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  1. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  2. Sarcopenic obesity and physical performance in middle aged women: a cross-sectional study in Northeast Brazil

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    Moreira, Mayle A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Vafaei, Afshin; Câmara, Saionara M. A. da; Oliveira, Tamyres S.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia and obesity have been independently associated with physical function decline, however little information is currently available on the relationship between sarcopenic obesity and physical performance, mainly in middle aged women. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and to explore the relationship between sarcopenic obesity and physical performance in middle-aged women from Northeast Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study of women (40...

  3. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

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    Helian Nunes de Oliveira; Carla Jorge Machado; Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR) and adjuste...

  4. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  5. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight in an Indigenous Population in Central Brazil: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Geraldo F. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight and associated factors in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village in Central Brazil. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study between January 2009 and July 2011 in the adult native population of the Jaguapiru village, Central Brazil. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were obtained; anthropometric measures, arterial blood pressure, and blood glucose were measured. The independent variables were tested by Poisson regression, and the interactions between them were analyzed. Results: 1,608 indigenous people (982 females, mean age 37.7 ± 15.1 years were included. The prevalence of obesity was 23.2% (95% CI 20.9-25.1%. Obesity was more prevalent among 40- to 49-year-old and overweight among 50- to 59-year-old persons. Obesity was positively associated with female sex, higher income, and hypertension. Among indigenous people, interactions were found with hypertension and sedentary lifestyle - hypertension in males and sedentary lifestyle in females. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in indigenous people of the Jaguapiru village is high. Males as well as hypertensive and higher family income individuals have higher rates. Sedentary lifestyle and hypertension leverage the rates of obesity. Prevention and adequate public health policies can be critical for the control of excess weight and its comorbidities among Brazilian indigenous people.

  6. Knowledge of family health program practitioners in Brazil about sickle cell disease: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Thiago LA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sickle cell disease is an important public health problem in Brazil, there is a gap in the literature on the level of knowledge of primary health care professionals about the treatment and management of sickle cell disease. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about sickle cell disease of physicians and nurses who work in the Family Health Program in a region of Brazil with a high prevalence of this disease. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted at the municipality of Montes Claros, in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Study participants included 96 physicians and nurses who work at the Family Health Program in an urban area of the city. Data was collected using an original, partially tested questionnaire based on health care check points for children with sickle cell disease established in educational protocols from the State Health Secretary of Minas Gerais and the Ministry of Health. The structured questionnaire contained 47 questions addressing three axes: epidemiology (8 questions; clinical manifestations (13 questions; and management of children with sickle cell disease (26 questions. Knowledge was measured through mean correct responses to proposed questions. Ethical principles were respected and this project was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research. Results 59.4% (57 of the study participants were nurses and 40.6% (39 were physicians. The median length of training and median length of service in primary health care were 4.3 (2.8-8.0 years and 4.0 (2.0-7.1 years, respectively. The mean performance in knowledge tests was Conclusion There is an urgent need to improve primary health care professional training in the care of children with sickle cell disease.

  7. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Infections in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Study

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    Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Paulino, Tony De Paiva; Soares, Siomar De Castro; De Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Araújo, Marcelo Costa; Oliveira, Carlo José

    2016-01-01

    Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues. PMID:27649224

  8. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

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    C. Murto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil’s Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5% were birth migrants, 105 (26.6% were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9% were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1 alcohol consumption, (2 separation from family/friends, and (3 difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships.

  9. Oral mucosal lesions in Indians from Northeast Brazil: cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk indicators.

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    Cury, Patricia Ramos; Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Figueiredo e Ribeiro, Livia Silva; de Aquino Xavier, Flavia Caló; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, and their risk indicators in adult Kiriri Indians from Northeast Brazil. Clinical oral examination was performed on a representative sample of 223 Indians (age ≥ 19 years). A systematic evaluation of lips, labial mucosa and sulcus, commissures, buccal mucosa and sulcus, gingiva and alveolar ridge, tongue, floor of the mouth, and soft and hard palate was performed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to assess associations between mucosal conditions and age, gender, income, educational level, diabetic status, and smoking status. Mucosal lesions were found in 50 participants (22.4%). The most prevalent lesions were fistulae (6.2%) and traumatic ulcers (4.48%). Oral mucosal was associated with higher age (≥ 35 years; odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.76, P = 0.03) and lower education level (<9 years; OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 0.96-4.71, P = 0.06). Mucosal conditions are prevalent in Kiriri Indians and the presence of mucosal lesions is associated with advanced age and lower education. A public health program aimed at preventing and treating mucosal lesions and targeted toward the high-risk group is vital to improve the oral health status of this population.

  10. Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil

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    C.A.T. Pinheiro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected adults being treated with antiretroviral drugs at a reference service in Southern Brazil. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were tested by scales assessing sociocognitive variables. Adherence to treatment was assessed by a self-report inventory developed for the study. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' records. Significance tests were conducted using univariate logistic regressions followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients participated in the study and 56.9% of them reported > or = 95% adherence on the previous two days. In univariate analysis, the odds of adherence increased with self-efficacy (a person's conviction that he/she can successfully execute the behavior required to produce a certain desired outcome in taking medications as prescribed (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.90-6.55, and decreased with perception of negative affect and physical concerns (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95. The odds were lower for taking antiretroviral medications >4 times a day (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.94 and higher for patients with 8 years of schooling (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.12-4.66. In the multivariate analysis, self-efficacy (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.69-6.56 and taking medication >4 times a day (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80 were independently associated with adherence. Self-efficacy was the most important predictor of adherence, followed by number of times antiretroviral medication was taken per day. Among sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the number of years of schooling was associated with adherence. Motivational interventions based on self-efficacy may be useful for increasing treatment adherence.

  11. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

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    Helian Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6% and men (57.8%. Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59, age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o. (aOR = 1.40, lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73 and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69. Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o. (aOR = 1.90, history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71, previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.52, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.41, lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine (aOR = 1.54, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.47, lifetime history of incarceration (aOR = 2.07. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of physical violence in this population was high for both sexes. Although there were similar factors independently associated with physical violence among men and women, there are important differences, such as age of sexual debut and lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use for women, but not for men, while younger age, history of homelessness, and lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were associated factors for men only. Screening for history of violence upon admission and early

  12. The association of intrafamilial violence against children with symptoms of atopic and non-atopic asthma: A cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil

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    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the types of intrafamilial violence perpetrated against children according to living conditions, family factors, and child characteristics, and to identify the association between types of intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,370 caregivers as part of the Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) study, conducted in 2006 in Brazil. The study population was sel...

  13. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil

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    Andrew eKemp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD. Tricyclic antidepressants are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants are freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35 to 74 from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. CHD (n=710 included stable angina, myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted and multivariate (adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA use (n=156 was associated with a 2-fold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n=14,076. Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a three-fold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.962, 95% CI: 1.413-6.210 and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.915, 95% CI: 1.275-6.662. There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusions: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil.

  14. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  15. Medical students’ personal choice for mode of delivery in Santa Catarina, Brazil: a cross-sectional, quantitative study

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    Watanabe Tatiane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in overall rates of cesarean sections (CS in Brazil causes concern and it appears that multiple factors are involved in this fact. In 2009, undergraduate students in the first and final years of medical school at the University of Santa Catarina answered questionnaires regarding their choice of mode of delivery. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the education process affects decision-making regarding the waay of childbirth preferred by medical students. Methods A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted based on data obtained from questionnaires applied to medical students. The questions addressed four different scenarios in childbirth, as follows: under an uneventful pregnancy; the mode of delivery for a pregnant woman under their care; the best choice as a healthcare manager and lastly, choosing the birth of their own child. For each circumstance, there was an open question to explain their choice. Results A total of 189 students answered the questionnaires. For any uneventful pregnancy and for a pregnant woman under their care, 8.46% of the students would opt for CS. As a healthcare manager, only 2.64% of the students would recommend CS. For these three scenarios, the answers of the students in the first year did not differ from those given by students in the sixth year. In the case of the student’s own or a partner’s pregnancy, 41.4% of those in the sixth year and 16.8% of those in the first year would choose a CS. A positive association was found between being a sixth year student and a personal preference for CS according to logistic regression (OR = 2.91; 95%CI: 1.03–8.30. Pain associated with vaginal delivery was usually the reason for choosing a CS. Conclusions A higher number of sixth year students preferred a CS for their own pregnancy (or their partner’s compared to first year students. Pain associated with vaginal delivery was the most common reason given for haven chosen

  16. Socio-demographic caracteristics and prevalence of risk factors in a hypertensive and diabetics population: a cross-sectional study in primary health care in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baldisserotto, Julio; Luciane KOPITTKE; Nedel, Fulvio Borges; Takeda, Silvia Pasa; Mendonça, Claunara Schilling; Sirena, Sérgio Antonio; Diercks, Margarita Silva; de Lima, Lena Azeredo; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and their related morbidity and mortality, are currently the most common public health problems and also a higher burden of disease in Brazil. They represent a real challenge for primary health care. This study describes the methodology and baseline data of an adult population with hypertension and diabetes attending in primary health care. Methods It is a cross sectional study which presents data from a longitudinal research. 3...

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil, 2005 through 2009: a cross-sectional study

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    Pereira Leila MMB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C chronic liver disease is a major cause of liver transplant in developed countries. This article reports the first nationwide population-based survey conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies and associated risk factors in the urban population of Brazil. Methods The cross sectional study was conducted in all Brazilian macro-regions from 2005 to 2009, as a stratified multistage cluster sample of 19,503 inhabitants aged between 10 and 69 years, representing individuals living in all 26 State capitals and the Federal District. Hepatitis C antibodies were detected by a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Seropositive individuals were retested by Polymerase Chain Reaction and genotyped. Adjusted prevalence was estimated by macro-regions. Potential risk factors associated with HCV infection were assessed by calculating the crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI and p values. Population attributable risk was estimated for multiple factors using a case–control approach. Results The overall weighted prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies was 1.38% (95% CI: 1.12%–1.64%. Prevalence of infection increased in older groups but was similar for both sexes. The multivariate model showed the following to be predictors of HCV infection: age, injected drug use (OR = 6.65, sniffed drug use (OR = 2.59, hospitalization (OR = 1.90, groups socially deprived by the lack of sewage disposal (OR = 2.53, and injection with glass syringe (OR = 1.52, with a borderline p value. The genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a were identified. The estimated population attributable risk for the ensemble of risk factors was 40%. Approximately 1.3 million individuals would be expected to be anti-HCV-positive in the country. Conclusions The large estimated absolute numbers of infected individuals reveals the burden of the disease in the near future, giving rise to costs for the health care

  18. Knowledge among physical education professionals about poliomyelitis and post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study in Brazil

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    Sousa BS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira,1 Taíza Márcia de Almeida Alves,1 Luiz Fernando Peixinho-Pena,2 Bolivar Saldanha Sousa,3,4 Marcos Gonçalves de Santana,1 Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro,1 Marilia dos Santos Andrade,2 Rodrigo Luiz Vancini21Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, 2Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome is a clinical condition that can affect poliomyelitis survivors with the onset of new symptoms several years after the acute disease. These symptoms include new muscular weakness, fatigue, pain, onset or aggravation of muscle atrophy, muscle cramps, onset or aggravation of pre-existing difficulties in accomplishing daily life activities, cold intolerance, sleep disorders, dysphonia or dysphagia, and respiratory deficiency. The treatment of post-poliomyelitis syndrome requires a multiprofessional health team because the rehabilitation procedures include lifestyle changes, physiotherapy, avoidance of secondary complications, and physical exercise. As physical exercise is prescribed by physical education professionals, the assessment of knowledge about post-poliomyelitis syndrome among these professionals is very relevant. The aim of this study was to evaluate poliomyelitis and post-poliomyelitis syndrome knowledge among physical education professionals in Brazil.Methods: We invited participants with an academic degree in physical education (n = 217 to participate in this study. A self-administered survey (30 questions was designed to probe knowledge about poliomyelitis and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. From the survey, we created a questionnaire to evaluate the performance of the professionals. The questionnaire was composed of 20

  19. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

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    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries.

  20. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

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    Fabiana Caroline daSilva; Cleto Mariosvaldo Piazzetta; Cassius Carvalho Torres-Pereira; Juliana Lucena Schussel; José Miguel Amenábar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do ...

  1. The association of intrafamilial violence against children with symptoms of atopic and non-atopic asthma: A cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to describe the types of intrafamilial violence perpetrated against children according to living conditions, family factors, and child characteristics, and to identify the association between types of intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,370 caregivers as part of the Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) study, conducted in 2006 in Brazil. The study population was selected by random sampling. The main outcome measures were atopic and non-atopic asthma. We investigate the association between intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A backward multivariate logistic polytomous regression was performed to verify the main association. Nonviolent discipline (NVD) and maltreatment nonviolent discipline (MNVD) were positively associated with non-atopic asthma symptoms (NVD: odds ratio (OR)=1.95/95% confidence interval (CI)=1.17-3.25; MNVD: OR=1.95/95% CI=1.19-3.20). However, for the most severe intrafamilial violence, this association was not found after control of potential confounders. This study demonstrates the effect of types of intrafamilial violence on non-atopic asthma. Intrafamilial violence against children represents one more component in the determination of non-atopic asthma in Latin America. PMID:26149733

  2. The association of intrafamilial violence against children with symptoms of atopic and non-atopic asthma: A cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Camila Barreto; dos Santos, Darci Neves; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to describe the types of intrafamilial violence perpetrated against children according to living conditions, family factors, and child characteristics, and to identify the association between types of intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,370 caregivers as part of the Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) study, conducted in 2006 in Brazil. The study population was selected by random sampling. The main outcome measures were atopic and non-atopic asthma. We investigate the association between intrafamilial violence and asthma symptoms in atopic and non-atopic children. A backward multivariate logistic polytomous regression was performed to verify the main association. Nonviolent discipline (NVD) and maltreatment nonviolent discipline (MNVD) were positively associated with non-atopic asthma symptoms (NVD: odds ratio (OR)=1.95/95% confidence interval (CI)=1.17-3.25; MNVD: OR=1.95/95% CI=1.19-3.20). However, for the most severe intrafamilial violence, this association was not found after control of potential confounders. This study demonstrates the effect of types of intrafamilial violence on non-atopic asthma. Intrafamilial violence against children represents one more component in the determination of non-atopic asthma in Latin America.

  3. Mercury exposure, malaria, and serum antinuclear/antinucleolar antibodies in amazon populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Burek CL; Souza Jose M; Santos Elizabeth CO; Ventura Ana MRS; Perisse Andre; Gorman Andrew; Nyland Jennifer F; Silva Ines A; Rose Noel R; Silbergeld Ellen K

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Mercury is an immunotoxic metal that induces autoimmune disease in rodents. Highly susceptible mouse strains such as SJL/N, A.SW, B10.S (H-2s) develop multiple autoimmune manifestations after exposure to inorganic mercury, including lymphoproliferation, elevated levels of autoantibodies, overproduction of IgG and IgE, and circulating immune complexes in kidney and vasculature. A few studies have examined relationships between mercury exposures and adverse immunological rea...

  4. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Caroline daSilva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009 was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%, followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%, gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%, and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%. Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence.

  5. DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil

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    Rodrigo Queiroz Aleixo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth index and the prevalence of candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, aphthous ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, as well as the association with TCD4 count, viral load (VL and antiretroviral therapy (ART in 140 HIV-infected adult individuals. A standardized examination to determine the DMFT index and the presence of oral lesions was conducted. Demographic data, TCD4 count and use of ART were obtained from medical records. A high number of decayed teeth detected among patients undergoing ART resulted in a mean DMFT of 16.9 teeth. It was observed that 24.2% of the individuals had at least one oral lesion. Candidiasis was the most frequent lesion and was associated with the TCD4 count. Oral hairy leukoplakia was associated with an increased VL. Regular use of ART was inversely associated with the occurrence of lesions. Overall, the studied population showed low prevalence of oral lesions and high DMFT index. The use of ART seems to reduce the occurrence of these lesions. Higher TCD4 count and a lower VL were associated with an improved oral health status in HIV + individuals

  6. Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor dysfunctions in female athletes in Brazil: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M B A; Barra, A A; Saltiel, F; Silva-Filho, A L; Fonseca, A M R M; Figueiredo, E M

    2016-09-01

    The pelvic floor (PF) provides support to all pelvic organs, as well as appropriately closure/opening mechanism of the urethra, vagina, and anus. Therefore, it is likely that female athletes involved in high-impact and in strong-effort activities are at risk for the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of UI and other PF dysfunctions (PFD) [anal incontinence (AI), symptoms of constipation, dyspareunia, vaginal laxity, and pelvic organ prolapse] in 67 amateur athletes (AT) compared with a group 96 of nonathletes (NAT). An ad hoc survey based on questions from reliable and valid instruments was developed to investigate the occurrence of PFD symptoms. The risk of UI was higher in AT group (odds ratio: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.50-5.61), mostly among artistic gymnastics and trampoline, followed by swimming and judo athletes. Whereas, AT group reported less straining to evacuate (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96), manual assistance to defecate (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05-1.12), and a higher stool frequency (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.64) than NAT group. The occurrence of loss of gas and sexual symptoms was high for both groups when compared with literature, although with no statistical difference between them. Pelvic organ prolapse was only reported by nonathletes. Athletes are at higher risk to develop UI, loss of gas, and sexual dysfunctions, either practicing high-impact or strong-effort activities. Thus, pelvic floor must be considered as an entity and addressed as well. Also, women involved in long-term high-impact and strengthening sports should be advised of the impact of such activities on pelvic floor function and offered preventive PFD strategies as well. PMID:26369504

  7. Menstrual bleeding patterns: A community-based cross-sectional study among women aged 18-45 years in Southern Brazil

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    Pereira Guilherme AR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population variation in the duration and amount of menstrual bleeding has received little attention in the literature. This study describes these characteristics and investigates the distribution of self-perceived amount of menstrual bleeding according to socio-demographic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 years old women users of the 31 primary health care (PHC facilities in Pelotas city (Brazil. Interviews with structured questionnaire were carried out in the waiting rooms during two work shifts. Heaviness of menstrual bleeding was determined through the answer to the question: "Usually how much blood do you lose in every period?" Crude and adjusted analyses through Poisson regression took into account the aggregation per PHC facility. Results A total of 865 women were enrolled. Prevalence of heavy menstrual flow was 35.3% (95% CI 32.1-38.6%. In adjusted analyses, heavy menstrual bleeding was higher among the older, less educated and obese women, with higher number of pregnancies and who reported longer menstrual periods, extra-menstrual bleeding and clots in the flow. Use of hormonal contraceptive methods was protective against heavy menses. Conclusion Heavy menstrual bleeding is highly prevalent at the community level, and is associated with socio-demographic and anthropometric women's characteristics, as well as with duration of menstruation, extra-bleeding and presence of clots.

  8. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), low educational level (p=0.05), and lower income (p=0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  9. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

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    Trevisani Virgínia FM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians. A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although

  10. Who are the children and adolescent patients of a national referral service of eating disorders in Brazil?: a cross-sectional study of a clinical sample

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    Vanessa Dentzien Pinzon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%. Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our young Brazilian patients with ED present epidemiological and symptomatic characteristics very similar to those found in the scientific literature, including a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. The higher frequency of full syndrome ED, the predominance of cases with an early onset, the delay in beginning specialized treatment, and the more severe state of inpatients provide grounds for concern because these factors differ from what has been reported in reference studies and indicate greater ED severity.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants

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    Santos Betânia R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Methods Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232, TaqI (rs731236, and BsmI (rs1544410 SNPs. Results The median and interquartile range (25-75% of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 – 84.9. The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/mL were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20–29 ng/mL; and deficient in 36.3% (vs. GA + AA, two-tailed Student’s t-test p vs. GT + TT, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.031 and TaqI (TT vs. TC + CC, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.005 SNPs and the GGT haplotype (two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.036 were significantly associated with lower 25(OHD levels. Conclusions 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in this sample. The BsmI, ApaI and TaqI wild variants of the VDR gene, as well as the GGT haplotype, were associated with lower vitamin D levels, suggesting that VDR gene polymorphisms could be linked to higher susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency in a sub-population of children and adolescents.

  12. SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN THE "BAIXADA OCIDENTAL MARANHENSE", STATE OF MARANHÃO, BRAZIL: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES PERFORMED IN 1987 AND 1993

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    Raimundo Nonato Martins CUTRIM

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in three sites of the "Baixada Ocidental Maranhense" was carried out in 1993 in: Alegre (in the municipality of São Bento, Aliança (in Cururupu and Coroatá II (in the municipality of São João Batista. Results were compared to those of another study performed at the same sites and in similar conditions, in 1987. The entire population of the three sites, with few exceptions, was submitted to fecal tests using the Kato-Katz method and immediate intradermal tests for schistosomiasis in both studies. Subjects with positive results in one of these tests were clinically evaluated by a physical examination. In 1993, the total of 827 subjects were submitted to fecal examination and 826 to intradermal test. Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in the feces of 154 (18.6% subjects, while 478 (57.9% subjects presented a positive intradermal test. Stool examination was carried out in 367 subjects in Alegre with a positivity rate of 14.9%; the intradermal test, performed in 366 subjects, was positive in 47.5% of the cases. In Aliança, 277 subjects had their feces examined and were submitted to an intradermal test, with a positivity rate of 34.4% and 70.7%, respectively. Finally in Coroatá II, 183 inhabitants submitted to fecal and intradermal tests had positivity rates of 2.2% and 59.0%, respectively. When the present data were compared to those obtained in the survey performed in 1987, a significant decrease in the prevalence of infection by S. mansoni was observed in Alegre and Coroatá II, and a prevalence increase in Aliança.Esquistossomose mansoni na Baixada Ocidental Maranhense, Estado do Maranhão, Brasil: estudos transversais realizados em 1987 e 1993 Realizou-se, em 1993, estudo transversal acerca da ocorrência de esquistossomose mansoni em três localidades da Baixada Ocidental Maranhense: Alegre (município de São Bento, Aliança (município de Cururupu e Coroatá II

  13. Assessment of radioactivity level in granite stones sold to ornamental and building purposes in Brazilian Amazon region (Belem, PA, Brazil): a cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Y.M.; Santos, R.J.C.; Teixeira, C.E.C., E-mail: cecteixeira@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade da Amazonia (UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Radiologia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the level of radioactivity in granite sold in the region of Belem (Para, Brazil) using a Geiger-Mueller detector. The results showed that only 5 from 57 samples of 35 types of granite evaluated had count rates above that measured in the background. However, the counting statistics suggests that the measured radiation values in these 5 samples are not due random fluctuations inherent in such measures. (author)

  14. Factors associated with Group A Streptococcus emm type diversification in a large urban setting in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Reis Mitermayer G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A Streptococcus (GAS strain diversity varies across different regions of the world, according to low versus high-income countries. These differences may be related to geographic, environmental, socioeconomic, or host-related factors. However, local factors may also affect strain diversity. We compared the emm types of GAS isolates from children with and without sore throat in one large urban setting in Brazil. Methods Children 3-15 years of age were consecutively recruited from slum and non-slum pediatric outpatient clinics between April-October, 2008. Throat cultures were performed and data intake forms were completed. GAS isolates were typed by emm sequencing. Results From 2194 children, 254 (12% GAS isolates were obtained. Of 238 GAS isolates that were emm-typed, 61 unique emm types were identified. Simpson's diversity index of the emm types was higher among isolates from slum children [97% (96%-98%] than those of non-slum children [92% (89%-96%]. Two emm types (66.0, 12.0 were more frequently isolated from children with sore throat (p emm type (27G.0 demonstrated a protective effect. Conclusions The emm type diversity from children attending slum clinics resembled the emm diversity of low income countries rather than that of children attending a non-slum clinic in the same city. Local factors, such as crowding, may enhance the frequency of GAS transmission and horizontal gene transfers that contribute to increased strain diversity in the slums. GAS vaccine coverage and control of GAS infections will need to take these local factors and strain differences into consideration.

  15. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children

    OpenAIRE

    Almerich Silla, José Manuel; Montiel Company, José María; Bellot Arcís, Carlos; Puertes Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a ...

  16. Stress in medical students: A cross sectional study

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    Chauhan, Hiteshkumar Muktilal; Shah, Hirendra R; Chauhan, Sumitraben Hiteshkumar; Chaudhary, Sucheta M

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Stress occurs when pressure is greater than resources available. Medical education has many factors causing stress among the medical students. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of stress among medical students and to know the factors causing stress in them.Methods: This is a cross sectional study, conducted on the Ist MBBS to III/IInd MBBS students of B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, using a semistructured self administered questionnaire, in Oct...

  17. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhei Suzuki; Dai Tamesue; Kentaro Asahi; Yoshiki Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness...

  18. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yadava Bapurao Jeve; Christna Oppenhemier; Justin Konje

    2015-01-01

    Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work e...

  19. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

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    Renata Santos Tourinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  20. Unprotected sex among men who have sex with men living with HIV in Brazil: a cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Cynthia Braga; De Boni, Raquel Brandini; Guimarães, Maria Regina Cotrim; Yanavich, Carolyn; Veloso, Valdilea Gonçalves; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismerio; Hoagland, Brenda; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Friedman, Ruth Khalili

    2014-01-01

    Background Many countries are facing concentrated HIV epidemics among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the main HIV transmission route among them and its understanding in the different cultures and how it relates to HIV transmission, re-infection and development of HIV antiretroviral resistance has important public health implications. Data on UAI among Brazilian MSM are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence ...

  1. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  2. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 at baseline (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (N = 721) included self-reported angina pectoris (n = 305), myocardial infarction (n = 259) and coronary revascularization (n = 239). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: Major findings indicate that comorbid MDD and anxiety disorders (n = 434) are associated with a threefold increase in CHD, MDD alone (n = 170) with a twofold increase in CHD, while generalized anxiety disorder alone (n = 1,394) and mixed anxiety and depression disorder (n = 1,844) – symptoms present, but diagnostic threshold not reached – are associated with a 1.5-fold increase in CHD, after full adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: The association with CHD is greatest in those with psychiatric comorbidity, while associations were also observed in MDD and generalized anxiety disorder without comorbidity. While findings are limited by the cross-sectional design of the study, given the known risks associated with comorbidity of the mood and anxiety disorders with CHD, findings reinforce the importance of comprehensive health assessment in Brazil. PMID:25762963

  3. Vulnerability to Sexual Victimization in Female and Male College Students in Brazil: Cross-Sectional and Prospective Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreu, Lylla Cysne Frota; Krahé, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Using both cross-sectional and prospective analyses, this study examined vulnerability factors for sexual victimization in 541 female and male Brazilian college students, of whom a subgroup of 250 took part in two measurements 6 months apart. Risk factors for sexual victimization (alcohol consumption, casual sex, and ambiguous communication) in participants' cognitive scripts for consensual sex were linked to sexual victimization via their translation into risky sexual behavior. Pornography use was indirectly linked to sexual victimization through its influence on risky sexual scripts and sexual behavior. Child sexual abuse predicted sexual victimization in the cross-sectional analysis, and victimization since age 14 predicted revictimization in the six months covered by the prospective period. Few gender differences were found. This study is the first prospective investigation of vulnerability factors for sexual victimization in Brazil, and similarities to evidence from North America are discussed. PMID:25795529

  4. INJURIES IN DISC GOLF - A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2016-01-01

    social media, and around disc-golf courses in Denmark. The questionnaire included questions regarding disc-golf participation and the characteristics of injuries acquired through disc golf participation. The data was analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: An injury prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.7% to 19...... was to investigate the prevalence and anatomic distribution of injuries acquired through disc-golf participation in Danish disc golf players. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted on Danish disc-golf players. In May 2015, invitations to complete a web-based questionnaire were spread online via.......9%) was reported amongst the 105 disc-golf players who completed the questionnaire. The anatomical locations most commonly affected by injury were the shoulder (31%) and the elbow (20%). Injuries affecting the players at the time of completion of the questionnaire had a median duration of 240 days (IQR 1410 days...

  5. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

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    Hicks S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  6. Employee Engagement within the NHS: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Yadava Bapurao Jeve

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES at a teaching hospital. Methods We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both. The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001. However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  7. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

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    Getasew Legas Molla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  8. Study of Frequency Selective Surfaces on Radar Cross Section Reduction

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    M.Y. Ismail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With recent technology in radar cross section reduction (RCSR, a periodic array of frequency selective surfaces (FSSs which exploits a non-metallic ground plane and slot embedded in the patch elements have been presented. In this study, the single layer FSSs with different incidence angles and substrate thicknesses have been investigated and simulated at the X-band frequency range using CST computer model. Based on the FSSs design, the minimum reflection response is shown to be -74.68 dB while the minimum RCS is -5577 dBm2 occurred at the incidence angle which is equal to 75 degree. Moreover, the maximum value of RCS at -4417 dBm2 has been observed when the incident wave and observer is located at the 0 degree which is offers maximum RCS reduction. Analysis of the CST computer model has been integrated with MATLAB 7 to show the reliability of the two computer model in order to study the feasibility of reflection response in reducing RCS. RCS calculations have been carried out using MATLAB 7 computer model in order to investigate the performance of minimum reflection response which offers reduction in RCS. From the simulated results, it can be concluded that, 75 degree’s incidence angles offered the best performance on RCS reduction due to the angles of incidence, minimum reflection response and lower surface current distribution.

  9. Child and adolescent labor and smoking: a cross-sectional study in southern Brazil A associação entre trabalho de crianças e adolescentes e tabagismo: um estudo transversal no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinel Mór Dall'Agnol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the association between smoking and child and adolescent labor among 3,269 individuals 10 to 17 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil (excluding higher income census tracts in 1998. Adjusted hierarchical analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of child labor was 13.8%. Current smoking prevalence was 6.3% in the sample as a whole (15.7% among working versus 3.4% among non-working children. In the multivariate analysis, smoking was significantly associated with child labor, with a prevalence ratio of 1.75 (95%CI: 1.30-2.36. Smoking was also associated with family characteristics (lower maternal schooling, mother currently without husband/partner, household members with alcohol or drug problems, single mother, and history of serious injuries, and the children's characteristics (age greater than 16 years, inadequate school performance, and externalizing behavior. The findings point to smoking as one of the harmful consequences of child labor and suggest the workplace as an appropriate target for smoking prevention.Este estudo transversal avaliou a associação entre o tabagismo e o trabalho de crianças e adolescentes, através de análise multivariada hierárquica por regressão de Poisson. Foram entrevistados, em seus domicílios, 3.269 jovens (10 a 17 anos, da população urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (excluídas áreas de maior renda, em 1998. A prevalência de trabalho infantil foi 13,8%. As prevalências de tabagismo atual foram 6,3% na amostra, 15,7% entre trabalhadores e 3,4% entre não trabalhadores. Após o ajuste para fatores de confusão, o tabagismo manteve-se associado ao trabalho infantil com razão de prevalência de 1,75 (IC95%: 1,30-2,36. O tabagismo manteve-se associado a características da família (menor escolaridade da dona da casa, ausência de seu companheiro, problemas como uso de álcool ou drogas, mãe solteira e acidente

  10. Women and tobacco: A cross sectional study from North India

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    S Kathirvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a leading risk factor for different types of diseases globally. Tobacco smoking by women is culturally unacceptable in India, but still women smoke tobacco at various times of their life. Aims: The aim was to estimate the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among women and to study the associated sociodemographic factors. Settings And Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 30 years or over in an urban resettlement colony for the migrant population at Chandigarh, India. Methodology: The study included women used tobacco products on one or more days within the past 30 days. Through systematic random sampling, 262 women were studied. As a part of the study 144 bidi smoking women were interviewed using detailed semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing with Chi-squared test and logistic regression were done using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: Overall, the prevalence of tobacco use was 29.4% and that of bidi, zarda and hookah were 19.8%, 8.8%, and 2.7%, respectively. Around 6.2% women used tobacco during pregnancy. Teenage was the most common age of initiation of bidi smoking. Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of tobacco use was high among Hindu unemployed women with no formal education belonged to scheduled caste, and those having grandchildren. Conclusions: This study highlighted high rates of tobacco use and explored both individual and family factors related to tobacco use among women. Affordable, culturally acceptable, sustainable and gender-sensitive individual and community-specific interventions will reduce the prevalence and effects of tobacco use.

  11. Annual Cross-Sectional Study of Nurse-Sensitive Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Jane; Tewes, Marianne; Overgaard, Dorthe;

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional evaluation of nurse-sensitive problems in hospitalized patients is conducted once per year to monitor patient problems identified by nurses, whether nurses implement interventions to overcome the problems, and if the problems are solved. This article describes a systematic metho...

  12. A prática de amamentar entre mulheres que exercem trabalho remunerado na Paraíba, Brasil: um estudo transversal Breastfeeding practices among paid working mothers in Paraíba State, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estar no mercado de trabalho não deve impedir a mulher de amamentar. A Organização Mundial de Saúde preconiza o aleitamento materno exclusivo até seis meses de vida. No Brasil as leis propiciam à mulher trabalhadora quatro meses de licença maternidade, mas nem sempre ela recebe este benefício. Assim, como praticar amamentação exclusiva? Este artigo objetiva descrever as taxas de aleitamento materno e se o trabalho remunerado interfere na amamentação de mães da Paraíba. Trata-se de estudo transversal em 70 de 223 municípios que aceitaram participar da pesquisa na campanha de vacinação em 2002. Em 11.076 crianças menores de um ano, a prevalência de amamentação exclusiva foi de 22,4% de 0-4 meses e foi significativamente maior entre as mães que trabalhavam fora e que tiveram licença maternidade. Entre estas, foi também menor a prevalência de amamentação total e predominante. Na zona rural o trabalho fora de casa esteve associado com a redução do aleitamento materno exclusivo. A prática do amamentar na Paraíba está muito aquém das recomendações e o retorno precoce da mãe ao trabalho agrava esta situação.Paid work should not be an obstacle to women's breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. In Brazil, women are legally entitled to 4 months of maternity leave, but in practice few women enjoy such benefits. How is it possible to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months? We analyzed both the breastfeeding rates and whether paid jobs interfere with breastfeeding in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 70 of 223 municipalities (counties during the annual immunization campaign in 2002. Among 11,076 infants (< 12 months of age, the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 0-4 months was 22.4% and was significantly higher among working women receiving maternity leave as compared to those who did not. The prevalence of total and

  13. Optimizing muscle power after stroke: a cross-sectional study

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    Stavric Verna A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide and results in muscle performance deficits and limitations in activity performance. Rehabilitation aims to address muscle dysfunction in an effort to improve activity and participation. While muscle strength has an impact on activity performance, muscle power has recently been acknowledged as contributing significantly to activity performance in this population. Therefore, rehabilitation efforts should include training of muscle power. However, little is known about what training parameters, or load, optimize muscle power performance in people with stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate lower limb muscle power performance at differing loads in people with and without stroke. Methods A cross-sectional study design investigated muscle power performance in 58 hemiplegic and age matched control participants. Lower limb muscle power was measured using a modified leg press machine at 30, 50 and 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM strength. Results There were significant differences in peak power between involved and uninvolved limbs of stroke participants and between uninvolved and control limbs. Peak power was greatest when pushing against a load of 30% of 1RM for involved, uninvolved and control limbs. Involved limb peak power irrespective of load (Mean:220 ± SD:134 W was significantly lower (p  Conclusions Significant power deficits were seen in both the involved and uninvolved limbs after stroke. Maximal muscle power was produced when pushing against lighter loads. Further intervention studies are needed to determine whether training of both limbs at lighter loads (and higher velocities are preferable to improve both power and activity performance after stroke.

  14. Hypovitaminosis D in Delirium: a Retrospective Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jennifer; Hategan, Ana; Bourgeois, James A.; Tisi, Daniel K.; Xiong, Glen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background As vitamin D may have a neuroprotective effect, the authors studied the association of biomarkers of vitamin D status and delirium to see if low vitamin D status was common in delirium cases. Methods Biochemical measures of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD]) and calcium metabolism were used in this retrospective cross-sectional analysis of adult in-patients with delirium, admitted at three Canadian academic hospitals from January 2011 to July 2012. Primary outcome was to determine estimates of the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in this group in whom vitamin D was checked. Results Seventy-one (5.8%) out of 1,232 delirium inpatients had their vitamin D measured. Thirty-nine (55%) showed vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD of 25-75 nmol/L) and 8 (11%) showed vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD < 25 nmol/L). Mean serum 25-OHD levels were lower in males (57.1±7.7 nmol/L) than in females (78.2±6.1 nmol/L), p = .01, even when controlled for age and season. Men were younger than the women (74.4±2.3 vs. 82.4±1.7, p = .005). Mean age was 78.7±1.5 years, and 33 (47%) were male. Conclusions Although vitamin D is rarely checked during delirium workup and/or management, high rates of hypovitaminosis D were found to be common in the delirium in-patients in whom it was checked. Larger studies would be needed to estimate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in delirium and whether hypovitaminosis D plays a role in the pathogenesis of delirium. PMID:24278095

  15. Alcohol misuse among university staff: a cross-sectional study.

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    Susanna Awoliyi

    Full Text Available To examine the prevalence of hazardous drinking among staff in a UK university and its association with key socio-demographic features.A cross-sectional study.A university in the UK.All employees on the university employee database were eligible to participate. Those who completed and returned the questionnaire were included in the sample. Respondents were 131 university employees.An AUDIT cut-off score of ≥8 was used as a measure of hazardous drinking. AUDIT total score as well as a score of ≥1 in each of the three conceptual domains of alcohol consumption (questions 1-3, dependence symptoms (questions 4-6 and alcohol-related problems (questions 7-10 were used as indicators of levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Secondary outcomes were employees' demographics.Over one third (35% of respondents were classified as hazardous drinkers. Twenty three per cent reported having blackouts after drinking and 14% had injuries or had injured someone. The odds of being a hazardous drinker for an employee in central departments (Human Resources, Registry etc is only one third of that of an employee in science and health-related departments (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.91. The proportion of hazardous drinkers was higher in males compared to females (43% and 30% respectively, part-time compared to full-time (46% and 34% respectively, and academic compared to non-academic employees (39% and 32% respectively, although these were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Furthermore, age, religion and ethnic origin were not found to be significantly associated with hazardous drinking, although total scores were significantly lower for ethnic minorities compared to white employees (p = 0.019.In this study, hazardous drinking was highly prevalent among university employees. However, overt recruiting of staff to address sensitive issues such as alcohol misuse is problematic.

  16. The physics of neutrino cross sections: theoretical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The present status of neutrino cross section physics is reviewed focusing on the recent theoretical developments in quasielastic scattering, multi-nucleon contributions to the inclusive scattering and pion production on nucleons and nuclei. A good understanding of these processes is crucial to meet the precision needs of neutrino oscillation experiments. Some of the challenges that arise in the consistent description of MiniBooNE and MINERvA recent data are discussed.

  17. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  18. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

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    Homero Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages by a selective sample of Mexican population. Methods: Cross-sectional sample of 1,492 male and female adults between 18-65 years of age, drawn from 16 cities throughout Mexico. Self-reported fluid intake data collected over a 7-day consecutive period, recording intake of water, milk and derivatives, hot beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB, alcoholic beverages and others. Results: We found that 87.5% of adult males and 65.4% of adult females reported drinking below their recommended daily fluid intake (3 L for males and 2 L for females, and in 80% of the population SSB, not including hot beverages or milk and derivatives, accounted for a larger amount and proportion of fluid intake than plain water. Sixty-five percent of adult males and 66% of adult females consumed more than 10% of their estimated daily caloric intake from fluids. Fluid intake did not differ significantly by gender, but showed a declining trend with age. Conclusion: Our findings may have important implications for policy recommendations, as part of comprehensive strategies to promote the adoption of healthy life styles, in this case, promoting consumption of plain water while discouraging excessive consumption of caloric beverages.

  19. Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Cassiano L S; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R; Jair L. F. Santos; Pinsky, Ilana; Zaleski, Marcos; Caetano, Raul; Crippa, José Alexandre S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage ...

  20. Study on evaluation of a linear cross section model in 3-dimensional core analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Goo; Yang, Chae Yong; Jang, Chang Sun; Jung, Hoon Young; Kim, Hho Jung

    2005-02-15

    The previous studies provided that the ejection rod worth and enthalpy rise have a significant error due to a linear approximation of the cross sections in the analysis of rod ejection accident using a 3-dimensional core kinetics method. This study undertakes the validations of a linear approximation model for the cross sections used in the 3-dimensional core kinetics method. The linear approximation model for the cross sections consists of several parameters related with boron concentration, fuel temperature, coolant temperature and density, etc., but this study examines for the parameter related with boron concentration. At first, a reference boron concentration set are selected, and the corresponding linear parameter are calculated by CASMO-3 code. Another two sets are selected, and their parameters are also calculated. The relative errors are calculated form the cross sections for these 3 cases. For their study, 3 types of fuel are chosen, which are representative of fresh fuel, medium burnup and high burnup. Also, 9 cross sections of 2 energy groups are evaluated. The results shows that the relative error of the cross sections for high burnup fuel are more than low burnup, and the error are large in absorption cross section and fission cross section, the maximum of which is more than 3%. It is concluded that in the analysis of accident using 3-dimensional core kinetics model the cross section model has a significant influence on their result, and the results are largely dependent on how to select parameters in a cross section model. Hence, regulatory reviewer needs to evaluate the validation of cross section model proposed by designer.

  1. Knowledge about epilepsy among health professionals: a cross-sectional survey in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Gomes da Silva, Sergio; Souza-Vancini, Maria Iones; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Cabral, Francisco Romero; de Lima, Cristiano; Barbosa de Lira, Claudio Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epilepsy knowledge among health professionals in São Paulo, Brazil. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge of health professionals about epilepsy. Methods Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. The subjects (n=624) answered a questionnaire composed of 25 simple closed-ended questions from three areas: personal, educational and knowledge. Results Out of all subjects, 88.5% (n=552) had a postgraduate education, while 11.5% (n=72) had only an undergraduate degree. The authors found that physical educators, nutritionists and physiotherapists received lower scores on their epilepsy knowledge than other health professionals. Conclusions Health professionals are considered better-educated group inside the society, especially with regards to healthcare issues. Thus, it is important they also have an accurate and correct knowledge about epilepsy. The findings of the present study indicate an imperative improvement in education about epilepsy, as well as an inclusion of formal programmes for epilepsy education especially for non-medical professionals. An improvement in epilepsy education might contribute to an improvement in epilepsy care and management. PMID:22517981

  2. Ionization and capture in water: a multi-differential cross sections study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojón, Omar; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2012-11-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented to provide accurate multiple differential and total cross sections for describing the two most important ionizing processes, namely, ionization and capture induced by heavy charged particles in water. A detailed study of the influence of the target description on the cross section calculations is also provided.

  3. Vitamin B12 in metformin-treated diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in Brazil Vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos usando metformina: um corte transversal no Brasil

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    Monique Nervo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency and the factors associated with serum vitamin B12 levels in a sample of metformin-treated Brazilian diabetic patients. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. RESULTS: 144 patients were included. Serum vitamin B12 levels were low (OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos brasileiros tratados com metformina e os fatores associados aos níveis séricos de vitamina B12. MÉTODO: Corte transversal. RESULTADOS: 144 pacientes foram incluídos. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram baixos (< 125 pmol/L em 10 pacientes (6,9% e possivelmente baixos (125 - 250pmol/L em 53 pacientes (36,8%. Os níveis séricos de vitamina B12 foram associados negativamente à idade (B = -3,17; β = -0,171; p = 0,037 e à duração do uso de metformina (B = -33,36; β= -0,161; p = 0,048 e positivamente com a ingestão estimada de vitamina B12 (B = 67,96; β = 0,249; p = 0,002. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem alta prevalência de deficiência de vitamina B12 em pacientes diabéticos tratados com metformina. Pacientes mais velhos, em uso de metformina há muito tempo e com ingestão baixa de vitamina B12 estão provavelmente mais predispostos a essa deficiência.

  4. Como são tratadas as fraturas diafisárias fechadas do fêmur no Brasil? Estudo transversal How are closed femoral diaphyseal fractures treated in Brazil? A cross-sectional study

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    Robinson Esteves Santos Pires

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal no 36º Congresso Brasileiro de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, onde foi pesquisada a opinião de ortopedistas brasileiros sobre aspectos do tratamento de fraturas diafisárias do fêmur no adulto. Quinhentos e sete questionários foram respondidos integralmente e encontrou-se concordância entre os ortopedistas em relação aos seguintes aspectos: configuração do traço de fratura e lesão de partes moles ou de estruturas neurovasculares como parâmetros principais para decisão sobre o tratamento; classificação das fraturas, em que a AO foi a mais adotada; haste intramedular anterógrada bloqueada fresada para tratamento das fraturas transversas e oblíquas curtas no istmo; placa ponte para o tratamento das fraturas com traço complexo; tração esquelética pré-operatória; infecção como complicação mais freqüente e uso de heparina de baixo peso molecular no pós-operatório. Houve conflito de opiniões nas seguintes questões: uso de mesa de tração para realização de osteossíntese intramedular; intervalo de tempo entre o trauma e a cirurgia; tempo de utilização de antibióticos e tempo médio de hospitalização. Em relação à literatura, houve concordância em relação aos parâmetros principais para decisão sobre o tratamento; método de fixação das fraturas com traço simples no istmo; classificação adotada; profilaxia antitrombótica. Diferiram da literatura questões como o método de fixação das fraturas com traço complexo; tempo de utilização dos antibióticos, intervalo médio entre o trauma e a osteossíntese e tempo de internação.A cross-sectional study was performed during the 36th Brazilian Congress of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, where the opinions of Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons addressing the treatment of femoral diaphyseal fractures in adults were surveyed. Five hundred and seven questionnaires were fully completed and the results show agreement in the following

  5. Prevalence and Phenotypic Expression of Mutations in the MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 Genes in Families with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the South of Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Beatriz Piva e; Scolari, Fernando Luís; Torres, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Simon, Laura; de Freitas, Valéria Centeno; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Úrsula

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mutations in sarcomeric genes are found in 60-70% of individuals with familial forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, this estimate refers to northern hemisphere populations. The molecular-genetic profile of HCM has been subject of few investigations in Brazil, particularly in the south of the country. Objective: To investigate mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 in a cohort of HCM patients living in the extreme south of Brazil, and to evaluate genotype-phenotype associations. Methods: Direct DNA sequencing of all encoding regions of three sarcomeric genes was conducted in 43 consecutive individuals of ten unrelated families. Results: Mutations for CMH have been found in 25 (58%) patients of seven (70%) of the ten study families. Fourteen (56%) individuals were phenotype-positive. All mutations were missense, four (66%) in MYH7 and two (33%) in MYBPC3. We have not found mutations in the TNNT2 gene. Mutations in MYH7 were identified in 20 (47%) patients of six (60%) families. Two of them had not been previously described. Mutations in MYBPC3 were found in seven (16%) members of two (20%) families. Two (5%) patients showed double heterozygosis for both genes. The mutations affected different domains of encoded proteins and led to variable phenotypic expression. A family history of HCM was identified in all genotype-positive individuals. Conclusions: In this first genetic-molecular analysis carried out in the south of Brazil, we found mutations in the sarcomeric genes MYH7 and MYBPC3 in 58% of individuals. MYH7-related disease was identified in the majority of cases with mutation. PMID:27737317

  6. Study of the molecular structure and dynamics of bakelite with neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular structure and dynamics of calcined bakelite were studied with neutron transmission and scattering cross section measurements. The total cross sections determined were correlated with data obtained with infra-red spectroscopy, elemental analysis and other techniques to get the probable molecular formulae of bakelite. The total cross section determined showed a deviation smaller than 5% from the literature values. The frequency distribution as well as overall experimental results allowed to suggest a structural model like polycyclic hydrocarbons for bakelite calcined at 8000 C. (F.E.). 65 refs, 31 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Historical Note about Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses a study by L. Terman in which results of the two methods can be compared. Both types of comparisons indicated that CMT (Concept Mastery Test) ability improves considerably with age. This multiple checking of several groups each time versus the same groups over time strengthens the conclusion. (Author/CL)

  8. Treatment of 5413 hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Margit; Sondergaard, J; Reuther, Lene Ørskov;

    2011-01-01

    Most hypertensive patients are managed in primary care in Denmark, but previous studies have shown that only 21-43% of hypertensive patients achieve optimal blood pressure (BP) control. Antihypertensive drug treatment, risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are some of the important factors...... to consider when optimizing the individual treatment strategy in hypertensive patients....

  9. Factors Precipitating Hypokalemia in Diabetic Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypokalemia is a very common electrolyte imbalance in diabetic patients which leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Severe hypokalemia is associated with lifethreatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. There are no adequate studies regarding the incidence and factors precipitating hypokalemia in Bangladeshi diabetic subjects. Objective: The objective of this study was to find out the factors precipitaing hypokalemia in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A total 95 admitted diabetic patients with hypokalemia were studied. Specimens were collected from all adult diabetic patients with serum potassium level <3.5 mmol/L irrespective of cause of admission. Informations were obtained in a semistructured data collection form and analyzed. Results: Most of the subjects (61.1% belonged to the age group of 60 years and above, 31.5% to the age group 40–59 years and 7.4% belonged to the age group of 20–39 years. Sixty one (64.2% patients were females and 34 (35.8% were males. In 63.2% cases, vomiting was found as a factor causing hypokalemia in the diabetic patients. Other common factors precipitaing hypokalemia were diarrhea (42.1%, inadequate diet (9.5%, severe hyperglycemia (3,2%, diabetic ketoacidosis (6.3% and drugs especially diuretics (18.9%, bronchodilators (6.3% and steroids (5.3%. The commonest comorbidity associated with diabetes was hypertension. Conclusion: In this study the commonest precipitating factor causing hypokalemia was vomiting. Majority of hypokalemic patients were female and of older age group. When hypokalemia is identified, the underlying precipitating factor should be sought and the disorder treated. Diuretics should be used with caution in the elderly patients having hypertension, a common comorbid condition of diabetes, as these patients are susceptible to develop hypokalemia.

  10. Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Stefan, V; Livingstone, M B E; Gibney, E R; Dean, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from 'never' to 'very often' by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time. PMID:26048005

  11. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  12. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications. PMID:19151103

  13. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  14. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkalale Chikkalingaiah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menstruation has often been dealt with secrecy in many cultures. Such perceptions coupled with poor and inadequate sanitary facilities have often kept girls from not attending schools especially during periods of menstruation. There is gross lack of information on menstrual management among adolescent girls; most of these girls seek information about menstruation from their peers who do not know better. Adolescence being a time of tremendous opportunity, and at the same time also a time of heightened vulnerabilities, it is imperative to empower adolescent girls with adequate information and skills on crucial issues like menstrual hygiene and its management. AIM: To know the knowledge and menstrual hygiene practices of adolescent girls. MATERIAL & METHODS: Across sectional study was conducted among 210 adolescent girls in a rural field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital. Data on socio-economic variables and menstrual characteristics were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. RESULTS: 87.6% of the girls were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Mothers were the first informants in about 56.5% girls. Overall 51.5% adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 45.6% were using used cloths. Regarding practices, for cleaning of used cloths 88.9% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 97.6% girls practiced different restrictions during menstruation. CONCLUSION: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  15. A cross-sectional study to estimate the frequency of anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 antibodies in domestic pigs of Mossoró region in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Renan Honorato Gatto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study investigated the occurrence of antibodies for BVDV-1 in swine herds located in the region of Mossoró city of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. A sample size of 412 animals was estimated assuming unknown prevalence (set at 50%. Virus neutralization assay was used to the detect the presence of antibodies for BVDV-1 and the results found were analysed using multivariable logistic regression model. The obtained prevalence was 4% at animal level and 45% at the animal and herd level. The titers were highly variable between animals and within farms. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed an association between being housed outside and exposure to BVDV-1 (OR=0.24, 95% CI:0.06, 0.96, P=0.04. Highly correlated data and low prevalence of antibodies at the animal level resulted in insufficient power to detect significant differences with other selected risk factors. In conclusion, the prevalence is within the range reported for other countries.

  16. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Andrew H.; ANDRE R BRUNONI; Nunes, Maria A.; Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and CHD in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations. Methods: Participants included 15,105 civi...

  17. The association between mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in Brazil: A cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew eKemp

    2015-01-01

    Background: Associations between major depressive disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been established, and these associations increase risk of future morbidity and mortality. Prior research has been carried out in high-income countries. Here we examine associations between the mood and anxiety disorders, and coronary heart disease in a large cohort at baseline from Brazil, a country facing a variety of challenges that may affect these associations.Methods: Participants included 15...

  18. How to Use Benchmark and Cross-section Studies to Improve Data Libraries and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Svoboda, O.; Tichý, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Vladimirovna, N.; Závorka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Improvements of the Monte Carlo transport codes and cross-section libraries are very important steps towards usage of the accelerator-driven transmutation systems. We have conducted a lot of benchmark experiments with different set-ups consisting of lead, natural uranium and moderator irradiated by relativistic protons and deuterons within framework of the collaboration “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Waste”. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the total or partial cross-sections of important reactions is insufficient. Due to this reason we have started extensive studies of different reaction cross-sections. We measure cross-sections of important neutron reactions by means of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources based on the cyclotrons at Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež and at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Measurements of partial cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions were the second direction of our studies. The new results obtained during last years will be shown. Possible use of these data for improvement of libraries, models and benchmark studies will be discussed.

  19. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  20. Respiratory Symptoms and Lung Function among Danish Construction Workers. A Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina;

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 899 Danish male ...

  1. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  2. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsitsika, A.; Janikian, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavela, E.C.; Olafsson, K.; Wojcik, S.; Macarie, G.F.; Tzavara, C.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N= 13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8 – 0.7) of 14–17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Interne

  3. Study of LHCD in HL-2A Non-Circular Cross Section Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yiming; DONG Jiaqi; GAO Qingdi; WANG Aike; LIU Yong

    2007-01-01

    Using the Grad-Shafranov equation, the magnetic configuration is obtained. With this configuration, Brambilla's ray tracing theory has been used to study the propagation of LH waves. The qualitative study of the feasibility of LHCD in the non-circular cross section tokamak HL-2A is made. The optimized current drive method is discussed.

  4. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguimoto S Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

  5. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  6. Cross-sectional study of 168 patients with hepatorenal tyrosinaemia and implications for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Gokcay, Guelden; Segarra, Nuria Garcia; de Baulny, Helene Ogier; van Spronsen, Francjan; Zeman, Jiri; de laet, Corinne; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Thimm, Eva; Maiorana, Arianna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Brunner-Krainz, Michaela; Lotz-Havla, Amelie Sophia; de Juan, Jose Angel Cocho; Pico, Maria Luz Couce; Santer, Rene; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine; Mandel, Hanna; Bliksrud, Yngve Thomas; Freisinger, Peter; Aldamiz-Echevarria, Luis Jose; Hochuli, Michel; Gautschi, Matthias; Endig, Jessica; Jordan, Jens; McKiernan, Patrick; Ernst, Stefanie; Morlot, Susanne; Vogel, Arndt; Sander, Johannes; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatorenal tyrosinaemia (Tyr 1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. Without treatment, patients are at high risk of developing acute liver failure, renal dysfunction and in the long run hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to collect cross-sectional data. Method

  7. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  8. The ENFUMOSA cross-sectional European multicentre study of the clinical phenotype of chronic severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, B; Anto, JM; Barreiro, E; Bel, EHD; Bonsignore, G; Bousquet, J; Castellsague, J; Chanez, P; Cibella, F; Cuttitta, G; Dahlen, B; Dahlen, SE; Drews, N; Djukanovic, R; Fabbri, LM; Folkerts, G; Gaga, M; Gratziou, C; Guerrera, G; Holgate, ST; Howarth, PH; Johnston, SL; Kanniess, F; Kips, JC; Kerstjens, HAM; Kumlin, M; Magnussen, H; Nijkamp, FP; Papageorgiou, N; Papi, A; Postma, DS; Pauwels, RA; Rabe, KF; Richter, K; Roldaan, AC; Romagnoli, M; Roquet, A; Sanjuas, C; Siafakas, NM; Timens, W; Tzanakis, N; Vachier, [No Value; Vignola, AM; Watson, L; Yourgioti, G

    2003-01-01

    Since severe asthma is a poorly understood, major health problem, 12 clinical specialist centres in nine European countries formed a European Network For Understanding Mechanisms Of Severe Asthma (ENFUMOSA). In a cross-sectional observational study, a total of 163 subjects with severe asthma were co

  9. Students' Needs, Teachers' Support, and Motivation for Doing Homework: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Idit; Kaplan, Avi; Gueta, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory provided the theoretical framework for a cross-sectional investigation of elementary and junior high school students' autonomous motivation for homework. More specifically, the study focused on the role of teachers' support of students' psychological needs in students' motivation for homework in the two school systems.…

  10. LIPID PROFILE OF CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PROGNOSTIC SCORES: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian BASSANI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn cirrhosis the production of cholesterol and lipoproteins is altered.ObjectiveEvaluate the lipid profile by measuring total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels in patients with cirrhosis caused by alcoholism and/or hepatitis C virus infection and determine its association with Child-Pugh and MELD scores.MethodsCross-sectional retrospective study of patients treated at the outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010.ResultsIn total, 314 records were reviewed, and 153 (48.7% met the inclusion criteria, of which 82 (53.6% had cirrhosis that was due to hepatitis C virus infection, 50 (32.7% were due to alcoholism, and 21 (13.7% were due to alcoholism and hepatitis C virus infection. The total cholesterol levels diminished with a Child-Pugh progression (P20 was associated with lower total cholesterol levels (<100mg/dL; P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (<16 mg/dL; P=0.006, and low-density lipoprotein (<70 mg/dL; P=0.003. Inverse and statistically significant correlations were observed between Child-Pugh and all the lipid fractions analyzed (P<0.001. The increase in MELD was inversely correlated with reduced levels intotal cholesterol (P<0.001, high-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (P<0.001, very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.030 and triglyceride (P=0.003.ConclusionA reduction in the lipid profile in patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus infection and/or alcoholism was significantly associated with the Child-Pugh and MELD prognostic markers. These results suggest that the lipid profile may be used as a tool to assist in evaluating liver disease.

  11. Study of the elastic scattering differential cross sections of a proton beam by a cesium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic differential cross section of H+ on Cs is studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental device is described, after which the differential cross-section values obtained as a function of the laboratory angle are given for four incident energies: 13.4 eV, 15.1 eV, 17.7 eV and 24.2 eV. By means of an interaction potential of the quasi-molecule H+Cs the differential cross sections are calculated for the same incident energies; this calculation uses the semi-classical method of stationary phases which shows clearly the limits of conventional description and the changes introduced by quantum effects. Very good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental results, which shows that elastic scattering is very little perturbed by inelastic channels in this energy range. The estimated inelastic cross section at 24 eV is about 1.9 10-15cm2, corresponding to 1.6% of the scattering process

  12. Urban Residential Road Traffic Noise and Hypertension: a Cross-Sectional Study of Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Partha P Das; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18–80 years residing in close proximi...

  13. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Oddy Wendy H; Straker Leon M; Perry Mark C; O'Sullivan Peter B; Smith Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrit...

  14. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PR ESCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLUMS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajanta; Alak

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study had been carried out in the urban slums of Dibrugarh during July, 2007 to June, 2008 and a total of 316 preschool children (aged one to five years) had been included in the study. The nutritional sta tus of the study subjects had been assessed by anthropometry and for this Z- score approach is uti lized. In order to compare the prevalence of malnutrition in different categories, z-test for testing the difference between two propo...

  15. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A.; Abdualltef H. Al-Rashoudi; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A.; Addar, Abdullah M.; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H.; Albaraa A. Al-Jerian; Al-Omair, Abdullah A.; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I.; Hussam I. Al-Nowaiser; Al-Kathiri, Omar A.; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire fro...

  16. Trends in Use of Hair Dye: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dharmistha; Narayana, Sarala; Krishnaswamy, Bhuvana

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study was to assess the knowledge, practice, perception and adverse reactions among hair dye users. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients, their attenders and staff of SDUMC. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (28) pertaining to use of hair dyes and reactions to them was administered randomly. Statistical Analysis: The demographic data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, quantitative data expressed as perce...

  17. Morbidity Profile of Stone Crusher Workers with Special Reference to Respiratory Morbidity: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Narkhede Vinod, Likhar Swarna, Mishra Mahesh K

    2012-01-01

    Background: The occupational environment at the stone crushing sites poses a potential health hazard to the workers. Exposure to heavy dust concentration from stone crushers, may produce several diseases. Methods: The present study was aimed to assess the morbidity profile of workers working in stone crusher industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out among the workers of the stone crushers located in Ratua at a distance of 23 km to the north of Bhopal city. The total workers working in...

  18. Occupational injuries among children and adolescents in Cusco Province: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Schlick, Cornelia; Joachin, Manuela; Briceno, Leonardo; Moraga, Daniel; Radon, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the number of child laborers in Latin America is generally high, data on occupational hazards and injuries is insufficient. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for occupational injuries among working students (10-17 years old) in Cusco Province. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at five public night schools. 375 students (response 91.5%) completed an interview-based questionnaire on socio-demograp...

  19. Alcohol consumption among students - a cross-sectional study at three largest universities in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Višnjić Aleksandar; Jović Slađana; Grbeša Grozdanko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. Methods. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. T...

  20. Psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily in treatment for violent behaviour: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Heir, Trond

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although violent behaviour and psychopathology often co-occur, there has been little research on psychiatric disorders among men in treatment for intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to examine the prevalence of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily attending treatment for IPV. Setting 5 clinics for IPV treatment, located in the east, south and west of Norway, participated in the study. In a cross-sectional design, men attending therapy for vi...

  1. Readability of state-sponsored advance directive forms in the United States: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller Paul S; Reid Kevin I; Mueller Luke A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background State governments provide preprinted advance directive forms to the general public. However, many adults in the United States (US) lack the skills necessary to read and comprehend health care-related materials. In this study, we sought to determine the readability of state government-sponsored advance directive forms. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. The readability of advance directive forms available online from all 50 US states and the District of Columb...

  2. Cannabis use among Navy personnel in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Jayasekera, Nicholas; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cannabis use among military populations vary. There is evidence that drug use is associated with combat exposure and PTSD. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis use among Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) personnel and to identify any relationship with cannabis use and combat exposure. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces (Special Boat Squadron) and regular forces deployed in combat area...

  3. Prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits : Cross-sectional study in South India.

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswathi T; Ranganathan K; Shanmugam S; Sowmya R; Narasimhan Prem; Gunaseelan R

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco product, common habits in India have been positively associated with oral lesions. No study has been conducted in this part of Tamilnadu regarding the prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out at Ragas Dental College, Chennai. Already existing data of two thousand and seventeen consecutive patients from sub-urban areas of Chennai, who attended the outpatient department, at...

  4. Acetaminophen administration in pediatric age: an observational prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lubrano, Riccardo; Paoli, Sara; Bonci, Marco; Di Ruzza, Luigi; Cecchetti, Corrado; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Vitaliti, Giovanna; Gentile, Isotta

    2016-01-01

    Background Parents often do not consider fever as an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infections that leads to inappropriate use of antipyretics and potentially dangerous side effects. This study is designed to evaluate the appropriateness of antipyretics dosages generally administered to children with fever, and to identify factors that may influence dosage accuracy. Results In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the clinical records of 1397 children aged ...

  5. Association between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Control in Peruvian School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Justo Padilla; Mónica Uceda; Otto Ziegler; Felipe Lindo; Eder Herrera-Pérez; Luis Huicho

    2013-01-01

    Background. Asthma and allergic rhinitis are highly prevalent conditions that cause major illness worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma control in Peruvian school children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 children with asthma recruited in 5 schools from Lima and Callao cities. The outcome was asthma control assessed by the asthma control test. A score test for trend of odds was used to evaluate the association betwe...

  6. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...

  7. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  8. Severe maternal morbidity and near misses in tertiary hospitals, Kelantan, Malaysia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Azman, Mohd Yacob

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe maternal conditions have increasingly been used as alternative measurements of the quality of maternal care and as alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality. We aimed to study severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss among women in two tertiary hospitals in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study with record review was conducted in 2014. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss were classified using the new World Health Organ...

  9. Maternal diet, LCPUFA status and prematurity in Indian mothers: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi S. Ranade; Rao, Shobha S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to exert functional benefits with regards to gestational length. The present study examined the association of maternal LCPUFA intake, specifically Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) and Arachidonic acid (ARA), and plasma status at delivery with duration of gestation and risk of premature delivery in Indian mothers.Methods: In a cross-sectional nested case-control study, 191 mother-baby pairs [164 Full ...

  10. Level of stress in final year MBBS students at Rural Medical College: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Narwane Sandeep P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress, defined as an imbalance between environmental conditions necessary for survival and the ability of individuals to adapt to those conditions, have a high prevalence in MBBS students. A variety of stressors play a significant role in developing stress. Objective:To study the level of stress and stressors responsible in Final MBBS students of Rural Medical College, Loni. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in 100 students (50 of either sex) willing ...

  11. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Setting Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. Objective This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized ques...

  12. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Hassan Rezaeipandari; Ali Dehghani; Ahmad Zeinali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by...

  13. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by th...

  14. Stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional national study

    OpenAIRE

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Almufleh, Auroabah; Kazim, Sana; Aladwani, Bandar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Maladaptive stress-coping strategies have been linked to reduced quality of life, psychiatric disorders, and reduced work performance among residents or physicians. This study aimed to examine stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia and their association with stress levels and important personal characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2012. Residents of different specialties were recruited from a national ...

  15. Health literacy among refugees in Sweden – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wångdahl, Josefin; Lytsy, Per; Mårtensson, Lena; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees have poorer health compared to indigenous populations, which may be explained by lower health literacy, i.e. not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information. This study aims to determine levels of functional and comprehensive health literacy, and factors associated with inadequate health literacy, in refugees coming to Sweden. Method A cross-sectional study was performed among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Participa...

  16. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teris Cheung; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...

  17. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the model spallation targets in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The irradiation of activation samples was performed by beams in the energy range from 1 to 8 GeV. Residual nuclides were measured by the gamma spectrometry. While the EXFOR database contains sets of data for relativistic proton reactions, data for deuteron reactions in this energy range are almost missing. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the use of copper foils from beam integral monitoring. For this reason our experiments focused on their measurement and completely new data were obtained in the energy region where no experimental data have been available so far. The copper monitors with their low sensitivity to fast neutrons will contribute to improvement of the beam integral determination during accelerator-driven system studies

  18. Histopathology of lupus nephritis: A single-center, cross-sectional study from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Shobha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of SLE patients over a period of two years is reported. Renal biopsy of 32 selected patients revealed histopathological abnormalities and deposits of immune complexes, and were classified according to the WHO classification of LN (lupus nephritis. The clinical and laboratory parameters assessed were also in line with this classification, indicating the adequacy of these parameters for routine follow-up, and the biopsy was reserved for advanced cases of LN.

  19. Self-Medication Practices among College Students: A Cross Sectional Study in Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Mansi M Patel; Udayshankar Singh; Chinmaye Sapre; Kesha Salvi; Anuj Shah; Bhavik Vasoya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Self-medication is defined as the use of medication for self-treatment without advice of physician either for diagnosis, prescription or surveillance of treatment. Self medication increases the chances of illicit use of drug and drug dependency and most of all masking the sign and symptoms of underlying disease hence are complicating the problem, creating drug resistance and delaying diagnosis. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done among total 100 3rd semester en...

  20. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jason Perry; Condon, Suzanne K.; Kleinman, Ken Paul; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl Lynn; Gillman, Matthew William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design: Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting: 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants: 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1...

  1. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat Sadek A; Aldossary Oweida F; Marei Mohammed A; Onazi Atallah S; Almohaya Mohammed S; Almansor Mohammed A; Altannir Mohamad A; Bin Abdulhak Aref A; Obeidat Mustafa A; Riaz Muhammad S; Tleyjeh Imad M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacie...

  2. Multiple physical symptoms in a military population: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Varuni A; Jayasekera, Nicholas ELW; Hanwella, Raveen

    2013-01-01

    Background Medically unexplained symptoms have been reported among both civilians and military personnel exposed to combat. A large number of military personnel deployed to the Gulf War in 1991 reported non-specific symptoms. These symptoms did not constitute a clearly defined syndrome. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to a lesser degree exposure to combat are associated with physical symptoms. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Specia...

  3. Myopia among Medical Students-A Cross Sectional Study in A South Indian Medical College

    OpenAIRE

    Chalasani, S.; V.K.Jampala; Nayak, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A systematic cross-sectional study conducted in a South-Indian Medical College to establish refractive errors as a plebeian problem in young medical students. Background: Increase in myopia prevalence rates posing a threat to the health and economy of the developing countries. There is ample evidence in the ophthalmic literature to support the classic view of association of myopia with the learned people. However, there are also suggestions in regard to the role of environmental, n...

  4. Self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome in Japanese people: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahama, Satsue; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Dan, Masashi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan. Participants A total of 56 865 participants (41 820 male and 15 045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke. Main outcome measure Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federat...

  5. Bone T-Scores and Functional Status: A Cross-Sectional Study on German Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Shoma Berkemeyer; Jochen Schumacher; Ulrich Thiem; Ludger Pientka

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We explore the association between bone T-scores, used in osteoporosis diagnosis, and functional status since we hypothesized that bone health can impact elderly functional status and indirectly independence. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) on community dwelling elderly (> = 75 years) from Herne, Germany we measured bone T-scores with Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, and functional status indexed by five geriatric tests: activities of daily living, instrumental ac...

  6. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Massad Salwa G; Nieto FJ; Palta Mari; Smith Maureen; Clark Roseanne; Thabet Abdel-Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition) and vulnerable (stunted) groups with those with moderate nutrition. Results App...

  7. The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties : a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Manchaiah, Vinaya Kumar Channapatna; Molander, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities. Design Cross-sectional. Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK. Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and dep...

  8. PROMETHEUS: an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study of hypertriglyceridemia in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Yuri; Khomitskaya, Yunona

    2015-01-01

    Background Data regarding the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population are lacking, despite triglyceride (TG)-mediated pathways being causal in cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of mixed dyslipidemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population (PROMETHEUS) was undertaken to address this gap. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional retrospective study. Data from adults with a full/partial lipoprotein record who had blood analyses done at an INV...

  9. Breast cancer risk perceptions of Turkish women attending primary care: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Mehtap; Ozcakar, Nilgun; Hatipoglu, Sehnaz; Tan, Makbule Neslisah; Guldal, Azize Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Background As the risks and benefits of early detection and primary prevention strategies for breast cancer are beginning to be quantified, the risk perception of women has become increasingly important as may affect their screening behaviors. This study evaluated the women’s breast cancer risk perception and their accuracy, and determined the factors that can affect their risk perception accuracy. Methods Data was collected in a cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaire, including breast ...

  10. A global reference for caesarean section rates (C-Model): a multicountry cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, JP; Betran, AP; Dumont, A; de Mucio, B.; Gibbs Pickens, CM; Deneux-Tharaux, C.; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Sullivan, E; Ota, E.; Togoobaatar, G; Carroli, G; Knight, H; Zhang, J.; Cecatti, JG; Vogel, JP

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo generate a global reference for caesarean section (CS) rates at health facilities. DesignCross-sectional study. SettingHealth facilities from 43 countries. Population/SampleThirty eight thousand three hundred and twenty-four women giving birth from 22 countries for model building and 10045875 women giving birth from 43 countries for model testing. MethodsWe hypothesised that mathematical models could determine the relationship between clinical-obstetric characteristics and CS. The...

  11. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarithareddy; A.V. Deepa; H.R. Shivaramakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Resu...

  12. Environmental correlates of physical activity in multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley Edward; Motl Robert W; Doerksen Shawna E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that is associated with physical inactivity. Understanding the factors that correlate with physical activity is important for developing effective physical activity promotion programs for this population. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study that examined the association between features of the built environment with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour in adults with MS. Methods ...

  13. Attitudes toward plagiarism among pharmacy and medical biochemistry students – cross-sectional survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Pupovac, Vanja; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Mavrinac, Martina; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Plagiarism is one of the most frequent and serious forms of misconduct in academic environment. The cross-sectional survey study was done with aim to explore the attitudes toward plagiarism. Materials and methods: First year students of Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Croatia (N = 146) were anonymously tested using Attitude toward Plagiarism (ATP) questionnaire. The questionnaire is composed of 29 statements on a 5 point Likert scale, (1 - ...

  14. Major components of metabolic syndrome and adiponectin levels: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; do Nascimento, Filipe V; Gatelli, Lucas Eduardo; Nedel, Bárbara L; Garcia, Sheila P; de Oliveira, Carolina SV; Saddi-Rosa, Pedro; Reis, André F; Canani, Luis H; Gerchman, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is a major regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis by its insulin sensitizer properties. Since decreased insulin sensitivity is linked to metabolic syndrome (MS), decreased adiponectin levels may be related to its development. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between adiponectin levels and MS. Methods Firstly, we cross-sectionally examined subjects with or without MS submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test at Hospital de Clínicas de Po...

  15. An analytical cross-sectional study of peer pressure on adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anisha Khan; Manisha Jain; Chhaya Budhwani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships constitute an integral part of adolescent growth and development. As the teens explore their identity towards functional independence, teen peer relationship acquires an important role. Contrary to prevailing beliefs, peer pressure can have both a positive and negative impact on youths. Methods: A school based cross sectional study carried out on adolescents falling between the age group of 11 to 19 years using a pre-designed written questionnaire. The data obtained...

  16. Recreational Screen-Time Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Ding, Ding; Baur, Louise A; Shi, Hui-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization in China has led to a proliferation of electronic entertainment media among youth. Prolonged screen time (ST; includes watching television and playing on computers, video game consoles, or mobile phones) is linked to poor health profiles. The aim of this study was to report recreational ST behaviors and ST correlates among Chinese adolescents living in two regions with different degrees of urbanization. Methods A cross-sectional, school-based survey (n = 3461 ado...

  17. Pubertal Changes in Adolescent Girls: A Community Based Cross -Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lata R Kollur, Asha K Pratinidhi; Satish V Kakade

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a process – a series of varied, rapid and extensive changes as well as period of life. The timing of maturational events varied within healthy children primarily because of genetic factors. Even among healthy youth, there is marked variation in the timing of these maturational changes. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in slum areas adopted under Urban health Training Centre of Department of Community Medicine, KIMSU, Karad. Maharasht...

  18. Theoretical study on fusion dynamics and evaporation residue cross sections for superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear dynamical deformation, the fusion probability and the evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy nuclei are studied with the di-nuclear system model and the related dynamical potential energy surface. The intrinsic energy and the maximum dynamical deformations for 48Ca+248Cm are calculated. The effect of dynamical deformation on the potential energy surface and fusion is investigated. It is found that the dynamical deformation influences the potential energy surface and fusion probability significantly. The dependence of the fusion probability on the angular momentum is investigated. The ER cross sections for some superheavy nuclei in 48Ca induced reactions are calculated and it is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. (authors)

  19. Studies of jet cross-sections and production properties with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anjos, Nuno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Several aspects of jet production in pp collisions have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. The jet production cross sections probe the dynamics of QCD and can constrain the parton proton structure. Double-differential cross sections for inclusive, di-, three- and four-jet final states are measured at different centre-of-mass energies of pp collisions with the ATLAS detector and are compared to expectations based on NLO QCD calculations. The distribution of the jet charge has been measured in dijet events using pp collision data at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector. Jet-jet energy correlations are sensitive to the strong coupling constant. Measurements of multi-jet systems with a veto on additional jets, probe QCD radiation effects. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime. Studies of large-radius jet properties including N-subjettines, splitting scales and other jet substructure related quantities will be presented.

  20. Study of 11B + 12C and 10B + 13C fusion cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for fusion cross section limitations in light heavy-ion systems, four entrance channels which form the 23Na compound nucleus have been studied. A limitation mechanism based on a critical density of compound nucleus states does not appear to be responsible for the fusion cross section limitation at energies from approximately one to three times the Coulomb barrier energy. The possibility exists, however, that such a process becomes important at higher energies. To address this question, measurements which utilize the Argonne tandem-linac accelerator have now been completed in the energy range 42.5-80.9 MeV for the 11B + 12C and the 10B + 13C. The preliminary findings of this work are reported here

  1. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Systematics Study on Thermal Capture Radiation Cross Section for Fission Nuclides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Xi; WU; Hai-cheng; WANG; Ji-min

    2012-01-01

    <正>The research of the neutron capture radiation cross section is surveyed. The systematics of capture radiation cross section contains single energy cross section systematics, excitation function, and spectra systematics. This work gathers the experimental cross sections of actinide nuclei at the thermal energy, and evaluated data. 382 nuclei of ENDF/BⅦ.0, 398 nuclei of JENDL-4.0, 232 nuclei of CENDL-3.1, and the evaluation data of BNL are surveyed. Based on the evaluation, a set of capture cross sections for actinide nuclei at thermal energy is recommended.

  3. Parent induced self-medication among under five children: an observational cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Nazir; Kanu Goel; Anshu Mittal; Jagjeet Singh; Goel RKD; Arshad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication is a common problem seen in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of parents and #8217; use of drugs among children under 5 years of age, and to understand factors influencing self-medication. METHODS: This was an observational cross sectional study conducted in the field practice area of a rural medical college in India over a period of four months from June 2012 to October 2012 and involved 717 respondents. The study population in...

  4. Cross-sectional associations between prevalent vertebral fracture and pulmonary function. The sixth Tromso Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morseth, Bente; Melbye, Hasse; Waterloo, Svanhild Haugnes; Thomassen, Marte Renate; Risberg, Marijke Jongsma; Emaus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons with vertebral fracture may have reduced pulmonary function, but this association has not been much studied. The aim of this cross-sectional study was therefore to examine the relationship between vertebral fracture and pulmonary function in a general, elderly population. Methods Vertebral morphometry was used for vertebral fracture assessment in 2132 elderly men (n = 892) and women (n = 1240) aged 55 to 87 years in the population-based Tromsø Study 2007–08. Pulmonary funct...

  5. Mindfulness and satisfaction in physical activity: A cross-sectional study in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; De Ridder, Denise Td; van Ee, Raymond; Lacroix, Joyca Pw

    2016-09-01

    Both satisfaction and mindfulness relate to sustained physical activity. This study explored their relationship. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 398 Dutch participants who completed measures on trait mindfulness, mindfulness and satisfaction with physical activity, physical activity habits, and physical activity. We performed mediation and moderated mediation. Satisfaction mediated the effect of mindfulness on physical activity. Mindfulness was related to physical activity only when one's habit was weak. The relation of mindfulness with satisfaction was stronger for weak compared to strong habit. Understanding the relationship between mindfulness and satisfaction can contribute to the development of interventions to sustain physical activity. PMID:25631662

  6. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Pancholy, Samir Bipin; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atria...

  7. Exercise on Prescription: A Cross-sectional Study with Self-reported Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Buch; Helmer-Nielsen, Morten; Dieperink, Karin B.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of or established lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP...... consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aims to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in three EOP modules of different intensities. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,152 former participants in EOP...

  8. Is soft drink consumption associated with body composition?: A cross-sectional study in Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gómez-Martínez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Published data about the association between the consumption of sweetened soft-drinks (SSD and obesity in childhood are controversial and still inconsistent. In addition, data are lacking in the Spanish population. The purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the cross-sectional association between body composition-related parameters and SSD consumption in Spanish adolescents. Subjects and methods: A representative sample of 1,523 adolescents (768 boys and 755 girls, with complete dietary data as well as anthropometric measurements, were included in this study. Weight, height, waist circumferences, and 6 skinfolds were measured, and BMI and percentage body fat were calculated. From a 24h dietary recall the subjects were grouped in 3 groups according to their SSD consumption: 1 Non-consumers (0 g of SSD consumption; 2 Moderate consumption ( 336 g/day of SSD. Results: 67% males and 75% females did not consume any SSD the day before the dietary recall interview. Males consumed more SSD than females. Regarding the association between SSD consumption and measures of obesity, no difference was observed between the three groups of SSD consumption in any of the anthropometric measurement, BMI or body fat. Conclusion: As no association was present between SSD consumption and obesity in our cross-sectional study we suggest that dietary patterns and habits as well as lifestyle factors such as physical activity should be present when examining cross-sectional or longitudinal relationships with obesity. Multidisciplinary intervention studies are crucial when trying to develop solutions against the increasing obesity epidemic.

  9. Bullying and symptoms among school-aged children: international comparative cross sectional study in 28 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E; Lynch, John;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS: This international cross-sectional survey included...... 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a nationally representative sample of schools in 28 countries in Europe and North America in 1997-98.The main outcome measures were physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: The proportion of students being bullied varied enormously across countries...... adolescents in all 28 countries....

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Avian Influenza in One District of Guangzhou, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; ZHENG Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs i...

  11. Associations between active travel and adiposity in rural India and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, AJ; Laverty, AA; K Shridhar; Alam, D; Dias, A.; J. Williams; Millett, C; Ebrahim, S.; Dhillon, PK

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on use and health benefits of active travel in rural low- and middle- income country settings are sparse. We aimed to examine correlates of active travel, and its association with adiposity, in rural India and Bangladesh. Methods Cross sectional study of 2,122 adults (≥18 years) sampled in 2011–13 from two rural sites in India (Goa and Chennai) and one in Bangladesh (Matlab). Logistic regression was used to examine whether ≥150 min/week of active travel was associated with soc...

  12. Study for determining the correction parameters in neutron capture cross section measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine correction parameters to improve the accuracy in measurements of the neutron capture cross-section on filtered neutron beams at Dalat nuclear research reactor. Computer codes to calculate these factors for effect of resonance capture at low energy background, multi scattering, and shelf shielding have been developed based on the methods of Monte - Carlo, Neutron transmission and Unfolding. The calculated and experimental results of neutron background spectra for 53.9 keV and 148.3 keV filtered neutron beams and the correction factors for nuclei of 197Au, 139La, 191Ir, 193Ir, and 152Sm are reported. (author)

  13. Intimate partner violence and psychosocial health, a cross-sectional study in a pregnant population

    OpenAIRE

    Van Parys, An-Sofie; Deschepper, Ellen; Michielsen, Kristien; Galle, Anna; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this paper is to explore whether IPV 12 months before and/or during pregnancy is associated with poor psychosocial health. Methods From June 2010 to October 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 antenatal care clinics in Belgium. Consenting pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographics, psychosocial health and violence in a separate room. Overall, 2586 women were invited to participate and we were able to use data from 1894...

  14. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  15. Metabolic syndrome in alcohol-dependent men: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the context to mental illness metabolic syndrome (MS has gained significant attention in the last decade. The present research aimed to study the prevalence of MS and its correlates among the alcohol-dependent men at a deaddiction center in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was done for consecutive male subjects who met the diagnosis of alcohol-dependence syndrome currently using alcohol according to the International Clinical Diagnostic criteria- tenth revision mental and behavioral disorder- Clinical description and diagnostic guidelines criteria (ICD-10. The subjects were evaluated for alcohol consumption and the components of MS as per the International Diabetic Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP-III. Results: A total of 200 male subjects were studied: 100 subjects meeting ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence currently using alcohol; 50 each of genetically related controls and nongenetically related healthy controls. As per the IDF (with ethnicity specific modifications for waist circumference and NCEP ATP- III definitions, respectively, MS was found to be less prevalent in alcohol-dependent subjects (27% and 18% in comparison the healthy controls (30% and 20%. Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that irrespective of the amount the current alcohol intake is associated with a lower prevalence of MS and a favorable effect on serum high density lipoproteins and waist circumference. However, the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow any definitive causal inference.

  16. The association between intrauterine inflammation and spontaneous vaginal delivery at term: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different factors contribute to the onset of labor at term. In animal models onset of labor is characterized by an inflammatory response. The role of intrauterine inflammation, although implicated in preterm birth, is not yet established in human term labor. We hypothesized that intrauterine inflammation at term is associated with spontaneous onset of labor. METHODS/RESULTS: In two large urban hospitals in the Netherlands, a cross-sectional study of spontaneous onset term vaginal deliveries and elective caesarean sections (CS, without signs of labor, was carried out. Placentas and amniotic fluid samples were collected during labor and/or at delivery. Histological signs of placenta inflammation were determined. Amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were measured using ELISA. A total of 375 women were included. In term vaginal deliveries, more signs of intrauterine inflammation were found than in elective CS: the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was higher (18 vs 4%, p = 0.02 and amniotic fluid concentration of IL-6 was higher (3.1 vs 0.37 ng/mL, p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for IL-8 (10.93 vs 0.96 ng/mL, p<0.001 and percentage of detectable TNF-alpha (50 vs 4%, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This large cross-sectional study shows that spontaneous term delivery is characterized by histopathological signs of placenta inflammation and increased amniotic fluid proinflammatory cytokines.

  17. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  18. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kritski Afrânio; Chaisson Richard E; Conde Marcus; Rezende Valéria MC; Soares Sérgio; Bastos Luiz; Mello Fernanda; Ruffino-Netto Antonio; Werneck Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs ...

  19. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162,164,166Er(α,n)165,167,169Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV and Ec.m. = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T9 = 3 GK). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb and 166Er(α,n)169Yb reactions were studied between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, Ec.m. = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and Ec.m. = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  20. Adiponectin and peak bone mass in men: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, M; Abrahamsen, B; Nielsen, T L;

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, a protein classically known to be secreted by adipocytes, is also secreted by bone-forming cells. Results of previous studies have been contradictory as to whether serum adiponectin and bone mineral density (BMD) are associated. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible...... association between serum adiponectin and BMD in young, healthy men at a time of peak bone mass. BMD in the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine were measured in this population-based cross-sectional study of 700 men aged 20-29 years participating in the Odense Androgen Study. Magnetic resonance imaging...... of femoral cortical thickness and bone marrow size was performed in a subsample of 363 participants. The associations between serum adiponectin and various bone measures were investigated by means of regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding variables. An inverse association was...

  1. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Government is trying to deliver health services to as many numbers of people as possible. The extent to which these health services are utilized by the public is to be estimated. OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the extent of utilization of health services in rural areas of Krishna district. 2. To study the factors influencing the utilization of health services in Krishna district. SAMPLE SIZE: 600, calculated by the formula, 4pq/ L.2 STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional, descriptive. METHODOLOGY: thirty rural clusters are randomly selected and 20 adults from each cluster are interviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: percentages. RESULTS: 1. Utilization of services from private health care facility is more. 2. People are utilizing services from private health care facility due to belief in doctor.

  2. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers: Prevalence and Associated Factors: An International Cross-Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J. David; Côté, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...... specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. RESULTS: A total of 260 dancers...... participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2...

  3. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers ......, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution....... with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  4. Life style and nutritional status in university students: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Córdoba Adaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle is the set of behaviors that an individual practices consciously and voluntarily in the course of his or her life. The assessment of nutritional status by anthropometry can lead to the adoption of preventive measures for health. This is especially important in young people, as many authors have noted that the university population is particularly vulnerable for risky customs and habits. Aim. The purpose of this study is to assess and relate lifestyle with nutritional status of university students. Design. Observational descriptive, cross-sectional. Nutritional status was evaluated and the FANTASTIC questionnaire was applied. Results. 88.1% of students have a healthy lifestyle and 65% were classified as normal according to body mass index. Conclusion. The study found that there is a relationship between lifestyle and nutritional status. On the other hand risk behaviors were identified in the dimensions of nutrition, tobacco smoking, sleep and stress.

  5. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self......AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48...

  6. Cross section measurements for γ-process studies using a LEPS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, GG; Rauscher, T.; Török, Zs; Halász, Z.; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Somorjai, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the ongoing experiments at ATOMKI related to our systematic γ-process studies. These studies are intended to enlarge the limited experimental database from α-induced reactions on nuclei in the heavier mass range of the γ -process. In all presented cases the activation method was used. The details of the cross section measurements and preliminary results on115In(α,n)118mSb, 115In(α,γ)119Sb 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 162Er(α,γ)166Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb, 166Er(α,n)169Yb 191Ir(α,n)194Au, 191Ir(α,γ)195Au, 193Ir(α,n)196mAu, 193Ir(α,n)196Au reactions are presented.

  7. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded....... Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated...

  8. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Das Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  9. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myer Landon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

  10. Prevalence of comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis and evaluation of their monitoring: results of an international, cross-sectional study (COMORA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dougados, Maxime; Soubrier, Martin; Antunez, Anna; Balint, Peter; Balsa, Alejandro; Buch, Maya H.; Casado, Gustavo; Detert, Jacqueline; El-zorkany, Bassel; Emery, Paul; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia; Harigai, Masayoshi; Luo, Shue-Fen; Kurucz, Reka; Maciel, Gabriel; Mola, Emilio Martin; Montecucco, Carlo Maurizio; McInnes, Iain; Radner, Helga; Smolen, Josef S.; Song, Yeong-Wook; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Winthrop, Kevin; Kay, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of developing comorbid conditions. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities and compare their management in RA patients from different countries worldwide. Methods Study design: international, cross-sectional.

  11. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  12. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Charles D

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88, systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39, diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59, or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. Conclusion These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  13. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shokry, Shereen M.; El Wakeel, Eman E.; Nassr Al-Maflehi; Zaheera RasRas; Nida Fataftah; Enam Abdul Kareem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-...

  14. Multicollinearity may lead to artificial interaction: an example from a cross sectional study of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithisarankul, P; Weaver, V M; Diener-West, M; Strickland, P T

    1997-06-01

    Collinearity is the situation which arises in multiple regression when some or all of the explanatory variables are so highly correlated with one another that it becomes very difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle their influences and obtain a reasonably precise estimate of their effects. Suppressor variable is one of the extreme situations of collinearity that one variable can substantially increase the multiple correlation when combined with a variable that is only modestly correlated with the response variable. In this study, we describe the process by which we disentangled and discovered multicollinearity and its consequences, namely artificial interaction, using the data from cross-sectional quantification of several biomarkers. We showed how the collinearity between one biomarker (blood lead level) and another (urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) and their interaction (blood lead level* urinary trans, trans-muconic acid) can lead to the observed artificial interaction on the third biomarker (urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid).

  15. A NUMERICAL STUDY FOR MICROWAVE BACKSCATTERING CROSS-SECTION OF SEA SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-liang; HU Dun-xin; TIAN Ji-wei; QIN Zheng-cai

    2005-01-01

    Based on Tian et al.'s theoretical model of microwave scattering, by using the wind wave spectrum suggested by Fung et al.,numerical results of polarized back-scattering were calculated. The quantitative relationships between the calculated backscattering cross-section and the environmental parameters, such as wind speeds, azimuthal angles and incidence angles, were studied. Compared with the traditional two-scale scattering model, the results are much more coincident with the observations under the condition of moderate incidence angles, which is very useful to make up for the two-scale model. To make the new calculation model to be used conveniently in the practice, its simplified form was proposed.

  16. Tooth size discrepancy in a Libyan population, a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a group of Libyan schoolchildren, and to compare TSD between sexes. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 333 Libyan schoolchildren (162 males with a mean (SD) age of 14.4 (1.1) years, and 171 females with a mean age of 14.1 (1.1) years). Anterior and overall TSD ratios were computed using descriptive statistics. Sex differences were statistically assessed using an independent t-test (P 0.05). The percentages of participants showing more than 2 SD variation for the anterior and overall ratios comprised 3% and 4.2% of the total sample, respectively. Conclusions: The anterior and overall TSD ratios for the examined subjects were established and showed no significant sexual dimorphism. Key words:Tooth size discrepancy, Libyan, schoolchildren. PMID:25810819

  17. Diabetes mellitus, plasma glucose and lung function in a cross-sectional population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, P; Groth, S; Kastrup, J;

    1989-01-01

    To assess possible associations between diabetes mellitus (DM), plasma glucose, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), we analysed the results from a cross-sectional study of 11,763 subjects. The subjects were 20 yrs of age or older and were representative of...... the population of Copenhagen City. Two hundred and eighty four of the participants had DM as assessed by questionnaire. One hundred and seven subjects who did not report having DM had a plasma concentration of glucose higher than or equal to 11.1 mmol.l-1. In all age groups of diabetic subjects there...... was a slight impairment of lung function. It was more prominent in diabetic subjects treated with insulin than in subjects treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or diet. Even in subjects without known DM, there was a significant association between reduction in lung function and raised plasma...

  18. Marked differences in GPs' diagnosis of pneumonia between Denmark and Spain: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.F.; Jørgensen, L.C.; Cordoba Currea, Gloria Cristina;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) it is a challenge to identify who should be treated with antibiotics. According to international guidelines, antibiotics should be prescribed to patients with suspected pneumonia while acute bronchitis is considered a viral...... infection and should, generally, not be treated with antibiotics. Overdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients with LRTIs may lead to antibiotic overprescribing. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of presumed pneumonia in patients with LRTI in two countries with different antibiotic prescribing rates (Denmark...... and Spain) and to compare which symptoms and clinical tests are of most importance for the GP when choosing a diagnosis of pneumonia rather than acute bronchitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including GPs from Denmark and Spain was conducted as part of the EU-funded project HAPPY AUDIT. A total of 2...

  19. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, R.; Devarashetty, Vijayalakshmi; Jayanthi, C. R.; Sushma, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pharmacists are one of the crucial focal points for health care in the community. They have tremendous outreach to the public as pharmacies are often the first-port-of-call. With the increase of ready-to-use drugs, the main health-related activity of a pharmacist today is to assure the quality of dispensing, a key element to promote rational medicine use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 pharmacies, 100 each in various residential (R) and commercial (C) areas of Bengaluru, was conducted using a prevalidated questionnaire administered to the chief pharmacist or the person-in-charge by the investigators. Results: Dispensing without prescription at pharmacies was 45% of the total dispensing encounters and significantly higher (χ2 = 15.2, P educational campaigns are a prerequisite to improve dispenser's knowledge and dispensing practices.

  20. A Population- and Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study of Renal Function in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben M; Carlson, Nicholas; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch;

    2016-01-01

    similar basement membrane defects might occur in renal tissue. Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and renal dysfunction. We performed a hospital and population-based cross-sectional study using estimated Glomerular-Filtration-Rate (eGFR) to assess renal function. Thirty......-two hospital individuals with HS, 430 population individuals with HS, and 20, 780 population individuals without HS were identified. The age-sex-smoking-BMI-hypertension-diabetes adjusted analysis revealed a statistically significant higher eGFR for the hospital group with HS and a mean difference in eGFR of 6.......81 (1.27-12.35) ml/min/1.73 m between the hospital group with HS and the population group without HS. The observed higher eGFR in the hospital group with HS indicates a possible association of HS and renal dysfunction....

  1. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, G.; Jeppesen, D.L.;

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls....... An interview and medical examination were performed by one doctor, an ultrasound scan was performed within 3 days of the examination, and the thymus index, a marker of thymus size, was measured. The thymus index was on average 32% higher (95% CI 3%-67%) in children with active atopic dermatitis compared...

  2. Photoionization study of Xe 5s: ionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthi, G.; Jose, J.; Deshmukh, S.; Radojevic, V.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    We report studies of photoelectron angular distribution and cross-section for photoionization of xenon 5s electrons using the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (MCTD) approximation. We find that MCTD provides a significantly improved agreement with experiment, compared to some of the other relativistic many body approximations such as the relativistic random phase approximation and the relativistic random phase approximation with relaxation, over the entire photon energy region bracketing the near-threshold 5s Cooper minimum, from the 5s threshold up to about 70 eV. The MCTD results in the length form are in much better agreement with the experiment than those in the velocity form, suggesting residual correlations that must be of importance.

  3. Photoionization study of Xe 5s: ionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report studies of photoelectron angular distribution and cross-section for photoionization of xenon 5s electrons using the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm–Dancoff (MCTD) approximation. We find that MCTD provides a significantly improved agreement with experiment, compared to some of the other relativistic many body approximations such as the relativistic random phase approximation and the relativistic random phase approximation with relaxation, over the entire photon energy region bracketing the near-threshold 5s Cooper minimum, from the 5s threshold up to about 70 eV. The MCTD results in the length form are in much better agreement with the experiment than those in the velocity form, suggesting residual correlations that must be of importance. (paper)

  4. Parental social determinants of risk for intentional injury: a cross-sectional study of Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Diderichsen, Finn; Laflamme, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of family social and economic circumstances on intentional injury among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional register study of youths aged 10 to 19 years who lived in Sweden between 1990 and 1994. We used socioeconomic status, number of parents...... in the household (1- or 2-parent home), receipt of welfare benefits, parental country of birth, and population density as exposures and compiled relative risks and population-attributable risks (PARs) for self-inflicted and interpersonal violence-related injury. RESULTS: For both genders and for both injury types......, receipt of welfare benefits showed the largest crude and net relative risks and the highest PARs. The socioeconomic status-related PAR for self-inflicted injury and the PAR related to number of parents in the household for interpersonal violence-related injury also were high. CONCLUSIONS: Intentional...

  5. Dental anxiety prediction using Venham Picture test: A preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety or fearfulness affects a child′s behavior, and to a large extent, determines the success of a dental treatment. It is essential to identify anxious children at the earliest age possible rather than simply deal with them later. It is crucial that every effort be made to ensure a positive experience for each child patient. Appropriate acknowledgment of patient′s anxiety can solidify their confidence and allows the pediatric dentist an informed review of potential management options specific to every individual. In the present cross-sectional study, Venham Picture, a psychometric test, was used to estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety among children in the age group 6-10 years, with and without previous dental experience.

  6. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  7. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  8. A Preliminary Study on Time Projection Chamber Simulation for Fission Cross Section Measurements with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the details of the TPC simulation with Geant4 and show the results. TPC can provide more information than a fission chamber in that it is possible to distinguish different particle types. Simulations are conducted for uranium and plutonium targets with 20MeV neutrons. The simulation results are compared with the reference and show reasonable results. This is the first phase of study for realizing a TPC in the NFS at RAON, and we have more work to do, such as applying an electric field, signal processing in the simulation, and manufacturing of a TPC. The standard in fission cross section measurement is a fission chamber. It is basically just two parallel plates separated by a few centimeters of gas. A power supply connected to the plates sets up a moderate electric field. The target is deposited onto one of the plates. When fission occurs, the fragments ionize the gas, and the electric field causes the produced electrons to drift to the opposite plate, which records the total energy deposited in the chamber. A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is a gas ionization detector similar to a fission chamber. However, it can measure the charged particle trajectories in the active volume in three dimensions by adding several readouts on the pad plane (fission chamber has only one readout one a pad plane). The specific ionization for each particle track enables the TPC to distinguish different particle types. A TPC will be used for fission cross section measurements in the Neutron Science Facility (NSF) at RAON. As a preliminary study, we present details of TPC simulation with Geant4 and discuss the results

  9. Study of the cross section determination with the PRISMA spectrometer: The 40Ar + 208Pb case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Jelavić Malenica, D.; Mărginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    The PRISMA spectrometer's response function was successfully applied to match three angular and magnetic settings over a wide angular range for measurements of quasi-elastic reactions in 40Ar + 208Pb . The absolute scale of cross sections has been obtained by using the Rutherford cross section at the forward angles and the information from the energy distributions measured with the spectrometer without and with coincidences with the CLARA γ-array. The semi-classical model GRAZING has been used to test the unfolding procedure and for comparison with the corrected cross sections.

  10. Study on (n3, He) fusion reactions cross sections using optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-elastic cross-sections have been calculated by using optical model for (n3, He) reactions at 22.5 MeV energy. The empirical formula including optical model non-elastic effects by fitting two parameters for the (n3, He) reaction cross-sections have been suggested. Reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the (n3, He) reaction have been investigated. The obtained cross-section formula with new coefficients has been compared with the experimental data and discussed. It has seen that the fit of formula in this paper is in good agreement with the experimental data

  11. A correlated study between effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energies for neutron beams with continuous spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    Two practically useful quantities have been introduced to characterize a continuous-energy-spectrum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in the field of quantitative neutron radiography. These quantities are the effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section as defined for a monochromatic energy. Four neutron beams have been used to measure ETM cross sections at effective energies of 29.8, 17.2, 9.8 meV, and at the In resonance energy of 1.46 eV. Results are studied as a function of estimated effective energy, where the effective energy was estimated by a beam quality indicator (BQI) which has been proposed recently. Validity of ETM cross sections as a function of the effective energy is discussed and correlated with recent nuclear data.

  12. Experimental Study of Single-Electron Detachment Cross Sections of Cu- in Collision with He

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Wu; ZHANG Xue-Mei; WU Shi-Min; LU Fu-Quan; PENG Xian-Jue; YANG Fu-Jia

    2001-01-01

    The single-electron detachment cross sections of Cu- in collision with He have been measured in the range of l0-30keV by a growth rate method. The typical value of the cross section is 7.63×10-16 cm2 at an energy of 20 keV. The experimental uncertainty of the results is about ±8%.

  13. Início da vida sexual na adolescência e relações de gênero: um estudo transversal em São Paulo, Brasil, 2002 Sexual debut in adolescence and gender relations: a cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo transversal com o objetivo de identificar os diferenciais de gênero presentes no início da vida sexual de adolescentes. Foram entrevistados 406 adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos de idade inscritos em uma unidade de saúde da família da zona leste do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, entre maio e dezembro de 2002. Quase a metade dos adolescentes já havia iniciado sua vida sexual, em média aos 15 anos de idade, fossem homens ou mulheres. O início da vida sexual ocorreu, em grande parte, de forma não planejada (72,7% e dentro de casa (86,1%. O uso de um método contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual foi similar entre homens e mulheres (61,0%, entretanto, foi observado um aumento maior na proporção de uso de algum anticonceptivo entre os homens na última relação sexual. Pelo fato de terem iniciado sua vida sexual em relacionamentos estáveis com vínculos afetivo-amorosos, as mulheres mostraram-se mais vulneráveis às DST/AIDS, pois substituíram o preservativo masculino por outros métodos na última relação sexual, enquanto os homens permaneceram utilizando largamente o condom, provavelmente por estarem inseridos em relacionamentos não estáveis.This cross-sectional study aimed to assess gender differences in adolescents in relation to onset of sexual activity. A total of 406 15-19-year-old adolescents from a family health unit in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were interviewed from May to December 2002. Nearly half had already had their first sexual intercourse, at a mean age of 15, independently of gender. Sexual debut was usually unplanned (72.7% and inside the home (86.1%. An equal proportion (61.0% of males and females used some contraceptive method in their first sexual intercourse; however, more males had used a contraceptive method in their most recent intercourse. Having initiated their sexual activity in stable, affective relationships, females proved to be more vulnerable to STD/ AIDS, since they

  14. ENLIST 1: An International Multi-centre Cross-sectional Study of the Clinical Features of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Walker

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a severe multisystem immune mediated complication of borderline lepromatous leprosy and lepromatous leprosy. ENL is associated with skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis. The treatment of ENL requires immunosuppression, which is often required for prolonged periods of time and may lead to serious adverse effects. ENL and its treatment is associated with increased mortality and economic hardship. Improved, evidence-based treatments for ENL are needed; however, defining the severity of ENL and outcome measures for treatment studies is difficult because of the multiple organ systems involved. A cross-sectional study was performed, by the members of the Erythema Nodosum Leprosum International STudy (ENLIST Group, of patients with ENL attending seven leprosy referral centres in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. We systematically documented the clinical features and type of ENL, its severity and the drugs used to treat it. Patients with chronic ENL were more likely to be assessed as having severe ENL. Pain, the most frequent symptom, assessed using a semi-quantitative scale was significantly worse in individuals with "severe" ENL. Our findings will determine the items to be included in a severity scale of ENL which we are developing and validating. The study also provides data on the clinical features of ENL, which can be incorporated into a definition of ENL and used for outcome measures in treatment studies.

  15. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmstrom, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  16. A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafskjold, L.; Sundler, A.J.; Holmström, I.K.; Sundling, V.; Dulmen, S. van; Eide, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of

  17. Mediators between education and dental pain: a cross-sectional study to assess the role of dental services utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante, Helena M; Peres, Marco A; Schroeder, Fernanda C; Bastos, João L

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether the pattern of dental services utilization and the reason for the last dental visit mediate the association between educational attainment and dental pain. This is a cross-sectional analysis (n = 1099) based on data from a prospective cohort study in adults, southern Brazil. The mediating effects were assessed by including interaction terms in logistic regression models and by the KHB method, which estimated the direct, mediated, and total effects of education on dental pain. The prevalence of dental pain was 17.5%. Individuals with less than 12 yr of study who visited the dentist to solve dental problems had a 20% higher odds of reporting dental pain than those with 12 or more years of study, who sought the dentist for preventive reasons. Dental services should also focus on preventive measures, especially if less-educated individuals visit the dentist only to treat problems; this may help reduce the frequency of negative oral health outcomes, including dental pain. PMID:26718615

  18. [Profile of the elderly population in two poor municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil: the results of a cross-sectional population-based survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Juraci A; Oliveira-Filho, Joel A; Bess, Grasiele; Cegielka, Rafael; Machado, Joel; Gonçalves, Tatiane S; Neumann, Nelson A

    2008-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the profile of the elderly population (>or= 60 years) in two poor municipalities in North and Northeast Brazil in 2005. Using a cross-sectional survey with a systematic sample, previously trained interviewers applied a standard household questionnaire on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, household conditions, physical activity, immunization status, health problems, and expenditures on medicines. Of the total sample (n = 1,013), 528 lived in Caracol, Piauí State, and 478 in Garrafão do Norte, Pará State. 56% were 60-69 years old, 10% lived alone, 69% were illiterate, 8% had a family income less than the minimum wage, 24% of the households had a flush toilet, 60% had a radio, television, and refrigerator, 88% reported at least one chronic disease, 47% had to purchase all their medicines out-of-pocket, 84% had received influenza vaccination, and 90% were able to perform normal activities of daily living. Elderly people included in this study showed poor household conditions, inadequate access to health care, and high levels of morbidity. PMID:18709224

  19. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  20. Erectile dysfunction in methadone maintenance patients: a cross sectional study in northern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction affects quality of life and is a common dysfunction in drug abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of erectile dysfunction in drug abusers on methadone maintenance therapy to reduce this drug side effect in the future studies.This cross-sectional study was conducted with two hundred addicted individuals on methadone maintenance therapy. Erectile dysfunction was surveyed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF. Finally, all data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics such as measures of variability and central tendency and Chi-squared (χ(2 test using SPSS Version18.0 software.The amount of the total frequency of erectile dysfunction was pointed 30 or less among the two hundred patients and included the moderate and severe cases. In this study, the number of patients with erectile dysfunction was fifty three (26.5%.The frequency of erectile dysfunction in our study was approximately 1.5 times of prevalence of the public (16.1%. In this study, all the factors related to sexual function such as erectile function, libido, orgasm, and sexual pleasure showed a decline among drug abusers.

  1. ROLE OF PATCH TEST IN CONTACT DERMATITIS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: JAIPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory response of the skin to an exogenous substance (irritant and/or allergen. It can be classified as follows: Irritant contact dermatitis, Allergic contact dermatitis, Photo contact, phototoxic dermatitis, Immediate contact reactions, Non-eczematous reactions Only the superficial regions of the skin are affected in contact dermatitis. Inflammation of the affected tissue is present in the epidermis and the outer dermis. 1 Unlike contact urticaria, in which a rash appears within minutes of exposure and fades away within minutes to hours, contact dermatitis takes days to appear. In our study we have shown the list of most common allergens found positive in our patients. STUDY DESIGN: It was a cross sectional study. METHOD: Study was conducted in mahatma Gandhi hospital Jaipur over a period of 4 months of duration. Patients suspected to have contact dermatitis were subjected to patch testing. Based on the history clinical signs and symptoms. Total 42 patients were short listed in 4 months of duration. RESULT: Our study showed that the most common allergen showing patch test positivity in both males and females were nickel sulphate, cophony, and cobalt sulphate. Patients showed significant improvement in their dermatitis after avoidance of the offending agent. CONCLUSION: Patch test is the method of choice and the “gold standard” in the detection of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis

  2. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Tadesse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001 spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  3. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  4. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  5. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    , or educational materials. As a cross sectional, ecological study, we cannot prove causation between payments to physicians and increased prescribing. Furthermore, our findings should be interpreted only at the regional level. Our study is limited to prescribing by physicians and the two drug classes studied. PMID:27540015

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Biomass Fuel Use among a Periurban Population in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddock, Katy C.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Ngwira, Andrew; Msukwa, Malango; Nadeau, Gilbert; Davis, Kourtney J.; Nyirenda, Moffat J.; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The Global Burden of Disease Study suggests almost 3.5 million people die as a consequence of household air pollution every year. Respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia in children are strongly associated with exposure to household air pollution. Smoke from burning biomass fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting is the main contributor to high household air pollution levels in low-income countries like Malawi. A greater understanding of biomass fuel use in Malawi should enable us to address household air pollution–associated communicable and noncommunicable diseases more effectively. Objectives To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of biomass fuel use and population demographics among adults in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods We used global positioning system–enabled personal digital assistants to collect data on location, age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, and fuel use. We describe these data and explore associations between demographics and reported fuel type. Measurements and Main Results A total of 16,079 adults participated (nine households refused); median age was 30 years, there was a similar distribution of men and women, 60% were married, and 62% received secondary school education. The most commonly reported occupation for men and women was “salaried employment” (40.7%) and “petty trader and marketing” (23.5%), respectively. Charcoal (81.5% of households), wood (36.5%), and electricity (29.1%) were the main fuels used at home. Only 3.9% of households used electricity exclusively. Lower educational and occupational attainment was associated with greater use of wood. Conclusions This large cross-sectional study has identified extensive use of biomass fuels in a typical sub-Saharan Africa periurban population in which women and people of lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected. Biomass fuel use is likely to be a major driver of existing communicable respiratory

  7. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  8. Associations between dietary patterns and self-reported hypertension among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Castro, Michelle Alessandra de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease, the important modifiable risk factor of which is diet. The aim of this study was to derive dietary patterns and to test associations with self-reported hypertension and other characteristics, namely demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. Data were obtained from the population-based cross-sectional study titled Health Survey of the City of São Paulo, with a random sample of residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aged older than 20 years of both sexes (n=1,102). In 2008, a structured questionnaire with information about socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors was applied. Dietary intake was estimated by two 24-hour dietary recalls, adjusted by Multiple Source Method. Dietary patterns were obtained through exploratory principal component factor analysis. Poisson regression was used to assess relationships. Three dietary patterns were identified: prudent (fruits, vegetables, whole-grain bread, white cheeses, juices, reduced-fat milk/nonfat milk), traditional (rice, beans, bread/toast/crackers, butter/margarine, whole milk, coffee/teas, sugar), and modern (sodas, pastries/sandwiches/pizzas, yellow cheeses, pastas, sauces, alcoholic beverages, sweets, processed meats). Hypertension and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, as well as the presence of health insurance, were associated with adherence to one or more identified dietary patterns. These results suggest the existence of a target audience for planning and executing public policies of food and nutrition to prevent and control hypertension.

  9. Myopia among Medical Students-A Cross Sectional Study in A South Indian Medical College

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    S.Chalasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A systematic cross-sectional study conducted in a South-Indian Medical College to establish refractive errors as a plebeian problem in young medical students. Background: Increase in myopia prevalence rates posing a threat to the health and economy of the developing countries. There is ample evidence in the ophthalmic literature to support the classic view of association of myopia with the learned people. However, there are also suggestions in regard to the role of environmental, nutritional, hereditary and work associations for this dramatic increase in myopia. Method: In the present study, the medical students of NRI Medical College were studied for their refractive errors. In addition, their gender distributions, heights, weights, body mass indices were also studied in a batch-wise manner. Information about the refractive errors of eye of their parents are gathered through interviewing these medial students. Results and Conclusion: Our observations suggest that – (a myopia is the predominant refractive errors among the medical students; (b the numbers of myopic students in a batch of medical students are increasing year by year; (c there is no apparent bias towards either gender and (d majority of the parents of myopic medical students are also found to be myopic.

  10. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with birth weights of Norwegian beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Holmøy, Ingrid H; Karlberg, Knut; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate factors which influence birth weights of beef suckler calves in Norway. Data were from a national beef cattle registry, and lifetime production data of cows slaughtered between January 2010 and January 2013 were included in the study population. The study population consisted of 20,541 cows and 53,819 calves. The analysis was performed on the subset of singleton calvings from which birth weights were recorded. The study sample consisted of 9903 cows with birth weights available for 29,294 calves. The mean birth weight was 43.47kg (95% CI 43.40; 43.53). Two multilevel linear regression models were built; the first was for all calves and included parity of dam as one of the explanatory variables (with herd and cow as random effects), the second model was for calves born to primiparous dams only where age of first calving was included as an explanatory variable (with a random herd effect). The multilevel regression models estimated that female calves were 2.3kg lighter than males (95% CI 2.2-2.4, Pheifer models, respectively), and both the herd and cow random effects were highly significant. In conclusion, birth weights of beef calves in the Norwegian Beef Cattle Recording System were influenced by sex of the calf, breed of the dam, parity, age at first calving, calving season, cow, herd and region. PMID:26803716

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

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    Demir Figen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80. The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3% in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3% stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children.

  12. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. PMID:25963476

  13. Vitamin, mineral and iron supplementation in pregnancy: cross-sectional study

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    Eric M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the use of vitamin, mineral and iron supplements during pregnancy in Zagreb and Novi Sad. Methods. The study was conducted by use of a structured standardized questionnaire consisting of two parts, i. e. data obtained by maternal interview and hospital records. It is designed as a cross-sectional study in two countries (Croatia and Serbia. The study included 893 pregnant women from Zagreb and 6099 pregnant women from Novi Sad. Results. In Zagreb, pregnant women reported highest utilization of vitamin-mineral supplements (n = 508; 56.9 %, whereas in Novi Sad these supplements ranked third (n = 408; 20.3 %, following tocolytics and iron supplements. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of congenital malformations between neonates at in utero exposure to vitamins, minerals and iron supplements and those without such exposure in either Zagreb or Novi Sad arm, with the exception of iron and calcium supplementation in the Zagreb arm. Conclusions. In spite of certain study limitations, the results obtained pointed to the unreasonable and potentially harmful use of these supplements in pregnant women from Zagreb.

  14. Morbidity Profile of Stone Crusher Workers with Special Reference to Respiratory Morbidity: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Narkhede Vinod, Likhar Swarna, Mishra Mahesh K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occupational environment at the stone crushing sites poses a potential health hazard to the workers. Exposure to heavy dust concentration from stone crushers, may produce several diseases. Methods: The present study was aimed to assess the morbidity profile of workers working in stone crusher industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out among the workers of the stone crushers located in Ratua at a distance of 23 km to the north of Bhopal city. The total workers working in the crusher are 287.Using interview technique as a tool for data collection demographic and occupational details of the subjects were recorded on the predesigned proforma which included questions regarding age, sex, educational status, socio-economic status, duration of employment and symptoms. The Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR of the subject was measured using Peak flow meter/spirometer. Results: It was observed that in study population 62.72% were suffering from musculoskeletal problems followed by 31.36% subjects were having generalized weakness.29.96% subjects had breathing problem. Respiratory problems were higher among the subjects having duration of occupation more than 5 years than the subjects having duration of occupation less than 5 years (p<0.003. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the workers in the stone crushing industry are exposed to stone dust which leads to various morbidities especially musculoskeletal problems and respiratory problems. The respiratory problems are significantly associated with duration of exposure and decreased PEFR.

  15. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  16. Prevalence of Sonographic Fatty Liver in Overweight and Obese Children A Cross Sectional Study in Isfahan

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    R Kelishadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s obesity is strong predictor of obesity in adulthood, which increases the incidence of related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Fatty liver is an abnormality related to metabolic syndrome with higher prevalence in obese children according to some previous studies. This study investigates the presence of Sonographic Fatty Liver (SFL in Iranian obese children in comparison with normal and overweight children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 962 randomly selected children between the ages of 6 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal, overweight and obese based on body mass index (BMI. A questionnaire including demographic and anthropometrical characteristics was filled for each case. To detect the presence of SFL, all the subjects underwent assessment with ultrasonography by a radiologist who was not aware of their BMI. The incidence of SFL was determined on the basis of ultrasonographic diagnosis criteria. Results: The prevalence of SFL in obese children was 54.4% that was significantly higher than overweight (10.5% and normal children (1%. There was no significant difference in prevalence of SFL between sexes. Conclusion: The high rate of detected SFL in obese children in this study suggests that Iranian obese children are at risk of metabolic syndrome. It is therefore necessary to develop some plan to control obesity and its late complications.

  17. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Meilin Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1 a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2 an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3 a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.87–5.30. The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  18. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

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    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  19. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

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    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  20. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job satisfaction among office-workers: A Cross- sectional study from Iran

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    Amir Loghmani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Office-work poses a high-risk for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs, with consequences for workers, employers and society. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample of Iranian office workers, to investigate the association between pain severity and job satisfaction and to investigate the association between MSDs and job satisfaction. Materials and methods. Iranian office workers from a university setting (n=91 were randomly selected and included in this cross-sectional study. The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire plus visual analogue scale of pain, and the Brayfield-Rothe Job Satisfaction Index were used to study the prevalence of MSDs, pain intensity and job satisfaction, respectively. Descriptive analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment. Results. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the past 12 months, most commonly in the neck (69.2 %, low back (58.2%, knees (41.8%, shoulders (35.2%, and upper back (34.1%. There was a significant negative correlation between pain intensity and job satisfaction. Pain intensity, low-back pain in the last week, wrist pain in the past 12 months and shoulder pain were significantly associated with job satisfaction (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study provides evidence that musculoskeletal symptoms are common in Iranian office workers, associated with low job satisfaction. These findings indicate the need for more attention to MSDs among office workers and designing effective preventive interventions.

  1. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Solomon Ali

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major health problems in prisons.This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons.A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect.765 (4.9% TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67% and 20 (2.8% new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000. Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa.The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  2. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A; Addar, Abdullah M; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A; Al-Omair, Abdullah A; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I; Al-Nowaiser, Hussam I; Al-Kathiri, Omar A; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs. PMID:24551449

  3. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

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    Ahmed A. Al-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  4. Theoretical and experimental study on electron interactions with chlorobenzene: Shape resonances and differential cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Sanchez, Sergio d'A.; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7∘ to 110∘. From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene.

  5. Systematic study of individual charge-changing cross sections of intermediate-energy secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Precision total and partial charge-changing cross section measurements of medium-mass nuclides were performed. • Systematic reaction data of intermediate-energy heavy-ion beams were obtained. • A significant odd-even effect is found in the partial charge-changing cross sections. -- Abstract: Charge-changing interactions of stable and unstable medium-mass nuclides have been systematically investigated at intermediate energies. Secondary beams ranging from Ar to Ge isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation of 56Fe and 70Ge were irradiated onto a carbon target, and their total and partial charge-changing cross sections were precisely measured. A clear odd–even effect found in the partial charge-changing cross sections monotonically varies as a function of the Z/N ratio among the isotopes, and grows toward the neutron-deficient side. The total charge-changing cross sections are sensitive to the Z number of nuclides, and tend to gradually increase toward the neutron-deficient side in some isotopes

  6. Study on target spallation reaction cross sections induced by high energy neutrons and heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center

    1996-03-01

    The target spallation reaction cross sections of neutrons and heavy ions which have not been observed are determined in this paper. The object of this work is to make clear the differences between the spallation reaction cross section of neutron and that of proton by comparing the obtained value of neutron with the known value of proton. To this end, the quasi monochromatic neutron field of 20{approx}50 MeV was developed in 4 cyclotrons, INS, CYRIC, TIARA and RIKEN. The nuclear spallation reaction cross sections of C, Al and Bi were measured in the above field and the distribution of nuclear spallation reaction products in Cu determined by C ion beam of HIMAC. {sup 12}C(n,2n){sup 11}C reaction cross section shows the maximum value of about 20 mb at near 40{approx}50 MeV and then the value gradually decreased to 10 mb. The cross sections of {sup 209}Bi(n,Xn) are shown. The distribution of {sup 61}Cu is lower at the entrance and higher in the depth. (S.Y.)

  7. Factors Affecting Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Iranian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdadi, Amir; Sadeghian, Shahnaz; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Happiness is one of the most important concepts in the mental health that has an impact on different aspects of young people. Aim The present study was conducted to identify the factors influencing on happiness among young persons in Liam, Iran during 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young population 15-29-year-old. Multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants. Data were collected using two demographic and Oxford Happiness Inventory. SPSS software Package 14 was used to analyse the data. Results A total of 500 young people, including 272 men and 228 women were enrolled. The Mean ± SD of the participants’ age was 20 ± 2.18 years. There was a significant relationship between the happiness score and location in urban and rural, employment status and physical activity. There was not a significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with happiness score among participants. Conclusion The age groups, type of occupation, physical activity and place of residence were factors associated with happiness in young persons. However, there was not significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with a happiness score among study participants. PMID:27437333

  8. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

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    Sjøgaard Gisela

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85 and without (N = 109 neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling and fast (trembling component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81% failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61% (p Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850

  9. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  10. Malaria prevalence in north-eastern Nigeria:A cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Houben CH; Fleischmann H; Gckel M

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in north-eastNigeria and to evaluate the measures for the prevention of malaria.Methods:A village in north-eastern Nigeria was selected for the cross sectional study at the height of the rainy season inOctober 2011.A total of550 inhabitants of a hamlet were recruited for this study.After obtaining the consent individuals received a structured interview and were tested for malaria parasites in their blood films.Recruits testing positive for malaria were given a course of artemesinin-based combination therapy(ACT).Results:A total of497 inhabitants representing approximately90 percent of the population participated: a quarter of the study group carried malaria parasites-exclusivelyPlasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum)-representing aP. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) of24.5%.Besides,53/138 in the age group of2 to <10 years old children tested positive for P. falciparum representing aPfPR2-10 value of38.4%.Malaria control measures were used in just under a third(157/497) of this cohort.Despite these measures28/157(17.8%) still tested positive for P. falciparum.Conclusions:The malaria burden is overestimated for this region in north-east Nigeria.The findings support an intermediate pattern of malaria endemicity.The30% bed nets coverage for malaria control is well below theWHO estimates for2011.

  11. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

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    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  12. A cross-sectional study of physical spousal violence against women in Goa

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    Umesh Kamat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spousal violence against women is very common, yet reliable data concerning its magnitude is lacking. Objectives: To study the prevalence of physical spousal violence and the help-seeking behavior of its victims with respect to certain socio demographic variables, in the three months preceding the survey. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study consisting of face to face interview of 379 married women, during September to December 2008 was undertaken in Tiswadi Taluka of Goa, India. Results: Spousal violence was reported by 26.6% of the respondents. Factors predisposing the women to victimization included early years of marriage, poor educational status for men and women, working women (OR=3.3; 2.1,5.5, and alcohol consumption by the husband (OR=7; 4.2,11.8. Women with higher monthly income compared to their husbands seemed to be protected (OR=0.28;0.16,0.48. Majority of the victimised women preferred to be silent sufferers. The help seeking behaviour was not proportionate to the severity or the duration of violence but seemed to be influenced by variables like women’s employment, education and income. Conclusion: The study emphasises the role of social factors in perpetuating domestic violence by intimate partner. Change in the social attitude that permits and legitimizes such acts through awareness is the only long lasting panacea.

  13. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of Nigerian newborns

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    Olugbenga A. Mokuolu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  14. Italian Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study (AISAG) on light smoking and allergic diseases in adults.

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    Lombardi, C; Passalacqua, G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. On the basis of these contradictory data in the literature we have carried out a multicenter cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between some allergic conditions and exposure or not to active light smoking. The study was carried out between May 2013 and November 2013 in 22 different Italian hospitals. Patients with respiratory and/or food allergy, and aged 18 years and over, visited at Allergy Outpatient Clinics, were invited to participate. A total of 1586 allergic patients (21.6% smokers) with a mean age of 39.2 years (standard deviation, SD = 15.1) were included. We demonstrated that the prevalence of tobacco smoking was higher in patients with food allergy and in asthmatic patients in stage III-IV. But no other statistical differences were found at univariate analysis. The sensitization patterns of non-smokers and smokers were similar. Furthermore, tobacco smoking was associated with higher risk of food allergy and lower risk of asthma. Moreover, tobacco smoking was an independent risk factor for persistent respect to intermittent rhinitis, and for asthma GINA stage III-IV with respect to stage I-II.

  15. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

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    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  16. [Nursing needs of renal transplanted adolescents, a descriptive cross sectional study in a Swiss hospital].

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    Kleinknecht, Michael; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Landolt, Markus A

    2009-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the five-year graft survival of adolescents after renal transplantation is significantly lower than in children. This may be due to poor adherence to the post-transplant regime in adolescents. It has been shown that nurses can provide support to renal transplanted adolescents with positive effects on their adherence. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to gain knowledge about important topics of nurses' support to adolescent renal transplant patients. Twenty-seven adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were interviewed and given a questionnaire based on a focus group discussion. Each of the provided 43 topics was rated on its importance. Results showed that responses corresponding to the judgment "very important" ranged from 20 % to 100 %. Information about illness and therapy was given highest priority, followed by the provision of support services as well as information and the support of planning and managing the personal way of living. These topics can be seen as a set of relevant variables that may be used for focused assessment, and for planning of nursing interventions. With regard to clinical practice it is necessary to develop nursing strategies and patient and family education programs based on the results of this study. PMID:19496030

  17. Flatfoot and obesity in school-age children: a cross-sectional study.

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    Sadeghi-Demneh, E; Azadinia, F; Jafarian, F; Shamsi, F; Melvin, J M A; Jafarpishe, M; Rezaeian, Z

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity exerts abnormally high stresses on developing foot structures which can lead to structural deformity of the foot. Screening for foot problems in children with overweight helps detect interior risks restricting normal lifestyle in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of excess weight on the structure and function of the developing foot in students aged 7-14 years. A total of 667 participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study via a multi-level cluster sampling method (randomization was used within each cluster). All subjects (340 boys and 327 girls) attended primary and secondary schools in Isfahan City, Iran. The children's feet were evaluated using clinical assessments and footprint-based measures whilst fully weight bearing. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of flatfoot between normal weight, overweight and obese groups (P Children with higher weight also had a more pronated heel, less dorsiflexion range and higher reported pain within physical activity. This study indicated that childhood obesity is associated with structural foot and ankle deformities and activity-related foot pain.

  18. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

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    Pascual José A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p R2 = 0.386; p Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables.

  19. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

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    Honor Bixby

    Full Text Available Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  20. Intrauterine Devices and Reproductive Tract Infections: A Cross-sectional Study in Urban Slum

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    Poonam P Shingade, Naveen C Khargekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Introduction: The concern that intrauterine devices (IUDs might cause or facilitate reproductive tract infection has limited its use. Objectives: The study aims to explore the relationship between reproductive tract infections & IUD use. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study conducted in STI/RTI Clinic located in urban slums of Mumbai, involving total 169 married females of reproductive age group who presented with symptoms of RTI and using atleast one type of contraceptive method, who attended OPD from January to March 2012. Tool for interview was the questionnaire about sociodemographic profile, contraceptive practices, and symptoms of the participants. Disease specific laboratory methods were used to confirm diagnosis of RTI. Results: 47(27.81% females were using IUD as contraceptive method in this study. Proportion of the symptoms was more among IUD users than non IUD users. 33(70.2% had suffered from STI / RTI who were using IUDs as compared to 63 (51.6% non-IUD users showing statistically significant association. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant association between use of IUD and RTI. "

  1. Association between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Control in Peruvian School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Justo Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthma and allergic rhinitis are highly prevalent conditions that cause major illness worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma control in Peruvian school children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 children with asthma recruited in 5 schools from Lima and Callao cities. The outcome was asthma control assessed by the asthma control test. A score test for trend of odds was used to evaluate the association between allergic rhinitis severity and the prevalence of inadequate asthma control. A generalized linear regression model was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of inadequate asthma control. Results. Allergic rhinitis was present in 66.4% of the population with asthma. The trend analysis showed a positive association between allergic rhinitis and the probability of inadequate asthma control (. It was associated with an increased prevalence of inadequate asthma control, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.19−1.98. Conclusion. This study indicates that allergic rhinitis is associated with an inadequate level of asthma control, giving support to the recommendation of evaluating rhinitis to improve asthma control in children.

  2. A cross-sectional study on aetiology of diarrhoeal disease, India

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    S Purwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global, regional and national estimates clearly place diarrhoeal diseases as a major, albeit to an extant neglected public health problem. Deaths of children aged <5 years owing to diarrhoea was estimated to be 1.87 million at the global level (uncertainty range from 1.56 to 2.19 million, which is approximately 19% of total child deaths. Objectives: The present report is a cross-sectional study undertaken to estimate the role of various aetiological agents causing diarrhoea in North Karnataka and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Goa. Methods: Three hundred stool samples were collected from patients seeking health care at KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum; and processed for detection of various bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Results: Bacterial pathogens attributed to 65.7% of diarrhoea cases, followed by viral infection (22%, parasitic infection (16.3% and infection by Candida spp. (5.6%. The study identified Escherichia coli in general and Enteropathogenic E. coli in particular, and Group A Rotavirus to be the most frequently isolated pathogens among diarrhoea patients. Conclusion: The data generated from the current study will help the health officials for better interventional and treatment strategies for diarrhoeal diseases.

  3. Health care utilization and symptom severity in Ghanaian children--a cross-sectional study.

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    Ralf Krumkamp

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing health care utilization behavior for children with mild or severe disease symptoms in rural Ghana. Between March and September 2008 a cross-sectional health care utilization survey was conducted and 8,715 caregivers were interviewed regarding their intended behavior in case their children had mild or severe fever or diarrhea. To show associations between hospital attendance and further independent factors (e.g. travel distance or socio-economic status prevalence ratios were calculated for the four disease symptoms. A Poisson regression model was used to control for potential confounding. Frequency of hospital attendance decreased constantly with increasing distance to the health facility. Being enrolled in the national health insurance scheme increased the intention to attend a hospital. The effect of the other factors diminished in the Poisson regression if modeled together with travel distance. The observed associations weakened with increasing severity of symptoms, which indicates that barriers to visit a hospital are less important if children experience a more serious illness. As shown in other studies, travel distance to a health care provider had the strongest effect on health care utilization. Studies to identify local barriers to access health care services are important to inform health policy making as they identify deprived populations with low access to health services and to early treatment.

  4. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

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    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  5. Level of stress in final year MBBS students at Rural Medical College: a cross sectional study

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    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Narwane Sandeep P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress, defined as an imbalance between environmental conditions necessary for survival and the ability of individuals to adapt to those conditions, have a high prevalence in MBBS students. A variety of stressors play a significant role in developing stress. Objective:To study the level of stress and stressors responsible in Final MBBS students of Rural Medical College, Loni. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in 100 students (50 of either sex willing to participate in the study. They were subjected to fill the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire, which consists of 40 questions for evaluating the stressors and severity of stress perceived by the subjects. Results: 71% subjects’ perceived moderate stress, while 13% and 16% perceived high and mild stress respectively. Academic stressor counted for moderate stress in 63% and high stress in 24 % of subjects, which was higher than other stressors. Conclusion: Academic stressors being the major stressor perceived, Strategies are required to decrease the burden of academic stress in the students.

  6. Prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia in Dubai and Northern Emirates: a cross-sectional hospital based study.

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    Vela, Barbara Karin; Alhessi, Alaaeldin Y; Popović, Marko; Al-Shaqra, Maryam A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia and a specific correlation between lipid values and age, gender or ethnic origin in the study population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 311 subjects who had their lipid profiles checked for the first time in a private hospital in Dubai in a six month - period. The analysis shows an increased prevalence of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia with relatively higher Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) values in male subjects (p < 0.016) as well as with the Middle East ethnic origin group (p < 0.025), while desirable High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-c) was found among female subjects (p = 0). The discordance between the percentages of elevated LDL-c and Total cholesterol (T-c) signifies the role of the LDL-c/non-HDL-c as the main surrogate for dyslipidaemia as a risk for atherosclerosis, and as a primary target of therapy.

  7. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study

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    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Objective We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting India. Methods Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15–49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Results The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. PMID:27496230

  8. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

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    Del Prado-Lu Jinky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102 randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52% and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%. Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%, easy fatigability (46.1% and cough (40.2%. Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02, and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008. number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022, use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033, incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041, sex (p = 0.002 and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005 were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037 and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029. The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study

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    Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS. Results With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66 among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59 concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31 of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15 of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18 of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46 of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%, dysthymia (18.2%, panic disorder (8.2% and social phobia (5.5%. Conclusion The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  10. Nativity and Serum Concentrations of Antioxidants in Mexican American Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kamal Eldeirawi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1994, on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  11. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou: A cross-sectional study.

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    Zhang, Guisen; Li, Yan; Teng, Xuelong; Wu, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Ren, Fengmei; Guo, Yuxia; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou, Inner Mongolia.A cross-sectional study was carried out. Multistage sampling was used to select samples. The visual acuity was estimated using LogMAR and corrected by pinhole as best-corrected visual acuity.There were 7000 samples selected and 5770 subjects included in this investigation. The overall bilateral prevalence rates of low vision and blindness were 3.66% (95% CI: 3.17-4.14) and 0.99% (95% CI: 0.73-1.24), respectively. The prevalence of bilateral low vision, blindness, and visual impairment increased with age and decreased with education level. The main leading cause of low vision and blindness was cataract. Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were found to be the second leading causes of blindness in Baotou.The low vision and blindness were more prevalent in elderly people and subjects with low education level in Baotou. Cataract was the main cause for visual impairment and more attention should be paid to fundus diseases. In order to prevent blindness, much more eye care programs should be established. PMID:27631267

  12. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  13. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in two regions:cross-sectional study

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    Marcel Leppe; Josip Culig; Mirela Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnancy, and the rate of congenital malformations in children at in utero exposure.Methods:The trial was designed as a cross-sectional study to measure exposure of pregnant women to adverse influence of smoking and their health status.The study consists of two arms: one was conducted at fourZagreb maternity hospitals(Croatia) and the other at the same hospitals inNoviSad(Serbia).Results:Data analysis revealed the habit of cigarette smoking during pregnancy in829(11.9%) of6992(6099+893) women.Malformations were found in105(1.5%) fetuses and newborns.Major congenital malformations were present in4(0.6%), minor malformations in73(10.5%) and low birth weight in12(1.7%) newborns.In all these pregnant women smoked until becoming aware of pregnancy or during pregnancy.Tobacco smoking and congenital abnormalities that define the contingency table were not significantly related inZagreb(P=0.385), as well as inNoviSad(P=0.345). Conclusions:The proportion of pregnant women reporting cigarette smoking was quite similar in Zagreb andNoviSad.There is no statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and congenitalmalformations.

  14. Alcohol consumption among students - a cross-sectional study at three largest universities in Serbia

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    Višnjić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. Methods. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. The students filled out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their lifestyle habits, styles and attitudes, health assessment, as well as exposure to different risk factors. Results. It was found that 77.7% of students drank alcohol occasionally, 4.6% of them consumed it on a daily basis. Friedman’s test (p<0.001 showed that students prefer drinking beer to all other alcoholic beverages. Students in Belgrade and students of Technical faculties are undisputed champions when it comes to how often they drink six or more drinks on a single occasion. Older students in Serbia drink more and get drunk more frequently. Conclusion. A high percentage of Serbian students consume alcohol, and even though they have their first drink at an early age, they generally drink less than students in many other countries.

  15. Nativity and serum concentrations of antioxidants in Mexican American children: a cross-sectional study.

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    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Persky, Victoria; Chavez, Noel

    2014-04-01

    There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4-16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants. PMID:24743050

  16. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Errea, Renato A; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D; Gallardo, Maria Susana; Cornejo, Marilhia; Urquiaga, Jorge F; Montoya, Diego; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-11-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (pPeru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases.

  17. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16-0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2-3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67-30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%-64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58-0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65-0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27-0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48-0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01-4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57-2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  18. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF DISABILITY IN RELATION TO GENDER IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Vijaya Kranthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness associated with major disability in several spears of a person’s functioning. AIM: The study was undertaken to evaluate and correlate gender variable in relation to psychiatric disability in patients with schizophrenia . MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross sectional study in a tertiary psychiatric hospital, government hospital for mental care at Vishakhapatnam. Sample consisting of 161 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia as per ICD - 10 criteria and on antipsychotic medication for the past minimum one year duration were taken. IDEAS rating applied on all the subjects. And the result was ana lyzed by t - test and ANOVA using SPSS 13.0 version. RESULTS: Out of 161 patients, 90 patients were males (56% and 71 females (44%. The (56% Males group had mean disability scores of 7.99±4.29 and the (44% female group had mean disability scores 8.42±8.0 9. CONCLUSIONS: Males (56% are more compared to females (44%.Females were found to have marginally higher disability scores compared to males. Disability associated with schizophrenia did not have significant association with sociodemographic variable ge nder.

  19. Effect of banana on blood pressure of hypertensive individuals: a cross sectional study from Pokhara, Nepal

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    Gnanakshi. Dayanand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension or high blood pressure is a critical condition which can strain the heart, injure blood vessels, leads to augment the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney problems, and if untreated may cause death. Several herbal approaches have been made to treat hypertensive individuals. Banana is a well known tropical fruit with little known anti hypertensive properties. The objective of this research was to investigate changes in blood pressure after consuming banana among the hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct this research. Data was collected by questionnaire and personal interviewing. Two ripened bananas (Musa acuminata were provided to each subject for 20 days. Blood pressures of the participants were taken before and after the experimentation. Results Most of the subjects were in the age group >60 years followed by 30-40 years and 51-60 years. 57.1% of the respondents were female. Noticeable changes observed in the pre and post experimentation results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after banana consumption. Conclusion Results of this research strongly supports that banana contains phytochemicals, thus its intake significantly reduces blood pressure among hypertensive individuals. However, more clinical studies in human are still required that may provide evidence of efficacy.

  20. Young Children's Ritualistic Compulsive-Like Behavior and Executive Function: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Zohar, Ada H; Dahan, Dana

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the development of executive function in young children could add to the explained variance in child ritualistic behavior beyond child and maternal traits previously found to have explanatory power. Routinized, ritualistic behavior is common and normative in young children between the ages of 2 and 5, after which it subsides. In this cross-sectional study, maternal reports on 1345 children between the ages of 2 and 6 included child variables such as temperament, fears, and behavioral problems. Mother's characteristics included perfectionism, her attachment style, and trait anxiety. The sample included ultra-orthodox families, an understudied minority, and thus it was possible to compare their ritualistic behavior with that of children from other rearing environments. Ultraorthodox children had more ritualistic behavior than age-matched children. This finding offers support for an environmental influence on level of ritualistic behavior in children. For the entire sample, we found that young children's ritualistic behavior was associated with shy and emotional temperament, fears, pervasive developmental behavioral problems, and that executive function delays in shifting and emotion regulation had an additional contribution. Ritualistic child behavior was only weakly related to maternal variables. The results were consistent with a maturational process for the trajectory of ritualistic behavior, rather than with an environmentally induced behavior. The development of executive function may be the process mediating the decline of ritualistic behavior over development.

  1. Burden and Coping in Informal Caregivers of Persons with Dementia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Roopalekha Jathanna PN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Caring for persons affected with dementia is associated with substantial psychological strain as evidenced by high rates of psychiatric morbidity and high levels of caregiver strain. Dementia care in developing countries will continue to be provided by immediate family members at home and is unlikely to be taken over by institutions due to socio-cultural reasons. This study aims to examine the relationship of selected factors of patients affected with dementia and their caregivers that were associated with the burden and coping of family caregivers. This is a cross sectional study of a long term project by the author (RJ, involves face-to-face interview with questionnaires with family caregivers of patients with dementia. Burden was related to patient’s behavioral problems, gender, family type and the years of care giving. Principal component analysis of Brief Cope revealed 6 major dimensions: acceptance, humor, religion, substance use, behavioral disengagement and self blame as significant coping skills. Care giving was associated with more psychological complaints and a poor quality of life both physical and psychological. Self blame, behavioral disengagement, venting & emotional support emerged as an important variable as the care giver relation differ in the kind of care giving and care giving burden. Results highlight the importance of improving the mixed coping skills in burdened caregivers. Interventions need to designed and tailored to the specific needs of caregivers.

  2. Reliability of INTERMED Spanish version and applicability in liver transplant patients: a cross-sectional study

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    Bellido MªLuisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated delivery methods in healthcare systems have been proposed to confront the increasing complexity in general health care. INTERMED is an empirically derived, observer-rated instrument to measure case complexity. It was intended as a visualized, action-oriented decision-support tool for the early assessment of bio-psychosocial health risks and health needs. This study aims to document the reliability and applicability of the Spanish version of INTERMED in liver transplant patients. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients who had been included in the liver transplant waiting list. Two nurses interviewed the patients with INTERMED, and scored the instrument blind to each other. Kappa and w-kappa, Spearman, Kendall and intraclass correlation coefficients, and Cronbach's alfa were calculated. Results No patient refused the interview. Satisfactory coefficients were documented in most INTERMED items. Kappa was = 0.858 for the categorization of patients as "complex", and 21 of them (48.8% were classified in this category, and were considered to need integrated treatment. Conclusions The Spanish version of INTERMED is reliable. Its applicability in liver transplant patients adds to its generalizability.

  3. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

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    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR age of the participants were 32.5±21.3 and 33 (27–38 years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  4. Young Children's Ritualistic Compulsive-Like Behavior and Executive Function: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Ada H; Dahan, Dana

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the development of executive function in young children could add to the explained variance in child ritualistic behavior beyond child and maternal traits previously found to have explanatory power. Routinized, ritualistic behavior is common and normative in young children between the ages of 2 and 5, after which it subsides. In this cross-sectional study, maternal reports on 1345 children between the ages of 2 and 6 included child variables such as temperament, fears, and behavioral problems. Mother's characteristics included perfectionism, her attachment style, and trait anxiety. The sample included ultra-orthodox families, an understudied minority, and thus it was possible to compare their ritualistic behavior with that of children from other rearing environments. Ultraorthodox children had more ritualistic behavior than age-matched children. This finding offers support for an environmental influence on level of ritualistic behavior in children. For the entire sample, we found that young children's ritualistic behavior was associated with shy and emotional temperament, fears, pervasive developmental behavioral problems, and that executive function delays in shifting and emotion regulation had an additional contribution. Ritualistic child behavior was only weakly related to maternal variables. The results were consistent with a maturational process for the trajectory of ritualistic behavior, rather than with an environmentally induced behavior. The development of executive function may be the process mediating the decline of ritualistic behavior over development. PMID:25725602

  5. Use of venous thromboprophylaxis and adherence to guideline recommendations: a cross-sectional study

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    Miralda Gaietà

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consensus Conferences and Guidelines for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis have been published, which recommend the use of prophylactic heparins in patients with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. The aim of this study was the assessment of the prophylaxis of VTE and the adherence to accepted guideline recommendations throughout the hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital after guidelines were implemented. Patients' risk factors of deep vein thrombosis, risk categories of patients, and prophylaxis used in different wards were recorded. Appropriate adherence to the guidelines was analysed. Results Of 397 patients, prophylaxis was used in 231 patients (58%, and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH were used in 224 of them (97%. Patients with prophylaxis had a higher mean number of risk factors (SD than those without prophylaxis [3.1 (1.4 vs 1.9 (1.4; p Conclusion Prophylaxis of VTE is generally used in risk patients, but appropriate adherence to guidelines is less frequent and variable among different wards. Continuing medical education, discussion and dissemination of guidelines, and regular clinical audit are necessary to improve prophylaxis of VTE in clinical practice.

  6. Do autistic children have higher levels of caries? A cross-sectional study in Turkish children

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    Namal Necmi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the dental caries experience is higher in children with an autistic disorder (AD than in normal children. Three schools for autistic children and three standard elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were orally examined. Socio-demographic information and data about their oral care habits were obtained from their parents from records. Sixty-two children with AD and 301 children without AD were examined. Their ages varied between 6 and 12 years. Children with AD compared to those without AD had lower experience of caries. Logistic regression analysis of DMFT showed that the dental status was positively affected in younger children (OR = 15.57; 95% CI 7.62, 31.80, children from families with high income (OR = 5.42; 95% CI 2.31, 12.75, children brushing teeth regularly (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.10, 3.68, children consuming less sugar (OR = 5.01; 95% CI 2.57, 9.76 and in those with AD (OR=3.99; 95% CI 1.56, 10.19. Children with AD had better caries status than children without AD at younger ages.

  7. Stages of chronicity in fibromyalgia and pain catastrophising: a cross-sectional study

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    Roca Miquel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterised by widespread pain and other symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue and depression. Catastrophisation is considered to be a key clinical symptom in FM; however, few studies have investigated how contextual factors, such as catastrophisation, might contribute to the duration of the pain. The present research examined the relationship among pain, catastrophic thinking and FM impact, as a function of stage of chronicity. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the sample of 328 patients diagnosed with FM was divided into 3 groups based on level of chronicity: Group A (6 months to 2 years, N = 46; Group B (2-4 years, N = 59; and Group C (more than 4 years, N = 223. The three subscales of the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS, rumination, magnification, and helplessness, were used as predictors of dysfunction. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the McGill Pain Questionnaire were also administered. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed on the entire sample and, subsequently, for each group to determine the effect of the continuous process variables (castastrophising and pain on the stages of chronicity. Results Total score and PCS subscales were strongly associated with pain and impact in all the stages of chronicity in FM patients (r = 0.27-0.73, p Conclusion These findings provide preliminary evidence that stage of chronicity is an important moderator of psychological vulnerability for FM impact and should be taken into account by tailoring psychological interventions.

  8. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF CLAVICLE IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Bindhu.S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Estimation of sex is the ground for an exact identification of unknown human skeletal elements. Methods for sex assessment are based on the existence of morphological features in the skeleton that manifest differently according to sex or statistical differences in skeletal measurements. Due to the specific pattern of ontogeny and age related changes of sterna articular surface during adulthood the clavicle is widely used in the estimation of sex at death and in living people. Objectives: To evolve an easily applied formula to enable the assessment of sex in unknown clavicles and to document the comparative differences between right and left clavicles by using metrical parameters. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical college, Mangalore. The present study was conducted in 50 adult dry clavicle.Maximum clavicular length, maximum breadth of sterna end ,maximum breadth of acromial end and acromial surface area were measured by digital caliper and osteometric board. Results: The maximum length of clavicle ( was statistically significant when compared with the clavicle of females. The other values like breadth of sternal end, breadth of acromial end and acromial surface area were greater in males when compared to females. Conclusion: Determination of sex the clavicle has a great medicolegal importance to the forensic people. And it also help the orthopedic implant manufactures and orthopedic surgeons to decide correct size and shape of plates and intramedullary nails for clavicular fractures in open reduction method.

  9. Physical abuse in basic-education schools in Aden governorate, Yemen: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ba-Saddik, A S; Hattab, A S

    2013-04-01

    Physical abuse in school has lifelong consequences affecting child health and educational achievements. A study was designed to assess the prevalence of physical abuse experienced by pupils in basic-education schools in Aden, Yemen, and to examine the risk factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study covering 1066 pupils in 7th-9th grades from 8 schools in different districts of Aden governorate were randomly selected. Answering an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, 55.7% of pupils reported physical abuse at least once in their school lifetime (73.2% of males versus 26.6% of females). Teachers were the main perpetrators (45.4%). A statistically significant association was found between physical abuse and sex, age group, family type and father's education. Significant predictors of physical abuse on multivariate regression were male sex (OR=7.89) and extended family type (OR=1.36). Physical abuse in basic-education schools requires serious consideration by educational authorities, families and the community at large. PMID:23882958

  10. Quality of life in the Iranian Blind War Survivors in 2007: a cross-sectional study

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    Amini Reza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of Life measurements are necessary tools for effectively evaluating health services. In the population of patients afflicted with war-related blindness in Iran, such measurements have yet to be documented and utilized. "The design and implementation of this study involved the determination of a baseline score for QOL in a population of Iranian blinded in the Iraq-Iran war in order to facilitate the design of interventions intended to improve the population's QOL." Methods This was a cross-sectional study of a representative population of 250 war victims blind in both eyes at a 14-day recreational conference. Results Participants had a mean age of 43.20(SD8.34 and their composition was 96.5% male and 3.5% female with a mean SF-36 QOL score of 59.20(SD22.80. An increasing level of education among the participants correlated with a higher QOL score (p = 0.006. The QOL also has a significant correlation to number of injuries (p Conclusions As blind war survivors' age, they will present with a greater set of burdens despite their relatively better QOL in the physical component scale when compared with lower limb amputees. Risk factors of cardiovascular attack such as high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia were present and need future interventions. Key words Quality of life, blindness, SF36, health

  11. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

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    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  12. Nurse competence between three generational nurse cohorts: A cross-sectional study.

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    Meretoja, Riitta; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates significant differences between nurse cohorts in many work-related factors. This study compared nurse competence between three generational cohorts comprising the current nursing workforce. The Nurse Competence Scale was used to collect data for this cross-sectional study from 2052 nurses in a university hospital in Finland. Data were analysed statistically. Significant differences were found between nurse cohorts in their competence. The length of work experience had a significant impact on the development of competence. The oldest cohort, with the longest work experience, had the highest competence scores (70.1 on a visual analogue scale), and the youngest had the lowest (59.0). All cohorts were most competent in patient-related nursing tasks, in maintenance of professional competence and in ethical care. Nurses were weakest in the development of nursing practice and the use of evidence-based knowledge. Targeted interventions in teaching-coaching for different nurse generations are needed to ensure the maintenance of nurse competence and high-quality patient care. PMID:24689751

  13. Occupational stress and mental health among correctional officers: a cross-sectional study.

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    Ghaddar, Ali; Mateo, Inmaculada; Sanchez, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    A harsh psychosocial environment in the workplace might cause adverse health events, but the association has not been well demonstrated in the penitentiary environment. This cross-sectional study was designed to explore the association between workplace psychosocial risks and the mental health of correctional officers in a Spanish penitentiary center. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to correctional officers. A total of 164 responded anonymously (response rate 43%). The SF36 survey was used to measure mental health and ISTAS21 (Spanish version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used to measure exposure to workplace psychosocial conditions. Low scores were obtained for mental health, high scores were obtained for psychological demands, low self-esteem, and low control and influence and moderate scores for low social support, double exposure, and insecurity at work. A linear regression analysis was constructed to study the influence of workplace psychosocial conditions (independent variables) on mental health (dependent variable). The effect was adjusted for sex, age, seniority, and occupational group. Psychological demands (highest impact), low control and influence, and double exposure had significant inverse associations with mental health. The association between low social support, low self-esteem, and insecurity at work with mental health was insignificant. Psychosocial work conditions are a potential target for mental health promotion programs at work.

  14. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

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    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  15. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

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    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  16. Thyroid Diseases in Omani Type 2 Diabetics: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

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    Sanaa Al-Sumry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases are common endocrine disorders in the general population and found to exist simultaneously. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among Omani type 2 diabetics and its association with glycemic control. Methodology. A retrospective cross-sectional randomized primary and secondary care based study of 285 Omani type 2 diabetics, ≥ 30 years of age with known thyroid function. The following parameters were examined: age, sex, duration of diabetes, duration of thyroid disease, thyroid morphology, thyroid function, thyroid antibodies, and the mean glycated hemoglobin (mean HbA1C. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was compared to an independent control group of randomly selected healthy individuals with known thyroid function. Results. Thyroid dysfunction was found in 12.6% of the diabetic patients compared to 4.9% in the control group. The prevalence was higher among the diabetic females (86% compared to diabetic males (14%. The commonest thyroid dysfunction among diabetics was overt hypothyroidism (4.6%. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest thyroid dysfunction seen in less controlled diabetics at a mean HbA1c of 7.8 (± 0.7. Conclusion. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be routinely performed considering the higher prevalence of thyroid diseases in this group compared to the general population.

  17. Study of elastic and inelastic neutron cross-sections using time of flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision neutron scattering data has become increasingly important in the development of nuclear reactors and accelerator systems, astrophysics and space system design, radiation therapy and isotope production, and for shielding considerations. Previous evaluations of the neutron cross-section standards were completed in 1987 and disseminated as NEANDC/INDC and other databases. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for the heavy elements were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not considered standards, but assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross-sections and reduce their uncertainties. The focus of the present work is to measure elastic and inelastic neutron differential scattering cross-sections for 23Na using Time of Flight Technique for a range of energies with a high accuracy level

  18. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

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    Massad Salwa G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition and vulnerable (stunted groups with those with moderate nutrition. Results Approximately 37% of the subjects demonstrated nutritional resilience and 15% were vulnerable. Factors associated with nutritional resilience were child younger age, normal birth weight, actively hand- or spoon-feeding when the child was below two years, and residential stability in the past two years. The only factor associated with nutritional vulnerability was lower total score on the mother's General Health Questionnaire, which we interpret as a marker of maternal mental health. Conclusions Children with low-birth weight and older children had worse nutritional resiliency outcomes. Further, poorer outcomes for children were associated with lower maternal mental health status, as well as increased family residential instability. Our results add to the large literature on the pervasive effects of violence and instability on children and underscore the need for resources for early intervention and for the urgent resolution of the Palestinian and other armed conflicts.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF FREE REFERRAL SERVICES UNDER JSSK IN DISTRICT GANDERBAL, KASHMIR : A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Rifat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several initiatives by Government of India under NRHM have been put forth for better facilities to the pregnant women & sick new born babies in government institutions under the schemes like JSY & JSSK, in which free transport services are being provided. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To assess the utilization of free referral services under JSSK in Ganderbal D istrict of Kashmir ( J & K. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted for a period of one y ear in district Ganderbal, in which 50% of the Sub centers were selected. 10 recently delivered mothers were chosen randomly from each sub center & a sample size of 230 beneficiary were chosen, who had delivered in previous six months. Results : 51.7% of r ecently delivered women were provided free ambulance services from home to the facility, & 68% were provided free service from facility to the home. The money by cheque was provided to 2.8% of the women only, who had hired a vehicle. RECOMMENDATIONS: Better fund flow and gaps in knowledge need to be filled for proper utilization of the services by the beneficiaries

  20. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity. PMID:25656678

  1. Adherence to Medication among Older Israeli Arabs: a Cross-Sectional Study

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    Merav Ben-Natan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective.  To identify the factors that affect adherence to medication among older persons aged 65 and older in the Arab sector using an extended Theory of Reasoned Action. Design, Sample: A Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among convenience sample of 200 older persons in Israel aged 65 and older from the Israeli Arab sector who use prescription drugs. Measurments: The questionnaire was prepared by the researchers based on the literature review and the extended research model. Results. Research findings indicate that 80.5% of respondents fully adhere to medication. Respondents believe that medication is important and must be adhered to and they attribute much significance to the effect of significant others (physician, children on medication adherence. Moreover, adherence was found to decline with the rise in number of medications. Adherence also rises with lower functioning of respondents, who consequently receive more assistance with daily activities.  Conclusion.  The present study supports the use of an extended psychosocial theory for identifying factors affecting the medication adherence of older Arabs. It is very important to assess older persons' adherence to medication. Reevaluation of the number of medications prescribed, sources of assistance, and guidance for proper administration of medications, should be considered.

  2. Patient safety education and baccalaureate nursing students' patient safety competency: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Ju; Jang, Haena; Park, Su-Yeon

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional study examines baccalaureate nursing programs in South Korea to determine how and to what extent patient safety education was delivered, and to assess nursing students' patient safety competency. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) student evaluation survey and a Patient Safety Competency Self-Evaluation tool were used. We distributed 234 surveys to senior students in four nursing schools; 206 (88%) students responded to the survey. The majority of students (81.6%) reported that they had received patient safety education during coursework. Patient safety education was delivered primarily by lecture rather than during laboratory or simulation sessions. The degree of coverage of QSEN competency and the students' self-reported competency in total and attitude scores showed statistical differences among nursing schools. Students' attitude score was significantly higher than skill and knowledge. Our results confirm the need to revise the nursing curriculum and to use various teaching methods to deliver patient safety education more comprehensively and effectively. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an integrated approach to ensuring students' balanced competency. PMID:26306563

  3. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity.

  4. A cross sectional study of leptospirosis and fetal death in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Segura-Correa, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly to low income human population. Acute leptospiral infection during pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal death during the first trimester and the abortion may occur as consequence of systemic failure. Objective: To estimate the frequency of Leptospira interrogans infection in women with spontaneous abortion in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: A cross sectional study on women with spontaneous abortion was conducted. Serum samples were tested for Leptospirosis by the microaglutination test, to estimate the frequency of the infecting serovar. The indirect ELISA IgM was used to detect recent infection by L. interrogans. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue of placenta for PCR detection of L. interrogans. Results: Overall frequency of infection with L. interrogans in the 81 women with abortion was 13.6%. Five of the 12 serovars evaluated were found and included. Two of the 11 women with abortion and positive to microaglutination test were also positive to the ELISA IgM test. None samples were positive for PCR Leptospira diagnosis. Conclusion: two women could be associated with spontaneous abortion due to leptospirosis, because they showed antibodies against L. interrogans in the microaglutination test and ELISA IgM assays. Differences between regions were found with respect to the prevalences of lesptospirosis. PMID:27226658

  5. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadyen, Lynn; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Design Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. Setting North east England. Participants Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had “opted in” to research through a postal consent procedure. Results There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (Pbrand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Conclusions Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required. PMID:11230063

  6. Testing for loss of protective sensation in patients with foot ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A; Wood, Michael A; Werter, Scott A; Menn, Joseph J; Hamilton, Scott A; Jacoby, Richard; Dellon, A Lee

    2005-01-01

    Current recommendations for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation include screening at-risk individuals by testing for loss of protective sensation at eight sites using 10-g (5.07) nylon monofilaments. Yet measurement of the cutaneous pressure threshold to differentiate one-point from two-point static touch stimuli may allow identification of these at-risk individuals earlier in the clinical course of diabetic neuropathy. The present study tested this hypothesis using a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter design that included sensibility testing of 496 patients with diabetic neuropathy, 17 of whom had a history of ulceration or amputation. Considering the cutaneous pressure threshold of the 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein nylon monofilament to be equivalent to the 95 g/mm(2) one-point static touch measured using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (Sensory Management Services LLC, Baltimore, Maryland), only 3 of these 17 patients with a history of foot ulceration or amputation would have been identified using the Semmes-Weinstein nylon monofilament screening technique. In contrast, using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device, all 17 patients were identified as having abnormal sensibility, defined as greater than the 99% confidence limit for age, for two-point static touch on the hallux pulp. We conclude that patients at risk for foot ulceration can best be identified by actual measurement of the cutaneous sensibility of the hallux pulp. PMID:16166466

  7. CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants in seasonality: A longitudinal and cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Kaunisto, Mari; Partonen, Timo

    2016-08-30

    Cryptochromes are key components of the circadian clocks that generate and maintain seasonal variations. The aim of our study was to analyze the associations of CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants with the problematicity of seasonal variations, and whether the problematicity of seasonal variations changed during the follow-up of 11 years. Altogether 21 CRY1 and 16 CRY2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and analyzed in 5910 individuals from a Finnish nationwide population-based sample who had filled in the self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior in the year 2000. In the year 2011, 3356 of these individuals filled in the same self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Regression models were used to test whether any of the SNPs associated with the problematicity of seasonal variations or with a change in the problematicity from 2000 to 2011. In the longitudinal analysis, CRY2 SNP rs61884508 was protective from worsening of problematicity of seasonal variations. In the cross-sectional analysis, CRY2 SNP rs72902437 showed evidence of association with problematicity of seasonal variations, as did SNP rs1554338 (in the MAPK8IP1 and downstream of CRY2). PMID:27267441

  8. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  9. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  10. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Caterina Ledda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years. Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.. Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes.

  11. Sexual Maturation Pattern in Adolescent School Girls of Rural India: A Cross Sectional Study from Nagpur

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    Dr. Charuhas V Akre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is transformation of the child into an adult. It includes all the events of somatic and mental maturation. Secondary sex characters were also a part of this period. The objective was to assess the pattern of sexual maturation of adolescent school girls in rural India.Methods: This was a community based cross sectional study conducted among school children of Sevanand High school, Mahadula, Nagpur. 322 girls in the age group of 10-18 years were assessed for sexual maturation. The pubertal evaluation was made with reference to Tanner stages and grading was done as per Tanner’s scale. For statistical analysis, median and standard error along with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using Epi Info statistical package programme version 6.0 updated 2009. Statistical significance was assessed at a type I error rate of 0.05.Results: We found that pubertal changes appeared earlier in girls. The first to appear was breast development at a median age of 10.40 years. The last to appear was pubic hair development (PH5 at median age 16.87 years, the total time taken for complete sexual maturation being 6.38 years. Median age of menarche was found to be13.18 years.Conclusion: The pattern of sexual maturation in rural adolescent school children revealed that though puberty set in earlier in girls, but took longer time for complete maturation.

  12. A cross-sectional study on vaccine coverage and seroprevalence in schoolchildren in Andorra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, E; Goicoechea, J; Penella, J

    1993-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness was carried out on a randomized sample of the cohort of schoolchildren born in 1983 attending school in Andorra, prior to the introduction of a Systematic Immunisation Plan that included centralised import and delivery of vaccines to vaccinating clinics, surveillance of the cold-chain during vaccine delivery, and a clearly-defined immunization schedule against diphtheria, tetanus, -pertussis, polio, mumps, rubella and measles. Vaccine coverage was estimated from vaccination card records; history of disease and sociodemographic variables were obtained through a questionnaire to the children's parents and vaccine effectiveness was estimated through serum antibody testing. Vaccine coverage levels for DTP and OPV were 97.8% for both. Protective serum antibody prevalence was correspondingly high except for the polio viruses. The authors suggest that decreased vaccine effectiveness, probably due to poor preservation of the cold chain, might be the cause of this finding. In countries or regions with an otherwise developed organisation of health services, an important issue like this can still be overlooked. PMID:8212915

  13. Dental Students' Learning Experiences and Preferences Regarding Orofacial Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Alonso, Aurelio A; Lang, Lisa; Heima, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Pain is a global health problem, the effects of which range from diminished quality of life to pain management costs and loss of work and productivity. Pain in the head and neck region is defined as a separate entity: orofacial pain (OFP). However, some graduates from dental schools have reported feeling less competent in their ability to diagnose OFP than in other areas of dentistry. The aims of this study were to assess how students at one U.S. dental school had learned about OFP and to identify the teaching methods and venues they would like to see enhanced in the school's OFP curriculum. A cross-sectional four-question survey was administered to 140 dental students in their third and fourth years; the survey had a response rate of 53%. Most students reported having gained their OFP knowledge mainly in dental school, and 91.9% selected didactic courses as the main teaching method in which they had learned about this topic. Clinical education was the main teaching venue these students said they would like to see enhanced in order to gain more knowledge in most forms of OFP; this result aligned with their learning preferences in general. These findings may help dental schools design their OFP curricula to take account of students' preferences as well as practical limitations regarding availability of clinical experiences. PMID:26427780

  14. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Heydari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses’ competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Conclusion: Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses’ competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients.

  15. Inequality and inequity in healthcare utilization in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362

  16. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of Kolar District -A Cross-Sectional Study

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    M. Sarithareddy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescent girls in selected villages of the Kolar district. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two months. 230 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years were selected randomly. Data was collected by interviewing the adolescent girls using predesigned and pre tested Proforma. Various statistical applications like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis of the data. Results: The prevalence of wasting and stunting was 54.79% and 32.17% respectively as per water lows classification and the trend of wasting and stunting declines with the age. The prevalence of thinness was found to be 73.5% as per Indian standards. Prevalence of Anemia was 34.8% percent and it was more among menstruating girls than compared to non-menstruating girls. Anemia prevalence was less among adolescent girls using footwear during defecation than girls not using foot wear. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of under nutrition among adolescent girls in the rural area of the selected villages. Health education and nutrition interventions are needed on priority basis.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for COPD in farmers: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillien, Alicia; Puyraveau, Marc; Soumagne, Thibaud; Guillot, Stéphanie; Rannou, Fabrice; Marquette, David; Berger, Patrick; Jouneau, Stéphane; Monnet, Elisabeth; Mauny, Frédéric; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Degano, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the magnitude and determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk in farmers.In a cross-sectional study of 917 nonfarming working controls and 3787 farmers aged 40-75 years, we assessed respiratory symptoms, tobacco exposure, job history (without direct exposure measurement) and lung function. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) farmers and controls, respectively (p=0.005), and 3.1% (2.5-3.6%) and 1.5% (0.7-2.3%), respectively, for the LLN criterion (page, sex and smoking status, COPD prevalence was similar in controls and crop farmers. Compared to controls, four job categories had a higher prevalence of COPD according to the GOLD criterion, namely, cattle breeders, swine breeders, poultry breeders and breeders of two or more livestock types. Among cattle breeders, only those from Franche-Comté had higher prevalence of COPD according to both GOLD and LLN criteria.The prevalence of COPD in farmers is higher than in nonfarming working controls, and depends on the farming activity, the region and the criterion used to define COPD. PMID:26453630

  18. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH. PMID:27039390

  19. A cross sectional study of two independent cohorts identifies serum biomarkers for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petek, Lisa M; Rickard, Amanda M; Budech, Christopher; Poliachik, Sandra L; Shaw, Dennis; Ferguson, Mark R; Tawil, Rabi; Friedman, Seth D; Miller, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    Measuring the severity and progression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is particularly challenging because muscle weakness progresses over long periods of time and can be sporadic. Biomarkers are essential for measuring disease burden and testing treatment strategies. We utilized the sensitive, specific, high-throughput SomaLogic proteomics platform of 1129 proteins to identify proteins with levels that correlate with FSHD severity in a cross-sectional study of two independent cohorts. We discovered biomarkers that correlate with clinical severity and disease burden measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-eight proteins in the Rochester cohort (n = 48) and 51 proteins in the Seattle cohort (n = 30) had significantly different levels in FSHD-affected individuals when compared with controls (p-value ≤ .005). A subset of these varied by at least 1.5 fold and four biomarkers were significantly elevated in both cohorts. Levels of creatine kinase MM and MB isoforms, carbonic anhydrase III, and troponin I type 2 reliably predicted the disease state and correlated with disease severity. Other novel biomarkers were also discovered that may reveal mechanisms of disease pathology. Assessing the levels of these biomarkers during clinical trials may add significance to other measures of quantifying disease progression or regression. PMID:27185459

  20. Depressive symptoms and the sexual orientation among adolescent students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged 13-17 year-olds. These students completedin the classroom a questionnaire about health behaviors and theZung´s self-rating depression. Logistic regression was computed forcontrolling confounding variables. Results: A total of 432 students,219 boys and 213 girls, completed successfully the survey. The meanage was 14,6 (SD=1,3, and the mean scholarship was 8,4 (1,5. Atotal of 21,1% of girls and 19,2% of boys considered themselvesbisexuals, gays, lesbians or insure about sexual orientation. Depressivesymptoms were related to sexual orientation exclusivally amonggirls (OR=1,10, 95%CI 1,01-1,18, after controlling confounding factors.Conclusions: Among these adolescent students, depressivesymptoms were associated with the sexual orientation only amonggirls. It is likely that this association could be explained better by the gender than the sexual orientation. Futher investigations are needed in Colombian adolescents students.

  1. Association between abdominal obesity and periodontal disease. Cross-sectional study.

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    Israel Juárez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim is to determine the association between abdominal obesity and periodontal disease by a multivariate analysis. Material and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out. From March to April 2014, patients admitted to Dental Sciences Building, at Universidad Austral de Chile, were subjected to a clinical periodontal examination. Periodontitis was defined by a probing pocket depth equal to or greater than 4 mm. in at least one site of the teeth in two different quadrants, along with active bleeding within 30 seconds after probing and abdominal obesity is defined by waist-hip ratio with values equal to or greater than 0.90 for men and 0.88 for women. Oral hygiene was assessed by Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Smoker status was determined after undergoing an interview. Results: We included 136 participants (51 male and 85 female, with a mean age 40.6 years ± 15.1 DE. Prevalence of periodontal disease was 49.2% and obesity 50.7%. 62.3% shown both, periodontal disease and obesity. A statistically significant association between abdominal obesity (Odds ratio (OR = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1, 5.1, tobacco use (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.0, 16.5, poor oral hygiene (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 5.9 and periodontal disease was established. Conclusion: There is a statically significant association between abdominal obesity and periodontal disease.

  2. A cross-sectional study of food group intake and C-reactive protein among children

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    Moore Lynn L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C-reactive protein (CRP, a marker of sub-clinical inflammation, is a predictor of future cardiovascular diseases. Dietary habits affect serum CRP level however the relationship between consumption of individual food groups and CRP levels has not been established. Methods This study was designed to explore the relation between food intake and CRP levels in children using data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. CRP level was classified as low, average or high (3.0 mg/L, respectively. Adjusted mean daily intakes of dairy, grains, fruit, vegetables, and meat/other proteins in each CRP category were estimated using multivariate analysis of covariance modeling. The effect modification by age (5-11 years vs. 12-16 years, gender and race/ethnicity was explored. We examined whether total or central body fat (using BMI Z-scores and waist circumference explained any of the observed associations. Results A total of 4,010 children and adolescents had complete information on diet, CRP and all covariates of interest and were included in the analyses. Individuals with high CRP levels had significantly lower intake of grains (p Conclusion Children and adolescents with higher CRP levels had significantly lower intakes of grains and vegetables. The associations between selected childhood dietary patterns and CRP levels seem largely mediated through effects on body composition.

  3. A pilot cross-sectional study of patients presenting with cellulitis to emergency departments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, M

    2014-11-01

    To characterise the Emergency Department (ED) prevalence of cellulitis, factors predicting oral antibiotic therapy and the utility of the Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) guideline in predicting patient management in the ED setting, a prospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients presenting to 3 Irish EDs was performed. The overall prevalence of cellulitis was 12 per 1,000 ED visits. Of 59 patients enrolled, 45.8% were discharged. Predictors of treatment with oral antibiotics were: CREST, Class 1 allocation (odds ratio (OR) 6.81, 95% Cl =1.5-30.1, p=0.012), patient self-referral (OR= 6.2, 95% Cl 1.9- 20.0, p=0.03) and symptom duration longer than 48 hours (OR 1.2, 95% Cl = 1.0-1.5,p=0.049). In conflict with guideline recommendation, 43% of patients in CREST Class 1 received IV therapy. Treatment with oral antibiotics was predicted by CREST Class 1 allocation, self-referral, symptom duration of more than 48 hours and absence of pre-EO antibiotic therapy.

  4. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study

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    Hamed Enas A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD and hemodialysis (HD on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total peroxide (TPX, pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI and lactate/pyruvate (L/P ratio were calculated. Results TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. Conclusions CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  5. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention. PMID:26002092

  6. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials. PMID:25869407

  7. Smoking dependence and common psychiatric disorders in medical students: Cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Exploring the variable effect of the degree of smoking dependence on the level of anxiety and depression symptoms among medical students. Methodology: This cross-section study, conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad-Iraq from December 2010 to May 2011, involving 300 medical students selected by cluster random sampling techniques. Those students completed the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, Zung self-report depression scale and the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence with a value of six or more regarded as heavy smokers, and a value less than six considered as light smokers. Results: The response rate was 89%, heavy smokers were significantly older and start smoking at an earlier age than non- and light smokers (p=0.001). Heavy smokers associated with high chance of depressive symptoms in comparison with non-smokers (OR=4.8, C.I.=1.752-13.677) and light smokers (OR=4.2, C.I.=1.042-17.161). Regarding anxiety symptoms, heavy smokers demonstrate high chance of anxiety symptoms in comparison with non-smokers (OR=5.2, C.I.=1.826-15.176), and light smokers (OR=4.5, C.I.=1.318-15.526). Conclusions: Heavy smokers differ from non- and light smokers, associated with high risk of anxiety and depression, therefore heavy smoking tends to deteriorate rather than ameliorate these symptoms. (author)

  8. Factors affecting intention to breastfeed among Syrian and Jordanian mothers: a comparative cross-sectional study

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    Ababneh Alla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is considered the ideal method of infant feeding for at least the first six months of life. This study aimed to compare breastfeeding intention between Syrian and Jordanian women and determine factors associated with breastfeeding intention among pregnant women in these two countries. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from1200 pregnant women aged 18 years and above (600 participants from each country. A self- administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and breastfeeding intention. Results Intention to breastfeed was reported by 77.2% of Syrian and 76.2% of Jordanian pregnant women. There was no significant difference in intention to breastfeed between Syrian women and Jordanian women. In both countries, women with a more positive attitude to breastfeeding, women with previous breastfeeding experience and women with supportive partners were more likely to intend to breastfeed. Syrian women with a monthly family income of more than US$200, younger than 25 and primiparous or having one child were more likely to report an intention to breastfeed their infants. Jordanian women with an education level of less than high school and not living with their family-in-law were more likely to intend to breastfeed. Conclusions In Syria and Jordan, a more positive attitude to breastfeeding, previous breastfeeding experience and presence of supportive husbands are associated with intention to breastfeed. These factors should be considered when planning programs designed to promote breastfeeding in these two countries.

  9. Cultural desire need not improve with cultural knowledge: A cross-sectional study of student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Anton Neville; Raymond, Anita; Jacob, Elisabeth; Jones, Janet; McGrail, Matthew; Drysdale, Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Cultural desire is considered to be a prerequisite for developing cultural competence. This study explored cultural desire among student nurses towards Aboriginal peoples and its association with participation in a one-semester unit on Aboriginal health through a cross-sectional survey. Our main outcome, cultural desire, was measured using two items level of agreement with Aboriginal health being an integral component of the nursing curriculum and an expressed interest in Aboriginal health. 220 (74.58%) student nurses completed the survey. Completing the Aboriginal Health and wellbeing unit did not influence students' opinions on inclusion of the unit as part of the nursing curriculum (odds ratio OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.43-1.29) or their overall cultural desire (mean difference = -0.69, 95% CI -1.29 to -0.08, p = 0.026). Students who completed the unit reported a higher understanding of Aboriginal health (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.35-4.08) but lower interest levels in the subject (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.84). Further research is necessary to explore how and when cultural desire might develop in nurses who are trained in cultural competence particularly in the contexts of post-colonial disparities and political conflict. PMID:27428699

  10. Theoretical Studies on Expressions of Condensed-Phase Photoionization Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-Guang; WANG Mei-Shan; WANG De-Hua; QU Zhao-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A set of general expressions for photoionization cross sections of atoms or molecules embedded in a medium and a dielectric influence function are derived based on Maxwell's equations and the Beer-Lambert's law in this work.The applications are performed for the photoionization process of solid gold both in the Clausius-Mossotti (virtual cavity) model and the Glauber-Lewenstein (real cavity) model firstly. The results show that the present theoretical expressions of photoionization cross section can be used to describe the photoionization process of atoms in condensed matter properly.

  11. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fernando César; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Haddad, Samira M; Costa, Maria Laura; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Souza, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surv...

  12. Cross-sectional small intestinal surveillance of maintenance hemodialysis patients using video capsule endoscopy: SCHEMA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoe, Naoki; Matsukawa, Shigeaki; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Naganuma, Makoto; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Yoshitsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Small intestinal pathology in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been studied in only a small number of retrospective case series. One method for noninvasively surveying small intestinal disorders is video capsule endoscopy (VCE). The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small intestinal abnormalities among asymptomatic maintenance HD outpatients using VCE. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical impact of these abnormalities. Patients and methods: This study consisted of two phases. In phase I, a cross-sectional study, a cohort of patients who received maintenance HD three times weekly at an outpatient hemodialysis clinic were studied using VCE. Phase II was a prospective cohort study with follow up for 1 year after VCE. Results: Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and two were excluded from analysis due to capsule retention in the stomach. The prevalence of small bowel abnormalities in HD patients was 64.8 % (35/54) (95 % confidential interval 52.1 % – 77.6 %). Of 54 patients, 21 (38.9 %) had mucosal lesions, 10 (18.5 %) had vascular lesions, and 4 (7.4 %) had both lesion types. During the 1-year follow-up period, events occurred in four patients. A small bowel-associated event was observed in one patient, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted small intestinal partial resection 3 months after diagnosis by VCE. All patients in whom events were seen had small bowel abnormalities; no events were observed in the VCE-negative group. Conclusions: Although asymptomatic maintenance HD patients had a high prevalence of small bowel abnormalities (64.8 %), they did not have a high incidence of small bowel-associated events during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:27227120

  13. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY AMONG THE MEDICAL STUDENTS AT KANNUR, KERALA

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    Girish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Obesity is one of the major non - communicable diseases in recent decades leading to huge morbidity, mortality & economic losses. Obesity is perhaps the most prevalent form of malnutrition. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. MATERIAL & METHODS : Study Design : A Cross - sectional descriptive study done in a medical college. Study Duration : February 15th to March 20th 2013 . Study Participants : Out of 400 medical students, purposively derived & randomly selected 200 students who were willing to participate and available during study period were enrolled in the study. Representation from all phases/batches o f MBBS course was ensured. Data Collection : By self - administered pre - tested & validated questionnaire. Height, Weight & Waist circumference was measured using standard instruments & procedures. Statistical analysis was done by applying proportions/percenta ges. RESULTS : Out of 200 students enrolled in the study, 43.5% were males and 56.5% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity according to BMI classification was 2.5%. The prevalence of obesity in males was 1% and 1.5% in females. The prevalence of overweight was 9%.28 (14% students were having increased waist circumference, which was more in females (8.5% when compared to males (5.5%. 60% of obese individuals & 61.1% of overweight individuals are having habit of eating heavy meals either daily or alternative days.80% of obese individuals and 50% of overweight individuals never used to do exercise . CONCLUSIONS : There is need for increasing the awareness, bringing motivation & attitudinal change even in medical students to eat balanced diet & to inc orporate physical activity in them to prevent them from suffering from the harmful effects of overweight & obesity

  14. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF AMBLYOPIA IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

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    Siddharam S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is that condition in which there is deficiency of form or spatial vision sense resulting in the reduction of visual acuity of greater than two lines between the eyes or an absolute reduction in acuity below 6/9 either eye in Snellen's Vision Chart which cannot be corrected by refraction and cannot be attributed directly to the effect of any structural abnormality of the eye or the posterior visual pathway defects The aim of our study is to study the prevalence of amblyopia and different types of amblyopia in children between 6 – 14 years of age This prospective cross sectional study done in tertiary care centre over period of 2years. 2700 children were screened in this study out of which 54 children were found to be amblyopic. Children aged between 6 years and 14 years of age, with no previous history of strabismus surgery, with corrected or uncorrected refractive errors were included in study. RESULTS: Amblyopia was more common in male (63.79% than female children. It was lower in urban children (32.76% than in rural children (67.21%. This is because of the lack of awareness among the rural population to have regular eye check-ups. Monocular amblyopic 40(68.96% cases were common than binocular 18(21.04% cases. The most common cause of ambylopia in our study were anisometropic (36.20%, strabismic (25.86%, ametropic (12.06%, merdionic and visual deprivation (6.89%. Hypermetropia 18(46.15% was more common refractive error associated with amblyopia compared to myopia 10(25.64 and astigmatism 11(18.20%. In strabismic amblyopia (25.86%, exotropia 8 patients (53.33% are more frequent than esotropia 6 patients (40% and hypertropia 1patient (6.66 CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and treatment of ametropias can minimize permanent loss of vision by amblyopia. Those at greater risks are children of preschool and school going ages.

  15. Prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits : Cross-sectional study in South India.

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    Saraswathi T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking, drinking and chewing tobacco product, common habits in India have been positively associated with oral lesions. No study has been conducted in this part of Tamilnadu regarding the prevalence of oral lesions in relation to habits. METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was carried out at Ragas Dental College, Chennai. Already existing data of two thousand and seventeen consecutive patients from sub-urban areas of Chennai, who attended the outpatient department, at Ragas Dental College, for dental complaints during a period of three months in 2004, who underwent oral examination and interviewer based questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Oral soft tissue lesions were found in 4.1% of the study subjects. The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus was 0.59%, 0.55%, and 0.15% respectively. The prevalence of smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages and chewing was 15.02%, 8.78% and 6.99% respectively. Smoking and chewing were significant predictors of leukoplakia in this population. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of leukoplakia, OSF and oral lichen planus in our study population is similar to those found in other populations. The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic beverages in our study population was higher when compared to the Indian National Sample Survey study. However the prevalence of smoking and chewing was found to be lower. Smokers were more likely to develop smoker′s melanosis compared to other lesions. Among those who consumed alcoholic beverages alone, the prevalence of leukoplakia was higher compared to other lesions. OSF was the most prevalent lesion among those who chewed panmasala or gutkha or betel quid with or without tobacco.

  16. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PR ESCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLUMS OF DIBRUGARH TOWN.

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    Ajanta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study had been carried out in the urban slums of Dibrugarh during July, 2007 to June, 2008 and a total of 316 preschool children (aged one to five years had been included in the study. The nutritional sta tus of the study subjects had been assessed by anthropometry and for this Z- score approach is uti lized. In order to compare the prevalence of malnutrition in different categories, z-test for testing the difference between two proportions had been employed and χ 2 - test was utilized for testing the associations. T he study revealed that the overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among the preschool children was 59.37%, 53.12% and 17.81% respectively. Also, it had been observed that the prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in children of il literate mothers (p <0.01 and wasting was significantly higher (p < 0.001 amongst the childre n of working mothers. Underweight and stunting was higher in Class III socioeconomic grou p (p<0.01 and wasting was higher in class IV socioeconomic group (p<0.05 as per modified Kuppusw ami’s socioeconomic classification. From the present study it had been revealed that il literacy, lower socioeconomic status and working status of the mother had a negative impact on the nutritional status of their children. The results of the present study indicate the urgent need for appropriate steps to be taken to improve the nutritional status of the children of th ese areas

  17. The seroepidemiology of Immunoglobulin G antibodies against pertussis toxin in China: a cross sectional study

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    Zhang Qi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pertussis is a reported vaccine-preventable respiratory disease in China. Because the routine laboratory methods for diagnosis are not in use, the reported cases are mainly in infants with classical paroxysmal cough and the true incidence related to pertussis is most likely under estimated. In China, however, few studies have attempted to address this issue. The purpose of this cross sectional study was to estimate the incidence rates using the method of sero-epidemiology of immunoglobulin (Ig G antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT among healthy populations in China. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 1313 healthy individuals aged 0 to 95 years in Guangdong province of China throughout September 2010. Serum IgG antibodies against PT were determined by commercial ELISA kits. Subjects with concentration of anti-PT IgG higher than 30 IU/mL were indicated to have recent Bordetella pertussis infection, if they have not received a booster dose of pertussis vaccine within one year. Results Of the 1313 study subjects, 117 (8.91% were found to have anti-PT antibodies higher than 30 IU/mL. The estimated incidence of recent infection was thus 9395 per 100,000 for individuals older than 7 years. Peaks of the estimated incidence rate of recent infection were found to be 11561 per 100,000 in age group of 41–50 years and 11428 per 100,000 in the group aged 13–19 years. Conclusions Our study indicated that B.pertussis infections are considerablely common, particularly in adolescents and adults in China. The study also stresses the importance of laboratory diagnosis for pertussis and employment of booster dose of pertussis vaccine in adolescents and adults in this country.

  18. Happiness Among College Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Study Among Iranian Medical Students

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    Lesani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background During the recent decades, happiness and psychological wellbeing have been among the most attractive issues for researchers in the fields of social sciences and health. Medical and paramedical students in comparison with other college students are less happy due to work circumstance in hospital and special education. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate happiness among college students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in terms of socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional web-based study, all the students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who had course classes were invited to participate in the study and 541 students filled out the web-based questionnaire including questions for measuring happiness oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ, health status, stress experience in the past six months, cigarette and hookah smoking, physical activity rapid assessment of physical activity (RAPA, as well as socio-economic and demographic information. Results The mean happiness score was 114.59 ± 18.31. Socio-economic status, physical activity, and experience of stress in the last 6 months were related to the happiness score (P = 0.009, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively. However, gender, cigarette smoking, hookah smoking and body mass index were not significantly correlated with happiness. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that a happiness score among our sample study was slightly low and people with high happiness scores had a healthier lifestyle, i.e. more physical activity and less tobacco smoking. College students should be encouraged to do regular exercise as a way to increase the happiness level.

  19. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

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    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  20. Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort

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    Sanders Elisabeth A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is ample evidence that childhood overweight is associated with increased risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between childhood overweight and common childhood health problems. Methods Data were used from a general population sample of 3960 8-year-old children, participating in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. Weight and height, measured by the investigators, were used to define BMI status (thinness, normal weight, moderate overweight, obesity. BMI status was studied cross-sectionally in relation to the following parental reported outcomes: a general health index, GP visits, school absenteeism due to illness, health-related functional limitations, doctor diagnosed respiratory infections and use of antibiotics. Results Obesity was significantly associated with a lower general health score, more GP visits, more school absenteeism and more health-related limitations, (adjusted odds ratios around 2.0 for most outcomes. Obesity was also significantly associated with bronchitis (adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI: 5.29 (2.58;10.85 and with the use of antibiotics (aOR (95%CI: 1.79 (1.09;2.93. Associations with flu/serious cold, ear infection and throat infection were positive, but not statistically significant. Moderate overweight was not significantly associated with the health outcomes studied. Conclusion Childhood obesity is not merely a risk factor for disease in adulthood, but obese children may experience more illness and health related problems already in childhood. The high prevalence of the outcomes studied implies a high burden of disease in terms of absolute numbers of sick children.

  1. Elevated oxidative stress among coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, Damodaran M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Statins are a major group of drugs that reduces LDL-C levels, which are proven to have other beneficial effects such as preventing coronary events. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress and select novel coronary artery disease risk factors among coronary artery disease patients on statins. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, we compared total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL among male coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy (group 2, n = 151) with sex-matched, diabetic patients (group 3, n = 80) as well as healthy controls (group 1, n = 84). Results Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower among subjects of group 2 compared to other two groups. The novel risk factors studied did not differ significantly between groups, except for a higher homocysteine level among group 2 subjects compared to the other two groups. Elevated oxidative stress, indicated by lower reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and ascorbic acid as well as higher malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL was observed among group 2 subjects. Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were found to be independent predictors for coronary artery disease among this study population. Conclusions Though coronary artery disease subjects had healthy lipid profile, oxidative stress, a recognized risk factor for coronary events, was still elevated among this patient group. Novel risk factors were not found to be major predictors for coronary artery disease among the study subjects. PMID:26138179

  2. Depression in the elderly: Does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study

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    Qidwai Waris

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common geriatric psychiatric disorder is depression. The role of family systems in depression among the elderly has not been studied extensively. It has been suggested that urbanization promotes nucleation of family systems and a decrease in care and support for the elderly. We conducted this study in Karachi, a large urban city of Pakistan, to determine the relationship between the type of family system and depression. We also determined the prevalence of depression in the elderly, as well as correlation of depression with other important socio-demographic variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the premises of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted among the elderly people visiting the hospital. Depression was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Four hundred subjects aged 65 and above were interviewed. The age of majority of the subjects ranged from 65 to 74 years. Seventy eight percent of the subjects were male. The prevalence of depression was found to be 19.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were significant (p independent predictors of depression: nuclear family system, female sex, being single or divorced/widowed, unemployment and having a low level of education. The elderly living in a nuclear family system were 4.3 times more likely to suffer from depression than those living in a joint family system (AOR = 4.3 [95% CI = 2.4–7.6]. Conclusion The present study found that residing in a nuclear family system is a strong independent predictor of depression in the elderly. The prevalence of depression in the elderly population in our study was moderately high and a cause of concern. The transition in family systems towards nucleation may have a major deleterious effect on the physical and mental health of the elderly.

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in elderly: cross-sectional study in Eastern Croatia

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    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients and it has recently been connected with the occurrence of depressive symptoms in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients from Eastern Croatia and to evaluate whether there is a connection between this deficiency and the occurrence of depressive symptoms among them.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013, among 140 elderly patients from Vukovar-Srijem County (47.9%, 67/140 males and 52.1%, 73/140 females; mean age 71.0±6.7 years. The anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data, data regarding socio-economic status and personal history of diseases of study participants as well as data pertaining to the existence of depressive symptoms among them. The competitive immunoassay vitamin B12 kit was used to determine serum levels of vitamin B12.Results: Among all study participants there were 7.1% (10/140 of them with B12 deficiency and 70.0% (98/140 of them with the symptoms of depression. Depressive symptoms occurred in 100.0% (10/10 patients with the vitamin B12 deficiency and 67.7% (88/130 of patients without it.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the existence of depressive symptoms and vitamin B12 deficiency among elderly patients. This finding points to the need for frequent vitamin status evaluation in this age group and its consequent correction that could improve overall health of this population subgroup.

  4. Prevalence and severity of micronutrient deficiency: a cross-sectional study among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and ant...

  5. Geohelminth Infections among Pregnant Women in Rural Western Kenya; a Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Eijk; K.A. Lindblade; F. Odhiambo; E. Peterson; D.H. Rosen; D. Karanja; J.G. Ayisi; Y.P. Shi; K. Adazu; L. Slutsker

    2009-01-01

    Background: Geohelminth infections are common in rural western Kenya, but risk factors and effects among pregnant women are not clear. Methodology: During a community-based cross-sectional survey, pregnant women were interviewed and asked to provide a blood sample and a single fecal sample. Hemoglob

  6. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  7. Contribution to the study of the unresolved resonance range of the neutrons cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the statistical description of neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance range. The modeling of the total cross section and of the 'shape - elastic' cross section is based on the 'average R-Matrix' formalism. The partial cross sections describing the radiative capture, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and fission process are calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with width fluctuation corrections. In the unresolved resonance range, these models depend on the average resonance parameters (neutron strength function Sc, mean level spacing Dc, average partial reaction widths Γc, channel radius ac, effective radius R' and distant level parameter R-barc∞). The codes (NJOY, CALENDF...) dedicated to the processing of nuclear data libraries (JEFF, ENDF/B, JENDL, CENDL, BROND... ) use the average parameters to take into account the self-shielding phenomenon for the simulation of the neutron transport in Monte-Carlo (MCNP, TRIPOLI... ) and deterministic (APOLLO, ERANOS...) codes. The evaluation work consists in establishing a consistent set of average parameters as a function of the total angular momentum J of the system and of the orbital moment of the incident neutron l. The work presented in this paper aims to describe the links between the S-Matrix and the 'average R-Matrix' formalism for the calculation of Sc, R-barc∞, ac and R'. (author)

  8. A cross-sectional study of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in medical students

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    Panchami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The final phase of medical school is characterized by many demands, requirements, and responsibilities, in addition to insecurities that typify the end of the program. Weight and shape concerns are also considered part of the core pathology of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate eating attitudes and to correlate disturbed eating habits with anxiety, self-esteem, body weight satisfaction and BMI in medical students. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study in a random sample of medical students aged between 17-21years including a total of 150 medical students. Information was be gathered from a structured questionnaire on eating attitudes and behaviours (eating attitude test -26, EAT-26, anxiety (Beck anxiety inventory, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, fear of being overweight (body image and eating questionnaire for adults-16. Data was represented as mean+/-S.D. Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation was used to investigate the relation between different parameters. P value less than 0.05 was found to be significant. Results: In this study, 4.7% of medical students were found to have eating disorder and all were girls. On comparison of eating score with anxiety showed a positive correlation (p=0.001, positive correlation between EAT score and body image dissatisfaction (p=0.001, no significant relationship between self-esteem (p=0.73 and no significant relationship between EAT score and BMI (p=0.294. Conclusions: The prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in this study was calculated using the cut-off scores of the questionnaires, which indicate possible cases of eating disorders. A diagnostic interview is necessary to corroborate the self-report data and to obtain an accurate estimate of prevalence of full syndrome eating disorders. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2830-2833

  9. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in two regions:cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Leppe; Josip Culig; Mirela Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Smoking in pregnancy is associated with the risk of congenital malformations and functional disorders.The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnancy, and the rate of congenital malformations in children at in utero exposure.Methods:The trial was designed as a cross-sectional study to measure exposure of pregnant women to adverse influence of smoking and their health status.The study consists of two arms: one was conducted at fourZagreb maternity hospitals(Croatia) and the other at the same hospitals inNovi Sad(Serbia).Results:Data analysis revealed the habit of cigarette smoking during pregnancy in829(11.9%) of6992(6099+893) women.Malformations were found in105(1.5%) fetuses and newborns.Major congenital malformations were present in four(0.6%), minor malformations in73 (10.5%) andLBW in12(1.7%) newborns.In all these cases pregnant women smoked until becoming aware of pregnancy or during pregnancy.Tobacco smoking and congenital abnormalities that define the contingency table are not significantly related inZagreb(P=0.385), as well as in NoviSad(P=0.345).Conclusions:The rate of congenital malformations is higher in fetuses and newborns at in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoking as well as to alcohol consumption and drug abuse than in the general population.The results of the present study did not identify the exact cause of these malformations because of fetal concurrent exposure to multiple teratogenic factors.

  10. Identifying drivers of overall satisfaction in patients receiving HIV primary care: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bich N Dang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the drivers of overall patient satisfaction in a predominantly low-income, ethnic-minority population of HIV primary care patients. The study's primary aims were to determine 1 the component experiences which contribute to patients' evaluations of their overall satisfaction with care received, and 2 the relative contribution of each component experience in explaining patients' evaluation of overall satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 489 adult patients receiving HIV primary care at two clinics in Houston, Texas, from January 13-April 21, 2011. The participation rate among eligible patients was 94%. The survey included 15 questions about various components of the care experience, 4 questions about the provider experience and 3 questions about overall care. To ensure that the survey was appropriately tailored to our clinic population and the list of component experiences reflected all aspects of the care experience salient to patients, we conducted in-depth interviews with key providers and clinic staff and pre-tested the survey instrument with patients. RESULTS: Patients' evaluation of their provider correlated the strongest with their overall satisfaction (standardized β = 0.445, p<0.001 and accounted for almost half of the explained variance. Access and availability, like clinic hours and ease of calling the clinic, also correlated with overall satisfaction, but less strongly. Wait time and parking, despite receiving low patient ratings, did not correlate with overall satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The patient-provider relationship far exceeds other component experiences of care in its association with overall satisfaction. Our study suggests that interventions to improve overall patient satisfaction should focus on improving patients' evaluation of their provider.

  11. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

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    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  12. The Status of Social Well-Being in Iranian Nurses: a Cross- Sectional Study

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    Naser Mozaffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social well-being is one of the important aspects of individual’s health. However, the social aspect of health, or social well-being, has not been attended to as equally as the other aspects. Social well-being is people’s perceptions and experiences in social circumstances as well as the degree of successful responses to social challenges. The aim of the study was to investigate the social well-being of a sample of Iranian nurses. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional conducted in 2013. The study population consisted of all 1200 staff nurses working in all hospitals located in Ardabil, Iran. We invited a random sample of 281 practicing nurses to respond to the 33-item Keyes’s Social Well-Being Questionnaire and the possible range of the total score is 33–165. Higher score reflect better SWB. The quantitative analysis of this study used the Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS version 13.0. Results: The results showed that Participants’ mean score of social well-being was 105.45 (15.87. Social well-being was significantly related to participants’ age, gender, work experience, satisfaction with working in hospital and with income, familiarity with nursing prior to entering it, official position, and type of employment. However, there was no significant relationship between nurses’ social well -being and their marital status, their parents and spouses’ educational status, as well as the type of hospital. Conclusion: Nurses’ social well-being deserves special attention. Effective well-being promotion strategies should be executed for promoting their social well-being particularly in areas of social integration and social acceptance. Moreover, nurses, particularly female nurses, need strong financial, emotional, informational, and social support for ensuring their social well-being.

  13. A cross sectional study of dermatoglyphics and dental caries in Bengalee children

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    Asok bijoy sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dermatoglyphic is the permanent imprint found in hands. Variations of dermatoglyphic patterns among the individuals have been noted. Aims: To find out the dermatoglyphic pattern variations in dental caries between study group and the control group. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was done on 300 Bengalee children of Kolkata between the age group of 4-14 years. Materials and Methods: The samples were divided into two groups; study group and control group. Dental caries were detected clinically using mouth mirror and probe in daylight. Ink was applied on palm and finger by pressure pad. Bilateral palm and finger prints were taken by placing the palm and fingers over glazed paper and applying pressure over palm. Finger and palm prints obtained were inspected by magnifying glass for the study of different dermatoglyphic parameters. Statistical analysis used: Analytical statistical method with the help of student′s t-test was used to determine mean values and gender differences in the findings using SPSS version 11.0. Results: The characteristic feature which shows significant increase in caries sample group were increased total finger ridge count (TRFC and absolute finger ridge count (AFRC on fingers, representing pattern size and types. ab count and tr count were significantly lower in male and female caries sample group compared with the control group. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between caries and control group in different patterns and number of "tri radii on fingers" in fingers, the percentage of patterns on all palmar areas, total number of triradii on palm and main line index. Perhaps more systematic larger samples consisting of different genetic population are necessary to verify the conclusion.

  14. Predictive Factors of Hospitalization and Dialysis Requirement in Alcohol Poisoning; a Cross-Sectional Study

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    Ali Tagizadieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol abuse is one of the health problems that all societies have involved with. Although in Iran the percent of alcohol consuming due to social and cultural preventions is lesser that other countries, its outcome and predictive factors are not accessible. Thus, this study was designed with the aim of determining the consequences of alcohol consuming and finding its effective factors in Tabriz. Method: This cross-sectional study has been done through September 2013 to July 2014 in Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. All individuals with alcohol poisoning referred to the emergency department were included in the study. Demographic and clinical factors of patients, laboratory tests, dialysis and hospitalization in hospital wards were evaluated. Finally, independent effective factors for dialysis and hospitalization were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression. Results: At the end, 81(91.4% male patients with the mean age of 27.9±10.4 years were entered to the study. Ten (12.3% patients needed dialysis and 34 (42.0% were hospitalized. Increasing the serum creatinine level (OR-1.6; 95% Cl: 1.004-2.4; p-0.048 and time interval between consumption until referring to the emergency (OR-1.1; 95% Cl: 1.03-1.15; p-0.004 were the independent predictive factors of dialysis. Also, predictive agents of hospitalization included smoking (OR-3.4; 95% Cl: 1.6-5.5; p-0.01 and need to do dialysis (OR-7.9; 95% Cl: 5.4-10.5; p<0.001. Conclusion: In the present project 12.3% of patients needed dialysis. Increasing the serum creatinine and time interval between alcohol consuming until referring to the emergency were the most important predictive factors. In addition, the probability of hospitalization for smoking and dialyzed poisoned persons in hospital wards was more than other patients.

  15. CLINICAL PROFILE OF HEMOPHILIA PATIENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN INDIA

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    Ram Sunder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine clinical profile of haemophilia patients in North India. In this cross-sectional study, we obtained family history and clinical profile of 54 diagnosed severe haemophilia patients attending Haemophilia Treatment Centre, Children Hospital LLR Hospital, Kanpur, India, for factor replacement therapy. We also obtained blood samples to investigate for hepatitis B, HIV. In study we observed that majority of the patients having their first presentation in their infancy (70.3% and median age of first presentation was 11 months of age. Though haemophilia is a genetic disorder, family history was negative in majority of patients; (70.3% subcutaneous tissue was most frequent site for initial bleeds, but as age advances joints become frequently involved and hemarthrosis was commonest complication affecting 79.6% patients. Most common involved joint was knee joint (53.7%. This hemarthrosis is the major cause of morbidity affecting quality of life of patients. Due to cost of treatment, many times we have to transfuse blood and blood products which may lead to Transfusion Transmitted Infection (TTI. In our study prevalence of TTI was 1.85% and 3.70% for HIV and Hep. B respectively. We also observed that there was time lag of >1 month in 16.5% cases between onset of symptom and definitive diagnosis, which shows lack of awareness among doctors in community. In view of this high morbidity and TTIs, we emphasize the free availability of factor concentrates and prophylactic treatment should be followed instead of palliative treatment.

  16. Sale of anti-tuberculosis drugs through private pharmacies: a cross sectional study in Kerala, India.

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    Binoo Divakaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Private health care providers are largely the first point of contact for Tuberculosis (TB patients, who either undergo treatment from private practitioners or buy medicines on their own from private pharmacies. Aims: This study assessed the availability, sale and magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drugs dispensing through private pharmacies.

    Methodology: The present cross sectional study was conducted among private pharmacies located along the national highway from Thalassery to Payyannur in the Kannur district of Kerala, India. A total of 38 private pharmacies located along the national highway were included.

    Results: The duration that anti–TB drugs had been on sale showed that 74.3% of pharmacies had started to sell these drugs only less than ten years ago. The majority (82.9% of the private pharmacies received up to 5 prescriptions for anti-TB drugs weekly. Out of the total of 35 pharmacies selling these drugs, 22 (62.9% reported an increase in their sales. Nearly 82% of those pharmacies that reported an increase in the sale of anti-TB drugs were selling these drugs for less than the past ten years.

    Conclusions: The current study shows that a large number of tuberculosis patients are still approaching private pharmacies for anti-tuberculosis drugs. This tendency has to be completely stopped and needs properly planned strategies to encourage private pharmacies to participate actively in the DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course program of the Government, by providing them attractive alternative incentives

  17. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

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    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

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    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia independently associated with the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Guo, X; Chen, S; Zheng, L; Yang, H; Sun, G; Yu, S; Li, W; Zhou, L; Wang, J; Hu, W; Sun, Y

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the current prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) and its association with hypertension in rural adults of Northeast China. A cross-sectional study was performed in subjects aged⩾35 years in a general Chinese population. Demographic data, laboratory examination of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported information on lifestyle factors, such as physical activities, current smoking and drinking status, dietary habits and familial factors were collected by trained personnel. A total of 7130 participants (3317 men and 3813 women) were included in this study and the mean Hhcy level of the whole population was 17.39±12.34 mmol l(-1), which was 20.99±14.83 mmol l(-1) in males and 14.19±8.51 mmol l(-1) in females, respectively. Prevalence of Hhcy in total population was 41.3%. Stratified by gender, the prevalence of Hhcy was higher in males than in females (59.0 vs 25.8%, P<0.05). After adjustment for conventional risk factors including age, salt intake, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, activity time and family history, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that Hhcy was independently associated with the risk of hypertension in males (odds ratio (OR)=1.501, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.012-2.227; P<0.001), but not in females in this population (OR=1.182; 95% CI, 0.993-1.407; P=0.060). In conclusion, a high prevalence of Hhcy in the general adult population of rural northeast China was detected and Hhcy may be a risk factor for hypertension, particularly in males. PMID:26155996

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breastfeeding in the north of Jordan: a cross-sectional study

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    Amarin Zouhair

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 6–12 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.

  1. Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study

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    Ge Cuixia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang and a small city (Benxi in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions.

  2. Medical Faculty Members’ Spiritual Intelligence/Quotient (SQ: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study in Iran

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    Maryam Akbari Lakeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, promotion of SQ has been introduced as a factor in improving the quality of working life and performance of employees. Since faculty members are the greatest resource of universities; recognition of the SQ and its effectiveness would be the shortcut route to improve their overall performance. Finding and applying all factors affecting the educational organizations promotion is the main approach in improving the quality of higher education. This study aimed to determine the demographic of faculty members, the level of spiritual intelligence and its dimensions in medical faculty members. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study with the participant of 160 medical faculty members (32 basic science faculty members, 128 clinical science faculty members conducted through stratified probability sampling in one of the medical universities in Iran. King’s modified Spiritual intelligence questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS 11.0. Results: The mean score of faculty members’ SQ was 63.0±1.2, which was moderate. There was no significant difference between faculty members’ SQ scores (p=0.7 considering the minimum score of 28.0 and maximum score of 87.0; (t=0.4. In dimensions of SQ: the highest score was for critical existential thinking and the lowest one was for transcendental awareness. There was significant difference between dimensions of SQ among the participants (p<0.001. Conclusion: Since we found a significant difference between dimensions of SQ among participants, the studies exploring the nature of this difference were warranted. It seems that proper training for promotion of SQ can be an important step for the development of universities educational organization.

  3. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerian population - a cross sectional study

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    Gbadamosi Maruf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a major cause of morbidity and a leading contributor to mortality worldwide. Over the next 2 decades, it is projected that there will be a rise in CVD mortality rates in the developing countries, linked to demographic changes and progressive urbanization. Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural-urban migration which have led to the emergence of non-communicable diseases. We set out to determine the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at Katsina, northwestern Nigeria from March to May 2006. Subjects for the study were recruited consecutively from local residents, hospital staff and relations of in-patients of the Federal Medical Centre, Katsina using convenience sampling. Socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were obtained from the subjects in a standardized manner. Venous samples were collected for necessary investigations and analyzed at the hospital central laboratory. Findings Three hundred subjects (129 males and 171 females with a mean age of 37.6 ± 10.6 (range 18-75 years were studied. Prevalence of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors screened for were as follows: generalized obesity 21.3% (males 10.9%, females 29.2%, p 0.05, type 2 diabetes mellitus 5.3% (males 5.4%, females 5.3%, p > 0.05, hypercholesterolaemia 28.3% (males 23.3%, females 32.2%, p 0.05, low HDL-cholesterol 59.3% (males 51.9%, females 65%, p 0.05 and metabolic syndrome 22% (males 10.9%, females 30.4%, p Conclusions We found high prevalence of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. In order to reduce this high prevalence and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events, encouragement of a healthy lifestyle is suggested.

  4. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

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    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  5. Child feces disposal practices in rural Orissa: a cross sectional study.

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    Fiona Majorin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities. While large-scale programs in some countries have increased latrine coverage, they sometimes fail to ensure optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, a significant source of exposure to fecal pathogens. We undertook a cross-sectional study to explore fecal disposal practices among children in rural Orissa, India in villages where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years prior to the study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted surveys with heads of 136 households with 145 children under 5 years of age in 20 villages. We describe defecation and feces disposal practices and explore associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household (57.5% for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound (55.2% for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. While 78.6% of study children came from 106 households with a latrine, less than a quarter (22.8% reported using them for disposal of child feces. Most child feces were deposited with other household waste, both for pre-ambulatory (67.5% and ambulatory (58.1% children. After restricting the analysis to households owning a latrine, the use of a nappy or potty was associated with safe disposal of feces (OR 6.72, 95%CI 1.02-44.38 though due to small sample size the regression could not adjust for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In the area surveyed, the Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces. Further research is needed to identify the actual scope of this potential gap in programming, the health risk presented and interventions to minimize any adverse effect.

  6. Factors influencing hygienic practices during menses among girls from south India- A cross sectional study

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    Khyrunnisa Begum

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation is a natural phenomenon among matured females who experience shedding of blood for 1-7 days every month from the age of maturity until menopause. Menstrual hygiene and management is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged and has not received adequate attention.Aims and Objectives: This study seeks to assess hygienic behavior of unmarried females aged 15 to 22 years and factors affecting their behaviors.Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-10 on 350 students. They were recruited from educational institutions from a major city in South India. Demographic and menstrual history and hygiene questionnaires were used for obtaining required information. Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows version 16 was used. Descriptive statistics, Chi-sq and Fisher’s exact tests were used for analysis.Results: Mean age of menarche was 13.4±1.2 years; disposable pads were used by two-thirds of the selected girls (68.9% regardless of age while 45.1% reported to use both disposable and non disposable materials. Frequency of changing pads was 2-3 times a day by 78.3% girls. Socioeconomic Status (SES of the selected girls and their age influenced choice of napkin/pads and other practices such as storage place of napkins; change during night and during school or college hours and personal hygiene. Older girls had better hygienic practices than the younger ones. Seventy six percent of the participants desired for more information regarding menstruation and hygienic practices.Conclusion: A variety of factors are known to affect menstrual behaviors most influential being age and SES. Awareness regarding the need for information about healthy menstrual practices is on rise among young women. It is probable that a mechanism be introduced to provide knowledge about menstrual health and self maintenance among women.

  7. Mental Health Status of Medical Students in Tehran: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health of medical students who will be responsible for community health has great importance. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of probable mental disorders during the internship period of medical students.    Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study evaluated 404 medical students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The data collecting instrument was a self-rated questionnaire including standard mental health questionnaire SCL-90-R, demographic and socio-economic data. The score 0.7 and above were designated as possible cases of mental disorders. Analysis performed by SPSS software, version 14 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Il, USA. p-value<0.05 was considered significant.  Results: 53.8% of participants were female, and 79.4% were single. From all participants, 14.1% had Global Severity Index (GSI score more than 0.7. Mean and standard deviation of GSI score was 0.32 (0.27. The frequency of probable mental disorder in medical students was 16.3% in somatization; 24.5% in obsessive-compulsive; 15.6% in interpersonal sensitivity; 16.8% in depression; 18.8% in anxiety; 14.6% in hostility; 11.4% in phobic anxiety; 16.8% in paranoid ideation and 13.9% in psychoticism. Students who had no children, lived in dormitory, had good economic status and were satisfied with their private life and studying course had significantly lower GSI scores.  Conclusion: Between 11 to 24% of the students had mental disorders in different dimensions and economic status, living place and number of children were related to the disorders.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  9. Assessment of learning style preferences of medical undergraduate students: A cross-sectional study

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    TS Ranganath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: As doctors who are also teachers we must be aware of the various learning styles used by our students. Each style is unique in how a student takes in knowledge. Thus to maximize output, we need to facilitate their learning process as teachers. Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the predominant learning style of 2 nd year medical students and to compare the learning modality used with the academic performance. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study undertaken in a Government Medical college of Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 210 second year medical undergraduates in a Government Medical College, Bangalore were asked to fill a pre tested and pre validated visual, auditory, read/write, kinesthetic questionnaire, version 7.3 developed by Neil Fleming. The students were then scored to assess the predominant learning modality used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, Fisher's test and unpaired (two sample t-test were used to study the variables. Results: Majority of the students were multimodal (61%. Kinesthetic was the predominant modality used, both among unimodal (56.8% and multimodal (31.8% learners. There was no significant difference in the learning modalities of male and female students. There was also no difference in academic performance of uni- and multi-modal learners. Conclusions: Current teaching styles do not support the student fraternity that is predominantly multimodal. Various workshops must be conducted to train teachers to adapt their teaching styles. Multiple methods must be used simultaneously deliver knowledge and information to the students to improve their acceptance.

  10. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

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    Manish Bathla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A; Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Beck′s Suicide Intent Scale (BSI. Descriptive statistics; Pearson′s Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002; high workload (P ≤ 0.001; frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001 and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009. Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001. The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422; whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465. Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future.

  11. Respiratory and skin health among glass microfiber production workers: a cross-sectional study

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    Jaakkola Maritta S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few studies have investigated non-malignant respiratory effects of glass microfibers and these have provided inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the effects of exposure to glass microfibers on respiratory and skin symptoms, asthma and lung function. Methods A cross-sectional study of 102 workers from a microfiber factory (response rate 100% and 76 office workers (73% from four factories in Thailand was conducted. They answered a questionnaire on respiratory health, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors, and performed spirometry. Measurements of respirable dust were available from 2004 and 2005. Results Workers exposed to glass microfibers experienced increased risk of cough (adjusted OR 2.04, wheezing (adjOR 2.20, breathlessness (adjOR 4.46, nasal (adjOR 2.13 and skin symptoms (adjOR 3.89 and ever asthma (adjOR 3.51, the risks of breathlessness (95%CI 1.68–11.86 and skin symptoms (1.70–8.90 remaining statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. There was an exposure-response relation between the risk of breathlessness and skin symptoms and increasing level of microfiber exposure. Workers exposed to sensitizing chemicals, including phenol-formaldehyde resin, experienced increased risk of cough (3.43, 1.20–9.87 and nasal symptoms (3.07, 1.05–9.00. Conclusion This study provides evidence that exposure to glass microfibers increases the risk of respiratory and skin symptoms, and has an exposure-response relation with breathlessness and skin symptoms. Exposure to sensitizing chemicals increased the risk of cough and nasal symptoms. The results suggest that occupational exposure to glass microfibers is related to non-malignant adverse health effects, and that implementing exposure control measures in these industries could protect the health of employees.

  12. Prevalence of hypertension in adults in the Šumadija district, Serbia: A cross sectional study

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    Marinković Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO studies on the global level have shown that one of the major problems of the public health is hypertension. Blood pressure level greater than 140/90 mmHg is directly and predictively linked to other cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and the risk groups among the adult population in the Šumadija District, Serbia. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1.669 elderly population of the Šumadija District, aged 25-74. The study was performed according to the protocol of the Country Wide Integrated Noncommunicable Disease Intervention (CINDI international program. Results. In the Šumadija District more than a half of the population aged 25-74 suffers from hypertension (53%. In the Šumadija District 9% of population has undiagnosed hypertension. In the group of people familiar with their high blood pressure problems, good disease control is achieved in only 46% of them. Statistically, hypertension occurs more frequently in males aged 45-74, of lower education, and in rural population. This is the target group for implementation of the high risk strategy. Statistically, there is a higher prevalence of hypertension in people suffering from myocardial infarction (p = 0.04, angina pectoris (p = 0.00, other cardiac diseases (cardiac insufficiency (p = 0.00 and cerebrovascular crises (p = 0.04. Conclusion. A continuous increase of patients with hypertension, coupled with the developed complications and increase in cardiovascular diseases as a cause of death, points to the lack of effective access to prevention and early detection of these diseases in the primary health care among the risk groups in Šumadija.

  13. Health Seeking Behavior among Parents of Children with Hearing Loss: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Hiteshree C Patel, Mohua Moitra, Anjali Modi, Rahul Patel, S L Kantharia, Ishwar M Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of hearing loss is 11.7% of the school going population (5-15 years. Such children fail to develop speech, language and cognitive skills unless proper habilitation is initiated. If detected early and managed suitably, will have a far better chance at a normal life than those who are habilitated late or not at all. Aims & objectives: To detect the age of suspicion, identification, intervention and treatment seeking behavior of children with hearing loss. Materials & methods: This was a cross- sectional study done in Children between 5 and 15 years age-group with hearing loss, coming to an ENT OPD, New Civil Hospital, Surat during the period of 1st August 2011 to 31 July 2012. Results: A total of 246 children were studied. Mean age of the study population was 9±3.46 years. Average age at first suspicion of hearing loss was 2.9±1.7 years, first consultation was 3.5±1.5 years and first intervention was 7.8±3.3 years. There was significant association between age of first suspicion of congenital hearing loss with father’s occupation (p=0.03. There was significant association between delay in diagnosis and gender (p= 0.04. As the level of education of parents and socio- economic status increased, preference for private set ups for first consultation also increased (p< 0.05. In 63.5% cases, advice of general practitioner resulted in the delay in referral to ENT specialist. Conclusion & Recommendations: Even after primary care, an average gap of 4.3 years is observed among parents for receiving intervention. Mother is the first person to suspect hearing loss among their children. Basic training of general practitioner/ MBBS doctors regarding primary ear care is required.

  14. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

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    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  15. Serum vitamin d levels and the components of metabolic syndrome: an analytical cross-sectional study

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    The present study was planned to determine the serum vitamin D levels and its relation with the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in MetS positive and MetS negative subjects. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study on 88 subjects who were divided into two groups based on whether they fulfill the diagnostic criteria for MetS or not. Fasting serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, HOMA-IR and vitamin D levels were measured. Two sample-t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences. Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to observe the correlations. Results: BMI (p=0.001), waist/hip ratio (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.010), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.010), fasting serum TGs (p = 0.001), TG/HDL ratio (p=0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.010), fasting serum insulin (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.001) were significantly high in MetS positive than MetS negative subjects. In MetS Positive subjects, serum vitamin D levels were found to have negative correlation with serum LDL (r= -0.485, p=0.001), total cholesterol (r= -0.408, p=0.007) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (r= -0.355, p=0.019). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were found to have positive correlation with HDL/LDL ratio (r= 0.443, p=0.003). Other components of MetS did not show significant correlation with serum vitamin D levels in MetS positive subjects. In MetS negative subjects, serum vitamin D levels did not show any significant correlation with any of the study parameters. Conclusions: Serum vitamin D levels were correlated with a number of MetS components which may be controlled by optimizing vitamin D levels. (author)

  16. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

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    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  17. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Bouter, Lex M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Methods Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Findings Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06–1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows. Conclusions Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research. PMID:27684371

  18. Alterations of Myelin Content in Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Neuroimaging Study

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    Sojkova, Jitka; Hurley, Samuel; Kecskemeti, Steven; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Theisen, Frances; Johnson, Sterling C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Gallagher, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to myelin may be a core pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Although white matter microstructural differences have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is unknown whether such differences include alterations of the brain’s myelin content. Thus, the objective of the current study is to measure and compare brain myelin content between PD patients and age-matched controls. In this cross-sectional study, 63 participants from the Longitudinal MRI in Parkinson's Disease study underwent brain MRI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scoring, and cognitive asessments. Subjects were imaged with the mcDEPSOT (multi-component driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2), a multicomponent relaxometry technique that quantifies longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (R1 and R2, respectively) and the myelin water fraction (VFM), a surrogate for myelin content. A voxel-wise approach was used to compare R1, R2, and VFM measures between PD and control groups, and to evaluate relationships with age as well as disease duration, UPDRS scores, and daily levodopa equivalent dose. PD subjects had higher VFM than controls in frontal and temporal white matter and bilateral thalamus. Greater age was strongly associated with lower VFM in both groups, while an age-by-group interaction suggested a slower rate of VFM decline in the left putamen with aging in PD. Within the PD group, measures of disease severity, including UPDRS, daily levodopa equivalent dose, and disease duration, were observed to be related with myelin content in diffuse brain regions. The age-by-group interaction suggests that either PD or dopaminergic therapies allay observed age-related myelin changes. The relationships between VFM and disease severity measures suggests that VFM may provide a surrogate marker for microstructural changes related to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27706215

  19. Oral health of psychiatric patients: A cross-sectional comparision study

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    Viral R Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness is associated with physical health. Oral health affects people physically and psychologically and influences how they grow, enjoy life, look, speak, chew, taste food and socialize. Oral health may have lower priority in the context of mental illness and these diverse and changing client group experiences similar oral and dental problems. Objective: To assess oral health problems in psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods : This cross-sectional study included 133 patients attending the psychiatric outpatient department (OPD as the study group and 133 patients attending the general OPD of the same hospital as the control group. Both groups were examined for oral health status. Results: Mean age of the study group was 40.2 years, 66.17% were males, 66.17% were married and 83.67% belonged to middle or lower class. 39.8% of patients had mental illness for 1-5 years, 88% were self sufficient and 34.6% had healthy oral practices. These results are very much comparable with the control group. Mean decayed missed filled teeth (DMFT score (2.10 and mean oral hygiene index-simplex (OHI-S score (3.6 increased with age. Difference in DMFT score with age was not statistically significant (P>0.5 while it was highly significant for OHI-S score (P<0.0001. Periodontal condition worsened as age increased, suggested by community periodontal index. Only 26.7% of patients had healthy gingiva in the age group 20-50 years while it was zero for 50 years and above. This difference is statistically significant (P<0.001.

  20. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Jun Kurai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI, 9.9%–11.7% and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%, respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39 and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23 for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64 and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64. Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23, as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62. This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals.

  1. Quality of Public Hospitals Websites: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study in Iran

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    Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806

  2. A cross-sectional study of prevalence and implications of depression and anxiety in psoriasis

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    Sreelatha Lakshmy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical and mental comorbidity is common and has significant implications for overall health outcomes. Psoriasis, a psychocutaneous disorder, is a classic example of mental-physical comorbidity. Aims: In view of the impact of socio-cultural influences on mind-body interactions and the paucity of Indian research pertaining to psychiatric morbidity in psoriatic patients, this study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with psoriasis, and to correlate these with severity of psoriasis and quality of life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 consecutive patients of psoriasis, over a period of 12 months, in a tertiary care centre. The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was used to assess severity of psoriasis. PHQ-9, GAD-7 and the Perceived Stress Scale were used to screen for depression, anxiety and perceived stress respectively. The WHOQOL-BREF was used to determine the quality of life. Statistics Analysis: All analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel software and Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: A total of 71 (78.9% subjects had depression and 69 (76.7% had anxiety. Fifty one patients had significant stress. A significant positive correlation was established between psoriasis variables (severity and duration of psoriasis and psychological variables (depression, anxiety and stress. Severity of psoriasis had a significant negative correlation with social relationships and environmental domains of WHOQOL. Quality of life was significantly worse in patients with psoriasis with comorbid anxiety/depression. Conclusion: Patients with psoriasis have a clinically significant prevalence of depression, anxiety and perceived stress. This study highlights the complex relationship between psoriasis, psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life and the need to simultaneously consider dermatological and psychological factors.

  3. Assessment of the profile of psychiatric manifestations in cannabis users: A cross sectional study

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    Indrajeet Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis is the world's most commonly used illicit drug, with approximately 200 to 300 million regular users. It occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among psychoactive drugs, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Nowadays, cannabis is widely used by young people and, the prevalence of lifetime use of cannabis by young adults has increased in many developed countries over the past several decades. Methods: It was a one year cross-sectional observational study. The study included 60 patients, who had been taking cannabis for at least previous six months with a frequency of minimum 20 days/month. The eligible patients fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria and giving written informed consent were enrolled in the study. Results: Most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders were bipolar affective disorders, current manic episode with or without psychotic features (25.0%. Second most common co-morbid disorder was cannabis induced psychosis which was present in thirteen patients (21.7%. Seven patients (11.7% had acute and transient psychosis; six patients (10.0% were diagnosed as schizophrenia, whereas three patients (5.0% had Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified (NOS. Anxiety disorder and depressive disorder accounted for 10% and 3.4% of comorbidity, respectively. Two patients (3.3% were having cannabis dependence syndrome with withdrawal state and three patients (5.0% were having cannabis dependence syndrome only without any associated psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: Among the various psychiatric disorders, bipolar affective disorder, current episode mania with or without psychotic features was the most prevalent disorder.Most of cannabis users seeking treatment suffer from various psychiatric comorbid disorders particularly psychotic disorders (38.4%. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 58-61

  4. Practice and Pattern of Antenatal and Postnatal Exercise among Nigerian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The African culture seems to play a major prohibiting role in physical exercise during pregnancy and immediate postpartum. This study was designed to assess practice and pattern of antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five women (189 pregnant women and 179 nursing mothers from six selected hospitals in south-west Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained on socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and practice of antenatal and postnatal exercise. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data at P<0.05 alpha level. Results: The mean age of all the respondents was 28.9± 4.63 years. A majority of the pregnant women responders were nulliparous (39.2% while the nursing mother responders were mostly multiparous (54.5%. Prevalence for engagement in physical exercise was 81.9% and mostly based on self-prescription (35.5% and prescription by nurses (28.8%. Antenatal and postnatal exercise practice was 84.7% (160/189 and 79.0% (139/176, respectively. Aerobic (43.5% and stretching (33.4% were the most common type of physical exercises. Exercise frequency was mostly 1-2 times per week (40.8%. There was significant association between exercise practice and education level (χ2=18.795; P=0.001. Conclusion: Engagement in antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian pregnant and nursing women was high and mostly based on self-prescription. Education level significantly influence physical exercise practice among Nigerian women with aerobic and stretching as the predominant exercises in pregnancy and postpartum.

  5. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

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    Nour Choueiry

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders (SDs are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety.An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013-2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7.The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8-13.4%, more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76. 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively. Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006 and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003. 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (p<0.0001.The magnitude of SDs in this sample of Lebanese university students demonstrate the importance of examining sleep health in this population. Moreover, the link between SD and anxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems.

  6. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

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    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (p<0.05). The most prevalent abnormal parameters of MS according to ATPIII and JIS criteria were high WC (95%) and low HDL (87.9%), respectively. Mean LDL, systolic BP, WHR, UA, urea, and creatinine were different between men and women. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant for BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, TG, WHR and urea (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. PMID:27493914

  7. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Tinneke M. J. Beirens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0–1 years. The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00–1.54 were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36–0.97 and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05–0.63 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47–0.69, higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24–0.48, and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58–0.93 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing.

  8. Eating disorders in medical students of Karachi, Pakistan-a cross-sectional study

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    Memon Akhtar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the incidence of high-risk population of medical students with eating disorders in Karachi by using validated self-administered questionnaires. The earlier these disorders are diagnosed and assessed, the better the chances are for enhanced treatment and fuller recovery. Therefore, we intended to undertake a study to find out the frequency of such disorders among medical students of Karachi and design strategies to overcome them. Findings A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 435 medical students of Karachi. Data was collected using 2 self administered questionnaires, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. Subjects' body mass indexes (BMI were also calculated. The data was sorted and analyzed in SPSS version 16. According to EAT-26, 22.75% individuals were found to be at high-risk of eating disorders, with 87.9% females and 12.1% males. However, according to SCOFF questionnaire, 17% individuals were found to be at high-risk, with 78.4% females and 21.6% males. According to BMI calculation, 9% were severely underweight, 41.4% underweight, 41.1% normal, 7.6% overweight and 0.9% belonged to obese class 1. Conclusions A significant fraction of medical students in Karachi are at high risk of development of eating disorders, females being more prone than males. Strategies should be designed to prevent occurrence of such disorders among medical students that would undoubtedly hamper the availability of dependable medical services in future.

  9. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

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    Cui-Bai Wei; Jian-Ping Jia; Fen Wang; Ai-Hong Zhou; Xiu-Mei Zuo; Chang-Biao Chu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache.However,few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache.We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals.Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics.All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled.Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview,and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders,2nd Edition.The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity.Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety.Results:A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included.Among them,148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety.Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache.Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches.Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety.Conclusion:Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments.

  10. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

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    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  11. Healthcare-associated infections and Shanghai clinicians: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

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    Yunfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Literature about healthcare-associated infection (HCAI in China is scarce. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was conducted on 647 clinicians (199 physicians and 448 nurses from six Shanghai hospitals (grades A-C to investigate their cognizance, knowledge, attitude, self-reported practice, and risks regarding HCAI with emphasis on precautions. The mean overall score of HCAI knowledge was 40.89±11.4 (mean±SD; range, 13∼72 out of 100 for physicians and 43.48±9.9 (10∼70 for nurses. The respondents generally received high scores in hand hygiene, HCAI core concept, and healthcare worker safety but low scores in HCAI pathogen identification and isolation precautions. There were substantial variations in the knowledge scores of various demographic groups across individual hospitals and within hospital grades (ps<0.05. Within-hospital comparisons showed that the nurses were better than physicians particularly in hand hygiene knowledge in 4 hospitals (ps<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that longer work experience was inversely and independently associated with the overall and categorical knowledge of nurses, whereas independent associations between older age or higher education and categorical knowledge were noted for physicians. The respondents' self-reported practices and adherence to standard precautions were less than satisfactory. This multi-center study reports a high level of cognizance, patchy knowledge, suboptimal adherence to infection control precautions, and self-protective attitudes among the practicing clinicians regarding HCAI, with potential safety risk to patients and healthcare providers. Providing quality learning resources, enforcing knowledge-informed practice, and promoting a healthcare safety culture are recommended as interventions. Future studies are warranted for social and behavioral aspects of healthcare safety with emphasis on infection control.

  12. Urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

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    Johanna Riha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24, low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23, and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77.This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. Aim This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. Matreials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists’ demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Conclusion Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist. PMID:27042589

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with better endothelial function: a cross sectional study

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    Di Tullio Marco R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moderate alcohol consumption is protective against coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The effects of alcohol consumption on endothelial function may be relevant to these cardiovascular outcomes, but very few studies have examined the effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery in humans. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of lifetime alcohol intake and brachial artery FMD during reactive hyperemia using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images among 884 stroke-free participants (mean age 66.8 years, women 56.6%, Hispanic 67.4%, black 17.4%, and white 15.2%. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.7% and the median was 5.5%. Compared to non-drinkers, those who drank >1 drink/month to 2 drinks/day were more likely to have FMD above the median FMD (5.5% (unadjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4, p = 0.005. In multivariate analysis, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and FMD remained significant after adjusting for multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including sex, race-ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Framingham risk score, medication use (adjusted OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–3.0, p = 0.03. No beneficial effect on FMD was seen for those who drank more than 2 drinks/day. Conclusion In conclusion, consumption of up to 2 alcoholic beverages per day was independently associated with better FMD compared to no alcohol consumption in this multiethnic population. This effect on FMD may represent an important mechanism in explaining the protective effect of alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease.

  15. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study in Iran

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    Habib Zayeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a type of pulmonary manifestation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Mostly RA-ILD has no symptoms and is only diagnosed by clinical examination, pulmonary function test (PFT, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT; hence it seems that the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in early stages of RA is of great importance. Therefore, we decided to answer this question whether the evaluation of RA patients without pulmonary symptoms using methods such as PFT and HRCT are justifiable and reasonable or not. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a referral rheumatology clinic in Razi hospital of Rasht, Iran. Forty-four consecutive patients, diagnosed with RA, were enrolled. Physical examination of the joints was performed by an rheumatologist. The activity of RA was evaluated in all patients by Disease Activity Score 28. An expert pulmonologist performed the respiratory examination in all participants. Then, all subjects were referred for chest X-ray, PFT, and HRCT of lungs. Results: Patients included in this study, 9 (20.45% males and 35 (79.55% females, were 21–73 years old and their mean age was 49 ± 13 years. Significant relation between PFT and respiratory complaints was observed (P = 0.016. PFT had significant relation with respiratory examinations (P = 0.009. Our results indicated a significant relation between disease activity rate and PFT (P = 0.038. While HRCT had any significant relation with above items. Conclusion: We concluded, using PFT in the respiratory assessment of RA patients can be limited to persons with high disease activity, respiratory complaints, and positive findings in the clinical respiratory examination.

  16. Sleep Quality among Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Arash Mani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and describe the sleep quality in seven subscales among the patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI and compare it with normal patterns. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted within a 6-month period from February to August 2014 in Shahid Rajaei trauma center of Shiraz. Participants were selected randomly from all adult (18-60 years of age patients admitted during the study period with impression of mild TBI (GCS of more than 13. The patients’ sleep quality and demographic characteristics were evaluated by Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and self- report questionnaire, respectively. Results were compared with normal data, which extracted from the normative data of PSQI manual. Results: Overall we included 60 patients with mild TBI with mean age of 36.2±13.4 years. All the patients had sleep disturbance. Among them there were 46 (76.7% men and 14 (23.3% women. The subjective sleep quality ( p=0.01, sleep latency ( p=0.01, habitual sleep efficiency ( p=0.01, sleep disturbance ( p=0.01, use of sleep medication ( p=0.01 and day time dysfunction ( p=0.01 were significantly impaired in patients with mild TBI when compared to normal values. There were no difference between men and women regarding the sleep quality. The sleep duration was comparable between the subjects and the normal values. Conclusion: Patients with mild TBI have poor sleep quality which should be considered as one of the main factors in interventions after the injury and it might lead to better quality of life.

  17. A Cross-sectional, comparative study of insight in schizophrenia and bipolar patients in remission

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    Arul Saravanan Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20 were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. Statistical Analysis: For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. Results: About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Conclusions: Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups.

  18. Paternal age and general cognitive ability-a cross sectional study of Danish male conscripts.

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    John McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Offspring of older men have impaired cognitive ability as children, but it is unclear if this impairment persists into adulthood. The main objective of this study was to explore the association between paternal age at offspring birth and general cognitive ability as young adults. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study with prospectively collected data on obstetric factors and parental education. SETTING: Nationwide Danish sample. PARTICIPANTS: Male conscripts (n = 169,009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: General cognitive ability as assessed by the Børge Priens test score, an intelligence test with components related to logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning. RESULTS: We observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and general cognitive ability (slightly lower test scores in the offspring of fathers aged less than 25 years and older than 40 years, compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. However, after adjustment for maternal age, parental education and birth order the shape of the association changed. Offspring of fathers younger than 20 still showed slightly lower cognitive ability (-1.11 (95% CI -1.68 to -0.54, but no significant impairments were identified in the men whose fathers were older than 29 years at the time of their birth (e.g. the mean difference in test score in the offspring of fathers aged 40 to 44 years were -0.03 [95% CI (-0.27 to 0.20] compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find that the offspring of older fathers had impaired cognitive ability as young adults. Whereas, we found a tendency that the offspring of teen fathers have lower cognitive ability. Thus, our results suggest that any potentially deleterious effects of older fathers on general cognitive ability as young adults may be counter-balanced by other potentially beneficial factors.

  19. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

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    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  20. Metabolic risk factors, physical activity and physical fitness in azorean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Soares-Miranda Luísa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has increased over the last few decades in adolescents and has become an important health challenge worldwide. This study analyzed the relationships between metabolic risk factors (MRF and physical activity (PA and physical fitness (PF in a sample of Azorean adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 417 adolescents (243 girls aged 15-18 from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. Height, weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. A sum of MRF was computed, and adolescents were classified into three groups: no MRF, one MRF and two or more MRF. PA was assessed by a sealed pedometer. PF was assessed using five tests from the Fitnessgram Test Battery. Dietary intake was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Mean daily steps for girls and boys were 7427 ± 2725 and 7916 ± 3936, respectively. Fifty-nine percent of the adolescents showed at least one MRF and 57.6% were under the healthy zone in the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, body mass index, socio-economic status and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, adolescents who were in the highest quartile of the pedometer step/counts (≥9423 steps/day and those who achieved the healthy zone in five tests were less likely to have one or more MRF (OR = 0.56;95%CI:0.33-0.95; OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.31-0.98, respectively. Conclusions Daily step counts and PF levels were negatively associated with having one or more MRF among Azorean adolescents. Our findings emphasize the importance of promoting and increasing regular PA and PF to reduce the public health burden of chronic diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  1. Maternal diet, LCPUFA status and prematurity in Indian mothers: A cross-sectional study

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    Prachi S. Ranade

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA have been shown to exert functional benefits with regards to gestational length. The present study examined the association of maternal LCPUFA intake, specifically Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA and Arachidonic acid (ARA, and plasma status at delivery with duration of gestation and risk of premature delivery in Indian mothers.Methods: In a cross-sectional nested case-control study, 191 mother-baby pairs [164 Full term(FT and 27 Preterm (PT] were examined for differences in maternal habitual diet pattern and plasma fatty acid composition in relation to the length of gestation.Results: The frequency of intake of n-3 fatty acid rich varieties of fish was higher (p<0.05 in FT mothers compared to PT mothers. Maternal plasma fatty acid concentration of n-3 Alpha Linolenic acid (ALA, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, DHA and total n-3 fatty acids at delivery was significantly associated with intake of vegetarian ALA sources such as millets, dark whole pulses, dry fruits like walnuts, and green leafy vegetables. Among age, parity, and neonatal sex matched case-control pairs, PT mothers had significantly (p<0.01 higher levels of n-6 ARA, but lower (p<0.01 levels of n-3 DHA and total n-3 fatty acids compared to FT mothers irrespective of socioeconomic group. In fact, mothers with plasma DHA levels below median (<3.0% had ten times higher risk (OR-10.47; 95% CI: 3.03-36.48 of delivering prematurely compared to those who had plasma DHA levels above median.Conclusion: Results underscore the importance of consuming varied sources of ALA and DHAfor their role as functional lipids in determining gestational length.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients in Ghana: A cross-sectional study

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    Christian Obirikorang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in HIV-infected patients is very limited in the Ghanaian setting and may vary across the globe by the different study populations and criteria used. Aim: We investigated the prevalence of MetS among HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART at the St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 433 HIV-infected patients (294 on HAART and 139 HAART-naÏve from the period of February 2013 to December 2013. Information on the demographic, clinical, anthropometric characteristics were obtained and lipid profile for each patient was assessed. MetS was assessed based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III, World Health Organization (WHO and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 24.5% according to WHO criteria, 48.3% by NCEP-ATP III criteria, and 42.3% by IDF criteria. In general, participants on HAART were significantly associated with higher prevalence of MetS compared to those without HAART (P < 0.05 irrespective of the criteria used. Prevalence of clustering components of MetS was significantly higher among those on HAART when risk scores of 2 and above were used compared with those not on HAART (P < 0.05. Conclusion: HAART recipient developed MetS as indicated by dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and abnormal body fat. It is incumbent on health giver to incorporate MetS assessment as a part of treatment and management plan in patients receiving HAART.

  3. Knowledge and child care practices regarding childhood diarrhoea- A cross sectional study

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    Atul Choube

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhea still continues to be a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality and holds the second rank (after pneumonia for mortality in children < 5 years of age. The majority of these deaths can be avoided by timely intervention. The knowledge of caretakers about the severity of diarrheal illness ultimately affects the choice for childcare practices and influences the type of therapies received.  Objectives: To assess the various aspect of maternal knowledge about diarrhea in under-five age children. To determine the child care practices of mothers during diarrheal episodes.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from February to May 2014. 5 villages were selected by systematic random sampling method in rural field training area of medical college. A self-designed and pre-tested structured questionnaire was used as study tool which covers different aspect of knowledge and childcare practices by mothers/caretakers regarding diarrhea. Overall responses of participants were scored as good, average and poor for assessment of knowledge and practice.  Results: Total 972 mother/caretakers were interviewed. Most of the mothers/caretakers (62.1% were in favor of giving of breast milk as preferred oral fluid during diarrheal episode. Nearly one fourth of mothers/caretakers (26.1% identify symptoms and signs of "dehydration" and the need for consultation. During diarrheal episodes less amount of food and fluid was given by 49.9% and 20.4% mothers/caretaker respectively. The higher level educated and employed mothers had better practices (P < 0.001 Conclusion: The study showed that knowledge and childcare practices for diarrhea still remains a great challenge among the rural population. This could be only deals with improvement in female literacy and to develop and implement diarrhea related educational interventions for mothers/caretakers.

  4. A cross-sectional study of the self-report of stress among emergency department patients

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    Nirenberg Ted

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of information about the prevalence of stress and types of stressors experienced by Emergency Department (ED patients. Objective: The present aim is to study the prevalence of stress, types of stressful situations and the relationship with other health issues within the ED population. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study performed in an ED at a level-1 urban trauma center for four months. An anonymous survey was offered to adult non critically ill patients who were admitted in the ED. They were divided on the basis of gender, age and level of stress and were asked about their demographics, reasons for their ED visit and health issues including stress, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use, weight concern and health. Chi-square for the categorical variables and unpaired t-tests for continuous variables were conducted. Results: We interviewed 1797 patients, over 66% reported that they felt stressed on at least a weekly basis, and over 45% indicated that they felt stressed more than twice per week. While both young and old were equally stressed, females reported significantly more stress. Family, finances and work are the most frequently cited stressors. Different age groups reported different types of stressors. Overall, those patients reporting being stressed more frequently reported more high risk behaviors including cigarette and marijuana use and health problems including being overweight, being depressed, and having sleeping problems and chronic fatigue. Conclusions: Considering the high frequency of ED patients that report frequent stress and high risk behaviors, their ED visit may be an excellent opportunity to provide a referral or an intervention for stress reduction.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

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    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel. PMID:26516797

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese Yi nationality: a cross-sectional study

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    Gao Yun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem. There are little data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Yi ethnic group in China. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic features of overweight/obesity among Chinese Yi nationality. Methods A cross-sectional study, including 1255 subjects aged 20-75 years, was carried out in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province from 2007 to 2008. Overweight/overall obesity was defined by World Health Organization (WHO or the Working Group on Obesity in China. Results Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% and 2.9%, respectively, based on the WHO definition, while it was 21.0% and 7.4%, respectively, according to the Working Group on Obesity in China, which is similar to data reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Urban residents had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (WHO criteria: 4.3% vs 1.7% p = 0.008; China criteria: 11.4% vs 3.7%, p p p Conclusions The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the Yi nationality is similar to that in Chinese adults 5 years ago. However, urban residents have a much higher prevalence of overweight/obesity than their rural counterparts. Lifestyle and diet patterns associated with socioeconomic status may explain the difference between urban and rural residents. The prevention of overweight/obesity among urban inhabitants deserves more attention in national health education programs.

  7. Benzodiazepine use among adults residing in the urban settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross sectional study

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    Tharani Ambreen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are hardly any studies carried out in Pakistan on the usage of benzodiazepines at the level of community. This research was aimed to determine the frequency of benzodiazepine use, along with its associations with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics among community dwelling adults, residing in two urban settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We performed a cross sectional study from August 2008 to December 2009, in 2 areas of Karachi, namely Garden and Sultanabad. We followed the systematic sampling strategy to randomly select the households, with an adult of either sex and of age 18 years or more. Data collection was carried out through interview, using a pre-tested questionnaire, with items on socio-demographic position, medical history and benzodiazepine use. Student's t-test and χ2 test was employed to determine the associations between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and their relationship with benzodiazepine use was determined using applied logistic regression. Results The overall percentage of benzodiazepine consumption was estimated to be 14%. There were significantly more benzodiazepine users in the peri-urban Sultanabad community to the urban community of Garden (p-value = 0.001. The mean age (± SD for users was 51.3 (± 15.6 years compared to 37.1 (± 14.4 years among non-users. Bromazepam was the most widely used benzodiazepine (29%; followed by diazepam, with a median duration on primary use being 144 weeks (IQR = 48-240. The adjusted logistic regression model revealed that increasing age, location, female sex, unemployment and psychiatric consultation were associated with increased likelihood of benzodiazepine use. Conclusion We believe the unregulated over-the-counter sales of benzodiazepines and social conditions might be playing a role in this high consumption of benzodiazepines in the community.

  8. Environmental correlates of physical activity in multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

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    McAuley Edward

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease that is associated with physical inactivity. Understanding the factors that correlate with physical activity is important for developing effective physical activity promotion programs for this population. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study that examined the association between features of the built environment with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour in adults with MS. Methods Participants with MS (n = 196 were sent a questionnaire packet that included self-report measures of the built environment and physical activity and a pedometer in the mail and were instructed to complete the questionnaires and wear the device for seven days. Participants returned the completed questionnaires in a pre-stamped, pre-addressed envelope. Bivariate correlation analysis was conducted for examining associations between items on the environmental questionnaire with the two measures of physical activity. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted for determining the independent contributions of the significant environmental correlates for explaining variation in physical activity. Results Correlational analysis indicated that presence of shops, stores, markets or other places within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .18, presence of a transit stop within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .16, and accessibility of free or low-cost recreation facilities (r = .16; ρ = .15 were related to pedometer, but not self-reported, measured physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that the presence of a transit stop within walking distance independently explained 4% of variance in pedometer measured physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity is an important behaviour to promote among individuals with MS. This study indicated that aspects of the built environment are related to this health promoting behaviour among those with MS. Further research should

  9. Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Jamal Ahmadzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor control of blood pressure is one of the prevalent problems for primary health care services all over the world.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 579 subjects representative of the hypertensive patient’s population in Sarvabad city, the west of Iran in 2011. This information was extracted from the family records. Adequate blood pressure control was defined as <140/90 mmHg.Results: The mean age was 65.8 years [95% CI: 64.8, 66.8], 38.7% were male, 9.8% were smokers and 18.3% were obese. Overall, 40% [95% CI: 35.9%, 44.1%] of hypertensive patients had their blood pressure controlled; the age-specific blood pressure control rate was 61.5%, 46.4% and 35.3% in men and 45.2%, 34% and 38.2% in women age 28 to 50 years, 51 to 70 years and above 71 years, respectively.After adjustment the likelihood of having poor control was 0.36 times greater among the diabetic patients, 0.52 times greater among the patients who had a BMI ≥ 30 that these were significant.Conclusion: In all, BP control rate was low (40%.These results suggest that the majority of the treated hypertensive patients are complicated with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity therefore required a good management of BP control.

  10. High caseload of childhood tuberculosis in hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia: a cross sectional study

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    Hurtig Anna-Karin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood tuberculosis (TB has been neglected in the fight against TB. Despite implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS program in public and private hospitals in Indonesia since 2000, the burden of childhood TB in hospitals was largely unknown. The goals of this study were to document the caseload and types of childhood TB in the 0-4 and 5-14 year age groups diagnosed in DOTS hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia. Methods Cross-sectional study of TB cases recorded in inpatient and outpatient registers of 32 hospitals. Cases were analyzed by hospital characteristics, age groups, and types of TB. The number of cases reported in the outpatient unit was compared with that recorded in the TB register. Results Of 5,877 TB cases in the inpatient unit and 15,694 in the outpatient unit, 11% (648 and 27% (4,173 respectively were children. Most of the childhood TB cases were under five years old (56% and 53% in the inpatient and outpatient clinics respectively. The proportion of smear positive TB was twice as high in the inpatient compared to the outpatient units (15.6% vs 8.1%. Extra-pulmonary TB accounted for 15% and 6% of TB cases in inpatient and outpatient clinics respectively. Among children recorded in hospitals only 1.6% were reported to the National TB Program. Conclusion In response to the high caseload and gross under-reporting of childhood TB cases, the National TB Program should give higher priority for childhood TB case management in designated DOTS hospitals. In addition, an international guidance on childhood TB recording and reporting and improved diagnostics and standardized classification is required

  11. Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

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    Shafique Kashif

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut is the seed of fruit oriental palm known as Areca catechu. Many adverse effects of nut chewing have been well documented in the medical literature. As these nuts are mixed with some other substances like tobacco and flavouring agents, it has been hypothesized that it might also cause some dependency symptoms among its users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate dependency syndrome among areca nut users with and without tobacco additives and compare it with dependency associated with cigarette smoking among the male Pakistani population. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers. Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome. Results We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314 were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242 were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295 were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40 while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users. Conclusions Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut

  12. Environmental correlates of physical activity in multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

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    Doerksen, Shawna E; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that is associated with physical inactivity. Understanding the factors that correlate with physical activity is important for developing effective physical activity promotion programs for this population. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study that examined the association between features of the built environment with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour in adults with MS. Methods Participants with MS (n = 196) were sent a questionnaire packet that included self-report measures of the built environment and physical activity and a pedometer in the mail and were instructed to complete the questionnaires and wear the device for seven days. Participants returned the completed questionnaires in a pre-stamped, pre-addressed envelope. Bivariate correlation analysis was conducted for examining associations between items on the environmental questionnaire with the two measures of physical activity. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted for determining the independent contributions of the significant environmental correlates for explaining variation in physical activity. Results Correlational analysis indicated that presence of shops, stores, markets or other places within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .18), presence of a transit stop within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .16), and accessibility of free or low-cost recreation facilities (r = .16; ρ = .15) were related to pedometer, but not self-reported, measured physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that the presence of a transit stop within walking distance independently explained 4% of variance in pedometer measured physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity is an important behaviour to promote among individuals with MS. This study indicated that aspects of the built environment are related to this health promoting behaviour among those with MS. Further research should focus on the longitudinal

  13. Association of obstructive sleep apnea plus hypertension and prevalent cardiovascular diseases: A cross-sectional study.

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    Wang, Ling; Cai, Anping; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jiyan; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-09-01

    Current study sought to evaluate the associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus hypertension (HTN) and prevalent cardiovascular diseases (CVD).This was a cross-sectional study and a total of 1889 subjects were enrolled. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by polysomnography and OSA degree was classified as mild (AHI 5-14.9) and moderate-severe (AHI ≥ 15), and AHI hypertensive subjects were older and had higher body mass index (BMI), neck girth, waist-hip ratio, AHI, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Conversely, mean and lowest SaO2 levels were significantly lower. Logistic regression analysis showed that in an unadjusted model, compared to subjects with no-OSA and no-HTN (reference group), the association of HTN plus moderate-severe-OSA and prevalent CVD was the most prominent (odds ratio [OR]: 2.638 and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.942-3.583). In normotensive subjects, after adjusted for potential covariates, the associations of OSA (regardless of severity) and prevalent CVD were attenuated to nonsignificant. In hypertensive subjects, however, the associations remained significant but were reduced. Further adjusted for mean and lowest SaO2, the associations remained significant in HTN plus no-OSA (OR: 1.808, 95% CI: 1.207-2.707), HTN plus mild-OSA (OR: 2.003, 95% CI: 1.346-2.980), and HTN plus moderate-severe OSA (OR: 1.834, 95% CI: 1.214-2.770) groups.OSA plus HTN is associated with prevalent CVD, and OSA may potentiate the adverse cardiovascular effects on hypertensives patients but not normotensives. PMID:27684798

  14. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study

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    Heidi Janssens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. Results: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Conclusions: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.

  15. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

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    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  16. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

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    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (Planguage, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R2) of the variance found between respondents’ knowledge scores. Conclusion Australian pregnant women’s knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure improvement in their nutrition knowledge. It is essential that women

  17. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

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    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  18. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

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    Spurling Geoffrey K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements, but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few

  19. Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study

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    Wirsching Michael

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. Methods The questionnaire -Related Behaviour and Experience "Work administered in cross-sectional surveys to students in the first (n = 475 and in the fifth year of studies (n = 355 in required courses at three German universities and to physicians in early professional life in the vicinity of these universities (n = 381. Results Scores reflecting a healthy behaviour pattern were less likely in physicians (16.7% compared to 5th year (26.0% and 1st year students (35.1% while scores representing unambitious and resigned patterns were more common among physicians (43.4% vs. 24.4% vs. 41.0% and 27.3% vs. 17.2% vs. 23.3 respectively. Female and male responders differed in the domains professional commitment, resistance to stress and emotional well-being. Female physicians on average scored higher in the dimensions resignation tendencies, satisfaction with life and experience of social support, and lower in career ambition. Conclusion The results show distinct psychosocial stress patterns among medical students and physicians. Health promotion and prevention of psychosocial symptoms and impairments should be integrated as a required part of the medical curriculum and be considered an important issue during the further training of physicians.

  20. Correlation Between Vision and Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Spierer, Oriel; Fischer, Naomi; Barak, Adiel; Belkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between vision and cognition is not fully understood. Visual impairment in the elderly has been associated with impaired cognitive function, dementia, and Alzheimer disease. The aim was to study the correlation between near visual acuity (VA), refraction, and cognitive state in an elderly population.Subjects ≥75 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and near VA was tested. Cognitive function was evaluated with a version of the mini-mental state examination for the visually impaired (MMSE-blind). The eye with better VA and no cataract or refractive surgery was analyzed.One-hundred ninety subjects (81.6 ± 5.1 years, 69.5% female) were included. Good VA (≤J3) was associated with high MMSE-blind (>17) (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.57-6.43, P = 0.001). This remained significant adjusting for sex, age, and years of education. Wearing reading glasses correlated significantly with high MMSE-blind after adjustment for sex and age (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.16-3.97, P = 0.016), but reached borderline significance after adjustment for education. There was a trend toward correlation between myopia and better MMSE-blind (r = -0.123, P = 0.09, Pearson correlation).Good VA and wearing glasses seem to correlate with better cognitive function. Reading glasses can serve as a protective factor against cognitive deterioration associated with sensory (visual) deprivation in old age. The association between myopia and cognition requires further investigation.

  1. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

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    Haiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area.

  2. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  3. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

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    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  4. Psychosocial profile of bullies, victims, and bully-victims: A cross-sectional study

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    Marie eLeiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims. Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue.

  5. Hand tactile discrimination, social touch and frailty criteria in elderly people: A cross sectional observational study.

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    Vieira, Ana Isabel; Nogueira, Dália; de Azevedo Reis, Elisabeth; da Lapa Rosado, Maria; Vânia Nunes, Maria; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is a common syndrome among elderly and sensory decline may exacerbate functional decline. The hand function, the manual dexterity, the performance of the daily living skills and the social interactions are determined, in a large degree, by sensory integrity. However, hand tactile sensory deterioration has been little explored in frailty. We performed a cross sectional observational study with 181 of institutionalized elders. From the initial sample we selected 50 subjects (68-99 years) who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Our goals were (1) to analyse the relationship between tactile discrimination (TD) of the hand, avoidance behaviours and attitudes towards social touch (BATST) and phenotype frailty criteria (unintentional weight loss, self-perception of exhaustion, decrease grip strength - GS, slow walking speed, low level of physical activity), (2) to explore whether other variables can contribute to explain the differences between pre-frail and frail elders. The results showed that increasing age is related to decline of TD of the hand (p=0.021) and to decrease in GS (p=0.025); women have significantly lower level of GS (p=0.001); TD decrease is correlated with higher avoidance BATST (p=0.000) and with lower GS (p=0.000); Lower GS corresponds to more avoidance BATST (p=0.003). Hand TD also can differentiate frail and pre-frail elderly subjects in this sample (p=0.037). Decreased TD of the hand may have implications on the functionality and on interpersonal relationships. TD of the hand also explains frailty levels in this sample. Hand TD should be used in assessment and intervention protocols in pre-frail and frail elders. PMID:27259030

  6. Risk factors for domestic violence: findings from a South African cross-sectional study.

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    Jewkes, Rachel; Levin, Jonathan; Penn-Kekana, Loveday

    2002-11-01

    In 1998 a cross-sectional study of violence against women was undertaken in three provinces of South Africa. The objectives were to measure the prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional abuse of women, to identify risk factors and associated health problems and health service use. A multi-stage sampling design was used with clusters sampled with probability proportional to number of households and households were randomly selected from within clusters. One randomly selected woman aged 18-49 years was interviewed in each selected home. Interviews were held with a total 1306 women, the response rate was 90.3% of eligible women. For the risk factor analysis, multiple logistic regression models were fitted from a large pool of candidate explanatory variables, while allowing for sampling design and interviewer effects. The lifetime prevalence of experiencing physical violence from a current or ex-husband or boyfriend was 24.6%, and 9.5% had been assaulted in the previous year. Domestic violence was significantly positively associated with violence in her childhood, her having no further education, liberal ideas on women's roles, drinking alcohol, having another partner in the year, having a confidant(e), his boy child preference, conflict over his drinking, either partner financially supporting the home, frequent conflict generally, and living outside the Northern Province. No significant associations were found with partners' ages, employment, migrant status, financial disparity, cohabitation, household possessions, urbanisation, marital status, crowding, communication, his having other partners, his education, her attitudes towards violence or her perceptions of cultural norms on women's role. The findings suggest that domestic violence is most strongly related to the status of women in a society and to the normative use of violence in conflict situations or as part of the exercise of power. We conclude by discussing implications for developing theory on causal

  7. Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

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    Khanh Vu T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment delay is an important indicator of access to tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Analyses of patient delay (i.e. time interval between onset of symptoms and first consultation of a health care provider and health care delay (i.e. time interval between first consultation and start of treatment can inform policies to improve access. This study assesses the patient, health care provider and total delay in diagnosis and treatment of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and the risk factors for long delay, in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of new patients treated by the National Tuberculosis Control Programme was conducted in 70 randomly selected districts in Vietnam. All consecutively registered patients in one quarter of 2002 were interviewed using a pre-coded structured questionnaire. Results Median (range delay was 4 weeks (1–48 for total, 3 (1–48 weeks for patient and 1 (0–25 week for health care delay. Patients with long total delay (≥ 12 weeks, 15% accounted for 49% of the cumulative number of delay-weeks. Independent risk factors (p 5 km distance from a health facility or in the northern area. For long health care delay (≥ 6 weeks this was urban setting, residence in the central area and initial visit to a communal health post, TB hospital or the private sector. Conclusion Analyses of patient and treatment delays can indicate target groups and areas for health education and strengthening of the referral system, in particular between the private sector and the NTP.

  8. Atypical Fractures are Mainly Subtrochanteric in Singapore and Diaphyseal in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Schilcher, Jörg; Howe, Tet Sen; Png, Meng Ai; Aspenberg, Per; Koh, Joyce S B

    2015-11-01

    We have previously noted a dichotomy in the location of atypical fractures along the femoral shaft in Swedish patients, and a mainly subtrochanteric location of atypical fractures in descriptions of patients from Singapore. These unexpected differences were now investigated by testing the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study: first, that there is a dichotomy also in Singapore; second, that the relation between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal location is different between the two countries; third, that the location is related to femoral bow. The previously published Swedish sample (n = 151) was re-measured, and a new Singaporean sample (n = 75) was established. Both samples were based on radiographic classification of all femoral fractures in women above 55 years of age. The distance between the fracture line and the lesser trochanter was measured. Femoral bow was classified as present or absent on frontal radiographs. Frequency distribution of the measured distances was analyzed using the Bayesian information criterion to choose the best description of the observed variable distribution in terms of a compilation of normally distributed subgroups. The analysis showed a clear dichotomy of the fracture location: either subtrochanteric or diaphyseal. Subtrochanteric fractures comprised 48% of all fractures in Singapore, and 17% in Sweden (p = 0.0001). In Singapore, femoral bow was associated with more fractures in the diaphyseal subgroup (p = 0.0001). This was not seen in Sweden. A dichotomous location of atypical fractures was confirmed, because it was found also in Singapore. The fractures showed a different localization pattern in the two countries. This difference may be linked to anatomical variations, but might also be related to cultural differences between the two populations that influence physical activity.

  9. Bone T-scores and functional status: a cross-sectional study on German elderly.

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    Shoma Berkemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We explore the association between bone T-scores, used in osteoporosis diagnosis, and functional status since we hypothesized that bone health can impact elderly functional status and indirectly independence. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study (2005-2006 on community dwelling elderly (> = 75 years from Herne, Germany we measured bone T-scores with Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, and functional status indexed by five geriatric tests: activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, test of dementia, geriatric depression score and the timed-up-and-go test, and two pooled indexes: raw and standardized. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the relationship between T-scores and functional status. RESULTS: From 3243 addresses, only 632 (19% completed a clinical visit, of which only 440 (male:female, 243:197 could be included in analysis. T-scores (-0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1-0.9 predicted activities of daily living (95.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, instrumental activities of daily living (7.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, and timed-up-and-go test (10.7 CI, 10.0-11.3 (P < = 0.05. Pooled data showed that a unit improvement in T-score improved standardized pooled functional status (15 CI, 14.7-15.3 by 0.41 and the raw (99.4 CI, 97.8-101.0 by 2.27 units. These results were limited due to pooling of different scoring directions, selection bias, and a need to follow-up with evidence testing. CONCLUSIONS: T-scores associated with lower functional status in community-dwelling elderly. Regular screening of osteoporosis as a preventive strategy might help maintain life quality with aging.

  10. Are food-related perceptions associated with meal portion size decisions? A cross-sectional study.

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    Spence, Michelle; Stancu, Violeta; Dean, Moira; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Gibney, Eileen R; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a comprehensive model of meal portion size determinants consisting of sociodemographic, psychological and food-related variables, whilst controlling for hunger and thirst. Using cross-sectional nationally representative data collected in 2075 participants from the Island of Ireland (IoI) and Denmark (DK), eight separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between food-related variables and meal portion size (i.e. pizza, vegetable soup, chicken salad and a pork meal) within each country. Stepwise regressions were run with physiological control measures (hunger and thirst) entered in the first step, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, body mass index (BMI)) in the second step; psychological variables (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating, general health interest (GHI)) in the third step and food-related variables (expected fillingness, liking, expected healthfulness, food familiarity) in the fourth step. Sociodemographic variables accounted for 2-19% of the variance in meal portion sizes; psychological variables explained an additional 3-8%; and food-related variables explained an additional 2-12%. When all four variable groups were included in the regression models, liking and sometimes expected healthfulness was positively associated with meal portion size. The strongest association was for liking, which was statistically significant in both countries for all meal types. Whilst expected healthfulness was not associated with pizza portion size in either country, it was positively associated with meals that have a healthier image (vegetable soup; chicken salad and in IoI, the pork meal). In conclusion, after considering sociodemographic and psychological variables, and the food-related variables of liking and expected healthfulness, there may be little merit in manipulating the satiating power, at least of these type of meals, to maintain or promote weight

  11. Evaluation of pityriasis versicolor in prisoners: A cross-sectional study

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    Salahi-Moghaddam Abdoreza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a mild but recurrent superficial fungal infection of stratum corneum. Many predisposing factors such as late teen and young adulthood age, tropical and subtropical climate (and to a lesser extent temperate climate, immunosuppression, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, hyperhidrosis, poor hygiene and a few other factors have been proposed for this condition. Aim: Regarding these probable and possible risk factors, we felt that jail is a unique population which can be affected by this infection and therefore we decided to evaluate some aspects of this infection in this population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study in male prisoners of Bandarabbas city, 230 prisoners were randomly selected. One hundred and five (45.67% of them were diagnosed to be infected. They were also evaluated regarding age, duration of being imprisoned, skin color, site of lesion and its pigmentation change and any concomitant clinical manifestation such as pruritis, burning or cebure. Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test was used for data analysis. Results: Mean age of infected population was 31.62 ± 8.67 years while peak incidence of PV was in 28-32 years age group. The most common color change was hypopigmentation. No case of PV hyperpigmentation was seen. We could not also observe any association between skin color and duration of being imprisoned with the frequency of infection. Conclusion: There seems to be no difference between pattern of infection in the general population and prisoners′ population in the aspects evaluated.

  12. Physicians' attitudes about obesity and their associations with competency and specialty: A cross-sectional study

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    Sherman Scott

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians frequently report negative attitudes about obesity which is thought to affect patient care. However, little is known about how attitudes toward treating obese patients are formed. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians in order to better characterize their attitudes and explore the relationships among attitudes, perceived competency in obesity care, including report of weight loss in patients, and other key physician, training, and practice characteristics. Methods We surveyed all 399 physicians from internal medicine, pediatrics, and psychiatry specialties at one institution regarding obesity care attitudes, competency, including physician report of percent of their patients who lose weight. We performed a factor analysis on the attitude items and used hierarchical regression analysis to explore the degree to which competency, reported weight loss, physician, training and practice characteristics explained the variance in each attitude factor. Results The overall response rate was 63%. More than 40% of physicians had a negative reaction towards obese patients, 56% felt qualified to treat obesity, and 46% felt successful in this realm. The factor analysis revealed 4 factors–Physician Discomfort/Bias, Physician Success/Self Efficacy, Positive Outcome Expectancy, and Negative Outcome Expectancy. Competency and reported percent of patients who lose weight were most strongly associated with the Physician Success/Self Efficacy attitude factor. Greater skill in patient assessment was associated with less Physician Discomfort/Bias. Training characteristics were associated with outcome expectancies with newer physicians reporting more positive treatment expectancies. Pediatric faculty was more positive and psychiatry faculty less negative in their treatment expectancies than internal medicine faculty. Conclusion Physician attitudes towards obesity are associated with competency, specialty, and years since

  13. Cross-sectional study on accidental occupational exposures amongst urban slum-based private medical practitioners

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    Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross-sectional, complete enumeration study was conducted in an urban slum to determine the frequency of occupational exposure of private medical practitioners to patient body fluids and the remedial measures adopted following such events and also to examine their high-risk practices, personal protective measures, immunisation and training status in relation to occupational exposures. Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, private medical practitioners practising for and #8805; 1 year in the locality who gave written informed consent were interviewed in their own clinics using a pre-tested formatted questionnaire. Results: Of the 108 respondents interviewed, the majority were non-allopathic, male practitioners. The speciality-wise and gender-wise differences in training in occupational exposure were not significant (p=0.135. Prior to disposal, 10.18% cut needles while 26.85% disinfected needles with 1% hypochlorite solution (p=0.0001. 50.93% never bent or recapped needles (p=0.0008. Only 19.44% regularly used gloves while examining patients (p=0.0039. 41.66% were completely unimmunised against Hepatitis B (p=0.004, while only one female non-allopathic practitioner (0.92% had taken complete immunisation against tetanus (p<0.05. Of the 7.41% respondents who had history of needle stick injuries, only one female non-allopathic practitioner had reported occupational exposure. Those unaware about the need for post-exposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure and that anti-retroviral therapy was part of post-exposure prophylaxis constituted 87.96% and 95.37%, respectively. Conclusions: Reporting of occupational exposure, complete immunisation against hepatitis B and tetanus and use of personal protection was inadequate. Specialised hands-on training ought to be an integral component of continuing medical education for private medical practitioners. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3708-3713

  14. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico

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    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. Methods In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Findings Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. Conclusion While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care. PMID:27274597

  15. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

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    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  16. Influenza immunization among Canadian health care personnel: a cross-sectional study

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    Buchan, Sarah A.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation. Using bootstrapped survey weights, we examined immunization coverage by occupation and by presence of vaccinate-or-mask policies, and reasons for not being immunized. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of influenza immunization for health care occupations compared with the general working population. Results: For all survey cycles combined, 50% of 18 446 health care personnel reported receiving seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 12 months, although this varied by occupation type (range 4%-72%). Compared with the general working population, family physicians and general practitioners were most likely to be immunized (PR 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76-3.59), whereas chiropractors, midwives and practitioners of natural healing were least likely (PR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Among those who were not immunized, the most frequently cited reason was the belief that influenza immunization is unnecessary. Introduction of vaccinate-or-mask policies was associated with increased influenza immunization among health care personnel. Interpretation: Health care personnel are more likely to be immunized against influenza than the general working population, but coverage remains suboptimal overall, and we observed wide variation by occupation type. More efforts

  17. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  18. Dietary patterns in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Silvia Marinho Ferolla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with diet. Our aim was to investigate the dietary patterns of a Brazilian population with this condition and compare them with the recommended diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 96 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients before any dietetic counseling. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound, biochemical tests, dietary evaluations, and anthropometric evaluations. Their food intake was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years, and 77% of the individuals were women. Most (67.7% participants were obese, and a large waist circumference was observed in 80.2% subjects. Almost 70% of the participants had metabolic syndrome, and 62.3% presented evidence of either insulin resistance or overt diabetes. Most patients (51.5, 58.5, and 61.7%, respectively exceeded the recommendations for energy intake, as well as total and saturated fat. All patients consumed less than the amount of recommended monounsaturated fatty acids, and 52.1 and 76.6% of them consumed less polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber, respectively, than recommended. In most patients, the calcium, sodium, potassium, pyridoxine, and vitamin C intake did not meet the recommendations, and in 10.5-15.5% of individuals, the tolerable upper limit intake for sodium was exceeded. The patients presented a significantly high intake of meats, fats, sugars, legumes (beans, and vegetables and a low consumption of cereals, fruits, and dairy products compared with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exhibited high energy and lipid consumption, most of them had inadequate intake of some micronutrients. The possible role of nutrient-deficient intake in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease warrants investigation.

  19. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Pei-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham. In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3], and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]. After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI, most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05 and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05 was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05, white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05. Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Cardiovascular Effects of Welding Fumes.

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    Huiqi Li

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes.In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines.Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P ≤ 0.001. IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010. Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 - 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 - 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers.A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  1. A large cross-sectional community-based study of newborn care practices in southern Tanzania.

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    Suzanne Penfold

    Full Text Available Despite recent improvements in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality rates remain largely unchanged. This study aimed to determine the frequency of delivery and newborn-care practices in southern Tanzania, where neonatal mortality is higher than the national average. All households in five districts of Southern Tanzania were approached to participate. Of 213,220 female residents aged 13-49 years, 92% participated. Cross-sectional, retrospective data on childbirth and newborn care practices were collected from 22,243 female respondents who had delivered a live baby in the preceding year. Health facility deliveries accounted for 41% of births, with nearly all non-facility deliveries occurring at home (57% of deliveries. Skilled attendants assisted 40% of births. Over half of women reported drying the baby and over a third reported wrapping the baby within 5 minutes of delivery. The majority of mothers delivering at home reported that they had made preparations for delivery, including buying soap (84% and preparing a cloth for drying the child (85%. Although 95% of these women reported that the cord was cut with a clean razor blade, only half reported that it was tied with a clean thread. Furthermore, out of all respondents 10% reported that their baby was dipped in cold water immediately after delivery, around two-thirds reported bathing their babies within 6 hours of delivery, and 28% reported putting something on the cord to help it dry. Skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby after delivery was rarely practiced. Although 83% of women breastfed within 24 hours of delivery, only 18% did so within an hour. Fewer than half of women exclusively breastfed in the three days after delivery. The findings suggest a need to promote and facilitate health facility deliveries, hygienic delivery practices for home births, delayed bathing and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding in Southern Tanzania to improve newborn health.

  2. Workplace determinants of social capital: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from a Finnish cohort study.

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    Tuula Oksanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine which contextual features of the workplace are associated with social capital. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 43,167 employees in 3090 Finnish public sector workplaces who responded to a survey of individual workplace social capital in 2000-02 (response rate 68%. We used ecometrics approach to estimate social capital of work units. Features of the workplace were work unit's demographic and employment patterns and size, obtained from employers' administrative records. We used multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models to examine cross-sectionally whether these features were associated with social capital between individuals and work units. Fixed effects models were used for longitudinal analyses in a subsample of 12,108 individuals to examine the effects of changes in workplace characteristics on changes in social capital between 2000 and 2004. RESULTS: After adjustment for individual characteristics, an increase in work unit size reduced the odds of high levels of individual workplace social capital (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.98 per 30-person-year increase. A 20% increase in the proportion of manual and male employees reduced the odds of high levels of social capital by 8% and 23%, respectively. A 30% increase in temporary employees and a 20% increase in employee turnover were associated with 11% (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.17 and 24% (95% confidence interval 1.18-1.30 higher odds of having high levels of social capital respectively. Results from fixed effects models within individuals, adjusted for time-varying covariates, and from social capital of the work units yielded consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces.

  3. Oral health status among long-term hospitalized adults: a cross sectional study

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    Leon Bilder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many Long-Term Care (LTC institutionalized patients are the most frail and functionally dependent among the geriatric population and have significant oral health disparities.They often suffer from dental neglect due to limited access to appropriate professional dental care. These patients have chronic health situations and are treated with medications, which increase their risk of oral diseases. Despite the growth in elderly population in Israel, there is insufficient data regarding their oral health status and treatment needs. Objective. To describe the oral health status of the LTC hospitalized adults in a geriatric and psychiatric hospital in Israel. Methods. Data was recorded from LTC hospitalized adults with a physical and/or mental disabilities in a cross-sectional research design, which included general health anamnesis and clinical oral examination. Variables included gender, medicines, oral hygiene (OH, using dentures, number of caries lesions and residual teeth. Univariate analyses included Pearson χ2 and t-test analyses. Multivariate analyses included logistic and linear regressions while the outcome variables were categorical OH index and number of carious cavitations, number of residual teeth and carious teeth percentage. Results. 153 participants were included in the study with a mean age of 65.03 ± 18.67 years. 31.3% of the patients were edentulous, and only 14% had partial or full dentures. Females had a significantly higher number of caries cavitation than males (P = 0.044. The number of caries cavitation was higher among patients with poor OH (P < 0.001 and when taking Clonazepam (P = 0.018. Number of residual teeth was higher in the fair OH group (P < 0.001. Carious teeth percentage was higher among the poor OH group (P < 0.001.

  4. Information and rehabilitation needs of Indian breast cancer patients: Report of a cross-sectional study

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    N Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer causes significant disruption to the quality of life (QOL of its patients, which is compounded further by lack of information and adequate facilities for rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in women who had completed their Primary treatment of breast cancer. The QOL was assessed by Functional assessment of cancer therapy-breast (FACT-B version 4, and information and rehabilitation needs were enquired about in a semi-structured interview. Results: A total of 154 patients were enrolled and divided into three groups according to the time elapsed after initial treatment; Group I: 1-2 years, Group II: 2-5 years, Group III: >5 years The FACT-B mean scores were; Group I (n = 64: 79.06 ± 14.60; Group II (n = 48: 85.75 ± 20.15; and Group III (n = 42: 89.83 ± 12.80. Patients in Group I scored lowest on physical well-being subscale, Group II on breast specific subscale and Group III on Social well-being subscale. Pain, lack of energy, inability to meet the needs of the family, fear that the condition will get worse and loss of body image were significant factors contributing to poor QOL. Analysis of interviewshowed many unmet information needs. Main rehabilitation needs were effective treatment of physical symptoms and counselling about body image issues and sexual dysfunctions. Easy availability of clinical and social support services were major felt needs in the long-term follow-up. Conclusions: Targeted Interventions are needed to address issues relating to QOL and rehabilitation needs of breast cancer patients.

  5. Factors influencing Chinese male's willingness to undergo circumcision: a cross-sectional study in western China.

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    Xiaobo Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore the acceptability of MC among the Chinese and to identify factors associated with circumcision preference. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2009 and December 2010. We interviewed 2,219 male community participants, from three high HIV prevalence provinces in western China. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on MC knowledge, willingness to accept MC, reasons to accept or refuse MC, and sexual behaviors and health. For those who refused MC, a health education intervention providing information on the benefits of circumcision was conducted. We used multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. RESULTS: Of the respondents (n = 2,219, 44.6% (989/2,219 reported they would accept MC for the following reasons: promotion of female partners' hygiene (60.3%, redundant foreskin (59.4%, prevention of penile cancer (50.2%, enhanced sexual pleasure (41.4%, and protection against HIV and STDs (34.2%. The multivariable logistic regression showed that five factors were associated with MC willingness: long foreskin (OR = 15.98, residing in Xinjiang province (OR = 3.69, being younger than 25 (OR = 1.60, knowing hazards of redundant foreskin (OR = 1.78, and having a friend who underwent circumcision (OR = 1.36. CONCLUSION: The acceptability of male circumcision was high among the general population in China. Our study elucidates the factors associated with circumcision preference and suggests that more health education campaigns about positive health effects are necessary to increase the MC rate in China.

  6. Osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, C E; Kalamara, P; Konsta, M; Papaioannou, I; Papadima, E; Antoniou, Z; Andrianopoulou, A; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To estimate the correlation between osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women and the influence of calcium/vitamin D supplements on vascular calcification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including 29 women with osteoporosis (15 not taking supplements) and 18 age-matched, non-osteoporotic women. They were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and blood tests, lateral X-ray of lumbar spine (assessment of abdominal aorta calcification, AAC) and carotid ultrasound (increased intima media thickness (iIMT) or calcified plaques) were performed. Results In univariate analysis, osteoporotic women were 16 times more likely to develop AAC (odds ratio (OR) 15.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-135.4) and seven times more likely to develop iIMT (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.8-25.4) compared to normal individuals. The odds of developing AAC and iIMT were increased each year after menopause (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.2 and OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.3, respectively) and with aging (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.3, respectively). Calcified plaques were significantly correlated with osteoporosis (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, osteoporosis was an independent risk factor for AAC (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.3-134.4) and iIMT (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1-19.9). Low doses of supplements did not appear to affect vascular calcification (p = 0.6). Conclusions Osteoporosis is associated with increased calcification of the abdominal aorta and carotids. Low doses of supplements do not appear to cause any increase in vascular calcification in osteoporotic women. PMID:27045323

  7. Suicidal expressions in young Swedish Sami, a cross-sectional study

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    Lotta Omma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the experience of suicidal expressions (death wishes, life weariness, ideation, plans and attempts in young Swedish Sami, their attitudes toward suicide (ATTS, and experience of suicidal expressions and completed suicide in significant others and to compare with Swedes in general. Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 516 Swedish Sami, 18–28 years of age together with an age and geographically matched reference group (n=218. Parts of the ATTS questionnaire have been used to cover different aspects of the suicidal complex.Data were analysed with regard to gender, occupation, counties and experience of negative societal treatment due to Sami background. Results. Both young Sami and young Swedes reported suicidal ideation, life weariness, and death wishes in a high degree (30–50%, but it was more common among the Sami. Having had plans to commit suicide showed a significant gender difference only in the Sami. The prevalence of suicide attempts did not differ significantly between Sami and Swedes. Subgroups of the Sami reported a higher degree of suicidal behaviour, Sami women and reindeer herders reported a 3, 5-fold higher odds of suicide attempts and a 2-fold higher odds having had plans committing suicide. Sami living in Vasterbotten/Jamtland/Vasternorrland and Sami with experience of ethnicity related bad treatment 2-fold higher odds of suicidal plans compared to those living in other counties. Conclusion. An increased occurrence of suicidal ideation/death wishes/life weariness in young Sami compared to young majority Swedes was found, but not an increased prevalence of suicide attempts and positive attitudes together with an increased awareness to handle suicide problems could be a contributing factor. Severe circumstances and experience of ethnicity-related bad treatment seems to contribute to increased levels of suicidal plans and attempts in subgroups of Sami.

  8. Association of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Syndrome in Bank Employees: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Sanjeev S. Walvekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome also referred as cardio metabolic syndrome is identified as the prestate for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and also for chronic kidney disease. Obesity is considered as the strongest component of metabolic syndrome as per the definition given by different organizations. The easiest way to measure obesity are waist circumference, Body Mass Index (BMI and waist to hip ratio. Aims and Objective: To find the association between microalbuminuria and components of cardiometabolic syndrome in the bank employees and also the association between waist circumference, body mass index and components of cardiometabolic syndrome, microalbumin. Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional study involving 73 subjects working in a reputed bank. Their anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters like fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, serum cortisol and microalbumin were measured. We defined microalbuminuria as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 299 mg/gm. Results: out of 73 participants, in 33 participants at least 3-5 parameters of cardiometabolic syndrome were found to be present and were labeled as cardiometabolic syndrome patients. Waist circumference showed positive correlation with age (r=0.498, systolic blood pressure (r=0.500, diastolic blood pressure (r=0.476, fasting blood glucose (r=0.300, triglyceride (r=0.408 and microalbumin (r=0.409. Microalbumin also exhibited a significant positive correlation with age (r=0.404, waist circumference (r=0.419, fasting blood glucose (r=0.476 and HbA1c (r=0.466, while BMI showed negative correlation with microalbumin (r=-0.085. Conclusions: Obesity, one of the parameters of cardiometabolic syndrome measured as waist circumference, is indicative of the syndrome rather than BMI. Microalbumin may be considered as a promising parameter of cardiometabolic syndrome.

  9. Ningbo thyroid dysfunction prevalence study: a cross-sectional survey in an employees-cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yu-shan; LIU Zhi-min; CHEN Chang-xi; ZHU Zhong-wei; HONG Zhong-li

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and the spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in the mainland of China are not adequately understood. We performed a population-based study to determine the prevalence of major thyroid dysfunctions including overt and subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism in a stable cohort.Methods All active and retired employees aged 20 years and older (11 067) of Sinopec Zhenhai Refining & Chemical Company in Ningbo participated in the cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire and blood samples. Results A total of 10 405 individuals attended for screening. Using biochemical definitions 95.5% were euthyroid. The prevalence of former diagnosed hyperthyroidism was 1.1% in females and 0.4% in males, hypothyroidism 1.7% and 0.3%, and thyroid surgery 1.2% and 0.3%, respectively. In both sex the prevalence increased with age. Twenty-four percent of individuals with thyroid surgery or medications had abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In individuals without a history of thyroid disease, the prevalence of pathological TSH values in females and males were TSH ≥10 mU/L 0.60% and 0.29%; TSH 4.8-9.9 mU/L 5.71 % and 2.25%; TSH <0.3 mU/L 0.87% and 0.41 %, respectively. Overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were uncommon (0.2%, 0.3%, respectively). The prevalence of subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism was 0.4% and 3.4%, respectively. Subclinical hypothyroidism was more common in females (male 2.4% vs. female 5.8%, P<0.001) and with increasing age (P<0.001).Conclusions The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is 4.5% in the cohort. Among individuals with thyroid medications or surgery, only 75.7% were within the normal range of TSH. These results indicate that thyroid dysfunction is common in Chinese adults.

  10. Exposição múltipla a agrotóxicos e efeitos à saúde: estudo transversal em amostra de 102 trabalhadores rurais, Nova Friburgo, RJ Multiple exposure to pesticides and impacts on health: a cross-section study of 102 rural workers, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto José de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo transversal foi realizado em uma comunidade agrícola localizada em Nova Friburgo, RJ, para conhecer os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da exposição múltipla a agrotóxicos em uma amostra representativa de 102 pequenos agricultores, de ambos os sexos. Os trabalhadores foram submetidos a um extenso protocolo que incluía aplicação de questionário ocupacional, coleta de amostras biológicas para exame toxicológico e avaliação clínica - geral e neurológica. Os resultados dos exames toxicológicos revelaram episódios leves a moderados de intoxicação aguda aos organofosforados descritos pelos agricultores ou observados durante o exame clínico. Foram também diagnosticados 13 (12,8 % quadros de neuropatia tardia e 29 (28,5% quadros de síndrome neurocomportamental e distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos associados ao uso crônico de agrotóxicos. Os resultados apontam para a ocorrência de episódios recorrentes de sobre-exposição múltipla, a elevadas concentrações de diversos produtos químicos, com grave prejuízo para as funções vitais desses trabalhadores, especialmente por se encontrarem em uma faixa etária jovem (média = 35 ± 11anos e período produtivo da vida. Estes dados demonstram a importância do monitoramento da múltipla exposição a agrotóxicos, uma cadeia de eventos de grande repercussão na saúde pública e para o meio ambiente.A cross section study was carried out in a farming community from Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, to examine epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of multiple exposure to pesticides in a representative sample of 102 small farmers. Both males and females were submitted to an extensive protocol which included an occupation questionnaire, biological sample collection for toxicology analysis and clinical - general and neurological - evaluation. The toxicology test results showed light to moderate episodes of acute intoxication by

  11. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  12. A study on the distribution of polystyrene sulfonic acid grafts over the cross-section of a PFA film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the distribution behaviors of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) grafts over the cross-section of grafted PFA membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) were investigated by using SEM-EDX analysis. Membranes with various degrees of grafting (DOG) and thicknesses were prepared by a simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene and a subsequent sulfonation with chlorosulfonic acid. A SEM-EDX instrument was utilized to directly observe that the distribution behaviors of the PSSA grafts over the cross-section of grafted PFA membranes and the results showed that the distribution behaviors were largely affected by the grafting conditions such as the degree of grafting, monomer concentration, and film thickness.

  13. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  14. A study of nutritional status and high risk behavior of adolescents in Ahmedabad: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mital Prajapati; Bala, D. V.; Hemant Tiwari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a distinct age group (10-19 yrs) with complex needs because of physical and psychological development during puberty. Aim: To evaluate adolescents’ nutritional status and high risk behavior. Settings and design: A Cross Sectional study was conducted in West Zone of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Gujarat. Methods & Material: 401 students (10-19years) from 10 schools and colleges surveyed using pretested questionnaire ab...

  15. Knowledge and conduct of pharmacists for dispensing of drugs in community pharmacies: a cross-sectional study

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    Tiago Marques dos Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists and check their conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. This is a cross-sectional study performed in four municipalities from South and Southeast of Brazil, which are reference in health national scenario and concentrate 73.6% of national economic activity. Pharmacists who works in community pharmacies were invited to answer a questionnaire prepared by the authors of this study and validated. The main outcome measured was the pharmaceutical knowledge, rated according to the number of correct answers on that questionnaire prepared by the researchers, and professional conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. The data collection occurred from September to December 2012 and the information obtained were tabulated in duplicate by two independent researchers for later analysis. 486 community pharmacies were visited but only 112 professionals participated in the study. Among the participants, 78.6% (n = 88 did not have adequate knowledge to perform the dispensing of drugs, despite this same number of pharmacists claiming to have participated in conferences and courses after graduation. The main sources of information on drugs used by participants have a low level of scientific evidence. The performance of non-employment related tasks reduces the time available for the care of medication users. In addition, the indiscriminate sale of antimicrobials and the sale of products other than health, mischaracterize the role of the pharmacist in the community pharmacy. There are gaps in the knowledge of professionals, limiting the satisfactory completion of dispensing of drugs. In addition, the excess of other duties and inadequate professional conduct compromise the promotion of the rational use of drugs.

  16. Evidence of a higher prevalence of HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women: a cross-sectional study

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    Sônia Sampaio Lôpo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to other infections. Few studies have addressed the co-infection between HPV and HTLV-1 and the immune response involved in this interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women and to establish the risk factors involved in this co-infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, between September 2005 and December 2008, involving 50 HTLV-1-infected women from the HTLV Reference Center and 40 uninfected patients from gynecological clinic, both at the Bahiana School of Medicine. HPV infection was assessed using hybrid capture. HTLV-1 proviral load was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The mean age of HTLV-1-infected women (38 ± 10 years was similar to that of the control group (36 ± 13 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 44% in the HTLV-1-infected group and 22.5% in uninfected women (p = 0.03. HTLV-1-infected women had lower mean age at onset of sexual life (17 ± 3 years versus 19 ± 3 years; p = 0.03 and greater number of lifetime partners compared with the control group (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1; p < 0.01. In the group of HTLV-1-infected patients, there was neither difference in HTLV-1 proviral load between HPV-infected women and the uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in HTLV-1-infected women. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the progression of this co-infection.

  17. Neutron cross section measurements at n-TOF for ADS related studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mastinu, P F; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Bustreo, N; Aumann, P; Beva, F; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carillo de Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Segura, M E; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; itzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Guerrero, C; Gonçalves, I; Gallino, R; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Massimi, C; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescherand, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    A neutron Time-of-Flight facility (n_TOF) is available at CERN since 2001. The innovative features of the neutron beam, in particular the high instantaneous flux, the wide energy range, the high resolution and the low background, make this facility unique for measurements of neutron induced reactions relevant to the field of Emerging Nuclear Technologies, as well as to Nuclear Astrophysics and Fundamental Nuclear Physics. The scientific motivations that have led to the construction of this new facility are here presented. The main characteristics of the n_TOF neutron beam are described, together with the features of the experimental apparata used for cross-section measurements. The main results of the first measurement campaigns are presented. Preliminary results of capture cross-section measurements of minor actinides, important to ADS project for nuclear waste transmutation, are finally discussed.

  18. An experimental study of sound generated by flows around cylinders of different cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. F.; Pfizenmaier, E.

    2009-12-01

    The sound radiated by rigid cylinders placed transversely in a uniform stream has been measured in an anechoic wind tunnel over a range of Mach numbers ( M=0.09-0.2). The cylinders have different cross-sections, e.g., circular, square, rectangular, elliptic, and circular with lateral ribs or knurled surfaces. Different length to diameter ratios of the cylinders are also investigated. Results are presented as narrow band spectra, measured in the far field (acoustic as well as geometric). All spectra are presented with dimensionless (scaled) axes, as well as the original dimensional scales. It is shown that elliptic cross-sections are less noisy, compared to all other cylinders, but noise abatement techniques such as lateral ribs and knurled surfaces can also reduce tonal radiated noise. Two practical applications of these experiments are the reduction of radiated noise from pantographs of high-speed railway trains, and from the landing gear of modern passenger aircraft.

  19. Treatment seeking behaviour of rural adolescent girls-a community based cross-sectional study

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    Baliga Sulakshana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The transition from childhood to adulthood occurs during adolescence period which is characterized by major biological changes like physical growth, sexual maturation and psycho-social development. During this phase of growth the girls first experience menstruation and related problems which is marked by feelings of anxiety and eagerness to know about this natural phenomenon. Present study was undertaken to determine health status of adolescent girls by studying morbidity patterns amongst them and to know treatment seeking behaviour of adolescent girls. Methods: This one year community based cross-sectional study was done at village Peeranwadi, PHC Kinaye, Belgaum. Four Hundred (400 adolescent girls were selected randomly from each block. Study was approved by Institutional Ethics Committee, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Information on socio-demographic variables, history regarding illness one month prior and treatment seeking behavior were recorded. Haemoglobin estimation was done by cyanmethaemoglobin method. Results: Majority (82.25% had age between 10 to 14 years and mean age of study population was 12.9±2.06 years and 98.5% were literates. Of 400 adolescent girls, 51% had attained menarche. The mean height, weight and BMI was less among 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years (p=0.000. In this study 15 (3.75% were married and of them 60% were pregnant and all had registered for antenatal care. Most common morbidity reported in last one month was GI infections (14.75%, fever (12.75% and dysmenorrhoea (12%. Prevalence of anaemia was 75% and 49.75% had mild, 20.75% had moderate and 4.5% had severe anaemia. 61.25% had taken treatment of which 74.69% visited health facility for treatment, 19.21% took home remedy and 6.12% did not take any treatment. The place of treatment was decided by themselves in 20.81% whereas 78.78% family members were

  20. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S. V.; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti

    2015-01-01

    Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivar...

  1. Psychological problems in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. DESIGN: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy,...... are not overlooked and potentially preventable risk factors like pain are treated effectively. The validity of the SDQ for children with severe disability warrants further assessment....

  2. Perceptions of medical students towards healthcare devolution: an online cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nyongesa, Henry; Munguti, Cecilia; Odok, Christopher; Mokua, Winstar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There have been worries concerning the preparedness and capacity of the counties to take over health care services. As the current medical students are going into this new system, we sought their opinions on the issue of devolution. The objective is to assess beliefs and attitudes of medical students towards devolution of healthcare services. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted at University of Nairobi medical school during the period of February-May 2014. Though a cal...

  3. Size at birth and blood pressure: cross sectional study in 8-11 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, S J; Whincup, P.H.; Cook, D.G.; Papacosta, O; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which patterns of fetal growth, represented by different measurements of size at birth, are associated with increased blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: School based, cross sectional survey conducted in 10 towns in England and Wales in 1994. SUBJECTS: 3010 singleton children (response rate 75%) with physical measurements and information on birth weight from parental questionnaires. Hospital birth records were examined for 1573. MAIN OUTCOME ...

  4. Vitamin D deficiency as adverse drug reaction? A cross-sectional study in Dutch geriatric outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Orten-Luiten, van, A.C.B.; A. Janse; R. A. M. Dhonukshe-Rutten; Witkamp, R F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Adverse drug reactions as well as vitamin D deficiency are issues of public health concern in older people. However, relatively little is known about the impact of drug use on vitamin D status. Our primary aim is to explore associations between drug use and vitamin D status in older people. Furthermore, prevalences of drug use and vitamin D deficiency are estimated. Methods In a population of 873 community-dwelling Dutch geriatric outpatients, we explored the cross-sectional relations...

  5. Sexual Dysfunction and Hyperprolactinemia in Male Psychotic Inpatients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo A. Jørgensen; Else-Marie Løberg; Erik Johnsen; Rune Kroken; Eirik Kjelby

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Sexual dysfunction (SD) and hyperprolactinemia are frequently reported in patients with psychotic disorders and have the potential for severe complications but investigations in males are particularly scarce. The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of SD and hyperprolactinemia in male patients and to investigate whether associations exist between SD and prolactin levels. Methods. Cross-sectional data were obtained at discharge from the hospital or 6 weeks after admitta...

  6. Theoretical studies of interaction potential and scattering cross section for He-CO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new anisotropic interaction potential surface be fitted for He-CO system according to Maitland-Smith(MS) potential model. The scattering cross sections for the collision of CO with ground-state helium atom have been calculated by employing the fitting potential surface at collision energy of 27.7 meV. The results of the calculation indicate that the fitting potential surface can describe exactly the characteristic of interaction between CO and He. (authors)

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonofua Friday E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines

  8. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY ON SELF MEDICATION PATTERN AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS AT KANNUR, NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Self medication is mainly symptomatic based and may lead to the masking of signs and symptoms of underlying disease. Medical students being exposed to the subjects in medicine are more prone for self medic ation. This raises the concerns of incorrect self - diagnosis, drug interaction, and use of drugs other than for the original indication. AIMS: To study the pattern of self medication among medical students and to determine the factors affecting it. METHODS AND MATERIAL: STUDY DESIGN & SETTING: A cross - sectional descriptive study done in a medical college. Study Duration: March 15 th to April 20 th 2013. Participants: Out of 400 students, 302 students who were willing to participate and available during study p eriod were enrolled in the study. R epresentation from all phases/batches of MBBS course was ensured, accounting to 77, 84, 63 and 78 students from first, second, third and final phase of MBBS. Data collection: By self administered pre - tested & validated qu estionnaire . Statistical analysis was done by applying proportions/percentages. RESULTS: Out of 302 participants, 25.8% were males & 74.2% were females. Practice of self medication was reported by 64.9% students. It was 16.9% in first phase students which shoot to 100% in final phase. Practice of self medication was higher in males while the frequency of self medication was higher in females. Seniors (89.8% and previous prescriptions (87.2% were the most common sources for reference. Fever (70.4%, commo n cold (67.8% and headache/bodyache (64.7% were the common reasons for self medication. Analgesics (79.6%, antipyretics (79.6% and anti - histaminic (72.4% were the most common drugs used for self medication. 30.1% of them took antibiotics and 9.7% seda tives without prescription. 80.1% (157 of those who took self medication said that they prescribed drugs for others also (friends/relatives. None of them suffered any adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The

  9. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  10. Neutron capture cross-section studies of Tellurium isotopes for neutrinoless double beta decay applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The CUORE detector at Gran Sasso, aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te, employs an array of TeO2 bolometer modules. To understand and identify the contribution of muon and (α,n) induced neutrons to the CUORE background, fast neutron cature cross-section data of the tellurium isotopes 126Te, 128Te and 130Te have been measured with the activation method at eight different energies in the neutron energy range 0.5-7.5 MeV. Plastic pill boxes of diameter 1.6 cm and width 1 cm containing Te were irradiated with mono-energetic neutrons produced via the 3H(p,n)3He and 2H(d,n)3He reactions. The cross-sections were determined relative to the 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 115In(n,n')115m In standard cross sections. The activities of the products were measured using 60% lead-shielded HPGe detectors at TUNL's low background counting facility. The present results are compared with the evaluated data from TENDL-2012, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0, as well as with literature data.

  11. Patients visiting the complementary medicine clinic for pain: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Press Yan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care. The purpose of this study was to characterize patients visiting the complementary medicine clinic for a pain complaint. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The study took place at Clalit Health Services (CHS complementary clinic in Beer-Sheva, Israel. Patients visiting the complementary clinic, aged 18 years old and older, Hebrew speakers, with a main complaint of pain were included. Patients were recruited consecutively on random days of the month during a period of six months. Main outcome measures were: pain levels, location of pain, and interference with daily activities. Once informed consent was signed patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire by a qualified nurse. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI. Results Three-hundred and ninety-five patients were seen at the complementary medicine clinic during the study period, 201 (50.8% of them met the inclusion criteria. Of them, 163 (81.1% agreed to participate in the study and were interviewed. Pain complaints included: 69 patients (46.6% with back pain, 65 (43.9% knee pain, and 28 (32.4% other limbs pain. Eighty-two patients (50.3% treated their pain with complementary medicine as a supplement for their conventional treatment, and 55 (33.7% felt disappointed from the conventional medicine experience. Eighty-three patients (50.9% claimed that complementary medicine can result in better physical strength, or better mental state 51 (31.3%. Thirty-seven patients (22.7% were hoping that complementary medicine will prevent invasive procedures. Conclusion Given the high proportion of patients with unsatisfactory pain relief using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, general practitioners should gain knowledge about CAM and CAM providers should gain training in pain topics to improve communication and counsel patients. More clinical

  12. Sonographic fatty liver in overweight and obese children, a cross sectional study in Isfahan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Children's obesity is a known health problem in the world and is a strong predictor of obesity in adulthood which increases the incidence of related diseases such as metabolic syndrome. According to the MONIKA project by the World Health Organization (WHO), Iran is one of the seven countries with a high rate of child obesity. Fatty liver is an abnormality related to metabolic syndrome, with higher prevalence in obese children according to some previous studies. This study investigates the presence of Sonographic Fatty Liver (SFL) in Iranian obese children in comparison with normal and overweight children. Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 962 randomly selected children between the ages of 6 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal, overweight and obese based on body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire including demographic and anthropometric characteristics was filled for each one. To detect the presence of SFL all the subjects underwent assessments with ultrasonography by radiologist who was not aware of their BMI. The incidence of SFL was determined based on the ultrasonographic diagnosis criteria. Results: The average age of the children in the study was 12.59 ± 3.25 years. The mean of the liver span in the normal, overweight and obese groups were 111.36 ± 18.73, 121.18 ± 16.63 and 118.21 ± 19.15 respectively. The prevalence of SFL in obese children was 54.4%, which was significantly higher than overweight (10.5%) and normal ones (1%). According to present results, there was no significant difference in prevalence of SFL between sexes. Conclusions: The high rate of detected SFL in obese children in this study suggests that Iranian obese children are at risk of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the WHO indicated Iran as one of the countries with high rate of obese children. Based on this information, we can conclude that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related non-communicable diseases

  13. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Rico-Almochantaf, Yazmin del Rosario; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Diaz-Herrera, Arturo; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The influence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on clinical features in women with this disorder has not been studied. Therefore, we determined the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 151 women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in sera of the participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs). In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in whole blood of IgG seropositive participants using polymerase chain reaction. We obtained the clinical data of women with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of T. gondii infection with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.6%) of the 151 women studied. Of the 10 IgG seropositive women, four (40.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and one (10.0%) for T. gondii DNA. Mean number (25.8 ± 7.58) of premenstrual clinical characteristics in seropositive women was similar to that (29.22 ± 9.13) found in seronegative women (P = 0.25). Logistic regression showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with difficulty concentrating (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.91; P = 0.03), and positively associated with out of control feeling or overwhelmed (OR: 9.00; 95% CI: 1.32 - 62.00; P = 0.02). Conclusions Results of this first study on the association of T. gondii infection and clinical characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder suggest that this infection might be linked to some symptoms of this disorder. We report for the first time the association of T. gondii infection and out of control feeling or overwhelmed. Results warrant for further research on the role of T. gondii in premenstrual dysphoric

  14. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  15. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women. After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group ( Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%. We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01, 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90, and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16 for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77, and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95. In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  16. Consumption of fruit and vegetables among elderly people: a cross sectional study from Iran

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    Jazayery Abolghasem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that low consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess FV consumption and the variables that influence it among elderly individuals in Iran aged 60 and over. Methods This was a cross-sectional study to investigate FV intake by a randomly-selected sample of members of elderly centers in Tehran, Iran. A multidimensional questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, daily consumption of FV, knowledge, self-efficacy, social support, perceived benefits, and barriers against FV. Data were analyzed using t-tests, one way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and logistic regression. Results In total, 400 elderly individuals took part in the study. The mean age of the participants was 64.07 (SD = 4.49 years, and most were female (74.5%. The mean number of FV servings per day was 1.76 (SD = 1.15. Ninety-seven percent of participants (n = 388 did not know the recommended intake was at least five servings of FV per day. Similarly, 88.3% (n = 353 did not know the size of a single serving. The most frequent perceived benefits of and barriers against FV consumption were availability and expense, respectively. Knowledge (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.39-0.88, perceived benefits (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.96 and barriers (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.14, self-efficacy (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83-0.95 and family support (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83-0.99 were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that FV intake among elderly individuals in Iran was lower than the recommended minimum of five daily servings and varied greatly with age, marital status, educational attainment, and income level. The results also indicated that low perceived benefits, low self-efficacy, and perceived barriers could lead to lower consumption of FV. It seems that in order

  17. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

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    Timpka Toomas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476 (response rate 56%. Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I structural indicators of social disorder; (II contact with disorderly behavior; and (III existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We

  18. Comparison of primary care models in the prevention of cardiovascular disease - a cross sectional study

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    Hogg William

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care providers play an important role in preventing and managing cardiovascular disease. This study compared the quality of preventive cardiovascular care delivery amongst different primary care models. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a larger randomized control trial, known as the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC through Outreach Facilitation. Using baseline data collected through IDOCC, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 82 primary care practices from three delivery models in Eastern Ontario, Canada: 43 fee-for-service, 27 blended-capitation and 12 community health centres with salary-based physicians. Medical chart audits from 4,808 patients with or at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease were used to examine each practice's adherence to ten evidence-based processes of care for diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, weight management, and smoking cessation care. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for age, sex, rurality, number of cardiovascular-related comorbidities, and year of data collection were used to compare guideline adherence amongst the three models. Results The percentage of patients with diabetes that received two hemoglobin A1c tests during the study year was significantly higher in community health centres (69% than in fee-for-service (45% practices (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.4-4.2], p = 0.001. Blended capitation practices had a significantly higher percentage of patients who had their waistlines monitored than in fee-for-service practices (19% vs. 5%, AOR = 3.7 [1.8-7.8], p = 0.0006, and who were recommended a smoking cessation drug when compared to community health centres (33% vs. 16%, AOR = 2.4 [1.3-4.6], p = 0.007. Overall, quality of diabetes care was higher in community health centres, while smoking cessation care and weight management was higher in the blended-capitation models. Fee-for-service practices

  19. MATERNAL NEAR MISS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators of maternal health. To overcome the challenge of reduction of maternal mortality, nationwide notion of SAMM (Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity and near miss event was introduced to access maternal health care. Maternal near miss case is defined as “A woman who nearly died, but survived a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy.” SAMM refers to a life-threatening disorder that can end up in near miss with or without residual morbidity or mortality. Women who develop SAMM during pregnancy share many pathological and circumstantial factors related to their condition. Although some of these women die, a proportion of them narrowly escape death. Near miss cases and maternal deaths together are referred to as Severe Maternal Outcome (SMO. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the prevalence of maternal near miss due to severe obstetric complications or maternal disease in a tertiary hospital. 2. To determine Severe Maternal Outcome Ratio (SMOR, Maternal Near Miss Ratio (MNM Ratio and Maternal Mortality Ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross sectional observational study carried out from 01st October 2014 to 30th September 2015. The study was conducted in Obstetric Department of Krishna Hospital, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. Near-miss case definition was based on validated specific criteria comprising of five diagnostic features and WHO Criteria: Haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. The main outcome measures were frequency and characteristics of nearmiss cases, total hospital stay, high dependency unit/ICU stay and development of multiple organ dysfunction. The maternal death to near-miss ratio was calculated. RESULT There were 4800 deliveries from October 2014 to September 2015, 220 near miss cases and 17 maternal deaths. Maternal death to near miss

  20. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

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    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  1. A cross-sectional study of tobacco addiction among college students of Muzaffarnagar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Muzammil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption in any form is the second major cause of death all over the globe. The mortality because of tobacco consumption is expected to double by the year 2025. Adolescents and college going students are the most vulnerable group that develop this bad habit of tobacco consumption. Every minute approximately 9-10 people die all over due to tobacco related diseases. Keeping all these in mind the research question of this study was set as -What is the prevalence of tobacco use amongst college students? Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out for a period of 2 months in the four colleges selected by simple random sampling. Prior permission was taken from all the head of the institutions of the respective colleges. A pre-tested self-structured questionnaire was filled by all the students present at the time of visit to their colleges.  At the end of the visit, students were explained about the harmful effects of tobacco use in any form. A total of 248 students were ultimately included for the purpose of the study and their responses were analyzed by using Epi info statistical package. Results: Prevalence of tobacco use in any form among study subjects has found to be 19.76%. 22.81% of the male subjects and 12.99% of the female subjects were using smokeless tobacco (SLT. Only male subjects were found to be smoker (4.09%. Gutkha was found to be used most by the boys (61.54%. Nearly 77.78% of the boys and 50.87% of the girls knew about the lung cancer and oral cancer as the consequences of tobacco smoking and chewing respectively and this finding when compared has found to be statistically significant. Majority of the boys (93.57% and girls (93.51% responded on the need of complete ban on the tobacco companies. Conclusions: Awareness generation through health education is one of the important aspects for the control of tobacco use. Government and general public should make joint efforts to stop the production

  2. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. Methods We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires

  3. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

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    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  4. Quality of life among immigrants in Swedish immigration detention centres: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

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    Soorej J. Puthoopparambil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detention of immigrants negatively affects their health and well-being. Quality of life (QOL is a broad concept incorporating the self-evaluation of one's own health and well-being that can provide an understanding of the health and well-being of immigrant detainees. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL among immigrant detainees in Sweden and to assess its relationship with the services provided in detention centres and with the duration of detention. Design: All immigrants in all five existing Swedish detention centres (N=193 were invited to participate in the study (n=127. In this cross-sectional study, QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, which was administered by the first author. The questionnaire contained four additional questions measuring participants’ satisfaction with the services provided in detention. Associations between QOL domain scores and service satisfaction scores were assessed using regression analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the degree of association between the duration of detention and QOL scores. Results: The mean QOL domain scores (out of 100 were 47.0, 57.5, 41.9, and 60.5 for the environmental, physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively. The level of support detainees received from detention staff was significantly positively associated with detainees’ physical (βadjusted 3.93, confidence interval [CI] 0.06–7.80 and psychological (βadjusted 5.72, CI 1.77–9.66 domain scores. There was also significant positive association between detainees’ satisfaction with the care they received from detention staff and the domain scores. The general health score in the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly associated with the detainees’ ability to understand the Swedish or English languages. Although not statistically significant, a longer duration of detention was negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion: Immigrant

  5. Use of smokeless tobacco among groups of Pakistani medical students – a cross sectional study

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    Ilyas Mahwish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of smokeless tobacco is common in South Asia. Tobacco is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Doctors make one of the best avenues to influence patients' tobacco use. However, medical students addicted to tobacco are likely to retain this habit as physicians and are unlikely to counsel patients against using tobacco. With this background, this study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of smokeless tobacco among Pakistani medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in three medical colleges of Pakistan – one from the north and two from the southern region. 1025 students selected by convenient sampling completed a peer reviewed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Questions were asked regarding lifetime use (at least once or twice in their life, current use (at least once is the last 30 days, and established use (more than 100 times in their life of smokeless tobacco. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results Two hundred and twenty (21.5% students had used tobacco in some form (smoked or smokeless in their lifetime. Sixty six (6.4% students were lifetime users of smokeless tobacco. Thirteen (1.3% were daily users while 18 (1.8% fulfilled the criterion for established users. Niswar was the most commonly used form of smokeless tobacco followed by paan and nass. Most naswar users belonged to NWFP while most paan users studied in Karachi. On univariate analysis, lifetime use of smokeless tobacco showed significant associations with the use of cigarettes, student gender (M > F, student residence (boarders > day scholars and location of the College (NWFP > Karachi. Multivariate analysis showed independent association of lifetime use of smokeless tobacco with concomitant cigarette smoking, student gender and location of the medical college. Conclusion The use of smokeless tobacco among medical students cannot be ignored. The

  6. Vision loss and psychological distress among Ethiopians adults: a comparative cross-sectional study.

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    Aemero Abateneh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62. Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015 and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54 were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of

  7. Vision Loss and Psychological Distress among Ethiopians Adults: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Abateneh, Aemero; Tesfaye, Markos; Bekele, Sisay; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Vision loss causes major changes in lifestyle and habits that may result in psychological distress and further reduction in the quality of life. Little is known about the magnitude of psychological distress in patients with vision loss and its variation with the normal. The aim of this study is, therefore, to investigate the psychological effects of vision loss and its determinants among Ethiopians. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on adults attending the Eye clinic of Jimma University Hospital. One hundred fifteen consecutive adults with visual loss at least in one eye and 115 age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision were studied. The psychological distress was measured using standardized Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Chi-square test and logistic regression were carried out and associations were considered significant at P<0.05. Results The overall prevalence of psychological distress was 33.4%. While psychological distress was found in 49.8% of patients who had loss of vision at least in one eye, only 18.3% of the controls had it. In the adjusted analysis, patients with vision loss had 4.6 times higher risk of suffering from psychological distress compared to patients with normal vision (AOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.16-9.62). Moreover, patients with vision loss in both eyes (AOR 4.00; 95% CI 1.453-11.015) and with worse visual acuity in the better eye (AOR 3.66; 95% CI 1.27-10.54) were significantly more likely to have psychological distress than those patients with vision loss in one eye only and good visual acuity in the better eye respectively. The cause of visual loss, pattern of visual loss, duration of visual loss and sociodemographic variables did not influence the likelihood of having psychological distress. Conclusion Prevalence of psychological distress was significantly higher in patients with visual loss compared to patients with normal vision. There is a need for integration of psychosocial care into the

  8. Interventions performed by community pharmacists in one Canadian province: a cross-sectional study

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    Young SW

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie W Young, Lisa D Bishop, Amy ConwaySchool of Pharmacy, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, CanadaPurpose: Interventions made by pharmacists to resolve issues when filling a prescription ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medication therapy for patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a current estimate of the number and types of interventions performed by community pharmacists during processing of prescriptions. This baseline data will provide insight into the factors influencing current practice and areas where pharmacists can redefine and expand their role.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study of community pharmacist interventions was completed. Participants included third-year pharmacy students and their pharmacist preceptor as a data collection team. The team identified all interventions on prescriptions during the hours worked together over a 7-day consecutive period. Full ethics approval was obtained.Results: Nine student–pharmacist pairs submitted data from nine pharmacies in rural (n = 3 and urban (n = 6 centers. A total of 125 interventions were documented for 106 patients, with a mean intervention rate of 2.8%. The patients were 48% male, were mostly ≥18 years of age (94%, and 86% had either public or private insurance. Over three-quarters of the interventions (77% were on new prescriptions. The top four types of problems requiring intervention were related to prescription insurance coverage (18%, drug product not available (16%, dosage too low (16%, and missing prescription information (15%. The prescriber was contacted for 69% of the interventions. Seventy-two percent of prescriptions were changed and by the end of the data collection period, 89% of the problems were resolved.Conclusion: Community pharmacists are impacting the care of patients by identifying and resolving problems with prescriptions. Many of the issues identified in this study were related

  9. The effects of air pollution on vitamin D status in healthy women: A cross sectional study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate radiation or insufficient cutaneous absorption of UVB is one of the cardinal causes of vitamin D deficiency. The aim of this study is to determine whether air pollution and low ground level of ultra-violet B light (UVB; 290-315 can deteriorate the body vitamin D status in healthy women. Methods In this cross sectional study 200, free-living, housewives, aged between 20 to 55 years, from Tehran (high polluted area and Ghazvin (low polluted area were included. The Tehranian women were selected randomly from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS and the Ghazvinian females from patients who came to public health centers. Participants were excluded for disease and drugs which affect vitamin D status and also if they were pregnant or breast feeding. We measured the ground level of UVB using a Haze meter as a surrogate of air pollution. In order to calculate the adjusted mean difference of 25-OH-D, ANCOVA analysis was used. Moreover, Binary logistic regression model was developed to determine the odds of living in Tehran for having serum 25-OH-D less than 20 ng/ml. Results The mean ± SD of serum 25-OH-D was significantly higher in Ghazvinian women ((18 ± 11 vs. 13 ± 7, P-value vs. 31% and 32% in respectively. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was also significantly higher in Tehranian women (47% vs. 32%. In ANCOVA analysis, after adjustment, the mean of 25-OH-D in the Ghazvinian group was still statistically significantly higher than Tehranians (13 vs. 17 ng/ml P-value = 0.04. In addition, in binary logistic model, the odd of living in Tehran for having serum 25-OH-D less than 20 ng/ml was 5.22 (95% confidence interval 2.2-12.2, P-value Conclusion We found that living in a polluted area plays a significant independent role in vitamin D deficiency and hence, residence can be one of the main reasons of vitamin D status of the women.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Roye-Green Karen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background It is known that there is significant morbidity associated with urinary tract infection and with renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease (SCD. However, it is not known if there are potential adverse outcomes associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB infections in sickle cell disease if left untreated. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ASB, in a cohort of patients with SCD. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of patients in the Jamaican Sickle Cell Cohort. Aseptically collected mid-stream urine (MSU samples were obtained from 266 patients for urinalysis, culture and sensitivity analysis. Proteinuria was measured by urine dipsticks. Individuals with abnormal urine culture results had repeat urine culture. Serum creatinine was measured and steady state haematology and uric acid concentrations were obtained from clinical records. This was completed at a primary care health clinic dedicated to sickle cell diseases in Kingston, Jamaica. There were 133 males and 133 females in the sample studied. The mean age (mean ± sd of participants was 26.6 ± 2.5 years. The main outcome measures were the culture of ≥ 105 colony forming units of a urinary tract pathogen per milliliter of urine from a MSU specimen on a single occasion (probable ASB or on consecutive occasions (confirmed ASB. Results Of the 266 urines collected, 234 were sterile and 29 had significant bacteriuria yielding a prevalence of probable ASB of 10.9% (29/266. Fourteen patients had confirmed ASB (prevalence 5.3% of which 13 had pyuria. Controlling for genotype, females were 14.7 times more likely to have confirmed ASB compared to males (95%CI 1.8 to 121.0. The number of recorded visits for symptomatic UTI was increased by a factor of 2.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 4.5, p Conclusion ASB is a significant problem in individuals with SCD and may be the source of pathogens in UTI. However, further research is needed to determine the clinical significance of ASB in

  11. Reference ranges for uterine artery pulsatility index during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study.

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    Luís Guedes-Martins

    Full Text Available Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI, exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity.From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression.The majority of patients (97.5% presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1-34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes.The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity.

  12. Contraceptive use in women with hypertension and diabetes: cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia

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    Mekonnen TT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age are advised to use valid contraceptive methods for reducing unwanted pregnancy and its complications. However, contraceptive use among these segments of the population had not been previously assessed in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess contraceptive use and associated factors among diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age on chronic follow-up care at University of Gondar and Felege Hiwot Hospitals.Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2012 among diabetic and hypertensive women on follow-up at the chronic illness care center. The sample size calculated was 403. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected using interview supplemented by chart review. The data were entered using EPI info Version 2000 and analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Frequencies, proportion, and summary statistics were used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were run to see the association of each independent variable with contraceptive practice.Results: A total of 392 married women on chronic follow-up care were interviewed making the response rate of 93.3%. The contraceptive prevalence rate was found to be 53.8%. Factors such as age 25–34 years (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] =3.60 [1.05–12.36], (AOR [95% CI] =2.29 [1.15–4.53], having middle

  13. Dust exposure and chronic respiratory symptoms among coffee curing workers in Kilimanjaro: a cross sectional study

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    Sakwari Gloria

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This study was carried out to determine total dust exposure and respiratory health of workers in Tanzanian primary coffee-processing factories. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 79 workers in two coffee factories, and among 73 control workers in a beverage factory. Personal samples of total dust (n = 45 from the coffee factories and n = 19 from the control factory were collected throughout the working shift from the breathing zone of the workers. A questionnaire with modified questions from the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was used to assess chronic respiratory symptoms. Differences between groups were tested by using independent t-tests and Chi square tests. Poisson Regression Model was used to estimate prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, smoking, presence of previous lung diseases and years worked in dusty factories. Results All participants were male. The coffee workers had a mean age of 40 years and were older than the controls (31 years. Personal total dust exposure in the coffee factories were significantly higher than in the control factory (geometric mean (GM 1.23 mg/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD (0.8 vs. 0.21(2.4 mg/m3. Coffee workers had significantly higher prevalence than controls for cough with sputum (23% vs. 10%; Prevalence ratio (PR; 2.5, 95% CI 1.0 - 5.9 and chest tightness (27% vs. 13%; PR; 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 - 5.2. The prevalence of morning cough, cough with and without sputum for 4 days or more in a week was also higher among coffee workers than among controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Workers exposed to coffee dust reported more respiratory symptoms than did the controls. This might relate to their exposure to coffee dust

  14. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

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    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and

  15. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

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    Yamaguchi Kotomi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae. Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011. Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p p = 0.005. Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL

  16. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

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    Shahzad Mohammad A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group. Results The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46 and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74. Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7% had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001. Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal

  17. Anxiety symptoms among Chinese nurses and the associated factors: a cross sectional study

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    Gao Yu-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are an indispensable component of the work force in the health care system. However, many of them are known to work in a stressful environment which may affect their mental well-being; the situation could be worse in rapidly transforming societies such as China. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and the associated factors in Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed for Chinese nurses in public city hospitals of Liaoning Province, northeast China. Seven hospitals in different areas of the province were randomly selected for the study. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms. Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire were used to assess the work stressors. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety symptoms. Results All registered nurses in the seven city hospitals, totaling 1807 registered nurses were surveyed. Of the returned questionnaires, 1437 were valid (79.5% for analysis. Utilizing the total raw score ≥ 40 as the cut-off point, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in these nurses was 43.4%. Demographic factors (education, chronic disease and life event, lifestyle factors (regular meals and physical exercise, work conditions (hospital grade, job rank, monthly salary, nurse-patient relationships, job satisfaction and intention of leaving, job content (social support and decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were all significantly related to the anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed main factors associated with anxiety symptoms were lower job rank (OR 2.501, overcommitment (OR 2.018, chronic diseases (OR 1.541, worse nurse-patient relationship (OR 1.434, higher social support (OR 0.573, lower hospital grade (OR 0.629, taking regular

  18. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

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    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  19. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level: A comparative cross-sectional study.

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    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-08-01

    Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants.A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia.A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39-44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65-3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41-4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2-3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33-2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35-2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06-0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99-3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61-0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2-0.23]), age of the mother (B -0.03 [95% CI: -0.03, -0.02]), and family size (B -0.14 [95% CI: -0.18,-0.11]). PMID:27495044

  20. Assessment of depression and anxiety in adult cancer outpatients: a cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. This study

  1. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  2. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  3. Do ESL Essay Raters' Evaluation Criteria Change with Experience? A Mixed-Methods, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    This study adopted a mixed-methods cross-sectional approach to identify similarities and differences in the English as a second language (ESL) essay holistic scores and evaluation criteria of raters with different levels of experience. Each of 31 experienced and 29 novice raters rated a sample of ESL essays holistically and analytically and…