnaire that was validated for the study, were applied. The universe studied were 77 male patients older than 15, and who were registered alcoholics in the Popular Council of Cuatro Vientos. Results. Most alcoholics (58.25% were 35 or older, 77.6% did not acknowledge their condition, 53.7% reported having a father with a drinking problem at home, and 58.6% of the families with an alcoholic member were disfunctional. Work-place problems were present in 46.3% of the cases and 47.8% referred not having any problems with law enforcement authorities. Conclusion. We found that most of the responders develop the condition after age 35. More than a third are not aware of the critical state of their morbidity and a similar percentage lives in disfunctional families. A large number of alcoholic patients have personal, social and/or judicial problems.

  20. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

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    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  1. Metabolic syndrome among adults of surendranagar District of Saurashtra, Gujarat: A cross-sectional Study

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    Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps. Demographics, personal details along with anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. The MetS was diagnosed as per the definition provided by Joint Interim Statement 2009. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS among studied population was found to be 41.01% (females 44.21% and males 37.91%. Abdominal obesity (66.38%, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (64.69%, and high blood pressure (40.59% appeared as the most prevalent components. MetS showed a significant association with age, body mass index, total cholesterol, habit of chewing tobacco, and history of hypertension and hyperglycemia. Conclusion: The high prevalence of MetS shows that population of Saurashtra is at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes. This highlights the need for extensive diabetes and CVD prevention and control program in this region.

  2. Factor analysis of self-treatment in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.

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    Alavi, Negin Masoudi; Alami, Leila; Taefi, Sedigheh; Gharabagh, Gholamali Shojae

    2011-10-04

    Self-treatment is a treatment of oneself without professional help, which may cause health-related consequences. This investigation examined the self-treatment behaviors in patients with diabetes mellitus in Iran/kashan. The patients who referred to the clinic of diabetes and those who were admitted to the General hospital in the city of Kashan due to diabetes mellitus were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study. For data collection, The 25 item questionnaire of Likert scale type with four scales was used. Factor analysis was performed to define the patterns of self-treatment. 398 patients participated in the study. The mean age of the study population was 54.9 ± 12.9 years. The majority (97%) had type 2 diabetes. 50% of patients reported self- treatment. The self-treatment score was 45.8 ± 8.8 (25-100). Female gender, lower education and co-morbid illnesses of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiac disease had significant relationship with self-treatment. The factor analysis procedure revealed seven factors that explained the 43% of variation in the self-treatment. These seven factors were categorized as knowledge, deficiencies of formal treatments, available self-treatment methods, physician related factors, the tendency to use herbal remedies, underlying factors such as gender and factors related to diabetes. There is a medium tendency for self-treatment in diabetic patients. The assessment of self-treatment practices must be an essential part of patients' management in diabetes care.

  3. Health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans with diabetes: A cross-sectional study

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    Al Snih Soham

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The older Hispanic population of the U.S. is growing at a tremendous rate. While ethnic-related risk and complications of diabetes are widely-acknowledged for older Hispanics, less is known about how health related quality of life is affected in this population. Methods Cross-sectional study assessing differences in health related quality of life between older Mexican Americans with and without diabetes. Participants (n = 619 from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly were interviewed in their homes. The primary measure was the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. Results The sample was 59.6% female with a mean age of 78.3 (SD = 5.2 years. 31.2% (n = 193 of the participants were identified with diabetes. Individuals with diabetes had significantly (F = 19.35, p Conclusion Diabetes was associated with lower health related quality of life in older Mexican Americans. The physical components of health related quality of life uniformly differentiated those with diabetes from those without, whereas mental component scores were equivocal.

  4. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among elderly people in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

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    Khanam, Masuma Akter; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Qiu, Chengxuan; Cornelius, Christel; Wahlin, Åke

    2011-08-01

    Data on multimorbidity among the elderly people in Bangladesh are lacking. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged > or = 60 years in Matlab, Bangladesh. Information on their demographics and literacy was collected through interview in the home. Information about their assets was obtained from a surveillance database. Physicians conducted clinical examinations at a local health centre. Two physicians diagnosed medical conditions, and two senior geriatricians then evaluated the same separately. Multimorbidity was defined as suffering from two or more of nine chronic medical conditions, such as arthritis, stroke, obesity, signs of thyroid hypofunction, obstructive pulmonary symptoms, symptoms of heart failure, impaired vision, hearing impairment, and high blood pressure. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among the study population was 53.8%, and it was significantly higher among women, illiterates, persons who were single, and persons in the non-poorest quintile. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, female sex and belonging to the non-poorest quintile were independently associated with an increased odds ratio of multimorbidity. The results suggest that the prevalence of multimorbidity is high among the elderly people in rural Bangladesh. Women and the non-poorest group of the elderly people are more likely than men and the poorest people to be affected by multimorbidity. The study sheds new light on the need of primary care for the elderly people with multimorbidity in rural Bangladesh.

  5. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

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    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  6. Consanguinity, endogamy and inborn errors of metabolism in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

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    Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Al-Mamari, Watfa; Islam, M Mazharul; Al-Yahyaee, Said A

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman, like many other Arab countries, has relatively high rates of consanguinity. Reports suggest that the incidence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is also high in Oman. This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the number of patients with IEM being followed at the only two tertiary centers in Oman treating such patients, and to calculate the consanguinity rates among these families. The electronic medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. A total of 285 patients with IEM were being followed at the 2 centers involved; 162 (56.8%) were male and 123 (43.2%) were female. The history of consanguinity was documented or available for 241 patients: 229 patients (95%) were born to consanguineous parents related as second cousins or closer. First-cousin marriages were reported in 191 families (79.3%), while 31 patients (12.9%) were born to second cousins. The parents of 5 patients (2%) were related as double first cousins, and 2 patients (1%) were born to first cousins once removed. The average coefficient of inbreeding (F) in our study was 0.081. Seventeen patients (6%) had associated comorbid conditions other than IEM. Our study highlights the clinical burden of IEM in Oman and emphasizes the high consanguinity rates among the parents of affected patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Hyperammonaemia and associated factors in unprovoked convulsive seizures: A cross-sectional study.

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    Sato, Kenichiro; Arai, Noritoshi; Omori, Aki; Hida, Ayumi; Kimura, Akio; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2016-12-01

    Hyperammonaemia is frequently observed in patients who have experienced convulsive seizures. Although excessive muscle contraction is presumed to be responsible for the elevated levels of ammonia, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to identify the independent factors associated with ammonia elevation using large-scale multivariate analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 379 adult patients who had been transported to our emergency department and treated for unprovoked convulsive seizures between August 2010 and September 2015. Elevation of venous plasma ammonia levels was set as the primary endpoint, and patients' clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Those with severe liver dysfunction, known hepatic encephalopathy, or convulsions due to cardiovascular or psychogenic causes, and those taking valproate were excluded. Using a cut-off value of 50μg/dL, 183 patients (48.3%) were found to have elevated levels of plasma ammonia. Four factors were identified as independent variables associated with hyperammonaemia following seizures: elevated venous lactate, lowered venous pH, sex (male), and longer duration of convulsion. The results of the present study revealed independent factors associated with hyperammonaemia following unprovoked convulsive seizures in a larger scale and with more plausible statistical analysis. The authors further suggest that the excessive skeletal muscle contraction and/or respiratory failure during/after convulsive seizure may be the primary mechanism of hyperammonaemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Brain Ultrasonography Findings in Neonatal Seizure; a Cross-sectional Study

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    Seyed Saeed Nabavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Screening of newborns with seizure, who have curable pathologic brain findings, might be able to improve their final outcome by accelerating treatment intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the brain ultrasonography findings of newborns hospitalized with complaint of seizure.Methods: The present cross-sectional study designed to evaluate brain ultrasonography findings of hospitalized newborns complaining seizure.  Neonatal seizure was defined as presence of tonic, clonic, myoclonic, and subtle attacks in 1 - 28 day old newborns.Results: 100 newborns with the mean age of 5.82 ± 6.29 days were evaluated (58% male. Most newborns were in the < 10 days age range (76%, term (83% and with normal birth weight (81%. 22 (22% of the ultrasonography examinations showed a pathologic finding. A correlation was only found between birth age and probability of the presence of a pathologic problem in the brain as the frequency of these problems was significantly higher in pre-term newborns (p = 0.023.Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, frequency of pathologic findings in neonatal brain ultrasonography was 22%. Hemorrhage (12% and hydrocephaly (7% were the most common findings. The only factor correlating with increased probability of positive findings was the newborns being pre-term.

  9. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

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    Sjøgaard Gisela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85 and without (N = 109 neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling and fast (trembling component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81% failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61% (p Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850

  10. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

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    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  11. Are nurse presenteeism and patient safety culture associated: a cross-sectional study.

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    Brborović, Hana; Brborović, Ognjen; Brumen, Vlatka; Pavleković, Gordana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-06-01

    Working as a nurse involves great dedication and sacrifice: working night shifts, working overtime, and coming to work sick. The last is also known as presenteeism. Research has shown that poor nurse performance can affect both caregiver's and patient's safety. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nurse presenteeism affected patient safety culture and to look deeper into the characteristics of nurse presenteeism and patient safety culture in Croatia. The study was conducted in one general hospital in Croatia over April and May 2012 and specifically targeted medical nurses as one of the largest groups of healthcare professionals. They were asked to fill two questionnaires: the six-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). We found no association between presenteeism and patient safety culture. Overall positive perception of safety was our sample's strength, but other dimensions were positively rated by less than 65 % of participants. The lowest positive response concerned "nonpunitive response to error", which is consistent with previous studies. Presenteeist nurses did not differ in their characteristics from nurses without presenteeism (gender, age, years of experience, working hours, contact with patients and patient safety grades). Our future research will have to include a broader healthcare population for us to be able to identify weak spots and suggest improvements toward high-quality and cost-effective health care.

  12. Causes of job stress in nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Arash; Goudarzi, Ali Moazemi; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-05-01

    Nursing is naturally a stressful job. Stress in nurses can cause depression, isolation from patients, absence and decrease in their qualification. This study aimed to determine the causes of job stress in nurses of Kashan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 189 nurses from Kashan hospitals of different wards were studied. The information collection tool was Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised™ (OSI-R™). The most important job stress aspects in female nurses were range of roles (48.4%), role duality (40.9%) and job environment (39.6%). In men, range of roles (57.5%), job environment (50%) and responsibility (45%) were the most significant aspects. In addition, lack of balance between skill and education and job environment requirements in both genders was the least important aspect of job stress. The results showed that the level of stress in most of the nurses was in medium level. Job factors were more involved in job stress than demographic and other factors.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An emerging problem in Southern West Bengal: A cross-sectional study.

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    Mandal, Ratan Chandra; Bhar, Debasish; Das, Anjan; Basunia, Sandip Roy; Kundu, Sudeshna Bhar; Mahapatra, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in pregnancy varies widely in different parts of our country, but it has multiple adverse outcomes in both the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of SCH in pregnant women during the first trimester and to identify the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant women. This cross-sectional study (March 2014 to February 2015) was conducted among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in their first trimester at a tertiary care center. Morning samples of study participants were analyzed for free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab). Data expressed as mean ± standard deviation and percentage (%) as applicable. Of the 510 subjects, 168 had TSH value >2.5 μIU/ml (32.94%) with normal FT4 and they were diagnosed as SCH. TSH level >4.5 μIU/ml was estimated in 13.92% (71) of the subjects. TPO Ab was positive in 57 (33.93%) of subclinical hypothyroid and 5 (1.47%) of normal subjects. 70.42% (50) of the subjects with TSH >4.5 μIU/ml had positive TPO Ab. Prevalence of SCH is high in South Bengal and routine thyroid screening at the first antenatal visit should be done to reduce the social and financial burden caused by SCH.

  14. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S; Wahab, Moustafa A; Aboelil, Ahmed A

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed.

  15. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pgaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  16. Association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Cheng, Di; Lin, Lin; Sun, Jichao; Peng, Kui; Xu, Yu; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Lu, Jieli; Ning, Guang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that serum CA 19-9 is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, data on the association between CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3641 participants aged ≥40 years from the Songnan Community, Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum CA 19-9 and metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with participants in the first tertile of serum CA 19-9, those in the second and third tertiles had increased odds ratios (OR) for prevalent metabolic syndrome (multivariate adjusted OR 1.46 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.11-1.92] and 1.51 [95% CI 1.14-1.98]; P trend  = 0.005). In addition, participants with elevated serum CA 19-9 (≥37 U/mL) had an increased risk of prevalent metabolic syndrome compared with those with serum CA 19-9 metabolic syndrome. In order to confirm this association and identify potential mechanisms, prospective cohort and mechanic studies should be performed. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Workplace Stresses and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Alireza Dehdashti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a significant occupational problem among employees and workers. This study attempted to explore the effect of stressors in the hospital environment on nurses’ development of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of 123 hospital nurses from Semnan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected during working days over 3 months starting from January 2014. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire for stresses and musculoskeletal disorders at work. Musculoskeletal disorders were used as the dependent variables, while demographic, physical, and psychosocial work factors were used as independent variables. Results Our study revealed prevalence of low back ache, neck ache, shoulder ache, arm-elbow ache, and hand-wrist pain rated 48.3%, 39.5%, 33.1%, 31.3%, and 23.4%, respectively. The findings showed significant statistical association between musculoskeletal complaints in neck and upper extremity with exposed stress levels (P = 0.04. Musculoskeletal symptoms rates increased in employees experienced poor work posture (P = 0.01, fatigue (P = 0.04, and work-family conflict (P = 0.04. Conclusions This study provides indication of the relationship between work environment stress levels and musculoskeletal disorders. Physical and psychosocial stressors should be considered for the development of preventive measures.

  18. Association between lumbopelvic pain and pelvic floor dysfunction in women: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sinéad; Vandyken, Brittany; Forget, Marie-Jose; Vandyken, Carolyn

    2017-12-09

    The prevalence, cost and disability associated with lumbopelvic pain continues to rise despite the range of available therapeutic interventions, indicating a deficiency in current approaches. A literature base highlighting a correlation between lumbopelvic pain and pelvic floor function is developing; however, the features that characterize this correlation have yet to be fully established. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pelvic floor muscle function among women with lumbopelvic pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on non-pregnant women presenting with lumbopelvic pain to one of seven outpatient orthopaedic clinics in Canada. Potential participants underwent a screening process to assess for pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. A total of 182 women were recruited and 97 were excluded, leaving 85 participants (n = 85). Of these, 95.3% were determined to have some form of pelvic floor dysfunction. Specifically, 71% of the participants had pelvic floor muscle tenderness, 66% had pelvic floor weakness and 41% were found to have a pelvic organ prolapse. Participants with combined low back pain and pelvic girdle pain presented with higher levels of disability and increased characteristics of pelvic floor dysfunction. Our findings corroborate and extend recent research supporting the hypothesis that a high proportion of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction is present among women with lumbopelvic pain. Specifically, increased pelvic floor muscle pressure-pain sensitivity represented the most frequent characteristic, the clinical implications of which require further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Causes of discontinuity of blood donation among donors in Shiraz, Iran: cross-sectional study

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    Leila Kasraian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.

  20. Serum magnesium and proton-pump inhibitors use: a cross-sectional study

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    Gustavo Adolpho Moreira Faulhaber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum magnesium levels with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs use and other factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 151 patients admitted with acute diseases in the Internal Medicine Division of the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, after the exclusion of conditions that are commonly associated with hypomagnesemia: diarrhea; vomiting; chronic alcohol use; severely uncompensated diabetes mellitus; and chronic use of laxatives, diuretics or other drugs causing magnesium deficiency. RESULTS: All patients had normal serum magnesium levels. Serum albumin and creatinine levels were positively associated with serum magnesium levels, after adjusting for confounders. There was no difference between mean serum magnesium levels of PPI users and non-users, nor between men and women; there was also no correlation among age, serum phosphorus, and potassium levels with serum magnesium levels. Limitations of this study include the absence of an instrument for measuring adherence to PPI use and the sample size. CONCLUSION: The association of PPI use and hypomagnesemia is uncommon. Congenital defects in the metabolism of magnesium may be responsible for hypomagnesemia in some patients using this drug class.

  1. Genetic Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Related Bone Disease. An Observational, Transversal, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Ioana M; Pop, Liviu L; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Onet, Dan I; Guta-Almajan, Bogdan; Popa, Zoran; Horhat, Florin G

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent monogenic genetic disease with autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by important clinical polymorphism and significant lethal prospective. CF related bone disease occurs frequently in adults with CF. Childhood is the period of bone formation, and therefore, children are more susceptible to low bone density. Several factors like pancreatic insufficiency, hormone imbalance, and physical inactivity contribute to CF bone disease development. Revealing this would be important for prophylactic treatment against bone disease occurrence. The study was observational, transversal, with a cross-sectional design. The study included 68 children with cystic fibrosis, genotyped and monitored in the National CF Centre. At the annual assessment, besides clinical examination, biochemical evaluation for pancreatic insufficiency, and diabetes, they were evaluated for bone mineral density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twenty-six patients, aged over 10 years were diagnosed with CF bone disease, without significant gender gap. Bone disease was frequent in patients aged over 10 years with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, carriers of severe mutations, and CF liver disease. CF carriers of a severe genotype which associates pancreatic insufficiency and CF liver disease, are more likely predisposed to low bone mineral density. Further studies should discover other significant influences in order to prevent the development of CF bone disease and an improved quality of life in cystic fibrosis children.

  2. A cross-sectional study of diabetes in Mt Eden Prison, Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, G; Rowan, J; Atherfold, C

    1994-07-27

    To study the control, complications and management of prisoners with diabetes on treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin in Mt Eden prison, Auckland. A cross-sectional study of those prisoners known to be on oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin by personal interview using a structured questionnaire followed by physical examination and random measurement of fructosamine, lipids and renal function. At the time of the study the prison population was 438 (47 females). Fifty three percent were Maori, 29% European, 14% of Pacific Islands origin and 4% of other nationality. Five males were known to be on oral hypoglycaemics and three further males, also with non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) were on insulin. Two other males were insulin dependent diabetics (IDDM) aged 22 and 25 years. All were Maori. The mean age (range) of NIDDM patients was 50 (35-68) years. As a group these prisoners were obese with a high prevalence of smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Four of the five insulin treated patients had been in hospital a total of 11 times in the preceding 12 months for diabetes related health problems accounting for a total hospital stay of 60 days. Three of these prisoners had recurrent self-induced hypoglycaemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Metabolic control of glucose was however reasonable. Prisoners known to be on treatment for diabetes have a high prevalence of complications (many previously unrecognised) and display manipulative behaviour. This group requires specialised health care by diabetes trained staff with a knowledge of local prison conditions.

  3. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction: A cross-sectional study in northeast of Iran.

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    Eshghpour, M; Nezadi, A; Moradi, A; Shamsabadi, R Mahvelati; Rezaei, N M; Nejat, A

    2014-01-01

    Impacted teeth, if left untreated, have a potential to induce various complications. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibular third molar in the Iranian population. This cross-sectional study was performed in patients who were referred to the Department of Oral Radiology between July 2009 and October 2010 to obtain an orthopantomogram (OPG). Data were collected regarding age and gender, prevalence of impacted mandibular third molars, angulation of impacted teeth (Winter's classification), level of impaction (Pell and Gregory classification), and relationship of the mandibular third molar with the ramus (Pell and Gregory classification). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.0 with a confidence interval of 95%. Among the 1433 patients included in the study, 489 (34.12%) patients were male and 944 (65.88%) were female. Of the total OPGs performed, 871 (60.78%) OPGs demonstrated at least one impacted mandibular third molar. In addition, of the 2866 mandibular third molars investigated, 1397 (48.74%) were found to be impacted. A significant association was observed between gender and the number of impacted teeth or the presence of impaction of any mandibular tooth (or teeth) (P third molar (P > 0.05). The pattern of mandibular third molars in the Northeast region of Iran revealed a high prevalence of impaction, which was mostly mesioangular, level B, and Class II with a gender predilection for females.

  4. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

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    Honor Bixby

    Full Text Available Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  5. Perception of Preparedness for Clinical Work Among New Residents: A Cross-sectional Study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sinawi, Hamed; Al Alawi, Mohammed; Al Qubtan, Ali; Al Lawati, Jaber; Al Habsi, Assad; Jose, Sachin

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate new residents' perceptions of their own preparedness for clinical practice and examine the associated factors. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on August 20-23, 2016. New residents accepted for postgraduate training by Oman Medical Specialty Board were asked to complete the Preparation for Hospital Practice Questionnaire (PHPQ). Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. A total of 160 residents were invited to participate in this study. Out of 160, 140 residents participated (87.5%), 70.7% were female and 59.3% were graduates from Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). Ninety-nine percent of the graduates were either 'well prepared' or 'fairly well prepared' for hospital practice. Male residents scored higher in the confidence scale, while residents who did a post-internship general practice placement scored higher in understanding science. Graduates from Oman Medical College felt more prepared compared to graduates from SQU. Most of the new residents were well prepared to clinical work. Factors such as place of undergraduate study, training, and duration of internship significantly influenced the residents' perception of preparedness. Addressing these factors will enhance residents' preparedness for clinical work.

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Pain Among U.S. College Music Students and Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Jeremy L; Komes, Kevin D; Murdock, Fred A

    2017-03-01

    Studies over recent decades have demonstrated significant performance-related pain among professional musicians. However, there have been no largescale studies to evaluate pain among college musicians. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and anatomical locations of performance-related pain among students and faculty at the college level and learn what musicians do when they have pain. Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey distributed to colleges across the United States. Data were analyzed using REDCap electronic data capture tools and Microsoft Excel. We received 1,007 survey responses and found that 67% of musicians at colleges experienced performance-related pain. The highest prevalence of pain was in woodwind musicians, with 83% reporting performance-related pain. The most common locations of pain were upper back (27%), lower back (26%), and fingers of the right hand (25%). Many student musicians with pain seek help from their teacher, but almost as many do not seek help at all. Less than 25% see a medical professional. Most musicians at colleges experience performance-related pain in a variety of anatomical locations depending upon instrument/voice. Performing arts health organizations can increase awareness of treatment options for musicians suffering from performance-related pain, which may lead to improved quality of life and increased career longevity for college musicians.

  7. Level of stress in final year MBBS students at Rural Medical College: a cross sectional study

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    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Narwane Sandeep P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress, defined as an imbalance between environmental conditions necessary for survival and the ability of individuals to adapt to those conditions, have a high prevalence in MBBS students. A variety of stressors play a significant role in developing stress. Objective:To study the level of stress and stressors responsible in Final MBBS students of Rural Medical College, Loni. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in 100 students (50 of either sex willing to participate in the study. They were subjected to fill the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire, which consists of 40 questions for evaluating the stressors and severity of stress perceived by the subjects. Results: 71% subjects’ perceived moderate stress, while 13% and 16% perceived high and mild stress respectively. Academic stressor counted for moderate stress in 63% and high stress in 24 % of subjects, which was higher than other stressors. Conclusion: Academic stressors being the major stressor perceived, Strategies are required to decrease the burden of academic stress in the students.

  8. Burnout Among General Practice Trainees in Ibn Rushd University Hospital: a Cross-Sectional Study

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    A. El kettani,\tZ. Serhier,\tM. Bennani Othmani,\tM. Agoub,\tO. Battas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Burnout syndrom is largely widespread among health professionals and It’s further more grave when it comes to young doctors. The aims of this study are to determine burnout prevalence and its associated factors among general practice trainees in Ibn Rushd university hospital. Material and method : A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Mai-June 2013. All the 110 CHU trainees were invited to fill in an anonymous questionnaire including the french language version of the Maslash Burnout Inventory. Results : The response rate was 57%. Responders average age was 24.8 (SD=1.2 (76.2% were female. sub-scales burnout average scores were : ( Emotinal Exaustion : 32.0±9.1, Depersonalisation :13.2±30.0, Personal Accomplishment :29.0±8.1. A total of 39.7% had severe burnout. It was associated with : time spent working (p<0.01, feeling insecurity during guards (p<0.05, having difficulties to communicate informations and to announce diagnosis to the patient and his family (p<0.01, anxiety and depression (p<0.05. Protector factors were feeling equality in the medical team (p<0.01 and having leisure activities (p<0.05. Conclusion : these results are globally similar to those found in previous studies. So, making individual, collective and organizational preventive measures seems to be necessary.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis: a cross-sectional general population study.

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    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general U.S. population. However, our results agree with those of other previous studies in which the association between mild psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors is often non-significant. Further controlled research is needed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with mainly mild to moderate psoriasis in the general population. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

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    Rosenbloom Judith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study for Screening of Postural Deficits among University Students

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    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural deviations are frequent in university students and may cause pain and functional impairment. Few studies have examined the association between body posture and intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Objective: To assess the prevalence of postural changes in university students, and to determine whether factors such as age, gender, BMI, and physical activity might explain these deviations, this study helping in preventing aggravation of postural deviations and providing the young adolescent students with exercises and help tips for correcting these problems. Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects and Methods: The posture of 48 students in Hail University was assessed by DIER formetric 4D. Their mean age was 20.35 ± 2.678, height was 185.56 ± 7.128 and weight was 54.19 ± 7.085. Results: results revealed positive correlation between height and weight, height and self-image, weight and surface rotation, self-image and pelvic tilting, kyphotic angle and lordotic angle, pelvic tilt and trunk imbalance, lateral deviation and trunk imbalance. Conclusion: high prevalence of abnormalities among students, so it is recommended that all instructors place more emphasis on training and using corrective actions in course one of general physical education. Furthermore, teaching the correct sleeping, sitting and carrying ways will stop high expenses and devoting long times for clinical remedies.

  12. Static postural sway of women with and without fibromyalgia syndrome: A cross-sectional study.

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    Trevisan, Deborah Colucci; Driusso, Patricia; Avila, Mariana Arias; Gramani-Say, Karina; Moreira, Fernando Manuel Araujo; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2017-05-01

    There is a frequent complaint about balance problems among fibromyalgia syndrome patients; however, there are not enough studies that have shown static postural sway of women with fibromyalgia syndrome. This study aimed to compare static postural sway of women with and without fibromyalgia syndrome. This is a cross-sectional study in which twenty-nine women with fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 without took part. A posturography evaluation was performed in six different situations (bipedal, right tandem and left tandem, with eyes opened and closed), and questionnaires for clinical depression symptoms, clinical anxiety symptoms, sleep quality, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain and Fatigue were applied. Mann-Whitney U test was used to check differences among groups; Wilcoxon matched-pair test was used to check differences intragroup; Cohen d coefficient was used to measure effect sizes and Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used for correlations among variables. Level of significance adopted was 5%. Women with fibromyalgia syndrome have presented worse postural sway than women without fibromyalgia syndrome in all situations (Pfibromyalgia syndrome presented worse postural sway than women without in the same conditions. Women with fibromyalgia syndrome have worse performance in the static posture test, more prominent in reduced support bases with eyes closed. Pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety may have directly influenced postural sway in fibromyalgia syndrome patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

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    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  14. Factors related to taste sensitivity in elderly: cross-sectional findings from SONIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uota, M; Ogawa, T; Ikebe, K; Arai, Y; Kamide, K; Gondo, Y; Masui, Y; Ishizaki, T; Inomata, C; Takeshita, H; Mihara, Y; Maeda, Y

    2016-12-01

    The sense of taste is important, as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, as well as safety and quality of foods, with several factors suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity. However, comprehensive variables regarding taste and related factors have not been utilised in previous studies for assessments of sensitivity. In the present study, we performed cross-sectional analyses of taste sensitivity and related factors in geriatric individuals who participated in the SONIC Study. We analysed 2 groups divided by age, 69-71 years (young-old, n = 687) and 79-81 years (old-old, n = 621), and performed a general health assessment, an oral examination and determination of taste sensitivity. Contributing variables were selected by univariate analysis and then subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. In both groups, females showed significantly better sensitivity for bitter and sour tastes. Additionally, higher cognitive scores for subjects with a fine taste for salty were commonly seen in both groups, while smoking, drinking, hypertension, number of teeth, stimulated salivary flow salt intake and years of education were also shown to be associated with taste sensitivity. We found gender and cognitive status to be major factors affecting taste sensitivity in geriatric individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Qiu; Zhang, Peipei; Tian, Yunfan; Chao, Xiangqin; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-12-23

    Decreased natriuretic peptides are risk factors for diabetes. As a physiological activator of natriuretic peptides, corin may play a role in glucose metabolism. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis in a general population of China. Cross-sectional study. A population study in Suzhou, China. A total of 2498 participants aged above 30 years were included in the study. The association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia was examined in men and women, using non-conditional logistic regression models, respectively. Serum soluble corin, in men and women, was significantly higher in participants with hyperglycaemia than in those without (all psoluble corin quartiles, in men (p for trend soluble corin, in men (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.23) and women (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.61), over the median level, were more likely to have hyperglycaemia compared with the remaining participants, after controlling for confounding factors. Hyperglycaemia was significantly and positively associated with increased serum soluble corin in men and women. Our findings suggest that serum soluble corin may be a risk factor or a biomarker of hyperglycaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Household food security status in the Northeast of Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Foroozanfar, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    An important issue the world faces today is ensuring that households living in different countries have access to enough food to maintain a healthy life. Food insecurity is prevalent in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the household food security status and related factors among different rural districts of Neyshabur (A city in northeast of Iran). Of 5000 selected rural households 4647 were studied in this cross-sectional study. A validated short questionnaire (with six questions) was used to measure food security. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis through SPSS software. In total, 2747 households (59.1%) were identified as food secure. The highest prevalence of food security was observed in Central district (62.3%) and the lowest was in Miyanjolgeh district (52.9%). Backward multiple logistic regression revealed that car ownership, presence of chronic disease in household and household income (per month) were significantly associated with food security in all of surveyed districts (pfood secure and economic variables were the most important factors. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to this health problem in these regions.

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  18. Cross-sectional study of the ossification center of the C1-S5 vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Małkowski, Bogdan; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Króliczewski, Dariusz

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. This study describes the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies. Using CT, digital-image analysis, and statistics, the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was examined. No sex significant differences were found. The body ossification centers were found within the entire presacral spine and in 85.5 % of S1, in 76.4 % of S2, in 67.3 % of S3, in 40.0 % of S4, and in 14.5 % of S5. All the values for the atlas were sharply smaller than for the axis. The mean transverse diameter of the body ossification center gradually increased from the axis to T12 vertebra, so as to stabilize through L1-L3 vertebrae, and finally was intensively decreasing to S5 vertebra. There was a gradual increase in sagittal diameter of the body ossification center from the axis to T5 vertebra and its stabilization for T6-T9 vertebrae. Afterward, an alternate progression was observed: a decrease in values for T10-T12 vertebrae, an increase in values for L1-L2 vertebrae, and finally a decrease in values for L3-S5 vertebrae. The values of cross-sectional area of ossification centers were gradually increasing from the axis to L2 vertebra and then started decreasing to S5 vertebra. The following cross-sectional areas were approximately equivalent to each other: for L5 and T3-T5, and for S4 and C1. The volumetric growth of the body ossification center gradually increased from the axis to L3 vertebra and then sharply decreased from L4 to S5. No male-female differences are found in the size of the body ossification centers of the spine. The growth dynamics for morphometric parameters of the body ossification centers of the spine follow similarly with gestational age.

  19. Risk Factors for Developing Scoliosis in Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncelli, Carlo M; Solla, Federico; Loughenbury, Peter R; Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Bertoncelli, Domenico; Rampal, Virginie

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to identify the risk factors leading to the development of severe scoliosis among children with cerebral palsy. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 70 children (aged 12-18 years) with severe spastic and/or dystonic cerebral palsy treated in a single specialist unit is described. Statistical analysis included Fisher exact test and logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Severe scoliosis is more likely to occur in patients with intractable epilepsy ( P = .008), poor gross motor functional assessment scores ( P = .018), limb spasticity ( P = .045), a history of previous hip surgery ( P = .048), and nonambulatory patients ( P = .013). Logistic regression model confirms the major risk factors are previous hip surgery ( P = .001), moderate to severe epilepsy ( P = .007), and female gender ( P = .03). History of previous hip surgery, intractable epilepsy, and female gender are predictors of developing severe scoliosis in children with cerebral palsy. This knowledge should aid in the early diagnosis of scoliosis and timely referral to specialist services.

  20. Factors Affecting Family Physicians’ Drug Prescribing: A Cross-Sectional Study in Khuzestan, Iran

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    Mohammad Arab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Rational prescription is a considerable issue which must be paid more attention to assess the behavior of prescribers. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting family physicians’ drug prescribing. Methods We carried out a retrospective cross-sectional study in Khuzestan province, Iran in 2011. Nine hundred eighty-six prescriptions of 421 family physicians (including 324 urban and 97 rural family physicians were selected randomly. A multivariate Poisson regression was used to investigate potential determinants of the number of prescribed drug per patient. Results The mean of medication per patient was 2.6 ± 1.2 items. In the majority (91.9% of visits a drugs was prescribed. The most frequent dosage forms were tablets, syrups and injection in 30.1%, 26.9%, and 18.7% of cases respectively. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were 29.7% and 17.1% of prescribed drugs respectively. The tablets were the most frequent dosage forms (38.6% of cases in adult’s patients and syrups were the most frequent dosage forms (49% of cases in less than 18 years old. Paracetamols were popular form of NSAIDs in two patients groups. The most common prescribed medications were oral form. Conclusion In Khuzestan, the mean of medication per patient was fewer than national average. Approximately, pattern of prescribed drug by family physicians (including dosage form and type of drugs was similar to other provinces of Iran.

  1. Impact of Patellar Tendinopathy on Knee Proprioception: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rui; Ferreira, João; Silva, Diogo; Rodrigues, Elisa; Bessa, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether high-level athletes with patellar tendinopathy have diminished knee proprioceptive acuity. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory (institutional). Twenty-one basketball and volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (13 men and 8 women; mean age 24.5 ± 3.6; body mass index = 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m) and an equal number of athletes without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy injury were included in this study. Participants underwent knee proprioception assessments on a single day. Furthermore, age, sex, height, weight, VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) questionnaire sports participation, medical history, knee injuries, previous treatment, and medication were obtained. Knee proprioception was evaluated by assessing sense of resistance, using a weight discrimination protocol, and joint position sense (JPS). No significant differences were observed in JPS at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion between groups (P = 0.165 and 0.481, respectively). In regard to the ability to discriminate weight, significant differences between the 2 groups were found with the tendinopathy group showing a higher percentage of error (P = 0.009), namely when the set of incremental weights varied by 10% from the standard weight. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have a diminished perception of force signals required for weight discrimination, whereas JPS remains unaffected in these athletes.

  2. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. Aim: This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Conclusions: Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops. PMID:26605201

  3. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Claudia C de Ornelas; Braga, Arthur de Azevedo; Paes, Flávia; Machado, Sérgio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female) was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS). With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66) among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59) concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31) of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15) of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18) of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46) of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%), dysthymia (18.2%), panic disorder (8.2%) and social phobia (5.5%). The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Psychological Needs of Adults Living with Cystic Fibrosis.

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    Smita Pakhale

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are prevalent in people with cystic fibrosis (CF, yet psychological services are rarely accessible in CF clinics. This cross-sectional single center study reports on a psychological needs assessment of people with CF.We asked adults attending a CF clinic, without integrated psychological services, to complete a psychological needs assessment survey that included items on: a past access to psychological services (via a CF referral service, b concerns relevant to discuss with a psychologist, and c their likelihood of accessing psychological services if available at the CF clinic, and standardized measures of depression (CES-D and anxiety (GAD-7.We enrolled 49 participants and 45 (91.8% completed the survey. Forty percent reported elevated symptoms of depression and 13% had elevated anxiety. A majority of individuals (72.2% and 83.3%, respectively indicated they would be likely to use psychological services, if available at the clinic. Concerns considered most relevant to discuss with a psychologist were: 1 worries (51.1%, 2 mood (44.4%, 3 life stress (46.6%, 4 adjustment to CF (42.2%, 5 life transitions (42.2% and 6 quality of life (42.2%.This study highlights the rationale for screening adults with CF for depression and anxiety, and to facilitate provision of psychological services and preventative mental health interventions as an integral component of multi-disciplinary CF care.

  5. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study

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    Heloísa Garcia Claro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment.

  6. Empathy in health professional students: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Cristina; La Cerra, Carmen; Aloisio, Federica; Montanari, Paola; Lancia, Loreto

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that empathy strengthens the relationship between patients and health professionals and also improves patient and health professional satisfaction, which helps promote the best clinical outcomes. Empathy is considered an essential prerequisite for a nurse to effectively care for a patient and for a holistic understanding of a patient's perspective in a student population. The main aim was to compare empathy levels between health professional students attending different university courses. A comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted in two successive academic year cohorts of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university. A sample of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university was investigated using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS). Overall, 502 health professional students were included in the study. The students in nursing showed significantly higher empathy levels than the students in other health professions. Furthermore, the female students were found to exhibit significantly more overall empathy than the male students were. The undergraduate nursing students showed a significantly higher mean score of empathy measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS) than the students attending other health undergraduate courses. This could mean that a particular aptitude in establishing a help-relationship with other people exists among the students that choose to become a nurse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Placebo prescription and empathy of the physician: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Simões, João; Costa, Patrício Soares; Yaphe, John

    2017-12-01

    Empathy in the patient-physician relationship is a major component in an effective placebo treatment, as in every medical treatment. Understanding the role of empathy of the physician in the placebo effect may help dissect some of the context variables responsible for the effectiveness of the placebo. To determine the frequency of placebo prescription, doctors' beliefs, motivation, and attitudes to placebos in general practice in northern Portugal and to test the association between placebo prescription and physician empathy. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and January 2015 among general practice specialists and interns from 14 health centres in a northern Portuguese health region. The self-report questionnaire included the Portuguese version of the Jefferson scale of physician empathy (JSPE) and a questionnaire about placebo prescription. Associations between demographic variables, JSPE score, prescription of placebo, and the attitudes to placebo score were tested with the chi-squared statistic, student t-tests for independent samples, and Pearson correlation. The study included 93 general practitioners (GP) (response rate: 74%). Placebos were prescribed by 73% (n = 68) of the respondents. GPs who prescribe placebo are significantly younger (mean age = 38.4 years; SD = 11.1; t (90) = 2.98, P empathy scores (R = 0.310, P empathy from the prescriber, especially among younger GPs.

  8. Bullying in School-aged Children in Iceland: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Kristjánsdóttir, Guðrún

    2017-06-02

    We describe the frequency and variations in bullying among a representative national sample of school-age children and examine whether sociodemographic characteristics are associated with bullying. This study is based on a cross-sectional school-based survey-the Icelandic contribution to the international research network Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The study population included all students in Iceland in grades 6, 8 and 10 (mean ages: 11, 13 and 15years, respectively) (participation rate: 84%; n=11,018). The students completed an anonymous standardized questionnaire administered in the classroom. The self-reported frequency of being victimized by bullying at least 2-3 times every month was 5.5%. A younger age, speaking a foreign language at home, not living with one's parents, and living in a rural area, were all associated with higher frequencies of being bullied. Despite efforts to reduce bullying in school, experiences of being victimized through bullying are still too common among Icelandic school-age children. Stakeholders and school health administrators should consider sociodemographic antecedents when planning interventions to reduce bullying at school. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

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    Natacha Grelat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children′s noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child′s bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child′s bedroom (p ≤ 0.01, family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03 and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05 remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health.

  10. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods : A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ(2) test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results : The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions : To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods.

  11. Anxiety and depression in Brazilian orthopaedics inpatients: a cross sectional study with a clinical sample comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2010-03-01

    There are few studies on the development of anxiety and depression in orthopaedics and trauma (O&T) inpatients. We designed a cross-sectional study aimed at comparing the prevalence of depression and anxiety in 100 O&T inpatients and 100 clinical inpatients in the same hospital. O&T patients were divided into subgroups: trauma and non-trauma (arthroplasty, tumour, and infection sub grouping). We measured anxiety and depression by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and co-morbidities by the Charlson age-adjusted comorbidity index (CCI). For the trauma subgroup, AO/OTA fracture classification and Gustillo and Anderson grade of open fractures classification was applied. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 35% and 28%, respectively for the clinical sample, and 44% and 33% for the O&T sample. Compared with the clinical sample, anxiety scores were higher in the O&T sample (p = .047), and in arthroplasty (p = .020) and trauma subgroups (p = .031). In the O&T sample, high CCI scores were associated with high anxiety scores (p = .033).

  12. Factors that influence in vitro fertilization treatment outcomes of Chinese men: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Zhang, Jing Ping; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Huayan; Shu, Ling; Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, LiPing

    2016-11-01

    The thought of producing offspring has rooted in Chinese culture after thousands of years of feudal society. Infertility in men would bear significant psychological distress in this social environment. In this study, we explored the association between the outcomes of IVF treatment and anxiety, depression, marital satisfaction, communication, sexual relationship and social support. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 202 Chinese men who received IVF treatment for the first time were investigated using socio-demographic questionnaire, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, ENRICH Marital Inventory and Social Support Rating Scale on the first day of IVF treatment. The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety was 49.1% and 27.2%, respectively. Subjects with IVF failure had higher levels of depression and anxiety, lower levels of "Marital satisfaction", "communication" and "Sexual relationship" and social support. Logistic regression analysis indicated that depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction and sexual relationship were independent predictors of IVF failure. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in Chinese men undergoing IVF was higher than that in other countries. These findings suggest that anxiety, depression, marital satisfaction, and sexual relationship are important factors leading to IVF failure. Therefore, it is important to provide psychological aid to male patients undergoing IVF treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are Nutritional Care Adequate for Elderly Hospitalized Patients? A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Helene Kjøllesdal Eide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses nutritional care in identifying and treating nutritional risk in elderly hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large Norwegian University hospital in the period 2011 to 2013. Data on nutritional risk and care for elderly patients (≥70 years without dementia were collected at 20 wards by 173 second-year nursing students in acute-care clinical studies. A stratified sampling technique was utilized to improve the representativeness of the sample. In total, 508 patients (48.8% women with a mean age of 79.6 years participated. The internationally and nationally recommended nutritional care was not implemented at the hospital, suggesting that nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients was not adequate. This implies that the majority of the elderly patients nutritionally at risk are neither identified nor treated according to their needs. The article highlights the importance of having systematic nutritional care practices to make it possible for the hospital ward staff to routinely identify nutritional risk and initiate appropriate nutritional treatment measures.

  14. Sleep patterns and insomnia among portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Odete; Garrido, António; Pereira, Carlos; Veiga, Nélio; Serpa, Carla; Sakellarides, Constantino

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate sleep patterns and insomnia are frequently linked and represent common sleep disorders among adolescents. The present study provides data on sleep patterns and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated 6,919 students from the 7th to the 12th grade from twenty-six secondary schools. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Insomnia was defined based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and daytime sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep patterns evaluated both sleep duration ("insufficient" sleep was defined as sleep 29.3%. All prevalence were higher among girls (Psleep time, on weeknights, was 8:04±1:13 hours. On average adolescents went to bed at 22:18±1:47 hours, took 21 minutes to fall asleep and woke up at 7:15±0:35 hours. Only 6.4% of adolescents stated having a regular bedtime. The majority of adolescents (90.6%) reported having difficulty waking up, 64.7% experienced daytime sleepiness and 53.3% experienced sleep during classes. There are high prevalence of inadequate sleep patterns, insufficient sleep and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. Insufficient sleep is associated with sleep patterns and social and behavioural factors. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Accuracy of spirometry for detection of asthma: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Andréa Cristina; Paulino, Ana Carolina Botto; Pereira, Luciano Penha; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with airway hyperresponsiveness. Spirometry is the most commonly used test among asthmatic patients. Another functional test used for diagnosing asthma is the bronchial challenge test. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of spirometry for detecting asthma in the general population. Cross-sectional study with data analysis to evaluate the accuracy of spirometry through calculating sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and through the kappa agreement test. Subjects who constituted a birth cohort were enrolled at the age of 23 to 25 years. Spirometric abnormality was defined as reduced forced expiratory volume in one second, i.e. lower than 80% of the predicted value. Measurement of bronchial responsiveness was performed by means of the bronchial challenge test with methacholine. The gold-standard diagnosis of asthma was defined as the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in association with respiratory symptoms. Asthma was detected in 200 subjects (10.4%) out of the sample of 1922 individuals. Spirometric abnormality was detected in 208 subjects (10.9%) of the sample. The specificity of spirometric abnormality for detecting asthma was 90%, sensitivity was 23%, positive predictive value was 22%, and negative predictive value was 91%. The kappa test revealed weak agreement of 0.13 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07-0.19) between spirometry and the diagnosis of asthma. Spirometry, as a single test, has limitations for detecting asthma in the general population.

  16. Influencing factors of alexithymia in Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaxin; Luo, Ting; Liu, Jie; Qu, Bo

    2017-04-04

    A much higher prevalence of alexithymia has been reported in medical students compared with the general population, and alexithymia is a risk factor that increases vulnerability to mental disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the level of alexithymia in Chinese medical students and to explore its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study of 1,950 medical students at Shenyang Medical College was conducted in May 2014 to evaluate alexithymia in medical students using the Chinese version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's α coefficient and mean inter-item correlations. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate construct validity. The relationships between alexithymia and influencing factors were examined using Student's t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0. Of the 1,950 medical students, 1,886 (96.7%) completed questionnaires. Overall, Cronbach's α coefficient of the TAS-20 questionnaire was 0.868. The results of CFA showed that the original three-factor structure produced an acceptable fit to the data. By univariate analysis, gender, grade (academic year of study), smoking behavior, alcohol use, physical activity, history of living with parents during childhood, and childhood trauma were influencing factors of TAS-20 scores (p students and those who are in the final year of training.

  17. Tobacco use and oral leukoplakia: cross-sectional study among the Gond tribe in Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surendra; Muniyandi, Malaisamy

    2015-01-01

    Leukoplakia is an asymptomatic and potentially malignant change in the oral mucosa and high frequencies have been reported among smokers. The present study concerned the prevalence of tobacco use and leukoplakia and also associations between the two. This cross sectional survey was conducted amongst the Gond tribal population of Kundam Block, Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh state, Central India during 2007 to 2009. Screening for leukoplakia was conducted by a medical officer with two mouth mirrors. It is only based on visual inspection and oral pathology was not performed. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and smoking habits. Prevalence of leukoplakia among users and non-users of tobacco was calculated in terms of percentages. Of 1,552 individuals aged more than 12 years of age who were screened, 144 (9.3%) were found to have oral leukoplakia. The prevalence of leukoplakia was significantly elevated among tobacco users as compared to non-users (11% vs 2.5%; pleukoplakia was almost similar in both tobacco smokers and chewers (9% vs 11%; p=0.304). However, the percentage of leukoplakia was especially high among those chewers who also smoked tobacco (21.9%). The findings of the present study showed a positive effect of tobacco use and prevalence of leukoplakia. Also the prevalence was very high among Gond tribe, a marginalized population living in central India. There is a need for effective screening and treatment of leukoplakia in this area.

  18. Adherence to anti diabetic medication among patients with diabetes in eastern Uganda; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagonza, James; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Bazeyo, William

    2015-04-19

    Lack of adherence to anti diabetic medication causes suboptimal blood sugar control among patients with diabetes and can lead to treatment failures, accelerated development of complications and increased mortality. This study assessed factors associated with adherence to anti diabetic medication in rural eastern Uganda. A cross sectional study was conducted among 521 patients with diabetes in Iganga and Bugiri hospitals between October 2012 and January 2013. Respondents were patients who were18 years and above and had been on diabetic treatment for not less than a month. Pretested questionnaires were used. Variables that were collected included socio-demographic characteristics, possible barriers to adherence, and self management efforts. Adherence was assessed using self reports. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done to determine adherence to anti diabetic medication and the associated factors. The level of adherence to anti diabetic medication was 83.3% and factors that were independently associated with adherence were; having been on anti diabetic drugs for at least three years (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.11 - 3.22), availability of diabetic drugs (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.54 - 3.70), and having ever had diabetic health education (OR = 4.24, 95% CI =1.15 - 15.60). About four in five patients adhere to anti-diabetic treatment. Strategies aimed at improving anti diabetic drug availability and providing health education could improve adherence.

  19. Apathy and suicide-related ideation 3 months after stroke: a cross-sectional study.

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    Tang, Wai Kwong; Caeiro, Lara; Lau, Chieh Grace; Liang, Huajun; Mok, Vincent; Ungvari, Gabor S; Wong, Ka Sing

    2015-04-23

    Both apathy and suicide are common in poststroke patients. However, the association between poststroke apathy and suicide-related ideation (SI) in Chinese stroke patients is not clear and poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between apathy and SI in stroke. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the association in 518 stroke survivors from Acute Stroke Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong. Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-apathy subscale (NPI-apathy) were employed to assess poststroke SI and apathy, respectively. Patients' clinical characteristics were obtained with the following scales: the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Thirty-two (6.2%) stroke survivors reported SI. The SI group had a significantly higher frequency of NPI-apathy than the non-SI group (31.2% vs 5.3%, p apathy (OR 2.955, 95% CI 1.142-7.647, p = 0.025) was a significant predictor of SI. The GDS score also predicted SI (OR 1.436, 95% CI 1.284-1.606, p apathy is an independent predictor of SI 3 months after stroke. Early screening for and intervention targeting apathy through medication and psychological treatments may be necessary to improve stroke patients' apathy and reduce SI.

  20. Is serum zinc level associated with prediabetes and diabetes?: a cross-sectional study from Bangladesh.

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    Md Rafiqul Islam

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine serum zinc level and other relevant biological markers in normal, prediabetic and diabetic individuals and their association with Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA parameters. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and December 2009. Any patient aged ≥ 30 years attending the medicine outpatient department of a medical university hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh and who had a blood glucose level ordered by a physician was eligible to participate. RESULTS: A total of 280 participants were analysed. On fasting blood sugar results, 51% were normal, 13% had prediabetes and 36% had diabetes. Mean serum zinc level was lowest in prediabetic compared to normal and diabetic participants (mean differences were approximately 65 ppb/L and 33 ppb/L, respectively. In multiple linear regression, serum zinc level was found to be significantly lower in prediabetes than in those with normoglycemia. Beta cell function was significantly lower in prediabetes than normal participants. Adjusted linear regression for HOMA parameters did not show a statistically significant association between serum zinc level, beta cell function (P = 0.07 and insulin resistance (P = 0.08. Low serum zinc accentuated the increase in insulin resistance seen with increasing BMI. CONCLUSION: Participants with prediabetes have lower zinc levels than controls and zinc is significantly associated with beta cell function and insulin resistance. Further longitudinal population based studies are warranted and controlled trials would be valuable for establishing whether zinc supplementation in prediabetes could be a useful strategy in preventing progression to Type 2 diabetes.

  1. Cat scratches, not bites, are associated with unipolar depression--cross-sectional study.

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    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2016-01-05

    A recent study performed on 1.3 million patients showed a strong association between being bitten by a cat and probability of being diagnosed with depression. Authors suggested that infection with cat parasite Toxoplasma could be the reason for this association. A cross sectional internet study on a non-clinical population of 5,535 subjects was undertaken. The subjects that reported having been bitten by a dog and a cat or scratched by a cat have higher Beck depression score. They were more likely to have visited psychiatrists, psychotherapists and neurologists in past two years, to have been previously diagnosed with depression (but not with bipolar disorder). Multivariate analysis of models with cat biting, cat scratching, toxoplasmosis, the number of cats at home, and the age of subjects as independent variables showed that only cat scratching had positive effect on depression (p = 0.004). Cat biting and toxoplasmosis had no effect on the depression, and the number of cats at home had a negative effect on depression (p = 0.021). Absence of association between toxoplasmosis and depression and five times stronger association of depression with cat scratching than with cat biting suggests that the pathogen responsible for mood disorders in animals-injured subjects is probably not the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii but another organism; possibly the agent of cat-scratched disease - the bacteria Bartonella henselae.

  2. Smartphones and professionalism: A cross-sectional study on interns and final-year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alqaryan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The smartphone is a powerful tool that can be used to improve the health care system as long as certain checks and balances are implemented. It is commonly used by health care providers and medical students. A cross-sectional study conducted at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Final-year medical students and interns were included. A survey was distributed and divided into three sections: personal technology, experiences of using smartphones during clinical rotations, and attitudes about the usage of smartphones for clinical work. A total of 156 interns and students participated in the study. All of them owned a smartphone. Three-quarters of the respondents used their mobile for personal purposes, while 71.2% used them to look up medical references and resources. Respondents also used personal mobiles to keep in contact with team members regarding patient- (29.5% and non-patientrelated issues (26.3%. Some 16% of participants did not have any security features on their smartphones. Over half the participants did not get proper instructions about using their smartphones from either their medical college or senior residents or consultants. There is a lot to be done in this area, as certain regulations need to be carried out to lead toward a world that is pro-technology, health centered, and safe.

  3. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

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    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  4. Factors influencing hospitalized patients' perception of individualized nursing care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberich, Stefan; Feuchtinger, Johanna; Farin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Individualized care is a cornerstone of patient-centered nursing care. To foster individualized care, influencing factors should be known. The aim of this study was to identify the individual and organizational factors influencing hospitalized patients' perception of individualized care. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 606 patients from 20 wards from five hospitals across Germany. Individualized care and potential influencing factors were assessed via structured questionnaires. To identify influencing factors, we applied a hierarchical linear model with two levels. Self-rated health, length of ward stay, educational level and shared decision-making process about nursing care were perceived to influence individualized care. A higher rating of health and longer ward stay correlated with improved perceptions of individualized nursing care. In addition, an educational level of nine or fewer years and a perceived shared decision-making process about nursing care positively influenced the perception of nursing care as being tailored to individual needs. Several factors influence patients' perception of individualized care. However, only the decision-making process can be actively influenced by nurses. Therefore, nurses should be encouraged to promote shared decision-making regarding patients' nursing care. DRKS00005174 (Date of registration: 2013/08/01).

  5. Suicidal Ideation in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A German Cross-sectional Study

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    Jan Dieris-Hirche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was performed to assess symptoms of suicidality, depression and anxiety in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. The study describes the relationships between these psychiatric symptoms and skin-specific factors, such as atopic dermatitis severity and skin satisfaction. A sample of 181 German patients with atopic dermatitis was compared with a control group of 64 persons with healthy skin with a similar age and sex distribution. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess suicidality (Pöldinger’s Scale, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS, quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index; DLQI, atopic dermatitis severity (Patient-Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis; PO-SCORAD and skin satisfaction (Skin Satisfaction Questionnaire; SSQ. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among patients with atopic dermatitis was high (21.3%; 3.9% scored above the cut-off that might be an indicator for acute suicidality. Depression symptoms, high severity of atopic dermatitis, lower age, and little touching within the family were identified as significant factors to predict suicidality in atopic dermatitis. Psychiatric screening in dermatological treatment of atopic dermatitis is discussed.

  6. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  7. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Factors associated with Internet addiction: Cross-sectional study of Turkish adolescents.

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    Seyrek, Sezen; Cop, Esra; Sinir, Hayati; Ugurlu, Mehmet; Şenel, Saliha

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA), and the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and IA in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 468 students aged 12-17 years at the first trimester of the 2013-2014 academic year. The students were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Conners' Teacher Rating Scale, Hollingshead-Redlich Scale, and the information form including characteristics of Internet use and socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between these factors and Internet use was examined. Approximately 1.6% of students were identified as having IA, whereas 16.2% had possible IA. There were significant correlations between IA and depression, anxiety, attention disorder and hyperactivity symptoms in adolescents. Smoking was also related to IA. There was no significant relationship between IA and age, sex, body mass index, school type, and SES. Depression, anxiety, ADHD and smoking addiction are associated with PIU in adolescent students. Preventive public health policies targeting the psychological wellbeing of young people are needed. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be add