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Sample records for brazil caracteristicas isotopicas

  1. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico y zonas aledanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Cruz Grajales, Irma [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In 1996, a total of 99 samples were collected and 104 were collected in 1997. Of these, 19-18.26% of the total-had a negative alkalinity. The Atempan (No.5) and Campamento (No.1) stations showed the highest number of anomalous samples (31.25 and 27.8%, respectively). Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station (79.7 ppm) . Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station (34.8 ppm) and Perote (33.8 ppm) due to the presence of dust particles scattered in the air and because of the lack of pavement where the sampling stations are located. Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood. Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen-18 and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. The results show that the most enriched samples correspond to the San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) station and the minimum to the Perote Veracruz (No. 7) station. The concentration of SO{sub 4} has marine and industrial origins, with a contribution of the first source ranging between 10 and 25 percent. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla se realizo, por segundo ano consecutivo, la caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de agua de lluvia en muestras colectadas en siete estaciones, dos localizadas dentro

  2. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    de Los Humeros estan constituidos de una mezcla de aguas meteoricas de composicion isotopica muy ligera (paleofluidos) y aguas andesiticas. La relacion {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O para datos previos a la explotacion indica que los fluidos producidos estan constituidos por una mezcla de (al menos) dos fluidos de composicion isotopica diferente. En el extremo mas enriquecido de la relacion de mezcla se encontraron las composiciones isotopicas de los pozos H-23 y H-18 (localizados en el sur del campo), mientras que los fluidos mas ligeros se hallaron en el pozo H-16 original y posteriormente en el pozo H-16 reparado. Se encontro que la fase liquida de los pozos profundos se encuentra mas enriquecida en {delta} 18 O mientras que los pozos mas someros muestran valores mas ligeros, perfil que es indicativo de la ocurrencia de un proceso convectivo en el estado inicial. Con base en este perfil isotopico se establece que aunque la profundidad de las zonas productoras de los pozos H-1, H-12 y H-16 reparado son aproximadamente similares, su composicion isotopica es muy diferente. La composicion {delta} 18 O del pozo H-16 reparado parecia ser la de un vapor condensado, mientras que las de los pozos H-1 y H-12 se encontraron dentro del intervalo de valores de los pozos mas profundos (H-23). Esta caracteristica sugiere que los pozos H-1 y H-12 reciben fluidos muy profundos enriquecidos en {delta} 18 O. Estos resultados podrian ser de utilidad en el modelado conceptual del yacimiento.

  3. Revision of the equation Calculated Cetane Index for the characteristics of diesel commercialized in the Parana-Brazil; Revisao da equacao de Calculo do Indice de Cetano para as caracteristicas do diesel comercializado no Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tatiana Bittencourt de; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Cocco, Lilian Cristina [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Analise de Combustiveis Automotivos (LACAUTets)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the development of models for Calculated Cetane Index (CCI) determination with the purpose of tailor it to the diesel oil sold in Brazil, using optimization techniques. As the diesel is the main fuel on the Brazilian territory, their quality is of great importance. The CCI calculation is important to evaluate the diesel quality. The standard ASTM D 4737 does not take into account the presence of cetane booster additive and biodiesel, which creates the need to recast the equation of the CCI determination. About 300 representative samples were selected of diesel in Parana, during the 2006 to 2007 period, which had their physic-chemical properties determined using the methodology adopted by the ANP - the Brazilian petroleum, natural gas and biofuel agency. The Derived Cetane Number was obtained in the IQT apparatus and several models were proposed, all with better predictive capability than the equation of the standard ASTM D 4737. It is pointed out that biodiesel can act as cetane booster additive depending upon its origin, mostly in concentrations above 5%. The methodology can be expanded to generate a representative equation for the diesel sold in the whole Brazilian territory. (author)

  4. La educacion a distancia: sus caracteristicas y necesidad en la educacion actual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heedy, Martinez; Uribe, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    El presente articulo destaca la relevancia de la educacion a distancia mediante la identificacion de sus caracteristicas, y haciendo referencia a las diferencias existentes con la educacion presencial...

  5. Algunas caracteristicas de investigaciones que estudian la integracion de las TIC en la clase de Ciencia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miranda, Andrea; Santos, Graciela; Stipcich, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    .... En este trabajo se comunican las caracteristicas encontradas en las investigaciones actuales sobre ambientes de aprendizaje que integran las Tecnologias de la Informacion y la Comunicacion (TIC...

  6. Caracteristicas de los investigadores relacionados con programas de contaduria publica y con tematicas relacionadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patino-Jacinto, Ruth Alejandra; Romero-Quinones; Guiliana Jara, Karen

    2010-01-01

    El presente escrito muestra las caracteristicas basicas de los investigadores que pertenecen a los grupos de investigacion categorizados por el Instituto Colombiano para el Desarrollo de la Ciencia...

  7. Caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas de la madera de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en Dzan, Yucatan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Interian-Ku, Victor Manuel; Borja de la Rosa, Maria Amparo; Valdez-Hernandez, Juan Ignacio; Garcia-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angelica; Vaquera-Huerta, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    .... Con la finalidad de contribuir al conocimiento tecnologico de sus atributos y proponer usos potenciales de la madera de esta especie, se describieron sus caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas...

  8. Arboles forrajeros de tres regiones ganaderas de Chiapas, Mexico: usos y caracteristicas nutricionales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinto-Ruiz, R; Hernandez, D; Gomez, H; Cobos, M.A; Quiroga, R; Pezo, D

    2010-01-01

    El trabajo tuvo como objetivo conocer las plantas lenosas que poseen potencial forrajero de tres regiones ganaderas de Chiapas, Mexico e identificar usos, composicion quimica y caracteristicas de degradacion ruminal...

  9. Hemograma y caracteristicas morfologicas de las celulas sanguineas de tortuga golfina de Oaxaca, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramirez Acevedo, Luz Maria; Martinez Blas, Selene Soledad; Fuentes-Mascorro, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer los valores del hemograma y las caracteristicas morfologicas de las celulas sanguineas de tortugas Golfinas se obtuvo sangre de 22 tortugas marinas Lepidochelys olivacea...

  10. Extraccion de hidrocarburos y compuestos derivados del petroleo en suelos con caracteristicas fisicas y quimicas diferentes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pons-Jimenez, M; Guerrero-Pena, A; Zavala-Cruz, J; Alarcon, A

    2011-01-01

    .... Este trabajo planteo optimizar el tiempo de extraccion de compuestos derivados del petroleo en un sistema Soxhlet, en tres suelos con diferentes caracteristicas fisicas y quimicas contaminados por petroleo crudo...

  11. Caracteristicas dentales, cefalometricas y antropometricas en pacientes con displasia ectodermica hipohidrotica.(Perspectiva general de la enfermedad/trastorno)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espinal B., Agabriel E; Ramirez T., Lina P; Sierra P., Jorge I

    2010-01-01

    Introduccion: el objetivo de esta investigacion fue describir las caracteristicas faciales, cefalometricasy determinar cuales dientes estaban presentes o ausentes tanto clinica como radiograficamente en dieciseis...

  12. Influencia de las caracteristicas y tecnicas constructivas en las propiedades mecanicas de vigas laminadas encoladas de madera de Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ninin, Pablo; Contreras-Miranda, Wilver; Valero, Styles W

    2010-01-01

    .... Este estudio permitio determinar, a partir de la inferencia de los analisis estadisticos, la posible influencia de las caracteristicas de crecimiento y de las uniones longitudinales "dentadas" finger...

  13. Caracteristicas craneofaciales en pacientes con desgaste dentario severo.(ARTICULOS ORIGINALES DERIVADOS DE INVESTIGACION)(Perspectiva general de la enfermedad/trastorno)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frugone Z., Raul; Pantoja Parada, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Introduccion: con la finalidad de contrastar la hipotesis nula "no existen diferencias significativas en las caracteristicas arquitecturales y estructurales craneofaciales entre individuos con y sin...

  14. Características epidemiológicas dos óbitos maternos ocorridos em Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006 Caracteristicas epidemiológicas de las muertes maternas ocurridas en Recife, PE, Brasil (2000-2006 Epidemiological features of maternal deaths occurred in Recife, PE, Brazil (2000-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Araújo Correia

    2011-02-01

    characteristics of maternal deaths among women living in Recife, PE, Brazil that occurred between 2000 and 2006. The data source consisted of investigation files on maternal deaths. To analyze the data, the EpiInfo 6.04d software was used. The analysis considered 111 deaths, corresponding to a maternal death ratio of 65.99/100,000 live births. The obstetric data showed that these women had had fewer than six prenatal consultations, between one and four previous pregnancies, cesarean deliveries and hospital admission in a severe condition. Hypertensive disorders were the main cause of death. Most of the deaths were considered avoidable. The results indicate the need to improve the healthcare for pregnant women prenatally, at delivery and during the puerperium

  15. Seguridad social para adultos mayores en Venezuela: caracteristicas, bondades y limitaciones del Regimen Prestacional de Servicios Sociales al Adulto Mayor y Otras Categorias de Personas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arraga Barrios, Marisela Virginia

    2011-01-01

    ... y humanos, caracteristicas y necesidades particulares, propias de la edad. Tal logro en la formulacion de politicas publicas, motivo la realizacion de este estudio de tipo cualitativo, analitico, mixto...

  16. Dietas con follaje de yuca y su efecto sobre las caracteristicas al sacrificio y rendimiento en canal y en cortes de pollos de engorde

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trompiz, Jacqueline; Villamide, Maria Jesus; Ferrer, Alexis; Arenas, Lilia; Jerez, Nancy; Sandoval, Luis

    2010-01-01

    ...%) en raciones alimenticias para pollos de engorde sobre las caracteristicas al sacrificio y el rendimiento en canal y en cortes, se usaron 32 pollos de engorde, hembras de la raza Cobb de 42 dias de edad...

  17. CARACTERISTICAS DE LA OCLUSIÓN EN DETENCIÓN TEMPORAL EN PACIENTES DE LA CLINICA DE ESPECIALIDAD DE ODONTOPEDIATRIA DE LA UAEM

    OpenAIRE

    GALEANA VILLA, RUBIDELIA

    2014-01-01

    GALEANA VILLA, R. and RODRIGUEZ VILCHIS, L. (2014). CARACTERISTICAS DE LA OCLUSIÓN EN DETENCIÓN TEMPORAL EN PACIENTES DE LA CLINICA DE ESPECIALIDAD DE ODONTOPEDIATRIA DE LA UAEM. Especialidad. UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DEL ESTADO DE MEXICO.

  18. The Brazilian Northeastern paleoclimate according to the isotope hydrology; O paleoclima do Nordeste de acordo com a hidrologia isotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischkorn, Horst; Santiago, Maria Marlucia Freitas

    1992-12-31

    This work interprets measures in deep well waters of the Serra Grande aquifer from the Piaui State. It uses the temperature and quantity effects on the oxygen isotopic composition in the pluvial water, together the noble gases analysis dissolved in water and {sup 14} C dating in the bicarbonates to establish a time scale, aiming to reconstruct the Brazil Northeastern region paleoclimate at the Pleistocene final era, as well as to elucidate the hydric resources formation conditions (that date from this epoch) in the deep aquifers of the region sedimentary basins 14 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Isotope stratigraphy of cenozoic carbonate sequences of Brazilian Northern coast; Estratigrafia isotopica de sequencias carbonaticas cenozoicas da Costa Norte do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rene; Takaki, Tikae [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1987-08-01

    Study of sedimentary rocks formation process on the Northern coast of Brazil, its stratigraphy characteristic, methodology of dating process to determine rocks age and correlation with carbonates sequences of Atlantic ocean (North and South) are presented. Results of analysed samples, isotopics studies, its dating, and comparative studies with samples analyzed in other sites are also discussed. 3 figs., 19 refs

  20. Caracteristicas fermentativas, formação de compostos volateis e qualidade da aguardente de cana obtida por linhagens de leveduras isoladas de destilarias artesanais

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn de Souza Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: Foram avaliadas 30 linhagens de leveduras quanto as suas caracteristicas fermentativas e formação dos principios compostos volateis, sendo 24 saccharomyces cerevisae e 6 pertencentes aos gêneros candida (3), kloeckera, pichia e schizosaccharomyces. Abstract:We evaluated 30 strains of yeast fermentation characteristics as their training and principles of volatile compounds, and 24 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 6 belonging to the genus Candida (3), kloeckera, tar and Schizosaccharomyc...

  1. Water isotopic characterization of hypersaline formation of a petroleum field Reconcavo basin, Brazil; Caracterizacao isotopica de aguas de formacao hipersalinas de um campo de petroleo da Bacia do Reconcavo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Danilo Ribeiro de Sa; Azevedo, Antonio Expedito Gomes de, E-mail: danilosateles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: expedito@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia; Santos, Christian Pereira Lopes dos, E-mail: cplsgs@gmail.com [Instituto Federal Baiano, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Formation water is the water present in reservoir rock pores, produced together with petroleum. Usually it is hyper saline with concentrations that can be higher than 250 g/l of dissolved solids. The concentration of the dissolved elements and the isotopic composition of the water and of some of the dissolved elements can be excellent tracers to study the dynamic of underground fluid flux, the mixing of distinct sources and the origin of salinization of these waters. This work reports the isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O) and electrical conductivity (EC) of formation waters from 10 wells of a petroleum field of the Reconcavo Basin, looking for their evolution, interaction with the minerals and rocks and reservoir interconnection. The samples have electric conductivity ranging from 84 to 137 mS/cm, with conductivity increasing with depth of production zone. It is observed an enrichment of deuterium and oxygen-18 with the depth of production zone, probably due to water-rock interactions that were probably increased by higher temperatures of the deeper levels and longer residence times. The samples from the production zone between 1450 to 1520 m, drained by 7 of the 10 wells sampled, show a small range in isotopic composition and in electric conductivity, indicating homogeneity in this level of the reservoir. In the shallow level of 450 m the values of {delta}{sup 2}H , {delta}{sup 18}O and EC are lower, with isotopic composition similar to the oceanic water, possibly representing the original water that entered the reservoir during the sedimentation of the basin. (author)

  2. Effect of alcohol and formaldehyde on the ä13C and ä15N isotopic composition of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes = Efeito do alcool e formol sobre a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e de ƒÂ15N em Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus (Pisces, Osteichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Iachstel Manetta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the ƒÂ13C and ƒÂ15N isotopic composition in frozen samples (control, samples in alcohol and in formaldehyde of Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus. From each individual we extracted a strip of muscle from the region above the lateral line, in the dorsal fin base, that was divided into three equal parts, each one was submitted to one type of treatment: freeze . control group (-15oC, conservation in alcohol 70%and fixation in formaldehyde 4%. Samples were kept under those treatments for 30 days, washed and submerged in distilled water for 4 hours. Afterwards, they were dried up in air oven at 60oC for 48 hours and macerated until the obtaining of a fine powder. A significant difference was found in isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen, between the control and the samples in alcohol and formaldehyde, except for ƒÂ13C from the H. edentatus samples in formaldehyde. The carbon isotopic values of samples in alcohol were mostly enriched compared to control, whereas the samples in formaldehyde presented depleted values in relation to the control. The nitrogen isotopic values for both samples preserved in alcohol and formaldehyde were enriched when compared to the values of frozen samples, independently of used preservatives. Therefore, the isotopic correction should be accomplished according to the isotope and preservative employed for species of freshwater fish.O presente estudo investiga a composicao isotopica de ƒÂ13C e ƒÂ15N entre as amostras congeladas (controle, em alcool e em formol de Plagioscion squamosissimus e Hypophthalmus edentatus. De cada individuo foi extraida uma faixa de musculo localizada na regiao acima da linha lateral, na base da nadadeira dorsal, a qual foi subdividida em tres partes iguais, sendo cada uma delas submetida a um tipo de tratamento: congelamento - grupo control (-15oC, conservacao em alcool 70% e fixacao em formol 4%. As amostras foram mantidas nos

  3. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  4. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    that help the government promote creativity and entrepreneurship. □ Wage inequalities in Brazil and India. Funding: $247,200. Duration: 2013–2015. Grantee: Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento, Brazil. Although poverty in Brazil and India has diminished, inequality among wage earners remains high. Think tanks ...

  5. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  6. Influence of context in social participation of people with disabilities in Brazil/Influencia del contexto en la participacion social de las personas con discapacidades en el Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Fabiana C.M; Sampaio, Rosana F; Ferreira, Fabiane R; Camargos, Vitor P; Neves, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Metodos. Se evaluaron las caracteristicas individuales, la participacion social y la percepcion de las barreras ambientales de 226 pacientes tratados en un servicio publico de rehabilitacion de referencia...

  7. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  8. Behavior patterns of chemical and isotopic species (2006-2007) in the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, as a response to reinjection; Patrones de comportamiento de especies quimicas e isotopicas (2006-2007) en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., en respuesta a la reinyeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Martinez E, Ignacio; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Reyes D, Lisette; Gonzalez, Rubi [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    quimicos e isotopicos ({delta}18 O y {delta}D) de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., obtenidos en 2006 y 2007, para investigar los cambios ocurridos en sus patrones de comportamiento y su relacion con el proceso de reinyeccion de fluidos al yacimiento. El analisis de los datos comprendio las estimaciones de cloruros en las descargas totales, temperaturas de yacimiento, exceso de vapor en los fluidos de alimentacion, las concentraciones de CO{sub 2} en las descargas totales y en la fase liquida del yacimiento y las saturaciones de liquido en la formacion. Con los resultados se elaboraron mapas de isovalores de los parametros mencionados correspondientes a 2006 y 2007 para investigar su evolucion con respecto a los mapas obtenidos en 2005, asi como su relacion con las historias de reinyeccion. Se correlacionaron las composiciones isotopicas de los fluidos incluyendo los de reinyeccion para estimar efectos de mezcla de fluidos. Los resultados indican que las variables estudiadas responden a las tasas de reinyeccion en el campo. Las relaciones {delta}D vs {delta}18 O indican que un buen numero de pozos del campo producen diferentes proporciones de retornos de reinyeccion; en la zona norte los pozos AZ-65D, AZ-13, AZ-32, AZ-9A, AZ-9AD, AZ-28A, AZ-69D y AZ-44 producen una mayor proporcion mientras que los pozos AZ-5, AZ-28 y AZ-19 entre otros, producen una menor proporcion. En la zona sur los pozos AZ-2A, AZ-16AD, AZ-46 y AZ-33 producen relativamente altas proporciones de retornos de reinyeccion mientras que los pozos AZ-34, AZ-36 y AZ-37 producen menores proporciones. La distribucion de saturaciones de liquido hallada en 2007 muestra que las areas de maxima saturacion han disminuido con respecto a las distribuciones de este parametro en 2005 y 2006. En 2007 las saturaciones maximas de liquido se localizaron alrededor de los pozos AZ-22 y AZ-23 (zona sur) y AZ-28, AZ-32, AZ-45 y AZ-48 (zona norte), mientras que las saturaciones minimas se localizaron en

  9. Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae and their associations related to biological control in Brazil Parasitóides (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae de pulgões e suas interações relacionadas ao controle biológico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Starý

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the parasitoid-aphid-plant associations in Brazil with the objective of developing a useful research database for further studies of aphid parasitoid ecology and aphid management. The original material was obtained from collections made in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo states. The published information on the Aphidiinae in Brazil is revised. The general features of the target parasitoid fauna of Central and South America is summarized and promising biological control programs of some aphid species in Brazil is discussed.Este trabalho avaliou as interações parasitóides-pulgão-planta no Brasil, com o objetivo de desenvolver um banco útil de dados para estudos subseqüentes em ecologia de parasitóides de afídeos e manejo de pulgões. O material original foi obtido de coletas nos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais e São Paulo, sendo revisadas as informações sobre Aphidiinae publicadas no Brasil. Foram também sumarizadas as caracteristicas gerais da fauna de parasitóides das Américas Central e do Sul e discutidos os programas potenciais de controle biológico de algumas espécies de pulgões no Brasil.

  10. Voltage stability analysis considering the load dynamic characteristics and the voltage control devices; Analisis de estabilidad de voltaje considerando las caracteristicas dinamicas de la carga y dispositivos de control de voltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Alvarez, Enrique

    2001-09-15

    improvement of the voltage stability. Finally, the application of the proposed methods of study to the analysis of voltage stability in an electrical network derived from the Mexican Peninsular system is presented. The influence of voltage control devices in the stability phenomenon is discussed and a comparison with the results obtained by means of other analysis techniques are presented, specifically, the study of the Q-V curves and the modal analysis of the power flow equations. [Spanish] El trabajo de investigacion que se presenta en esta tesis se centra en el analisis de la estabilidad de voltaje de mediano plazo considerando el efecto de las caracteristicas de la carga y su interaccion con los modelos de dispositivos de control de voltaje en la red de transmision. Mas concretamente, se define y estudia un tipo de modelo de carga con caracteristicas deseables para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje; los modelos genericos de carga derivados de pruebas de campo o de la aplicacion de tecnicas de identificacion y se analiza la influencia de la aplicacion de dispositivos de control para mejorar los margenes de estabilidad del sistema. Se estudian, asimismo, alternativas al modelado de sistemas de potencia para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje en sistemas complejos. Se presenta, en primer lugar, un analisis fundamental de las caracteristicas de estabilidad de voltaje en un sistema simplificado de potencia y se introduce el metodo de analisis adoptado. Se muestra que el fenomeno de inestabilidad se manifiesta como una bifurcacion tipo singular inducida del modo critico de voltaje cuando se opera el sistema bajo condiciones de estres. A continuacion, se analiza la contribucion de la accion de dispositivos de control al margen de estabilidad y se deducen criterios de analisis de estabilidad basados en el estudio de dicho modo. Se propone, a continuacion, un modelo lineal del sistema de potencia con caracteristicas deseables para el estudio de la estabilidad de voltaje

  11. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    biotechnology and nanotechnology could help to develop natural resources in a more sustainable way. □ Reconstruction in Haiti. Funding: $300,700. Duration: 2009–2012. Grantee: Pró-Ensino Sociedade Civil, Brazil. Researchers from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Chile have been supporting their coun- tries' efforts to ...

  12. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  13. Hydrochemistry and isotopic composition (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N) in six dunes lagoons in the National Park of Lencois Maranhenses, Maranhao, Brazil; Hidroquimica e composicao isotopica (δ13C, δ15N) em seis lagoas de dunas no Parque Nacional dos Lencois Maranhenses, Maranhao, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Junior, Jayme Teixeira; Suzuki, Marina Satika; Meirelles, Brunele de Araujo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; Oliveira, Braulio Cherene Vaz de, E-mail: jaymetr@gmail.com, E-mail: marina@uenf.com, E-mail: brunelemeirelles@hotmail.com, E-mail: thiprangel@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: brauliocherene@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Ciencias Ambientais

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical parameters, nutrients and isotopic composition (δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N) of dissolved organic matter and MPS in six lakes located in the Maranhenses National Park, Maranhao State, under varying degrees of anthropic impact and distance from the sea. The physical and chemical parameters were measured in the field with portable devices; for total alkalinity, nutrients and photosynthetic pigments, samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory; the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined from the particulate material retained on the filter and in the extract generated in the PPL filtration resin column. The limnological variables were assessed in both the dry and rainy seasons. The high rainfall caused a dilution effect for most of the elements studied in the rainy season. The elemental composition of the particulate fraction was 58% lower than the fraction dissolved. The carbon isotopic composition was lighter in the rainy season as a result of dilution and loading of allochthonous impoverished organic matter. (author)

  14. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) Study. Think tanks in Brazil and India ... to climate change. IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  15. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inequality and the labour market : what can we learn from comparing India and Brazil?; project paper H (f). Rapports. Report on Policy Dialogue on Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India : project paper G.2. Rapports. Vocational education and training (VET), inequality and the labour market in Brazil and India : a policy ...

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  17. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  18. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  19. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  20. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  1. Portugal, a Brazil Colony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cid, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    ... a new America, in fact, some say that this new vague of migrants towards the terrinha, as Brazilians like to call Portugal, is connected to the strong barriers imposed by the US government, in recent years, to Brazilian citizens willing to enter the United States and to the rippling tide of anti-American feeling in Brazil, right now. Apart from...

  2. Diabetes Care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Walmir F; Silva Júnior, Wellington Santana

    2015-01-01

    The diabetes epidemic affects most countries across the world and is increasing at alarming rates in Latin America. Nearly 12 million individuals have diabetes in Brazil, and the current prevalence ranges from 6.3% to 13.5%, depending on the region and the diagnostic criteria adopted in each study. To provide an overview of diabetes care in Brazil, focusing on studies of diabetes epidemiology, prevalence of patients within the standard targets of care, and economic burden of diabetes and its complications. SciELO and PubMed searches were performed for the terms "diabetes," "Brazil," "Brazilian," and "health system"; relevant literature from 1990 to 2015 was selected. Additional articles identified from reference list searches were also included. All articles selected were published in Portuguese and/or English. Recent studies detected a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus of nearly 20%. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, almost 90% fail to reach target of glycemic control, with less than 30% receiving treatment for both hypertension and dyslipidemia. More than 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese. Most of these patients fail to reach glycemic targets (42.1%) and less than 30% reached the target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only 0.2% of patients reach all these anthropometric and metabolic targets. Brazil is the fourth country in the world in number of patients with diabetes. Regardless of the diabetes type, the majority of patients do not meet other metabolic control goals. The economic burden of diabetes and its complications in Brazil is extremely high, and more effective approaches for preventions and management are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  4. Innovation Policies of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    and Embraer (aircraft manufacture), and private multinational companies include Vale (mining), Volkswagen do Brasil (automotive and biofuels...innovation. The high cost of doing business in Brazil known as custo Brasil is a barrier to starting and growing new businesses and arises from high...Exterior, MDIC) 1960 Responsible for policy development of industry, trade and services National Bank for Economic and Social Development ( Banco

  5. STYLISTICS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Falcão Uchôa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at pointing out the origins and the evolution of Stylistics in Brazil. After an introduction about the emergence, in Europe, of Stylistics as a discipline in the field of language studies, the article concerns itself with the contributions of Philology, Linguistics, the Theory of Literature and Grammar to the study of the most different stylistic devices employed by writers, particularly by Brazilian ones.

  6. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  7. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  8. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  9. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) Study ... and the Institute for Human Development in Delhi who will develop comparable measures of inequality in wage income and examine contributing factors such as ... Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento.

  10. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  11. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  12. Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Viana, Thércia Guedes; Peixoto, Eliane R de M; Barros, Fabiana C R de; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009) were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug in Brazil was conducted. Five companies were granted a permission to market unfractioned heparin in Brazil. Three of them are porcine in origin and two of them are bovine in origin, with only one explicitly showing this information in the package insert. The effectiveness and safety of heparin studied in non-Brazilian populations may not represent the Brazilian reality, since most countries no longer produce bovine heparin. The currently marketed heparin has approximately 10% less anticoagulant activity than that previously produced and this change may have clinical implications. Evidence about the lack of dose interchangeability between bovine and porcine heparins and the unique safety profile of these drugs indicates the need to follow the treatment and the patients' response. Events threatening the patient's safety must be reported to the pharmacovigilance system in each particular country.

  13. Region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  14. CIVIL JUSTICE IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A.A. Wambier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals in a succinct way with the Brazilian model of civil procedural law. There is an historical approach specifically about Portuguese law which was in force in Brazil at the beginning (until 1832, after what there comes a brief description of the judiciary structure (courts and judges and only then we talk about the scope of civil procedure, its fundamental principles and, in a “law in practice” approach, access to justice. The role of a judge towards deciding “according to statutes and evidence” is analysed and the current importance of case law is deeply focused, mainly according to the new CPC (in force since 2015 and so are appellate proceedings, class actions, enforcement proceedings and ADR. The last items concern the role and the importance of academia, and some interesting cultural observations, where we deal with the very serious crisis, both ethical and economic, that Brazil is living now, in the political sphere. The judiciary branch is now our only hope.

  15. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    component to poverty in Brazil. People of African descent in Brazil, also known as Afro - Brazilians, represent roughly 45% of the country’s...Security & Strategic Review, January 2008. 70 Guila Flint, “Jobim alerta para ameaça de atentados e diz que país deve se preparar para problemas durante...in Brazil, also known as Afro -Brazilians, represent 45% of the country’s population, but constitute 64% of the poor and 69% of the extreme poor.106

  16. [Family medicine in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abath, G M

    1985-01-01

    A need for general physicians, chiefly to deal with health problems in the interior, has made itself felt since 1948. The first two medical residency programs for the training of general physicians were begun in 1976, and today there are 13 such programs. Ten of those programs have been studied in this report, which is based on visits to the establishments where the resident physicians receive training and to some areas served by the programs, and on interviews with education and health officials, alumni of the programs, resident physicians, and coordinators and supervisors of residency programs. "Community general medicine" is the term most widely used in the profession to designate medical practice addressed to the individual, the family and the community and providing total, ongoing and personalized care of the patient. Community general medicine must take account of psychological and socioeconomic factors and interact with the community to collaborate in the solution of its problems. The residency programs in community general medicine are essential for the training of teachers and researchers who will be models to the graduating students and change the undergraduate courses by removing them from the now prevalent overspecialization so as to arrive at a more humane medicine that is more responsive to the health needs of less developed regions. For lack of information on the practice and teaching of community general medicine, attitudes in the medical profession vary from apathetic to sceptical to approving. As a new movement in Brazil, it has great difficulties to overcome, including shortcomings in the training for it and a lack of job openings for graduates. Up to 1982, 174 physicians had completed residencies in community general medicine in Brazil, and about 154 of them are known to have been employed. There are at present 138 physicians attending the 10 programs considered. The regular teaching staff are joined by many professionals in different capacities

  17. Evaluation of the energy potential, biogenesis and essential characteristics of the geothermal submarine systems in Mexico; Evaluacion del potencial, biogenesis y caracteristicas esenciales de los sistemas geotermicos submarinos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Arriaga, Mario Cesar [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    profundidad, hasta los recursos geotermicos profundos, a mas de 3000 metros de profundidad. Las fuentes geotermicas no tradicionales incluyen las partes profundas y los limites de los reservorios hidrotermales tradicionales, los sistemas en roca seca o humeda caliente, los yacimientos geopresurizados del Golfo de Mexico y los sistemas submarinos hidrotermales observados principalmente en la costa norte mexicana del Oceano Pacifico. La energia geotermica submarina surge por la existencia de rupturas profundas en el fondo marino, a lo largo de los centros de dispersion oceanicos entre las placas tectonicas. Estos sistemas tienen una longitud total aproximada de 65,000 Km. en la corteza oceanica. Hay dos tipos basicos de sistemas marinos existentes en el Golfo de California: los recursos profundos, localizados a lo largo de las cordilleras entre las placas de la corteza oceanica a mas de 2000 m bajo el nivel del mar, y los recursos poco profundos cerca de las plataformas continentales, entre 20 y 50 metros de profundidad. El calor submarino poco profundo tambien se relaciona con fallas y fracturas en el fondo del mar cerca de algunas costas. Este subsistema se encuentra tambien en la costa de Punta Banda en Ensenada, Baja California. El potencial preliminar de la energia contenida en tales reservorios se estima, en promedio, en 1120 MWt por cada km3 de roca submarina. Las caracteristicas quimicas especificas de las aguas hidrotermales encontradas en esos sistemas oceanicos indican que las interacciones agua-roca, ocurren bajo condiciones de presion y temperatura altas. La energia geotermica submarina soporta ricas variedades de comunidades biologicas a profundidades donde las plantas no tienen acceso a la luz solar para realizar la fotosintesis. Hay indicios de que las posibles condiciones para la sintesis de sustancias y elementos quimicos necesaria para el origen de la vida primitiva, pudieron ser los sistemas hidrotermales submarinos.

  18. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  19. Designed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alves da Silva Bonatti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth design in Brazil has been characterized historically byreplacing imported products with others that are locallymanufactured on a small scale. In January 2007, the HealthDesign Group was created at the National Council forScientific and Technological Development, a partnershipbetween professors and scholars from the University of SaoPaulo. Aiming at documenting some important experiences onthe Brazilian scene to provide historical and methodologicalsubsidies for research, a survey was conducted to find thepioneer experiences that, using the technology available atthe time they were developed, paved the way for the currentresearch.MethodInterviews and surveys in newspapers and journals wereconducted with selection of some Brazilian experiences indesign for health from the end of the 1950s till the early2000s, along with its researchers.ResultsSeveral examples of design for health and historicaldocumentation in Brazil are shown concerning the BrazilianFoundation for the Development of Science Teaching(FUNBEC, the Department of Bioengineering of the HeartInstitute (InCor of the University of Sao Paulo (USP MedicalSchool, the medical equipment at Rede Sarah, the Laboratoryof Design and Materials Selection (LdSM of the FederalUniversity of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS in the field ofcraniofacial Orthopedics and some experiences of design areshown in the field of Ophthalmology.ConclusionWe emphasize the cross-disciplinary integration ofsubjects such as medicine, bioengineering and design inall the previously cited experiences. Based on theseexperiences and looking forward to implementing newresearch methods, some members of the Health DesignGroup are involved in the development of solutions forlow vision people: first a high-power-high-optical-qualitymagnifying glass and secondly an innovative readingstand associated with a magnifying glass that has alreadybeen successfully tested in accordance with ethicalstandards by low vision patients

  20. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

    2001-02-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  1. Drought preparedness in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large portions of Brazil′s Northeast have experienced an intense and prolonged drought for the majority of 2010–2013. This drought, along with other droughts that have hit the South in recent years, has sparked a new round of discussions to improve drought policy and management at the federal and state levels. To assist with these efforts, the World Bank recently conducted a series of evaluations on national and sub-national drought preparedness measures and approaches across five country case studies. This particular article presents the Brazilian case study. The work draws from interviews with key experts and stakeholders, as well as document analyses, and focuses on preparedness measures and approaches at the national and one sub-national case; the state of Ceará. The analysis shows that although there is a rich history of drought management throughout Brazil, there are short-term and long-term gaps and opportunities on which decision makers might consider focusing to improve monitoring, forecasting, and early warning systems, vulnerability/resilience and impact assessments, and mitigation and response planning measures.

  2. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  3. Evolutionary history of dog rabies in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo; Gojobori, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    .... In order to investigate the evolutionary history of dog rabies virus (RABV) in Brazil, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of carnivore RABV isolates from around the world and estimated the divergence times for dog RABV in Brazil...

  4. Evolutionary history of dog rabies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo; Gojobori, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Although dogs are considered to be the principal transmitter of rabies in Brazil, dog rabies had never been recorded in South America before European colonization. In order to investigate the evolutionary history of dog rabies virus (RABV) in Brazil, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of carnivore RABV isolates from around the world and estimated the divergence times for dog RABV in Brazil. Our estimate for the time of introduction of dog RABV into Brazil was the late-19th to early-20th century, which was later than the colonization period but corresponded to a period of increased immigration from Europe to Brazil. In addition, dog RABVs appeared to have spread to indigenous animals in Brazil during the latter half of the 20th century, when the development and urbanization of Brazil occurred. These results suggest that the movement of rabid dogs, along with human activities since the 19th century, promoted the introduction and expansion of dog RABV in Brazil.

  5. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamela Lamarca Pigozi; Ana Lucia Machado

    2015-01-01

    .... Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence...

  6. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    A conspectus of the Lycopodiaceae in Brazil is presented, following a generic classification based on anatomy, chromosome numbers, spores and gametophytes, as well as recent molecular studies. The species of Lycopodiaceae occurring in Brazil, traditionally treated conservatively, were grouped in ...

  7. All about neosporosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila Koutsodontis; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2017-01-01

    Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990's N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  8. All about neosporosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990’s N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  9. Islam in Brazil or the Islam of Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Peres de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This article is about the Islam lived and practiced by Muslim communities in Brazil. It attempts to understand the identity that this religion is acquiring in the Brazilian religious field. It discusses the discrepancy between figures presented by the official census and Muslim sources and offers models to think about the emergence of Muslim communities and possible changes due to the entrance of "new Muslims" (converted Brazilians without Muslim origin. Based on empirical data, it discusses the difficulties found and strategies used by the communities. It suggests that Islam in Brazil is starting to put down roots and to have a profile of its own.

  10. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  11. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  12. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  13. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  14. Oral health policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  15. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institute for Human Development ... Wage inequality in Brazil and India and its impact on labour market inequality : project paper E.2 ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  16. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in Brazil and India are joining forces to examine the factors behind wage inequality in their countries and propose policy options to reduce inequality in labour markets. While these two economies have succeeded in reducing poverty and gaining influence in global affairs, both still experience high inequality, ...

  17. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  18. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  19. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Angel

    1995-01-01

    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  20. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  1. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  2. Occupational health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  3. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in... competitive factors in Brazil affecting U.S. and Brazilian agricultural sales in third country markets. As...

  4. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  7. A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today

    OpenAIRE

    Gukovas, Renata; Muller, Miriam; Pereira, Ana Claudia; Reimao, Maira Emy

    2016-01-01

    The Gender Diagnostic: ‘A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today: Institutions, Outcomes, and a Closer Look at Racial and Geographic Differences Gender issues in Brazil’ highlights progress on gender equality in the country and lays out the main areas of persisting challenges. It details gender outcomes beyond the national aggregate and emphasizes that gender inequality in Brazil has to be und...

  8. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  9. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  10. Marist Education in Brazil: Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, João Carlos; Mateucci, Rogério Renato

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the history of the Marist Institute in Brazil. It is justified on the basis of the Marist wide-ranging mission in the country for more than a century. The text begins with a discussion of the institution's historical context and the reasons for its foundation in Brazil. Then it suggests the main causes of its success until…

  11. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  12. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  13. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential ..... six months of storage at ambient temperature. The results showed that these three types of breakfast cereals obtained higher ...

  14. Lateritic nickel deposits of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S. M. Barros; Trescases, J. J.; Melfi, A. José

    1992-03-01

    Many nickel deposits are known in Brazil, accounting for about 350 · 106 tons of ore with an average of 1.5% Ni. All are of the lateritic type. These deposits are scattered throughout the country, being rarer in the Northeastern Region and in the South, below 25 °S latitude. They are mainly associated with mafic-ultramafic massifs of large dimensions and ultramafic alkaline complexes, and occur in climatic regions of contrasting seasons. The weathering profile developed over the fresh rock consists, from bottom to top, of the following horizons: altered rock, coarse saprolite, argillaceous saprolite, ferruginous saprolite and lateritic overburden. The thickness of each horizon varies from one deposit to another, the whole profile generally exceeding 20 m. The saprolitic horizons with inherited minerals (serpentine, chlorite) or neoformed minerals (smectites) constitute the silicated nickel ore and are thicker were climatic conditions are drier; the ferruginous upper horizons made up of iron oxide-hydroxides are more developed in more humid regions. In Brazil, the silicated ore generally prevails over the oxidized ore. The main Ni-bearing minerals are serpentine, smectite, garnierite and goethite. The lateritic nickel deposits of Brazil may be correlated with two erosion surfaces, corresponding to the Sul Americano (Lower Tertiary) and Velhas (Upper Tertiary) levelling cycles. The degree of dismantling of the higher and more ancient surface and the consequent development of the Velhas Surface control the position of the nickel accumulation in the landscape. Thus, the deposits may be found either in the lowlands or in the highlands, where they are always covered by a silcrete layer. The alteration profiles in the Brazilian lateritic nickel deposits are broadly similar to those described elsewhere in the world. However, they present two characteristic features: the silicated ore prevails over the oxidized ore, and a silicified layer covers the profies developed on

  15. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  16. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  17. The aging population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nasri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently in an advanced stage of both the mortality andfertility transitions, which allows one to confi dently forecast the agedistribution and population size over the next four decades. Whereasthe elderly population with more than 65 years will increase at highrates (2 to 4% per year the young population will decline. Accordingto United Nations projections, the elderly population will increasefrom 3.1% of the population in 1970 to 19% in 2050. The changingage distribution of the Brazilian population brings opportunities andchallenges that could lead to serious social and economic issues ifnot dealt with properly in coming decades.

  18. Country profile: leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Maria Lucia Fernandes; Grossi, Maria Aparecida De Faria; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Brazil has high rates of leprosy case detection, especially in the northern and west-central areas of the country. Effective decentralisation of routine treatment for leprosy has gathered pace since the year 2000 and this has improved access for patients, leading to a peak in new case detection in 2003 and a gradual decline thereafter. This is in parallel with specific government programmes aimed at poverty reduction. Disability prevention and surveillance for drug resistance remain important tasks within the leprosy control programme, in which six key referral centres lead the way.

  19. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  20. Brazil's foreign policy under Lula

    OpenAIRE

    Zilla, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Under the presidency of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Brazil launched numerous foreign policy initiatives in Latin America and beyond, raised its profile as a mediator in regional and international conflicts, played an active role in international organizations and shaped global governance debates. In fact, one can safely say that the “Lula era” marked Brazil’s ascent in foreign policy, which was the result of a continuous expansion of external action pursued with an extraordinary amount of ener...

  1. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  2. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  3. Effects on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of honey bee samples submitted to gamma radiation; Efeitos nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas, microbiologicas e sensoriais em amostras de mel de abelhas submetidas a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    Honey production in Brazil has increased considerably and gaining pro eminence on the international market, as a result many demands have become part of the productive honey chain. In addition to the analyses provided for the Brazilian legislation, international market demand products that meet the most stringent quality standards. Honey has interesting characteristics due to its constitution, but even so there are problems that can change some how your identity and quality. The application of gamma radiation is a viable proposal which promotes the reduction of bio burden without changing the constitution and most importantly the physicochemical properties, with smaller nutritional losses when compared to other treatments used in foods. This study beyond the physicochemical parameters required by Brazilian regulation also included other relevant analyses, including FT-IR ATR. Microbiological analyses were carried out on samples of pure honeys and subsequently inoculated microbial known loads to assess the action of gamma radiation in doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The triangular test was used to differentiate the irradiated and not irradiated. samples The major changes that have occurred in samples of honeys were mainly in concentrations of HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) and diastase activity occurring a significant decrease in all analyzed samples. There was a reduction microbiological from the application of the 5 kGy, reaching absence with 10 kGy dose except Paenibacillus larvae. The sensory analysis conducted on samples of honey and honey irradiated with 5, 10 and 15 kGy doses, pointed out that there is no significant difference (5%) between irradiated and control samples. The application of gamma radiation in honeys proved a very useful method in microbiological decontamination, featuring few changes in the product at doses up to 10 kGy. (author)

  4. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  5. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  6. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  7. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  8. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  9. [Botany and phytotherapy in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumel, M M

    1990-01-01

    After a general survey of botanical exploration in Amazonia in the past and a summary of the present situation, an account is given of the work carried out in the field and the herbarium is search of plant species of potential therapeutic interest. The potential resources of these vast forests are far from being completely explored and still contain a number of unstudied species. Despite the low probability of major discoveries in this field, a promising approach involves the rational collection of data on traditional medicine, the precise identification of species utilized, and the scientific evaluation of their true properties. As an example, a short list of plants commonly utilized for folk medicine in Amazonia and north-eastern Brazil illustrates the importance of phytotherapy for peoples often deprived of other therapeutic means.

  10. Misunderstanding International News in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Wainberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the nature of the Brazilian public comprehension of international news by revealing the quality of such reception with regard to a sample of 170 subjects randomly selected in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A questionnaire was created taking as a basis the directives of Bloom et al(1972. Evaluated in it are the cognitive and aff ective dimensions of thought. In the fi rst case, questions were formulated that allowed the establishment of the level of knowledge of individuals, as well as their comprehension abilities, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of a wide range of international news topics. For the aff ective dimension the following abilities were evaluated: attention, response, valorization, organization and the structuring of a value scale.

  11. Stability and growth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enestor Dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, Brazil has succeeded in implementing and developing an economic model based on an inflation target model to keep domestic prices under control, a flexible exchange rate and a commitment to ensuring the solvency of the public sector. This model was initially adopted during Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s second term as president, and subsequently maintained and refined during Luis Inácio Lula da Silva’s two terms. Its development will certainly continue under the presidency of Dilma Rousseff. The consensus on this economic model and the relative dissociation of political and economic cycles have facilitated the stabilisation of the domestic environment and the acceleration of economic growth.

  12. Isotope techniques in hydrology and sedimentology; Tecnicas isotopicas em hidrologia e sedimentologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomtempo, Virgilio Lopardi [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico. Supervisao de Tecnicas Nucleares

    1999-11-01

    Water is the foundation of all life on Earth. Although two thirds of the terrestrial surface are covered by water (estimated volume is 1.5 billion cubic meters), just 2% of this total are fresh water, most of it locked in glaciers, ice caps and in deep groundwater reservoirs. Only 2,000 cubic kilometers are estimated to be available for consumption. Water resources have become more and more scarce, and the utilization becomes increasingly costly, due to the impact caused by over-exploitation and by diversified fronts of pollution. Specialists have been working in the development and in the application of several techniques to face this problem and to produce sustainable solutions. Isotope techniques represent a group of widespread tools that have been used along many years, and have become outstanding in hydrological investigation. This paper introduces a comprehensive review of the isotope techniques, taking into account environmental isotopes (stable and radioactive), artificial tracers and the use of radioactive sealed sources. Potentialities and limitations, future perspectives, as well as risks and benefits are also discussed. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.; e-mail: vlb at urano.cdtn.br

  13. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies; Separacao isotopica de litio: estudos preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-07-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  14. Brazil opens its first private research institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanissevich, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    The Brazilian filmmaker João Moreira Salles - whose family owns one of the largest banks in Brazil - has established a new institute in Rio de Janeiro that will support basic research across all sciences.

  15. Queer Counterpublics in Australia, Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyja Noack-Lundberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Rafaael de la Dehesa, Queering the Public Sphere in Mexico and Brazil: Sexual Rights Movements in Emerging Democracies (Duke, 2010 and Kane Race, Pleasure Consuming Medicine (Duke, 2009.

  16. Overview of medical physics teaching in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Brazil has seen a rise in the number of undergraduate courses in Medical Physics in recent years, as well as initiatives for the organization of graduation programs and clinical residencies...

  17. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Júnior,Valdester Cavalcante; Branco,Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante,Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior,Waldemiro; Lima,José Rubens Costa; Freitas,Sílvia Maria de; Fraga,Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; Souza,Nayana Maria Gomes de

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction:Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007.Objective:To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes.Methods:The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for...

  18. Investing in Private Equity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Marcos Duarte Junior; Luiz Carlos Barbosa Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We consider the problem of selecting private equity funds for investment in Brazil. The proposed methodology is based on multi-criteria decision-making. Real data obtained from one of the largest pension funds in Brazil is used to illustrate a practical application of the methodology when selecting investments among eleven private equity funds available in the local financial market. The multi-criteria method TOPSIS is adopted with a total of twenty two criteria to order the investme...

  19. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey ...

  20. Raw material of the Corumbatai formation at the region of ceramic pole of Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, Brazil, with natural characteristics for fabrication of expanded clay; Materia-prima da formacao Corumbatai na regiao do polo ceramico de Santa Gertrudes - Sao Paulo, com caracteristicas naturais para fabricacao de argila expandida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M.M.T.; Zanardo, A.; Rocha, R.R.; Roveri, C.D., E-mail: mmoreno@rc.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    2009-07-01

    This paper refers to the study of the bases material of the Corumbatai Formation (Parana Basin) from a clay mine, which presents limits for its use in ceramic tiles in dry grinding process due to its hardness and, especially, the high content of organic matter in relation to the clay overlaid. The characterization of the raw material and the product was accomplished by organic carbon analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and test-firing. Firing conditions were determined to get expanded clay, using fast firing static kiln and a continuous roller kiln, both from laboratory equipment, getting samples with variable density up to the limit of expansion, with density that can reach values lower than 0,5g.cm{sup -3} because of the formation of closed pores and an external vitreous foil which provide a high mechanical resistance to the particles. (author)

  1. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  2. [The health system of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  3. Brazil: A Portrait of Diparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Weber Abramo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparencia Brasil (an NGO dedicated to fi ghting corruption in the country involves systematically gathering stories about corruption and associated themes published in the daily press.Titled “Deu no Jornal” (It Made the News, the initiative has been collecting news stories published in 59 dailies and four weeklies since January 2004. The publications covered by the project comprise all the main newspapers from all 26 states, plus the Federal District. No signifi cant newspaper from any state is absent. News is taken from the newspapers’ web editions and introduced into a data base. Each story is fi led under a specifi c “case”2 and cases are categorized according to several descriptive criteria. At the time of this writing, Deu no Jornal included about 142,500 stories distributed among 3,586 diff erent cases, corresponding to an aggregate of about 326 million characters. On the average, about 3.5 new cases of corruption are reported by the Brazilian press somewhere every day. Deu no Jornal is the most comprehensive database of news stories on corruption in existence, not only in Brazil but worldwide.

  4. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  5. Multiple sclerosis in Brazil: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, C C F; Thuler, L C S; Rodrigues, B C; Calmon, A B; Alvarenga, R M P

    2016-12-01

    The natural history of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Brazil has been available in different regions of country. There is no nationwide population-based studies that express general data in Brazil. To review and synthesize available data about MS in Brazil. Systematic review was performed through a search of medical literature databases to identify Brazilian studies published during 1990-2012. PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs. "Brazil" or "Brazilian" combined with the following terms: "multiple sclerosis", "clinical profile", "demographic profile", "natural history", "clinical course", "pediatric", or "familial form". In total of 45 pediatric and 1922 adult patients, the median age at onset was 10 years in pediatric patients and 32 years in adult patients. Women were more affected. Motor-control complaints and relapsing-remitting phenotype at onset were the most common. Predictors to disability and progression were number of relapses during the first year of disease, older age, male gender and African ancestry. The profile of the MS in Brazilian seems to correspond to that observed in high-MS-prevalence areas. African ancestry is a risk factor to disability and progression early. In Brazil, factors that limit MS incidence do not interfere with the clinical pattern and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brazil: Geopolitical Challenges in a Multipolar World:Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Anthony Wynne

    2017-01-01

    Brazil ́s geopolitical and diplomatic “rise” has been heralded by many commentators in the last few years. A member of important new groupings of states including the expanded G20, IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa), BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) in its own region, Brazil has also been a prominent voice in global negotiations over and initiatives involving trade, climate change, sustainable development, global public ...

  7. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation...

  8. The African Diaspora in Mexico, Brazil, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Berghe, Pierre L.

    1976-01-01

    Central question addressed is why people of African descent show different rates of acculturation and different degrees of racial distinctiveness in Mexico, Brazil and the United States. Acculturation is greater in Mexico and the U.S. than in Brazil. Mexico makes the least racial distinctions, the U.S. the most, and Brazil is in between.…

  9. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  10. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  11. Sources of Brazil's Counter-Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Guedes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been two key initiatives taken in the last two decades in Brazil to create a counter-hegemonic project for the country. One initiative resulted from Brazil's business community and high-level State bureaucracy and aimed at forming a regional economic and political bloc that would guarantee and enlarge a relative independence from the hegemonic powers. The other resulted from the emergence of the new unionist movement in São Paulo and from the formation of Partido dos Trabalhadores and aimed at promoting radical democratization and reducing social exclusion. Both initiatives have created policies and changes that have converged to enhance Brazil's counter-hegemonic position as a regional and emerging power.

  12. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  13. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  14. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

      The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns...... for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI...

  15. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios....... In order to carry on this work, it was necessary to develop a cross-disciplinary research, since sustainability requires a long run vision and a comprehensive approach. Brazil is a large country (851 Mha), with soil and weather conditions that are suitable to produce oilseeds, and available land...... production chain could be a catalyst for environmental improvement and social inclusion as well as being economically viable and contribute to energy security. The set of four scenarios for the biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, was built as the final result of the work. They are: a) Business as usual...

  16. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    CERN Document Server

    Segawa, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  17. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle C. G. Fares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4 and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  18. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  19. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B; Jacobson, Cardell K

    2010-10-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups.

  20. URBANIZATION, EDUCATION AND RACIAL INTERMARRIAGE IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter; Fu, Xuaning; Heaton, Tim B.; Jacobson, Cardell K.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and education have brought numerous changes in societies around the world. One change is the contact of different groups, often with an attendant increase in intergroup marriage. In this paper we examine the intergroup intermarriage in Brazil in the context of changing urbanization and education. While intergroup marriage has been intensively examined in the United States, the topic has received less attention in Brazil. We use census data from 1991 and 2000, and national survey data from 2001 and 2008 to examine factors predicting intergroup marriage and the trends in intergroup marriage in Brazil. The results show higher rates of intermarriage in urban than in rural areas. Intermarriage is less common among the most educated people. While the rates of intermarriage are increasing substantially, the rates of change are diffuse across urban and rural areas, regions and education groups. PMID:24052666

  1. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Geopolhti~os en ef At,,1,nrco Sur (No other references ) Baker, P. Warren. "Next: A Resource War?" Soýa Powver, p 55, October 1980. Banco do Brasil ...Brazil, The Nevv Power Brasil . (No date Barbola, Luiz. "Itamnaraty may faz objecat." Jornal de BrasO Ric) de’ Janeiro, Bircizil. (No other ref-rence...Naval War College. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 1982. Caminha, Joao Carlos G. "As Fragilidades de Poder Naval Brasileiro Jornal de Brasil Especial. Rio de

  2. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  3. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  4. New records of marine tardigrades from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Márcia Cavalcanti Da Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In studies developed in the mid- and infralittoral of Cupe Beach (Pernambuco, in the shallow infralittoral of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and in the continental shelf of northeastern Brazil, we recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters specimens of Archechiniscus marci, Batillipes lesteri, Florarctus hulingsi, Halechiniscus tuleari, Angursa lingua, Raiarctus aureolatus, Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus, Tanarctus dendriticus, Tanarctus velatus, Neoarctus sp. and Neostygarctus sp., as well as six other species that had been previously recorded in the region. Hence, the number of marine tardigrade taxa recorded in Brazil was increased to twenty-seven.

  5. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  6. Brazil - An Allied Country? (A Brazilian Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-30

    numerous contingent; - open policy of immigration ; - military success. I.’ 9 I% - ,-b. r CHAPTER I I EM nDNO -r E f-3 I. .. (1) "Pau Brazil" is a kind of...the state of Bahia (see Map, Appendix I) in 1624, but they did not succeed and were expelled less than one year latter. They returned again in 1630...those dsessessionist who settled Brazil ?" The following conclusion was reached: there was no vestige of the immigrants in Espirito Santo; almost all

  7. Metátese de olefinas no Brasil: "Brazil is romping it!" Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Milton E. Matos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts. In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community.

  8. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  9. Brazil: the children of the day after.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connor, G

    1993-01-01

    35 million people in Brazil live in starvation and absolute poverty. Many endemic diseases plague the country. Adding to Brazil's woes, however, AIDS has already affected more than 600,000 people domestically. As adults with children die premature deaths due to AIDS, their children become orphans. Government organizations have remained passive on the question of what to do with this growing number of children without families. No serious and complete studies exist on the subject of AIDS orphans in Brazil, so efforts on their behalf have been implemented mainly at the local level. Some orphans have been taken in by their grandparents, but these caretakers have only meager resources and few years of life remaining. The few private orphanages will not expand, adoption is complicated and tedious, state homes are not recommended, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiatives are inadequate. A campaign has therefore been launched to get sponsors to provide monthly economic aid to maintain orphans taken in by their close relatives. The author believes that it is up to NGOs to stimulate collective solidarity to support Brazil's growing number of orphans.

  10. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  11. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. SESQUICENTENNIAL OF JOURNALISM RESEARCH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marques de Melo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Pinheiro´s article on the mythical introduction of the printing press in Brazil by seventeenth century Dutch colonizers, published in 1859, constitutes a historical landmark in Brazilian journalism. This paper intends to rediscover the significance of this event, thus promoting debate on the periodization of journalism research.

  13. Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveca, Felipe Gomes; de Souza Bastos, Michele; do Nascimento Melo, Miriam; de Souza Viana, Suziane; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2008-01-01

    We report dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) in Amazonas, Brazil. This virus was isolated from serum samples of 3 patients treated at a tropical medicine reference center in Manaus. All 3 cases were confirmed by serologic and molecular tests; 1 patient was co-infected with DENV-3 and DENV-4. PMID:18394292

  14. Ethnozoology in Brazil: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancient connections between animals and human are seen in cultures throughout the world in multiple forms of interaction with the local fauna that form the core of Ethnozoology. Historically, ethnozoological publications grew out of studies undertaken in academic areas such as zoology, human ecology, sociology and anthropology - reflecting the interdisciplinary character of this discipline. The rich fauna and cultural diversity found in Brazil, with many different species of animals being used for an extremely wide diversity of purposes by Amerindian societies (as well as the descendents of the original European colonists and African slaves, presents an excellent backdrop for examining the relationships that exist between humans and other animals. This work presents a historical view of ethnozoological research in Brazil and examines its evolution, tendencies, and future perspectives. In summary, literature researches indicated that ethnozoology experienced significant advances in recent years in Brazil, although from a qualitative point of view improvement is still needed in terms of methodological procedures, taxonomic precision, and the use of quantitative techniques. A wide range of methodologies and theories are available in different areas of learning that can be put to good use in ethnozoological approaches if the right questions are asked. The challenges to studying ethnozoology in Brazil are not insignificant, and the tendencies described in the present study may aid in defining research strategies that will maintain the quantitative growth observed in the recent years but likewise foster needed qualitative improvements.

  15. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, ...

  16. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  17. Brazil’s Difficult Road to Greatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-20

    poverty in the urban slums ( favelas ). Strategic culture is how nations filter information in ways that influence strategy and includes national values...Argentina to back off from a confrontation over paper mill investments, Brazil declined to get involved. Virtually no country in South America supports

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  19. Attache Extraordinaire: Vernon A. Walters and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    subway systems, see Frank Marcio Oliveira, “Vernon Walters: Gosto pelo subterrâneo,”Revista Brasileira de Inteligencia , 1 (2005), p. 45-51. 159 “A...subterrâneo. Revista Brasileira de Inteligencia , 1 (2005), p. 45-51. PARKER, Phyllis R. • Brazil and the Quiet Intervention. Austin: Univerity of

  20. The Scenario of Gifted Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Fleith, Denise de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of gifted education in Brazil. A scenario of the education of the gifted is presented, including the official concept of giftedness as well as programs and services available to emphasize important contributions to the area. Although there are considerable advances regarding policies, practices,…

  1. "Almost invisible scars": medical tourism to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2011-01-01

    Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources,

  2. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...... are discussed in this article....

  3. Climatic change in northeastern Brazil: paleoparasitological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris eggs were observed in Kerodon rupestris coprolites dated 9,000 years before present, collected in archeological sites of São Raimundo Nonato, northeastern Brazil. However, present day local rodents seem not to be infected by the parasite, suggesting its disappearence due to climatic changes.

  4. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the…

  5. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  6. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdester Cavalcante Pinto Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction:Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007.Objective:To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes.Methods:The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables.Results:The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498; atrial septal defect (4,693; persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490; pulmonary stenosis (1,431; tetralogy of Fallot (973; coarctation of the aorta (973; transposition of the great arteries (887; and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults.Conclusion:In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration.

  7. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; Freitas, Sílvia Maria de; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes de

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration.

  8. Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R; Petersen, Eskild

    2008-08-13

    Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America. We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same protocol in both continents. Three hundred and eleven (311) children had congenital toxoplasmosis: 30 in Brazil and 281 in Europe, where 71 were identified by neonatal screening. Median follow up was 4.1 years in Europe and 3.7 years in Brazil. Relatively more children had retinochoroiditis during the first year in Brazil than in Europe (15/30; 50% versus 29/281; 10%) and the risk of lesions by 4 years of age was much higher: the hazard ratio for Brazil versus Europe was 5.36 (95%CI: 3.17, 9.08). Children in Brazil had larger lesions, which were more likely to be multiple and to affect the posterior pole (pBrazil, visual impairment (congenitally infected children in Brazil compared with Europe. The marked differences in the frequency, size and multiplicity of retinochoroidal lesions may be due to infection with more virulent genotypes of the parasite that predominate in Brazil but are rarely found in Europe.

  9. Ehrlichiosis in Brazil Erliquiose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by rickettsial organisms belonging to the genus Ehrlichia. In Brazil, molecular and serological studies have evaluated the occurrence of Ehrlichia species in dogs, cats, wild animals and humans. Ehrlichia canis is the main species found in dogs in Brazil, although E. ewingii infection has been recently suspected in five dogs. Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA has been detected and characterized in mash deer, whereas E. muris and E. ruminantium have not yet been identified in Brazil. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by E. canis appears to be highly endemic in several regions of Brazil, however prevalence data are not available for several regions. Ehrlichia canis DNA also has been detected and molecularly characterized in three domestic cats, and antibodies against E. canis were detected in free-ranging Neotropical felids. There is serological evidence suggesting the occurrence of human ehrlichiosis in Brazil but its etiologic agent has not yet been established. Improved molecular diagnostic resources for laboratory testing will allow better identification and characterization of ehrlichial organisms associated with human ehrlichiosis in Brazil.Erliquiose é uma doença causada por rickettsias pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia. No Brasil, estudos sorológicos e moleculares têm avaliado a ocorrência de espécies de Ehrlichia em cães, gatos, animais selvagens e seres humanos. Ehrlichia canis é a principal espécie em cães no Brasil, embora a infecção por E. ewingii tenha, recentemente, despertado suspeita em cinco cães. O DNA de E. chaffeensis foi detectado e caracterizado em cervo-do-pantanal, enquanto que E. muris e E. ruminantium ainda não foram identificadas no Brasil. A erliquiose monocítica canina causada pela E. canis parece ser altamente endêmica em muitas regiões do Brasil, embora dados de prevalência não estejam disponíveis em muitas delas. O DNA de E. canis também foi detectado e caracterizado

  10. Estimation of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of the permeability of rocky formations through one single mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) measurement at the wellhead; Estimacion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de permeabilidades de formaciones rocosas a partir de una sola medicion flujo masico-presion- entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Moya, Sara; Aragon, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The proposed methodology described ahead (Moya et al.,1996; Moya et al.,1997a, 1997b and 1997c) simplifies the construction of production characteristic curves of geothermal wells and of its associated thermal productivity, in requiring one single measurement of mass flow-pressure-enthalpy (W-P-h) at the wellhead. Therefore it is an ecological option, technically and economically more feasible. On the other hand, the methodology also allows to diagnose the rocky formation absolute permeability in the well feeding zone. This permeability is usually determined through well bottom pressure tests, than in some cases are difficult to interpret. The permeability inferred by means of the proposed technology represents a complementary tool for these field tests and for the laboratory measurements on drilling cores. [Espanol] La metodologia propuesta que se describe a continuacion [Moya et al., 1995d; Moya et al., 1996; Moya et al., 1997a, 1997b y 1997c] simplifica la construccion de curvas caracteristicas de produccion de pozos geotermicos y de su productividad termica asociada al requerir solo una medicion de flujo masico-presion-entalpia (W-P-h) a boca de pozo. Es por tanto una alternativa ecologica, tecnica y economicamente mas factible. Por otra parte, la metodologia tambien permite diagnosticar el valor de la permeabilidad absoluta de la formacion rocosa en la zona de alimentacion al pozo. Esta permeabilidad se determina usualmente a partir de pruebas de presion a fondo de pozo que en algunos casos son dificiles de interpretar. La permeabilidad inferida mediante la metodologia propuesta representa una herramienta complementaria a estas pruebas de campo y a las mediciones de laboratorio sobre nucleos de perforacion.

  11. CARACTERISTICAS ANTIGENICAS DE PROTEINAS DE Brucella abortus RB51.

    OpenAIRE

    CONTRERAS OÑATE, ANGEL ALEJANDRO; CONTRERAS OÑATE, ANGEL ALEJANDRO

    1995-01-01

    Ui brucelosis es una enfermedad infecciosa, que causa serios problemas de salud humana y animal en extensas zonas del mundo. Para intentar su erradicación parecen ser necesarias nuevas vacunas y nuevas estrategias de vacunación, que sean diferentes y mas 108p.

  12. NEOLIBERALISMO Y CONVERGENCIA CONTABLE. ORIGENES, CARACTERISTICAS Y PROPUESTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda Delgado, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Los recientes procesos de convergencia contable que la ley 1314 de 2009 umpulsa de manera definitiva,deben ser comprendidos en el marco de la denominada nueva arquitectura financiera internacional y ,en particular, como consecuentes con el modelo de desarrollo economico neoliberal implementado en colombia hace ya varias decadas.

  13. Caracteristicas distintivas en la gestion del servicio educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio V. Barreda Tamayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de la producción del Servicio Educativo, -que incluye la Educación Superior- es um proceso muy complejo. Tiene características muy particulares, que invalidan cualquier intento de aplicación directa de los modelos y teorías de gestión empresarial vigentes. Para una real gestión educativa, todavía no existe una definición clara sobre el perfil de competencias de los egresados. Que vienen a ser los “productos esperados”, después del “proceso de producción” del servicio educativo universitario. Por otro lado, hay varios modelos de gestión educativa. Pero no existe un modelo propio para la gestión del servicio educativo; que es básicamente um Servicio Profesional. Además, se cuenta con diferentes enfoques pedagógicos, últimamente correlacionados al avance de las TIC’s y los nuevos descubrimientos sobre el sistema cognitivo de las personas. Casi la totalidad de Proyectos y Planes Educativos, contienen objetivos, metas y “resultados” totalmente cualitativos. Que sólo reflejan los buenos deseos de lo que se quiere en nuestros egresados, pero que no se pueden medir objetivamente en cuanto a su consecución. Como decía J. Harrington: “Si usted no puede medir lo que hace, no puede controlarlo. Si no puede controlarlo, no puede dirigirlo. Si no puede dirigirlo, no puede mejorarlo”. En el presente artículo, queremos resaltar algunas características y requisitos para la “gestión de la producción” del servicio educativo. Los cuales debemos tener presentes, cuando pretendemos mejorar los resultados de la Educación.

  14. Caracteristicas antropometricas de adultos mayores participantes en competencias deportivas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramos Bermudez, Santiago; Moreno Bolivar, Hilario

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar el perfil antropometrico que presentaron los participantes en las competencias deportivas de la Olimpiada Nacional 2009 del adulto mayor, en aspectos como talla, peso, indice de masa corporal (IMC...

  15. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  16. Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi; Castellaro, Felipe Angel Bocchi; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the current regulatory framework for biobanking, genomic research, and protection of privacy in Brazil. It is divided in four parts. The first describes the biobanking context in Brazil and its evolution in recent years. In the second, the entire regulatory framework on biobanking and genomic research is analyzed. The third part focuses on the critical evaluation of this regulatory framework, specifically on some major ethical dilemmas in biobanking. The fourth part describes the characteristics of the Brazilian biobanking and human research governance system, known as the CEP/CONEP system. Finally, the conclusion summarizes the information in the article and its contribution to the study of the biobanking ethical challenges, especially the protection of privacy. It is highlighted that biobanking regulatory harmonization among countries is necessary, since it increases scientific possibilities that can come from broader cooperation among biobanks and several research centers on the national and international levels. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  18. Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Monassa Fioretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of NoV, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. The present study assessed the circulation of NoV genotypes in different Brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 was the prevalent (78% followed by GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.16 and GII.17, demonstrating the great diversity of NoV genotypes circulating in Brazil. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of NoV and their spreading potential.

  19. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    production chain could be a catalyst for environmental improvement and social inclusion as well as being economically viable and contribute to energy security. The set of four scenarios for the biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, was built as the final result of the work. They are: a) Business as usual......This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...

  20. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  1. Investing in Private Equity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Duarte Junior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We consider the problem of selecting private equity funds for investment in Brazil. The proposed methodology is based on multi-criteria decision-making. Real data obtained from one of the largest pension funds in Brazil is used to illustrate a practical application of the methodology when selecting investments among eleven private equity funds available in the local financial market. The multi-criteria method TOPSIS is adopted with a total of twenty two criteria to order the investment alternatives. A sensitivity analysis is also presented. The methodology proposed allows a standardized decision-making process, facilitating the process of selecting private equity funds for investment in Brazilian financial markets.

  2. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  3. Shared Value Creation and Crowdfunding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel José dos Santos Felipe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Approaching the theory of creating shared value (Porter & Kramer, 2011 with the basic social elements of crowdfunding in Brazil. The idea was to explore the complementarity of the concepts governing the CF in line with the theory of Porter and Kramer. Through literature review and empirical discussion is intended to answer two central questions regarding the theme developed in this essay: i which elements of the theory of creating shared value are found in crowdfunding? ii how occurs the creation of shared value in business developed in crowdfunding platforms?Methodology. Theoretical Essay.Findings.  It is possible to make a theoretical approach of the themes studied in this trial, as we take the social and financial perspective of crowdfunding and their relationships with the creation of value for the company and investors.Originality. So far, was not found another study that addressed the themes of this essay in Brazil.

  4. [Trends on anophthalmic socket repair in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Roberta Lilian Fernandes de; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Zornoff, Denise de Cássia Moreira; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most common approach to repair the anophthalmic socket in Brazil, and to compare the data with the trends in other countries. Exploratory study using electronic questionnaire sent by Internet to ophthalmologists members of the Brazilian Orbit and Oculoplastic Society (SBCPO). The received answers were analyzed by adhesion analysis, using Chi-square test. We received 75 answered questionnaires. Fifty-three per cent of the respondents frequently treat anophthalmic socket and use the 18 mm diameter polymethylmethacrylate sphere in the majority of the surgeries, mainly covered by sclera (92%). Only seven interviewees had used integrated implants with pegging procedure. Eighty-two per cent of the ophthalmologists use the dermolipid graft to reconstruct the anophthalmic socket. They also follow the patients bi-annually. The treatment of anophthalmic socket in Brazil generally involve polymethylmethacrylate sphere with 18 mm diameter. Pegging procedure is uncommon between us.

  5. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  6. Epiphyte plants use by birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cestari, Cesar [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    This study firstly reviewed the interspecific interaction records between birds and epiphyte plants in Brazil. Forty two documents, including articles, scientific notes, books and thesis, and 35 personal records and from collaborators were argued, totaling 112 species of birds that interacted with 97 species of epiphyte plants. Two articles treated the theme specifically and another 40 treated related subjects, such as: pollination of epiphytes, ecology and feeding behavior of birds. Studies ...

  7. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-01-01

    This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP) of the National Health Council (CNS). It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL) 200/2015 of the Senate,...

  8. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rodriguez Forti

    Full Text Available Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species. We (i modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100 climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife.

  9. THE BACHELOR OF BIOCHEMISTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Cordeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  10. Perspectives on invasive amphibians in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Lucas Rodriguez; Becker, C Guilherme; Tacioli, Leandro; Pereira, Vânia Rosa; Santos, André Cid F A; Oliveira, Igor; Haddad, Célio F B; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Introduced species have the potential to become invasive and jeopardize entire ecosystems. The success of species establishing viable populations outside their original extent depends primarily on favorable climatic conditions in the invasive ranges. Species distribution modeling (SDM) can thus be used to estimate potential habitat suitability for populations of invasive species. Here we review the status of six amphibian species with invasive populations in Brazil (four domestic species and two imported species). We (i) modeled the current habitat suitability and future potential distribution of these six focal species, (ii) reported on the disease status of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and Phyllodytes luteolus, and (iii) quantified the acoustic overlap of P. luteolus and Leptodactylus labyrinthicus with three co-occurring native species. Our models indicated that all six invasive species could potentially expand their ranges in Brazil within the next few decades. In addition, our SDMs predicted important expansions in available habitat for 2 out of 6 invasive species under future (2100) climatic conditions. We detected high acoustic niche overlap between invasive and native amphibian species, underscoring that acoustic interference might reduce mating success in local frogs. Despite the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus being recognized as a potential reservoir for the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Brazil, we did not detect Bd in the recently introduced population of E. johnstonei and P. luteolus in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that the number of invasive amphibian species in Brazil is increasing exponentially, highlighting the urgent need to monitor and control these populations and decrease potential impacts on the locally biodiverse wildlife.

  11. Entrepreneurship in Brazil, China, and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Djankov; Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

    2006-01-01

    We study the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur in Russia, China, and Brazil, using unique survey data at the individual level. We find that entrepreneurs have many common characteristics relative to non-entrepreneurs in all three countries. They are more likely to have entrepreneurs among their relatives and friends, place a higher value on work, are happier and perceive themselves as more successful. There are also a few important differences. Russian and Chinese entrepr...

  12. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Sul Courtesy P.A. Miuck Rural grocery store, Curitiba, Parand Courtesy WORLD BANK PHOTO/ Tomas Sen nett 113 Brazil: A Country Study a fazendeiro...Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Courtesy WORLD BANK PHOTO! Tomas Sennett than that needed to meet the 1985 goal. By 1982 contracts for alcohol... Aquino Ferreira, until his fall from grace in late 1981. Before that time he and the other five officials were referred to as the "palace group" (grupo

  13. Policy Dilemmas in Brazil-Africa Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-22

    Ronaldo -ar..nberg, " otas sob-r ias relaiIones Norte-Sur y El Informe Brandt," Estudios in-ernacicna-es, No. 54 (Arii4-June 󈨦 ), .r. 166b-210. Joao Luis...34Brazil’s Arms find Willing Buyers in the Third World," New York Times (August ?, 1?81), p. E-3; "Armas: Brasil invade o mercado mundial," Senhor (February

  14. Workers, Education, and Social Change in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Mello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Brazilian labor organizations developed educational programs that simultaneously confronted the issues of large scale illiteracy, particularly among young workers, while at the same time seized the opportunity to educate new generations of social movement and labor activists. Specifically, it explores the educational program Projeto Integrar, organized by the National Confederation of Metalworkers (CNM/CUT, and its importance for the broader process of political transformation presently underway in Brazil.

  15. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Giorgi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  16. Liquidity in Asset Pricing: Evidence from the Brazil Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuanyu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of liquidity in pricing stock returns in the Brazil stock market using a sample of listed stocks in Brazil market from January 2001 to December 2011. The key finding of this study is that liquidity is an important factor for pricing returns in Brazil market even after controlling for size and book-to-market and the liquidity effect is not restricted to the month of January alone. The results are also not influenced by the financial crisis.

  17. Mental health economics: insights from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luciane; Lima, Ana Flavia Da Silva; Graeff-Martins, Ana; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Ziegelmann, Patricia; Miguel, Sandoro; Fleck, Marcelo; Polanczyk, Carisi

    2013-04-01

    As the responsibility and demand on health care grows and resources do not increase at the same pace, the healthcare system has been forced to reconsider the benefits and costs of their actions, to ensure a rational and effective decision-making process regarding the adoption of interventions and allocation of resources. Cost-effectiveness (CE) studies represent one of the basic tools to achieve this goal. To present the current state of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and health economics in mental health in Brazil and its importance to the decision-making process. Descriptive paper on HTA and health economics in Brazil. Databases from government and universities as well as some scientific databases to assess the information are presented. Economic analysis to evaluate interventions in mental health care is a relatively recent addition to the field of health economics; in Brazil, it is also considered a topic within Epidemiology research area. There have been an increased number of studies developed in high-income countries. However, there are fewer CE studies in low- and middle-income ones. Psychiatric disorders represent a significant burden in developing countries, where resources devoted to health care are even scarcer.

  18. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  19. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  20. [Paradoxes of health decentralization policies in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Dário Frederico; Righi, Liane Beatriz; Thomé, Henrique Inácio; Stolz, Eveline Dischkaln

    2006-12-01

    The constitution of Brazil directs that the country's health system, the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde), be politically and administratively decentralized. Nevertheless, handing over competencies, responsibilities, and resources to subnational levels, especially to municipal governments, has been a slow process, lasting almost two decades. Advances have been brought about by the Unified Health System, which, from a analytical perspective, is a public and universal system. Despite that, the decentralization process needs to overcome norms that keep all levels of management dependent on Brazil's federal Government. The subnational levels have consistently faced difficulties in performing their macromanagement functions with autonomy, especially when it comes to financing and to the establishment or organization of health care networks. Boldness and responsibility will be needed to prevent Brazil's health decentralization process from leading to fragmentation. New political agreements between different levels of government, with a reassignment of responsibilities and the enhancement of a culture of technical cooperation, are fundamental requisites to making the Unified Health System have a health policy that is truly public and universal.

  1. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be expected to increase as Amazonian hydroelectric dams far from consumer centers come on line. Brazil has tremendous wind and solar potential, but these do not have the same priority as dams. At the root of many questionable policies is a decision-making process in need of reform.

  2. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  3. Present situation of refractories in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, P. (Magnesita S.A., (Brazil))

    1992-11-10

    This paper outlines the present situation of refractories in Brazil, particularly the use of refractories in the steel industry which is one of the major industries in this country. Brazil is the 8th largest steel producer in the world, and about 64% of all the production is exported. Because of increasing competitions in the world market, high-level production techniques are required, and active improvements of refractories are also being carried out. The specific consumption of refractories in 1 ton of steel has gradually decreased to produce high-quality refractories. In Brazil, 95% of all demand except for special items such as submerged nozzles and blast furnace carbon blocks can be provided domestically. It is characteristic that raw materials for refractories, such as magnesite, bauxite, and graphite can also be self-supporting. Compositions and physical properties of typical refractories used for various purposes in iron and steel manufactures including blast furnaces, torpedo cars, BOF converters, electric are furnaces, and electric arc ladles are described, and the direction toward their conversion into new materials is shown. Moreover, the trends of refractories for the cement industry and for nonferrous metals such as aluminum are introduced. 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François

    2008-01-01

    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  5. Ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil compared with Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Freeman, Katherine; Lago, Eleonor G; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Buffolano, Wilma; Stanford, Miles R; Petersen, Eskild

    2008-01-01

    .... We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003...

  6. All projects related to Brazil | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESOURCES EXPLOITATION, AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, FISHERY DEVELOPMENT, FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT, NEW TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS, SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS. Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, North and Central America.

  7. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil.

  8. Access to Environmental Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Passos Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article aims to show how the equal access to environmental justice occurs in Brazil, even with litigants in inequality, with discrimination on the environmental matter, problems with interpretation of the law and few jurisprudence and information. The increase in the access to justice in Brazil is evident, including the environmental area. As access to justice, we must understand the two basic purposes of the legal system: that the system has to be equally accessible to everybody and that it produces individual and socially fair results, not just the simplistic conceptualization of the number of lawsuits. True access to justice is achieved once the rights of the population are effectively guaranteed. The amount of environmental lawsuits has been increasing each year, mainly after the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988, considering that article 225 provided the need for an ecologically balanced environment for present and future generations, besides determining that the government and the community have the duty to preserve it. In addition, the problems are not being adequately resolved at the administrative level. Access to environmental justice should be understood as access to the law, a fair, well-known and effective legal order, with access to the courts, to alternative mechanisms (especially preventive ones and the population materially and psychologically conscious to exercise their rights, by overcoming objective and subjective barriers. For this access, appropriate procedural instruments are necessary to the collective conflicts and the environmental protection, in order to facilitate the protection of the environment in courts, and to overcome barriers to the access to justice in this matter. In Brazil, some procedural instruments have come as a way to guarantee access to environmental justice. They are, mainly: “popular action” and “public civil action”. Both have a specific provision for admission with

  9. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N.

    1996-04-01

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  10. Disease burden of chronic hepatitis C in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Abrão Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: While the incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Brazil are decreasing; cases of advanced liver disease continue to rise. Besides higher sustained virological response rates; new strategies focused on increasing the proportion of diagnosed patients and eligibility to treatment should be adopted in order to reduce the burden of hepatitis C virus infection in Brazil.

  11. ICTs for Microcredit Delivery : Correspondent Banking in Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although microfinance has proved a powerful tool in fighting poverty in developing countries, it has been slow to catch on in Latin America, particularly Brazil. On the other hand, correspondent banking enabled by information and communication technologies (ICTs) has allowed Brazil to reach low-income families in remote ...

  12. House dust mites in Brazil - an annotated bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binotti Raquel S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been reported to be the most important allergen in human dwellings. Several articles had already shown the presence of different mite species at homes in Brazil, being Pyroglyphidae, Glycyphagidae and Cheyletidae the most important families found. This paper is an annotated bibliography that will lead to a better knowledge of house dust mite fauna in Brazil.

  13. All projects related to Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, Costa Rica, Canada, Taiwan, Denmark, Germany, Sweden. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 141,700.00. Preventing Zika disease with novel vector control approaches. Project. The highest numbers of dengue cases in Latin America in the last few years have occurred in Brazil, Colombia, and ...

  14. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Pititto B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4CPClin Clinical Research Center, 5Albert Einstein Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Brazil, epidemiology, management

  15. The Cassava Processing Industry in Brazil: Traditional Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the evolution of cassava-based industrial production, processing and marketing in Brazil, in light of the great technological diversification to be found in Brazil. It discusses the private role of the small- and medium-scale food and related processing enterprises in the food industry, as they employ ...

  16. Brazil's Exception to the World-Class University Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The continued importance of university rankings has only served to fuel the growth of the "world-class" university movement. There is a growing impression that, in a globalised and interconnected world, no country can do without a world-class university. No country, that is, except Brazil. While Brazil has the resources necessary to…

  17. Contextualization and interdisciplinarity in chemistry teaching in Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Brazil, a new law dedicated to the establishment of the policy and bases of national education (law 9.394/1996) was published in 1996. Then with the publication, in 1999, of the National Curricular Parameters for High School Teaching in Brazil, modifications in the chemistry teaching that should be promoted by a ...

  18. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review | Kluczkovski | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brazil nut is a seed with high nutritional value and of great economic importance to the Northern region of Brazil. In addition to enabling direct consumption, its nutritional potential enables the development of various products. Among its nutrients, emphasis is given to the amino acid-rich proteins, lipid content and selenium, ...

  19. Brazil : Risk-based Supervision of Brazilian Closed Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive description of the full process for supporting the new supervisory authority for closed pension funds in Brazil, The National Superintendence for Pension Funds, supervisor of the closed pension fund system in Brazil, or PREVIC, in particular through the development of a revised approach to the risk-based supervision of closed pension funds. This report ...

  20. A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Zamischus (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae from Brazil. A new species of Zamischus from Brazil is described and diagnosed. The species is closely related to Z. brasiliensis but differs in the morphology of antennae and scutellum. Z. aquilesi sp. nov. was collected via Malaise trapping in a tobacco field in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul.

  1. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ierecê Ml; Alves, Rômulo Rn; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana Pr; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-12-08

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality.

  2. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Tacyana PR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income, and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch, and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of

  3. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  4. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  5. Jean-Baptiste Charcot and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Baptiste Charcot, a neurologist from the famous Salpêtrière school and a renowned maritime explorer, visited Brazil twice. The first visit was in 1903, when the first French Antarctic expedition, traveling aboard the ship Français, made a very short stopover in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. The second took place in 1908, during the famous voyage of the Pourquoi Pas? to the Antarctic, when Charcot and his crew stayed in the city of Rio de Janeiro for eight days.

  6. Hillary Clinton visits Pathfinder projects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In October 1995, US First Lady Hillary Clinton visited a maternity hospital in Salvador, Brazil, in which a family planning (FP)/reproductive health program has been administered by Pathfinder International since 1981 with funding from USAID. During her tour of the facility, Clinton learned about the high degree of unmet need for FP in the region which results from a lack of sufficient resources to meet demand. Clinton, in turn, praised the state of Bahia for its emphasis on FP in low-income areas.

  7. The "hot money" phenomenon in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Gaulard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high interest rates, Brazil attracts more and more speculative capital flows, called "hot money", under the form of foreign loans, direct or portfolio investments. Actually, the country is directly involved in a carry-trade strategy that tends to appreciate the real, what penalizes the Brazilian exportations of manufactured products. Moreover, capital inflows are extremely volatile, and their departure, causing a fall in loans granted to the Brazilian private banks, could provoke a dangerous burst of the speculative bubble they have contributed to form in the Brazilian real estate sector.

  8. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  9. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  10. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  11. Biogas in Brazil; Biogas in Brasilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Irene; Stoffel, Daniela; Koeller, Karlheinz [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik

    2008-11-15

    Due to negative experiences in the past, biogas technology could not establish itself in Brazil. Currently though, there is a revival of agricultural biogas plants there. Biogas production from animal residues is especially suited for the southern regions, where swine and poultry farms are concentrated. Generally the Brazilian plants are small and simple units, which cannot be compared to those in Germany. Vinasse, a fluid residue from alcohol production with high potassium content, is generally used as fertilizer on sugar cane fields. Using vinasse as a substrate for biogas production would be very recommendable, but is seldom done due to lacking general political conditions and technology. (orig.)

  12. Brazil--On the Road to Greatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    exported in the form of orange juice . In 1n 83, 1984, and 1985 when the florida orange jUIC:E ]c.ndostrvy was crippled due to hard freezes and in...1984 by the cinker, Brazil. has taken advantage o it. This year, more ot the orange juice americans drin will come from Braz ii than ever bef ore. (16...plenty of brain power, technology and initiative in that country, and the defense rndu--trv has its share. The export mar! et is benefittinq alo

  13. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  14. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  15. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J; Badaró Trindade, Angela C; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO's (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors' offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  16. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS Marilena dos Anjos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25° C and 30° C showed growth of white and cottony aerial micelium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution

  17. Bullying during adolescence in Brazil: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozi, Pamela Lamarca; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Bullying has been the subject of worldwide study for over four decades and is widely reported by social media. Despite this, the issue is a relatively new area of research in Brazil. This study analyzes academic literature addressing bullying produced in Brazil focusing on aspects that characterize this issue as a subtype of violence: gender differences, factors associated with bullying, consequences, and possible intervention and prevention approaches. The guiding question of this study was: what have Brazilian researchers produced regarding bullying among adolescents? The results show that over half of the studies used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods and questionnaires, and focused on determining the prevalence of and factors associated with bullying. The findings showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents, an association between risk behavior and bullying, serious consequences for the mental health of young people, lack of awareness and understanding among adolescents about bullying and its consequences, and a lack of strategies to manage this type of aggression. There is a need for intervention studies, prevention and restorative practices that involve the community and can be applied to everyday life at school.

  18. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  19. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  20. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  1. The changing face of autism in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Clarice; Costa Andrada, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    At the end of 2012, after intensive lobbying by parent activist associations, a federal law recognized autism as a "disability for all legal purposes" in Brazil. Defining autism as a disability was more than a change of legal status to guarantee social benefits. It was also a political maneuver, orchestrated by parent associations, aimed to take the responsibility for treatment away from the public mental health network of services. This article examines the controversies that have set parent associations in direct antagonism with mental health professionals in the public health system. We draw from ethnographic data and theoretical discussions in the field of disability studies to situate these controversies within the context of a larger debate on the relationship between health, rights, and citizenship. We found similarities between the ethical and political goals of parent activists and mental health professionals in Brazil, but we argue that the main cause of dissent is the role that each of these social actors assigns to identity politics in their clinical and political projects.

  2. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  3. Pharmacoepidemiology and thalidomide embryopathy surveillance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales Luiz Vianna, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Morelo, Elaine Faria; de Lyra Rabello Neto, Dacio; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Camey, Suzi Alves; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2015-06-01

    Thalidomide causes congenital defects in children, such as limb reduction defects. Currently, it is used for a few indications; in Brazil, where leprosy is endemic, thalidomide is used for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, and recent cases of thalidomide embryopathy have been reported. We analyzed the frequency of births with phenotypes consistent with thalidomide embryopathy (TEP) and correlated this with the distribution of thalidomide and the prevalence of leprosy between 2005 and 2010 in Brazil. A total of 5,889,210 thalidomide tablets were distributed; the prevalence of limb reduction defects was 1.60 (CI95%: 1.54-1.66) and TEP was 0.11 (CI95%: 0.10-0.13) per 10,000 births. Poisson regression showed an increase in cases of TEP and limb reduction defects per 100,000 tablets dispensed. Clusters and geographical isolates were identified in several regions. There is a correlation between thalidomide and TEP showing that thalidomide embryopathy should be monitored in countries where this medication is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, O.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  5. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of strongyloidiasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, F M; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this review was to outline an epidemiological profile of Strongyloides stercoralis by parasitological and serological diagnosis in inhabitants, and to associate this profile with different immunosupression situations, in Brazil, over 20 years (1990-2009). The occurrence of S. stercoralis using parasitological methods was 5·5%, being 4·8% in rural and 5·0% in urban areas, characterizing the country as hyperendemic. There was a diversity of techniques used as a diagnostic tool and only 39·1% of the studies presented results based on at least 1 specific method. The occurrence increased with age, being 12·1%, for those over 60 that suggests an epidemiological condition of concern for the elderly population. Of the seroepidemiological studies in the general population the mean positivity in serum samples was 21·7% and 29·2%, using an immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The occurrence of strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed individuals was 11·8% by parasitological methods and 19·5% using immunological methods. Considering that Brazil is a tropical country and that the character of chronicity and autoinfection of the parasite that can result in severe forms of hyperinfection or dissemination makes strongyloidiasis an important medically and socially neglected problem.

  8. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  9. [Retrospect of tuberculosis control in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjar, Miguel Aiub; Gerhardt, Germano; Teixeira, Gilmário M; Procópio, Maria José

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to look back on the course of action involving measures of tuberculosis control in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, covering the history of social struggles and pointing out institutions and people that have dedicated themselves to looking for solutions to these issues. The Brazilian response to tuberculosis started in society with the Ligas Contra a Tuberculose (Leagues Against Tuberculosis), promoting scientific advances, such as the BCG vaccination, which begun in 1927. From the public power, the Inspetoria de Profilaxia da TB (TB Prophylaxis Inspection Service - 1920), the Serviço Nacional de Tuberculose (National Service of Tuberculosis - 1940), and the Campanha Nacional Contra a Tuberculose (National Campaign Against Tuberculosis - 1946), coordinated national policies such as chemotherapy, beginning with the discovery of streptomycin in 1944. The emergence of bacterial resistance led to the development of several therapeutic schemes. The Scheme 1 (rifampycin, hydrazide and pyrazinamid), which was the main one in 1979 and is still used nowadays, had a great epidemiological effect. The WHO declared TB a public health emergency in 1993. In response, Brazil developed some strategies; the first one was the Plano Emergencial para Controle da Tuberculose (Emergency Plan for Tuberculosis Control - 1994), prioritizing 230 municipalities. The current prospects are an effective municipalization of actions and their greater integration with the Programas de Agentes Comunitários e Saúde da Família (Humanitarian Agents and Family Health Programs).

  10. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  11. Paragonimiasis: first case reported in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos

    Full Text Available The authors present a case from a 59 years old white female Brazilian patient, based in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil's northeastern side area, who experienced irritative cough and progressive dyspnea, and, after 18 months, was admitted to a hospital with respiratory insufficiency. The physical exam showed diffuse rales in both hemithoraces. Initial leukogram showed 14,400 cells/mL with 14% of eosinophils and chest X-ray showed peribronchovascular infiltrate, predominating in the lower half of the lung fields, and small opaque nodules. The high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest (HRCT presented compatible pattern with airways disease, especially from the small airways, with air trapping, tree sprouting images, central lobular nodules and bronchiectasis, making the results compatible with bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. The transbroncho biopsy unveiled granulomatous lesion with necrosis, where was noticed a structure compatible to a parasitic case, and the research of the parasite eggs in the sputum was positive to paragonimus. After the praziquantel use, the patient presented a thick ferruginous expectoration and the result for BAAR examination was positive. The PCR exam and the sputum culture confirmed M. tuberculosis, and then the treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated. The authors warn that this infection may have been a consequence of economics globalization process, where the importation of parasitized crustaceans might be the cause. However, there is the need of an accurate examination for the possibility of paragonimus specimens in this area of Brazil.

  12. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S M; Rogers, R; Rubem, A C; Da Gama, B A P; Muricy, G; Pereira, R C

    2013-08-01

    Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009), Tethya maza (p = 0.0039), Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277), and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003). These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  13. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The... stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

  14. Comparative analysis of electro-mechanical characteristic of a three-phase induction motor with 1,5 CV with high performance and conventional one; Analise comparativa das caracteristicas eletromecanicas entre um motor de inducao trifasico de 1,5CV de alto-rendimento e convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendieta, J.C.V. [Dalkia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertoleti, P.H.F.; Magalhaes Sobrinho, P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LAMOTRIZ/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Sistemas Motrizes Industriais; Souza, T.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, the electric power consumed by three-phase induction motors corresponding to approximately 55% of total electric power consumed by the industrial sector. Therefore, a thorough analysis of this type of engine under the questions of energy saving, economic viability and electro-mechanical characteristics are needed. This work deals with the comparative analysis for two motors three-phase induction, one conventional and another with high performance (manufacturer WEG and IP55 protection grade), aiming to obtain the necessary relationships to do an economical and electro-mechanical analysis.

  15. Observed Low Frequency Variability of the Brazil Current Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, G. J.; Bringas Gutierrez, F.; Di Nezio, P. N.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazil Current is a weak western boundary current, the southwest component of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, which is the main conduit of upper ocean waters in the region. We report her the observed low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front using satellite-derived sea height anomaly and sea surface temperature observations during the 1993-2008 period. The variability of the front is studied in terms of the separation of the Brazil Current front from the continental shelf break. During the study period, estimates of this parameter indicate a shift to the south of approximately 1.5 degrees. Statistically significant changes are not observed in the geostrophic transport of the Brazil and Malvinas currents suggesting that the low-frequency changes of the Brazil Current front are governed by different mechanisms than the seasonal variability of these surface currents. Surface drifter trajectories as well as simulations using synthetic drifters are consistent with the observed shift to the south of the Brazil Current front. Trends of eddy kinetic energy, sea height anomaly, sea surface temperature and wind stress curl are also in agreement with the variability reported here. Wavelet transform analysis revealed an interesting change in the periodicity of the separation of the Brazil Current front from the continental shelf break from annual to bi-annual during 2003. Longer records together with comprehensive numerical experiments will ultimately be needed to determine the origin of these changes.

  16. Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, Roberto; Romão, J E; Noronha, I L

    2003-02-01

    Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease in Brazil, with glomerulonephritis still the leading cause of ESRD. Little is known about the epidemiology of renal disease in the Brazilian (or Latin American) native population, which is numerous in some Central and South American countries, but constitute a very small minority in Brazil. However, interesting information has been obtained from the Yanomamis, a tribe living in Northern Brazil and Southern Venezuela. Hypertension is virtually absent among these people, who ingest very little sodium, lending strong support to the concept that sodium retention, a "civilization" factor, plays a role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Despite Brazil's striking socioeconomic disparities, access to RRT is in principle accessible to all those in need of it. The dialysis units have been modernized in recent years, whereas the Government covers most expenses related to RRT. However, the prevalence of RRT in Brazil is currently approximately 320 per million population, less than one third as high as in the US, suggesting that ESRD may be underdiagnosed in the country. Much effort is still needed to limit the prevalence of renal disease and to improve the quality and the reach of RRT in Brazil and in Latin America.

  17. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T M; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-09-01

    This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions.

  18. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Lino; da Silva, Gláucia Faria; Setúbal, Sandra Mutarelli

    2015-01-29

    The role of play in Brazilian children's hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children's Hospital ("Hospital Infantil Sabará") in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children's care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  19. Property Rights, Land Conflict and Tenancy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lee J. Alston; Bernardo Mueller

    2010-01-01

    Tenancy has been a means for labor to advance their socio-economic condition in agriculture yet in Brazil and Latin America, tenancy rates are low compared to the U.S. and the OECD countries. We test for the importance of insecure property rights in Brazil on the reluctance of landowners to rent because of a fear of expropriation arising from land reform. Since 1964, the Land Statute in Brazil has targeted rental lands for redistribution. The expropriation of farms, resulting from land confli...

  20. Contesting and Contextualising CITES: Wildlife Trafficking in Colombia and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez Goyes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article raises the question of whether recently implemented legislation in Colombia and Brazil (1 provides the necessary tools to prevent the harms of wildlife trafficking (WLT and (2 influences humans’ practices concerning the use of nonhuman animals. These questions are investigated from the dual perspectives of green criminology and public policy. The analysis is based on a qualitative empirical study undertaken in Colombia and Brazil whereby we discuss the function of the legislation in Colombia and Brazil in preventing illegal WLT. We consider the legitimacy of different practices of WLT and evaluate them with respect to species justice and environmental justice.

  1. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Lino; Faria da Silva, Gláucia; Mutarelli Setúbal, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará”) in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture. PMID:27417350

  2. An institutional approach to the history of wine in brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante Carolina Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The history of wine in Brazil dates back to 1532, when Brás Cubas tried to cultivate the vine on São Paulo coast. As we can imagine, it was not a very successful venture. Later, other efforts were made by Jesuits in the seventeenth century. In 1739 Portugal prohibited the production of grapes and wine in the colony and this prohibition lasted until the Independence of Brazil in 1822. Although it is interesting to mention those fledgling efforts to produce wine in Brazil, the decisive impetus ...

  3. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  4. Pediatric Hospital: The Paradigms of Play in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino de Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará” in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.

  5. Market Behavior for in Shell Brazil Nuts Produced in Brazil from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Lobo Schirigatti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aimed to analyze the market behavior of in shell Brazil nuts produced by Brazil during the period of 2000 to 2010. In order to do it, structural brakes in the data were identified, the existence of correlations between the variables price, quantity and value was investigated; and the shift of the supply and demand curves was described for the nuts production. The trend model was used to identify the direction of the shift, by calculating the growth rates of national prices and of produced quantities. When analyzing the whole period (2000-2010, there was a positive shift of the demand curve, but when separately analyzing the two sub periods defined by the Chow test (2000-2005 and 2006-2010, a negative shift of the supply curve was identified on the first sub period, while the second subperiod revealed a positive shift of the supply curve. The results showed that the market of Brazil nuts is ascending and that the government’s incentive policies to the activity were effective.

  6. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Santos de Varge Maldonado

    Full Text Available Abstract: Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  7. The Spanish teaching (des ways in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Contreira Domingo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delineate the Spanish teaching trajectory in the Brazilian educational system is, if not hard, a surprising task. In this job we will reflect about the Spanish language trajectory in Brazil. To try to understand the way how the Brazilian educative system  understands the Spanish teaching in our territory, will be analyzed the movements to offer this language at the Brazilian basic education and some of the main actions carried out until the moment. To map the way, we will focus in four moments between 1942 until the present.  Our reflection shows that, in spite of the incentive realized in the elaboration of a Spanish insertion in the Brazilian educational system proposal, we didn’t build a solid linguistic policy which attends to the teaching specificities in our country.

  8. Democratization and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula NASCIMENTO ARAUJO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil experienced a long process of political transition featured by an intense game of political and social forces, in which different actors with different democratization projects clashed. Despite the leadership of the transition process have been in the hands of conservative elites linked to the military dictatorship, broad sectors of the oposition and of the lefts, as well as representants of social movements, disputed the transitional space and expanded the initial design of the regime. This long transition —marked by negotiations, frustrations and resilience— reflected on the transitional justice model adopted by the country. Almost 30 years after the end of military dictatorship, the Truth Commission established by President Dilma Rousseff in 2012, drew attention to issues related to memory, justice and reparation and showed that the democratization process, in some respects, is still incloncluded. This article aims to restore this historical process highlighting some of its characteristics and specificities.

  9. Peregrino : a heavy oil development offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, H. [StatoilHydro, Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a commercial development plan for an offshore oil field located off the coast of Brazil. A 3-D reservoir flow model was combined with an integrated production system model in order to model water-flooding and water injection strategies as well as to determine optimal water handling capacity. Flow assurance modelling was also conducted. A 3-D geological model was developed using data from wells drilled on the field as well as data from a regional sedimentological model. Reservoir penetration will be approximately 40,500 meters. Multilateral wells will be used to increase reservoir penetration in the future. The first phase of the development will consist of a floating production, storage and offloading unit as well as 2 wellhead platforms. A combined power and heating system will be used to provide power for pumps and to heat water. It was concluded that a high recovery factor is needed to ensure the economic viability of the project. 5 figs.

  10. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  11. Origin of emerald deposits of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, G.; Silva, L. J. H. D.; Couto, P.

    1990-01-01

    Precambrian emerald deposits of Brazil are found in a typical geologic setting with Archean basement and supracrustal, ultramafic, granitoid and rocks. Volcano-sedimentary series occur as imbricated structures or as bodies affected by complex folding and deformation. Emerald mineralization belongs to the classic biotite-schist deposit, which formed by the reaction of pegmatitic veins within ultrabasic rocks. At the same time, pegmatite-free emerald deposits linked to ductile shear zones are also known. Emerald formation is attributed to infiltrational metasomatic processes provoking a K-metasomatism of the ultrabasic rocks and also a desilication of the pegmatites. A new classification based on the geological setting, structural features, and ore paragenesis is proposed.

  12. Literacy in Brazil: from Rights to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Timothy D.

    2008-11-01

    At a time when some 24% of the Brazilian population of 182 million are functionally illiterate, the author shows how illiteracy is concentrated in traditionally poor and disadvantaged social and ethnic groups as well as in certain regions of the country. He surveys the changes in legislation, policies and attitudes relating to literacy over the past few decades and describes how literacy is increasingly seen as a continuous process rather than a short-term, low-cost intervention. While there is still a lack of a broad, coordinated policy and adequate funding in this area, and while the challenges remain formidable, the author concludes that Brazil is moving slowly in the right direction.

  13. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  14. Tropical spastic paraparesis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. de Castro Costa

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten possible cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará are presented. They show the typical symptoms and signs of TSP consisting of weakness of the lower limbs, spastic gait, hiperreflexia, bladder dysfunction and variable signs of posterior columns impairment. The laboratory examinations excluded other compressive, infective, degenerative or demyelinating lesions of their spinal cord. Our patients age ranged from 21 to 59 years, all were of black origin and all were of lower social class. There was a slight preponderance of females. An etiological implication of a retrovirus (HTLV-I has been shown for TSP, but for lack of technical conditions we could not determine it in our patients, and that stands as our subsequent step in those and further cases.

  15. The challenges of ageism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldani, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The material and symbolic resource flows and obligations between generations leave an indelible imprint on family members. These intergenerational exchanges have increased in recent years with growing human longevity and they thus have become important to current academic and policy agendas. Concurrently, ageism and age discrimination have emerged as important subjects. The main goal of this article is to call attention to these issues and their relationship with the current policy debate on resource allocation by age groups. We argue that ageism and the practice of age discrimination in Brazil should be viewed as part of the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by individuals. While noticing someone’s age is not inherently offensive, acting on age-based stereotypes clearly works against the individual and often goes unchallenged by mainstream society. A central assumption in this paper is that the way we frame ageism and intergenerational relations significantly affects perceived age discrimination and support for age-based social programs. PMID:26401063

  16. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  17. Transferring ART research into education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Freitas, Maria Cristina Carvalho de Almendra; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in Brazilian dental schools. A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the following subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%), and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%). The majority (35.3%) of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%). It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice), and the disciplines involved in its teaching. It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil.

  18. The burden of injury in Brazil, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Pinheiro Gawryszewski

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Since 1980, injuries have been the second biggest cause of death among the Brazilian population. This study aimed to analyze national data on fatal injuries and nonfatal injury hospitalization in Brazil, for 2003. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a population-based descriptive study, Brazil, 2003. METHODS: Data from 126,520 fatal injuries and 733,712 nonfatal injuries seen at public hospitals were analyzed. The data were stratified by sex, age, intent and injury mechanism. Raw and age- and sex-specific rates were calculated per 100,000 individuals. RESULTS: The raw injury mortality rate was 71.5/100,000 (122.6/100,000 for male and 22.0/100,000 for female. For fatal injuries, the proportions of unintentional and intentional injuries were equal (44.3% and 46.9%, respectively. Homicides were the leading cause, 40.3% overall (28.8/100,000, followed by transport-related deaths, 26.2% overall (17.0/100,000. For nonfatal injuries, the rate was 414.8/100,000 and unintentional injuries were predominant (88.9%. Overall, the leading cause was unintentional falls, accounting for 42.6% of victims treated in public hospitals (176.8/100,000. Transport-related injuries were second: 15.0% overall; 62.0/100,000. Fractures comprised 46.7% of principal diagnoses at hospitals. The injury types in the fatal and nonfatal datasets varied according to sex and age. The highest rates were found among young males and elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Injury prevention activities need to be developed. To prevent deaths, homicide has to be addressed. Among hospitalized cases, falls are the most important problem. Traffic-related injuries play an important role in morbidity and mortality.

  19. Vaccine protection against Zika virus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Rafael A; Abbink, Peter; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iampietro, M Justin; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Boyd, Michael; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Li, Zhenfeng; Moseley, Edward T; Bricault, Christine A; Borducchi, Erica N; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Neubauer, George; Nkolola, Joseph P; Maxfield, Lori F; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-08-25

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is responsible for the current epidemic in Brazil and the Americas. ZIKV has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and other birth defects in both humans and mice. The rapid development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is a global health priority, but very little is currently known about ZIKV immunology and mechanisms of immune protection. Here we show that a single immunization with a plasmid DNA vaccine or a purified inactivated virus vaccine provides complete protection in susceptible mice against challenge with a strain of ZIKV involved in the outbreak in northeast Brazil. This ZIKV strain has recently been shown to cross the placenta and to induce fetal microcephaly and other congenital malformations in mice. We produced DNA vaccines expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prM-Env), as well as a series of deletion mutants. The prM-Env DNA vaccine, but not the deletion mutants, afforded complete protection against ZIKV, as measured by absence of detectable viraemia following challenge, and protective efficacy correlated with Env-specific antibody titers. Adoptive transfer of purified IgG from vaccinated mice conferred passive protection, and depletion of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in vaccinated mice did not abrogate this protection. These data demonstrate that protection against ZIKV challenge can be achieved by single-shot subunit and inactivated virus vaccines in mice and that Env-specific antibody titers represent key immunologic correlates of protection. Our findings suggest that the development of a ZIKV vaccine for humans is likely to be achievable.

  20. Solar energy for steam generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, A.V. Jr.; Orlando, A. DeF.; Magnoli, D.

    1979-05-01

    Steam generation is a solar energy application that has not been frequently studied in Brazil, even though for example, about 10% of the national primary energy demand is utilized for processing heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C. On the other hand, substitution of automotive gasoline by ethanol, for instance, has received much greater attention even though primary energy demand for process heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C is of the same order of magnitude than for total automotive gasoline production. Generation of low-temperature steam is analyzed in this article using distributed systems of solar collectors. Main results of daily performance simulation of single flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors are presented for 20/sup 0/S latitude, equinox, in clear days. Flat plate collectors considered are of the aluminum roll-bond absorber type, selective surface single or double glazing. Considering feedwater at 20/sup 0/C, saturated steam at 120/sup 0/C and an annual solar utilization factor of 50%, a total collector area of about 3,000 m/sup 2/ is necessary for the 10 ton/day plant, without energy storage. A fuel-oil back-up system is employed to complement the solar steam production, when necessary. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that, although the case-study shows today a long payback period relative to subsidized fuel oil in the domestic market (over 20 years in the city of Rio de Janeiro), solar steam systems may be feasible in the medium term due to projected increase of fuel oil price in Brazil.

  1. Transferring ART research into education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the teaching of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART approach in Brazilian dental schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire on this subject was sent to Pediatric Dentistry, Operative Dentistry and Public Health Dentistry professors. The questions approached the followig subjects: the method used to teach ART, the time spent on its teaching, under which discipline it is taught, for how many years ART has been taught and its effect on the DMFT index. RESULTS: A total of 70 out of 202 dental schools returned the questionnaire. The ART approach is taught in the majority of the Brazilian dental schools (96.3%, and in most of these schools it is taught both in theory and in clinical practice (62.9%. The majority (35.3% of professors teach ART for 8 hours, and most often as part of the Pediatric Dentistry discipline (67.6%. It has been taught for the last 7 to 10 years in 34.3% of dental schools. Most professors did not observe a change in the DMFT index with this approach. There is a diversity in the teaching of ART in Brazil in terms of the number of hours spent, the teaching method (theory and practice, and the disciplines involved in its teaching. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to address the training of professors in the ART approach for the whole country. An educational model is proposed whereby a standard ART module features as part of other preventive and restorative caries care educational modules. This will facilitate and standardize the introduction and adoption of the ART approach in undergraduate education in Brazil.

  2. Violence in Brazil and Its Connection with Transnational Crime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Joarez

    2003-01-01

    The project will focus strategically on the issue of violence in Brazil and its international linkage, showing the dangerous perspectives for the future of the country if actions are not appropriately taken...

  3. All projects related to Brazil | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will propose concrete recommendations, based on applied research that will help Latin America's border regions tackle illicit drug activity. Topic: LATIN AMERICA, DRUG CONTROL, RESEARCH NETWORKS, CRIME PREVENTION, VIOLENCE. Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, ...

  4. The development of Analytical Chemistry in Brazil: retrospective and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagatto Elias A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Analytical Chemistry in Brazil in the last century is critically evaluated in relation to international achievements. Tendencies for the next century are foreseen, especially in relation to the presently observed shifts in paradigm.

  5. All projects related to Brazil | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMAL SECTOR, CULTURAL INDUSTRY, MUSIC, SMALL ENTERPRISES, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, INDUSTRIAL POLICY. Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Colombia, North and Central America. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 849,800.00.

  6. All projects related to Brazil | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...

  7. Overcoming obstacles to adoption of Brazil's national Dietary ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    processed food and drink products have profoundly changed food systems and are leading causes of today's pandemics of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Brazil has developed a classification system of foods based on the nature, extent, ...

  8. Patterns of Vertebrate Diversity and Protection in Brazil: e0145064

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clinton N Jenkins; Maria Alice S Alves; Alexandre Uezu; Mariana M Vale

    2015-01-01

    .... For three groups of terrestrial vertebrates (birds, mammals, and amphibians), we examined geographic patterns of diversity and protection in Brazil, including that of endemic, small-ranged, and threatened species...

  9. A review of wildlife ecotourism in Manaus, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil D'Cruze; Fernando Carniel Machado; Neil Matthews; Margaret Balaskas; Gemma Carder; Vanessa Richardson; Roberto Vieto

    2017-01-01

    ... who visit the city of Manaus in Brazil. Issues of potential wildlife conservation and animal welfare concern include wildlife-baiting, swim-with free-ranging pink river dolphin activity, the use of captive wild animals...

  10. All projects related to Brazil | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: YOUTH, YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, PUBLIC OPINION POLLS. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, North and Central America. Total Funding: CA$ 999,700.00. Intergenerational Transfers, Population Aging and ...

  11. Phillips curve in Brazil: an unobserved components approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente da Gama Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates reduced-form Phillips curves for Brazil with a framework of time series with unobserved components, in the spirit of Harvey (2011. However, we allow for expectations to play a key role using data from the Central Bank of Brazil's Focus survey. Besides GDP, we also use industrial capacity utilization rate and IBC-Br index, as measures of economic activity. Our findings support the view that Brazilian inflation targeting has been successful in reducing the variance of both the seasonality and level of the inflation rate, at least until the beginning of the subprime crisis. Furthermore, inflation in Brazil seems to have responded gradually less to measures of economic activity in recent years. This provides some evidence of a flattening of the Phillips curve in Brazil, a trend previously shown by recent studies for other countries.

  12. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  13. Burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Amine Farias; Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de; Costa, Maria de Fátima Dos Santos; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Lobato, Luiz Cláudio da Paixão; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2017-03-30

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus currently ranks high among indicators used in Global Burden of Disease Studies. The current study estimated the burden of disease attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications in Brazil, 2008. We calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) stratified by gender, age bracket, and major geographic region. Type 2 diabetes mellitus accounted for 5% of the burden of disease in Brazil, ranking 3rd in women and 6th in men in the composition of DALYs. The largest share of DALYs was concentrated in the 30-59-year age bracket and consisted mainly of YLDs. The highest YLL and YLD rates were in the Northeast and South of Brazil, respectively. Chronic complications represented 80% of YLDs from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus ranked as a leading health problem in Brazil in 2008, accounting for relevant shares of mortality and morbidity.

  14. Nuclear safeguards in Brazil and Argentina: 25 years of ABACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassenova, Togzhan

    2017-11-01

    As possessors of advanced nuclear technology, Brazil and Argentina bear special responsibility for helping the international community and neighbors in their region feel confident that their nuclear programs are peaceful, secure, and safe. Over the past 25 years, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) has played an indispensable role in strengthening such confidence by implementing nuclear safeguards in the two countries. Today, ABACC carries out safeguards inspections at a total of 76 nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. This article describes how Brazil and Argentina view trends in the global nonproliferation regime and international nuclear safeguards, and explains how these trends relate to unique challenges and opportunities facing Brazil, Argentina, and ABACC.

  15. All projects related to Brazil | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: YOUTH, YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, PUBLIC OPINION POLLS. Region: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, North and Central America. Total Funding: CA$ 999,700.00. Intergenerational Transfers, Population Aging and ...

  16. The ethical-political project of social work in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elaine Rossetti Behring

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to characterise the ethical-political project behind social workers in Brazil, a practical-critical profession strategy that has been developing since the late 1970s, coinciding...

  17. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in children of Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvalho, Antonio Geraldo Cidrão; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Barros, Maria de Fátima Alcântara; Aléssio, Maria Luiza Martins; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Carbonneau, Marie Annette; Berger, Jacques; Léger, Claude Louis

    2010-01-01

    To diagnose iron deficiency anemia in children. The study was conducted with a sample of 301 children aged six to 30 months attending public daycare centers in the city of Recife, Northeast Brazil, in 2004...

  18. Novel Viruses Isolated from Mosquitoes in Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Solberg, Owen; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Nogueira, Rita Maria; Langevin, Stanley; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-11-03

    Genomic sequences are described from five novel viruses and divergent strains of Brejeira and Guaico Culex viruses from mosquitoes collected in Pantanal, Brazil, in 2010. Copyright © 2016 Pauvolid-Corrêa et al.

  19. Foreign policy of the New Left: explaining Brazil's Southern partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Pickup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study is to consider the relationship between domestic change and foreign policy in Brazil, a country seeking to become Latin America's hegemon, and achieve greater global status. It focuses on Brazil's partnerships with other countries in the Global South. It argues that, due to the combination of institutions and interests behind foreign policy-making in Brazil, there is no coherent project of South-South engagement. As a result, South-South ties tend to contradict the Brazilian government's foreign policy objective of acting as a global equaliser. The study also examines the drivers of Brazil's foreign conduct, and argues that the politico-economic determinants of foreign policy differ from those of domestic policy.

  20. Income Inequality in Brazil: Is Education Quality an Important Determinant?

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud Leclerc, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of education quality to income inequality in Brazil. More specifically, I look at the average income of municipalities in Brazil to observe how much the disparities in education quality across municipalities account for income inequality. Three commonly used methods to study income inequality are implemented: decomposition by population subgroups, a regression-based approach and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Using different measures for education quali...

  1. Ocular Sequelae of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Brazil Compared with Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert,Ruth E; Katherine Freeman; Lago,Eleonor G.; Lilian M.G. Bahia-Oliveira; Hooi Kuan Tan; Martine Wallon; Wilma Buffolano; Miles R Stanford; Eskild Petersen

    2008-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis appears to be more severe in Brazil, where it is a leading cause of blindness, than in Europe, but direct comparisons are lacking. Evidence is accumulating that more virulent genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii predominate in South America. Methods We compared prospective cohorts of children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by universal neonatal screening in Brazil and neonatal or prenatal screening in Europe between 1992 and 2003, using the same pr...

  2. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia; Erymar de Araújo Dantas; Araken Britto de Souza; Raquel Araújo Costa Uchoa; Fernando Oréfice

    2005-01-01

    To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil,with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. Methods: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), observing the following criteria of ≥ 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia...

  3. [Apate terebrans (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) attacking neem trees in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rodolfo M; dos Anjos, Norivaldo; Mourão, Sheila A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and records the attack of adults Apate terebrans (Pallas) to a neem plantation located in Guarani, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2007. The damage was characterized by a hole in the trunk, from where the shot-hole-borer enters constructing tunnels and feeding on the wood. This is the first record of A. terebrans attacking neem trees in Brazil.

  4. [One photograph, myriad images: rural education in Northern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Sonia Maria da Silva

    2010-12-01

    The article addresses the processes by which schools have been established and institutionalized on extensive-grazing ranches in rural Soure, Marajó Island, Brazil. Emergence of these schools has been tied to large landholdings and to the political relations between ranchers, vaqueiros, and government. Theoretical reflections, social data, and events are placed side-by-side with photographs that depict the fragile state of public education available to children living in the rural areas of far northern Brazil.

  5. A new species of Acteon (Opisthobranchia: Acteonidae from Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Magenta Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acteon Montfort 1810, Acteon mirim sp. nov., from Canopus Bank, state of Ceará, Brazil is described based on shell morphology. The new species is compared with other species of the genus reported from Brazil. It differs from other Brazilian species in having a whitish color with dark orange-brown spiral bands and a shell surface covered with small spiral grooves, regularly rectangular.

  6. Mapping Corruption and its Institutional Determinants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey Carson; Mariana Mota Prado

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the status, sources, and forms of corruption in Brazil. While the country outperforms many of its regional and developmental peers on various corruption-related indicators, corruption continues to plague many areas of public life, most notably in regional and state governments, political parties, parliament, and public procurement at all levels of government. After analysing what various metrics reveal about the character and level of corruption in Brazil, w...

  7. Competitiveness of Brazil in the wood international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Brazilian lumber on the international market in the period 2000 to 2007. The methodological tools used to compare the competitiveness of Brazil with its main competitors were the rates of Relative Position Marketing (PRM and Revealed Comparative Advantage (VCR. The results point out to the fact that, although Brazil has proved competitive, it is necessary to use marketing strategies aimed at increasing the country’s competitiveness in this sector.

  8. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zé-Zé

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  9. On the creative economy chain in Brazil: potential and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA KON

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The article presents an analysis of the Creative Economy in Brazil, showing its development potential for the generation of income and employment, in order to the country's development resumption. They are initially presented concepts and features of the Creative Economy for, in sequence, to analyze the economic development profile and potential of this industry in Brazil. The empirical part introduces some methodological aspects, in continuing with the analysis of the creative chain...

  10. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sprey, Jan W.C.; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V.; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B.; SANTILI, CLAUDIO

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. Purpose: To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Study Des...

  11. The sharing economy in Brazil: the case of gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚRBOVÁ, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    After years of boom, Brazil will experience a recession this year. There was a significant imbalance in recent years from a budgetary point of view, inflation and foreign exchange. Protectionist Brazilian policy don't support foreign trade. Therefore consumers in the current recessive market environment are more willing to work with so-called collaborative consumption, even though Brazil is a country with one of the highest crime rate and the level of trust of consumers is lower than in other...

  12. [Needs and specialization for pediatric surgeons in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Aguiar, Alexandre Santos; de Campos, Maria do Socorro Mendonça; Baratella, José Roberto de Sousa; Ketzer, João Carlos; Mastroti, Roberto Antônio; Amarante, Antônio Carlos M

    2009-08-01

    To define the distribution of Pediatric Surgeons in Brazil and the distribution of job offered for specialists in the country. To compare the professional profile of Brazilian Pediatric Surgeons with other countries. Statistical data derived from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), Brazilian Medical Council (CFM) and Brazilian Society of Pediatric Surgery (CIPE) were used to define the professional profile of pediatric surgeons in Brazil. Eight-hundred-and-five pediatric surgeons are needed in Brazil only to treat neonates and toddlers. Professionals are excessively concentrated in South and Southeast and insufficient numbers are found in North and Northeast. Data about the number of pediatric surgeons working in Brazil are conflicting: data obtained from FIOCRUZ differ from those from CFM and CIPE. The working routine of Brazilian pediatric surgeons is different from that of North-American and European specialists, from where the major part of our references is extracted. Brazil needs a minimum of 805 pediatric surgeons working full time only to treat nenonates and toddlers. Specialists are not well distributed throughout the country. The southeast is a training center and exports specialists to the rest of the country. Epidemiological data concerning the distribution of professionals in Brazil are conflicting.

  13. Scanning insights on sustainability and supply chain management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle E. Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse how the publications in Brazil are considering the relationship between sustainability and supply chain management. For this end, a literature review was carried out in 120 Brazilian academic journals in which 124 papers were identified, from 2008 until 2013. When considering the Triple Bottom Line approach, the results show that sustainability research in Brazil is focusing on the environmental dimension and SCM research is focusing on the economic dimension. Additional inputs are provided by integrating the governance dimension in the analysis to underline which actions and policies are discussed in Brazil at a corporate level. To support the results a consultation of experts in the field of sustainability in Brazil was fulfilled, and three case examples are presented to explain some of the research results. The findings on publications in Brazil contrast with international studies, particularly on the topic of social performance and management in supply chains. One of the main conclusions is that there are large opportunities to increase publications about sustainability and SCM in the country and that Brazil presents some specificities in the field that researchers and managers shall consider.

  14. Charcot and Brazil Charcot e o Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. Ghizoni Teive

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between Professor Charcot and Brazil. BACKGROUND: During the XIX century, French Neurology and its most prominent figure, Professor Charcot, dominated the area of nervous system diseases in the world. METHOD: We have reviewed some of the main publications about Charcot's life, the biography of Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil and the development of Neurology in Brazil. RESULTS: Among the most important patients in Charcot's practice was the Emperor of Brazil. Dom Pedro II became a close friend of Charcot and he was a distinguished guest at Charcot's house, particularly at Tuesday soirées on boulevard St. Germain. In 1887, during the visit of Dom Pedro II to France, Charcot evaluated him and made the diagnosis of surmenage. In 1889, Dom Pedro II was deposed and went to Paris, where he lived until his death in 1891. Charcot signed the death certificate and gave the diagnosis of pneumonitis. Charcot had a passionate affection for animals, a feeling shared by Dom Pedro II. Dom Pedro II was affiliated to the French Society for the Protection of Animals. It is conceivable that Charcot's little monkey, from South America, was given to him by Dom Pedro II. The Brazilian Neurological School was founded by Professor A . Austregésilo in 1911, in Rio de Janeiro. At the time, of Charcot's death in 1893, his influence was still very important in the whole world. He and his pupils played a major role in the development of Brazilian Neurology. CONCLUSION: Professor Charcot had a close relationship with the Emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II. He was his private physician and they were close friends. The neurological school, created by professor Charcot, contributed significantly, albeit in an indirect way, to the development of Brazilian Neurology, starting in 1911, in Rio de Janeiro, by Professor A . Austregésilo.OBJETIVO: Descrever a relação entre o Professor Charcot e o Brasil. FUNDAMENTO: Durante o século XIX, a

  15. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test) and 41.2% (two tests), and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25). A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with social inequalities in access to health care units, coupled with other gaps in health assistance, have led to the persistence of congenital syphilis as a major public health problem in Brazil. PMID:25372167

  16. Overview of medical physics teaching in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction:Brazil has seen a rise in the number of undergraduate courses in Medical Physics in recent years, as well as initiatives for the organization of graduation programs and clinical residencies in this multidisciplinary area. The purpose of the present study was to perform a data survey on academic training in Medical Physics in Brazil in the undergraduate, graduate, and residency levels until 2012.MethodsThe relevant information was requested for the leads of the training/teaching programs, which filled specific electronic forms. The data survey was accomplished by sending the forms to 38 educational institutions.ResultsThe majority (90% of the contacted institutions returned their specific requested information. It was estimated an offer of 400 enroll admissions per year in the group of institutions that offer undergraduate programs in Medical Physics. Federal or state public educational institutions offer around 61% of these admissions and 39% are offered by private universities. The average number of candidate competition was estimated on 3.6 ± 3.9 applicants per place in undergraduate programs, and the student’s complete the courses in 5.1 ± 0.7 years. The average number of undergraduate degrees awarded per year is 10.6 ± 7.3. At least 80% of educational programs have compulsory internships in their curricula with average duration of 307 ± 99 hours. In the graduation programs it was verified that the average time for concluding the programs were 2.2 ± 0.2 years, 4.1 ± 0.2 years and 4.7 ± 0.6 years for the MSc, PhD and direct-PhD, respectively. The programs have CAPES ratings varying from 4 to 7. Finally, until 2012 the residence programs offered 31 positions per year and the professional development programs (not residence provide 7 positions per year.ConclusionIt is understood that the presented numerical results offer a reliable scenario for the diagnosis of opportunities and scholarships distributions in each region of

  17. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  18. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch de; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-03-30

    Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67-2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25-4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. The inequalities among the country's regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. Avaliar os ambientes escolares aos quais estão expostos estudantes do nono ano no Brasil e nas cinco regiões do país segundo diretrizes de promoção da saúde. Estudo transversal, de 2012, com amostra representativa do Brasil e suas macrorregiões. Escolares do nono ano e gestores de escolas públicas e privadas foram entrevistados. Foi proposto o Escore de Promoção de Saúde no Ambiente Escolar (EPSAE) e foi estimada a distribuição dos escolares segundo esse escore e segundo odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas, por regressão ordinal, para exposição dos escolares a escolas com escores mais elevados, segundo as variáveis independentes. Um escolar tem mais probabilidade de frequentar escola com EPSAE elevado na região Sul (OR = 2,80; IC95% 2,67-2,93) se a escola for privada privada (OR = 4,52; IC95% 4,25-4,81) e estiver localizada em capital de estado e se o

  19. The privatization of medical education in Brazil: trends and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2015-12-17

    Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader

  20. Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Golding, Nick; Kraemer, Moritz U G; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Silva, Daisy Elaine Andrade; da Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Cruz, Ana Cecília Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Vianez, Joao Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Bruno Tardelli Diniz; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Tesh, Robert B; Hay, Simon I; Pybus, Oliver G; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-04-30

    In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, and in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil. We compiled epidemiological and clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil and polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April and September 2014. Two imported and four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities. We detected 41 CHIKV importations and 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola and developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country and provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil. The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian and ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance and vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas.

  1. Using the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Persch, Karina Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has received influxes of people, mainly from Africa, Europe and Japan, forming one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world. Some groups, particularly in Southern Brazil, have retained their original cultural traditions, whilst acquiring elements of the typical local Brazilian cultural identity. This is the first study designed to formally evaluate biculturality in Brazil. To psychometrically assess and validate the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale (BS) in Brazil. The BS was adapted and translated to Portuguese and tested for the first time in Brazil in a sample of descendants (n = 160) from four immigrant groups and respective locations in Southern Brazil. A series of psychometric tests were conducted in order to examine the validity of the Portuguese version of the BS. Analyses of variance across scores for all subgroups were also conducted. Factor analysis revealed two main factors contributing to most of the variance in scores. The 10 items measuring affiliation with minority cultural characteristics and the typical Brazilian culture yielded Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.69 and 0.78 respectively, whereas the overall Cronbach's alpha for all 20 items of the BS was 0.67. There was a significant correlation between items related to the typical Brazilian culture and the generation since immigration of research participants (r = 0.23, p = 0.004). The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 7.4 minutes. The results indicate that the Portuguese version of the BS is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use instrument to assess biculturality experienced by descendants of immigrants in southern Brazil.

  2. Using the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zubaran

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Brazil has received influxes of people, mainly from Africa, Europe and Japan, forming one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world. Some groups, particularly in Southern Brazil, have retained their original cultural traditions, whilst acquiring elements of the typical local Brazilian cultural identity. This is the first study designed to formally evaluate biculturality in Brazil. Objective: To psychometrically assess and validate the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale (BS in Brazil. Methods: The BS was adapted and translated to Portuguese and tested for the first time in Brazil in a sample of descendants (n = 160 from four immigrant groups and respective locations in Southern Brazil. A series of psychometric tests were conducted in order to examine the validity of the Portuguese version of the BS. Analyses of variance across scores for all subgroups were also conducted. Results: Factor analysis revealed two main factors contributing to most of the variance in scores. The 10 items measuring affiliation with minority cultural characteristics and the typical Brazilian culture yielded Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.69 and 0.78 respectively, whereas the overall Cronbach's alpha for all 20 items of the BS was 0.67. There was a significant correlation between items related to the typical Brazilian culture and the generation since immigration of research participants (r = 0.23, p = 0.004. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 7.4 minutes. Conclusion: The results indicate that the Portuguese version of the BS is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use instrument to assess biculturality experienced by descendants of immigrants in southern Brazil.

  3. Brazil's urban laboratory takes the strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, C

    1996-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, in southern Brazil, has been known for its environmental-friendly urban planning. Its quality of life has encouraged the natural growth of the city, which has doubled its population to over 1.3 million in the last 20 years while retaining 52 m of green area per inhabitant. In this article, the city's efforts to retain its success in the face of a growing population are documented. An integrated transport system has been created, a main commercial street was turned into a pedestrian street, the building of the Wire Opera and the Free Environment University was created, and the decentralization of the country's health system, and the launching of a program of waste sorting. All these accomplishments subsequently generated tourism, bringing in an income of about 4% of the city's net income. In addition, they have helped the 300,000 inhabitants of the city's slums with their rubbish by selling them carts on a low installment price. Migratory flow has been curbed since the creation of the Return House, wherein social workers offer free tickets to potential migrants; and the Vila Rural (Rural Town), consisting of small rural properties where peasant farmers will be able to farm in between industrial jobs. In conclusion, if Curitiba's Institute of Urban Research and Planning team is successful in transposing to the State its achievements in the municipal administration, by the year 2000 Curitiba will have proved to be the seed of a revolution that will improve the development of the whole region.

  4. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  5. Application of Multiple Evaluation Models in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Victal Saliba

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on two different samples, this article tests the performance of a number of Value Drivers commonly used for evaluating companies by finance practitioners, through simple regression models of cross-section type which estimate the parameters associated to each Value Driver, denominated Market Multiples. We are able to diagnose the behavior of several multiples in the period 1994-2004, with an outlook also on the particularities of the economic activities performed by the sample companies (and their impacts on the performance through a subsequent analysis with segregation of companies in the sample by sectors. Extrapolating simple multiples evaluation standards from analysts of the main financial institutions in Brazil, we find that adjusting the ratio formulation to allow for an intercept does not provide satisfactory results in terms of pricing errors reduction. Results found, in spite of evidencing certain relative and absolute superiority among the multiples, may not be generically representative, given samples limitation.

  6. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  7. "Nerves" and tranquilizer use in rural Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemberg, B; Manderson, L

    1998-01-01

    Drawing on data from a morbidity survey of sampled households in 25 small villages in Espirito Santo, Brazil, this article is concerned with reports of "nerves" (nervos) or nerve problems (problema de nervos). Reported cases of nervos (30 percent of all reports of illness) included a variety of symptoms: insomnia, body pains, dizziness, trembling, weakness, and emotional states ranging from feelings of sadness to anger. In one-third of the accounts, "overwork" was mentioned as the main cause, due both to its direct physical effect and to stress related to economic hardship and responsibility. In 88 percent of the cases, the afflicted person regularly used at least one psychotropic drug to relieve symptoms. Daily use of drugs occurred in 68 percent of the cases, and in 47 percent of cases people were reported as "dependent" on the drugs. The extensive use of psychotropic drugs suggests medicalization of nervos, creating a sick role for patients and keeping at an individual level the problems resulting in nervos.

  8. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

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    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  9. Pregnancy recurrence in adolescents in Southern Brazil

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    Mariza Zanchi

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To determine the pregnancy recurrence among adolescents and young people in a city located in the extreme south of Brazil and to identify associated factors. Method: One hundred and twelve (112 women participated, having delivered their children in 2010, while adolescents. The sample was stratified in two stages, being the first a census of the whole population of the city and the second a convenience sample. For statistical analysis, Pearson Chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The recurrence rate was 53.6%, with an average of 28.6 months. At the time of delivery, in 2010, recurrence was significantly associated with level of education (p=0.044 as well as not being in school (p=0.036. In 2014, the factors associated were level of education (p<0.001, transcript of grades (p=0.030 and income (p=0.030. Conclusion: Recurrence of teenage pregnancy represents a lack of importance given to formal education, a fact that mitigates the opportunities and hinders insertion in the labor market, creating a cycle of social inequality. Multidisciplinary efforts involving schools, health services and the youth in educational activities are thus vital, aiming at critical thinking to transform reality.

  10. Brazil's national programs targeting childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C

    2013-06-01

    In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children.

  11. Incidence of anabolic steroid counterfeiting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Marcheti, Ravane Gracy Ament; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-05-10

    This retrospective study reports data obtained from the National Institute of Criminalistics of the Brazilian Federal Police Department (DPF) on 3676 anabolic products seized between 2006 and 2011. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were declared on the labels of 96.2% of the products. About one third of the products declared to be from Paraguay, and 14.3% from Brazil. Stanozolol, testosterone and nandrolone were the substances most declared on the labels. Package and qualitative chemical analyses (performed on 2818 products) found that 31.7% of the seized products were counterfeit, with an increase in the counterfeit detection rate during the period. Almost half of the fake products did not contain the declared substances, and 28.3% had only non-declared substances. Testosterone and its esters were responsible for 45% of the 582 cases of non-declared drug detection. Package analysis alone was responsible for the identification of 4.6% of all counterfeit products. These results indicate the need for a continuous effort by the government aimed at decreasing the availability of these products in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LAND PARCELING AND NEIGHBORHOOD IMPACTS IN BRAZIL

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    Sérgio Antonio Röhm

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal and implementation of parceling real estate into smaller lots in Brazil is done according to legal and technical formalities. However, these instruments have proved inefficient in reducing the resulting environmental impacts. The ambiguities of the federal, state and municipal laws and regulations have limited the effectiveness of the actions of urban administrators. Law 10257/2001 emerged as an alternative to overcome these difficulties, proposing the adoption of neighborhood impact studies as an instrument to evaluate new proposals of urban occupation for purposes of environmental licensing. Thus, the purpose of this law is to provide the foundations for municipal public authorities to establish criteria for the assessment, mitigation and compensation of impacts resulting from new occupations. However, the very vagueness of the generic nature of this federal law and its incorrect application in the municipal sphere has posed the greatest obstacles to the good use of this instrument of urban environmental management. These deficiencies are classified herein in the categories of philosophical, technical and operational problems. The problems of a philosophical nature lead to technical difficulties, which in turn trigger operational deficiencies. This article discusses these deficiencies and points out ways to reduce them.

  13. Assessing vaccine data recording in Brazil

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    Mario Lucio de Oliveira Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objectives: Vaccines represent an important advancement for improving the general health of a population. The effective recording of vaccine data is a factor for the definition of its supply chain. This study investigated vaccine data recording relatively to data collected from vaccination rooms and data obtained from a government-developed Internet platform. Methods: The monthly recorded total number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (alone or in combination with the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine doses administered in a medium-sized city of the Southeast region of Brazil was collected for the period January/2006 through December/2010 from two sources: City level (directly from vaccination rooms, the study "gold standard", and Federal level (from an Internet platform developed by the country government. Data from these sources were compared using descriptive statistics and the Percentage error. Results: The data values made available by the Internet platform differed from those obtained from the vaccination rooms, with a Percentage error relatively to the actual values in the range [-0.48; 0.39]. Concordant values were observed only in one among the sixty analyzed months (1.66%. Conclusions: A frequent and large difference between the number of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine doses administered in the two levels was detected.

  14. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  15. Outraged governance. Brazil : a route of Danger

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    Matusalém Gonçalves Pimenta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the risks taken by Brazil for not fulfilling an Inter- national Resolution. The research method chosen was the systemic / comparative. In regard to Pilotage, the International Maritime Organization (IMO adopted the A-960 (23 Resolution, and has upheld it ever since towards a global governance, approach and positioning. The authors of this article have chosen to focus in five fundamental princi- ples, extracted from the Resolution. It has been established that these principles remain paramount to almost all member countries, and, whenever they choose to uphold them, all undertake a standpoint of good governance. This work initially analyses and compa- res the sub studio Resolution standards towards the present brazilian pilotage model. Moreover, it identifies some discrepancies that lead to non-compliances. Furthermore, it correlates the violation of fundamental principles to three massive maritime accidents that mankind shall not be proud of, i.e. Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress and Costa Concordia. Lastly, final conclusion is that, whenever the international IMO standards are disregarded by Brazilian Authorities, they endanger - most unacceptably - the maritime environment, the safety of navigation, and of human life at sea.

  16. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

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    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  17. Palliative care and elderly health in Brazil

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    Angela Maria Amaral Soares Abou Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years elderly population is increasing substantially, about 650,000 per year, as well as the concept of unifamílies, ie, families consisting of a single person. In this paper, is proposed a reflection about health of elderly in Brazil, and the conditions of a chronic disease and its acute state - terminal. In the actual society, capitalist and capitalized, the individual is valued by his production, losing his value when acquires a disabling illnesses. There is a growing need for work, and each time there is less time and resources to manage the permanence of an elderly patient at home, or pay for a caregiver. This situation leads families to resort to hospitalization, which in turn makes the hospitals overcrowded with patients in this state, affecting both emergency care as the treatment of chronic patients. This fact occurs due to lack of hospital infrastructure, as well by the lack of units of the healthy system capable of providing palliative care. The questioning about the elderly who need palliative care, and reflection about the type of care dispended for this kind of patient, should be the focal point of professional's reflections, capable to lead him to a new way of thinking and, consequently, to inspire him to act in a new way.

  18. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a sample of patients followed at a public health-care facility in Brazil. Factors potentially associated with higher indirect costs in these patients were also investigated. This cross-sectional study included patients between 18 and 65 years old with RA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Patients who were working, on sick leave or retired early due to RA were invited to participate in the survey. A systematic structured interview was conducted in all patients including demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables and an experienced rheumatologist examined all patients. Estimates of the indirect costs in the preceding 12 months were performed using the human-capital approach based on the society perspective. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with higher indirect costs. A total of 192 patients were included in the study. Forty-seven of them (24.5%) had retired early due to RA, 62 others (32.3%) were on sick leave due to RA while 83 patients (43.2%) were working at the time of the interview. Estimated indirect cost for this population was US$ 466,107.81 or US$ 2,423.51 per patient per year. Factors associated with higher costs were RA poor functional class, high socioeconomic status and male patients (p Indirect costs were higher in patients with poor functional classes, high socioeconomic status, and men.

  19. Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Henrique V.; Lopes, Mario Lucio [Fermentec, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Castro Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Buckeridge, Marcos S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, INCT do Bioetanol (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2011-09-15

    Bioethanol (fuel alcohol) has been produced by industrial alcoholic fermentation processes in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century. Currently, 432 mills and distilleries crush about 625 million tons of sugarcane per crop, producing about 27 billion liters of ethanol and 38.7 million tons of sugar. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane represents a major large-scale technology capable of producing biofuel efficiently and economically, providing viable substitutes to gasoline. The combination of immobilization of CO{sub 2} by sugarcane crops by photosynthesis into biomass together with alcoholic fermentation of this biomass has allowed production of a clean and high-quality liquid fuel that contains 93% of the original energy found in sugar. Over the last 30 years, several innovations have been introduced to Brazilian alcohol distilleries resulting in the improvement of plant efficiency and economic competitiveness. Currently, the main scientific challenges are to develop new technologies for bioethanol production from first and second generation feedstocks that exhibit positive energy balances and appropriately meet environmental sustainability criteria. This review focuses on these aspects and provides special emphasis on the selection of new yeast strains, genetic breeding, and recombinant DNA technology, as applied to bioethanol production processes. (orig.)

  20. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  1. Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it{exclamation_point}; Metatese de olefinas no Brasil: 'Brazil is romping it{exclamation_point}'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Jose Milton E.; Batista, Nouga C.; Carvalho, Rogerio M.; Santana, Sirlane A. A.; Puzzi, Paula N.; Sanches, Mario; Lima-Neto, Benedito S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: benedito@iqsc.usp.br

    2007-03-15

    Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts). In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community. (author)

  2. LBA-ECO LC-22 Land Cover from MODIS Vegetation Indices, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set, LBA-ECO LC-22 Land Cover from MODIS Vegetation Indices, Mato Grosso, Brazil, provides land cover classifications for Mato Grosso, Brazil, for the...

  3. Miracle drug: Brazil approves never-tested cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S; Mota, Daniel M

    2017-07-01

    Background Brazil recently approved synthetic phosphoetanolamine, a popularly dubbed 'cancer pill', a substance that has been shown to kill cancer cells in lab animal models but was not yet formally accessed in humans, and thus despite the existence of any evidence of its efficacy and safety. Methods The authors describe the recent decision of Brazil to aprove phosphoetanolamine in the context of growing 'judicialization' to promote access to medicines and thus reinforcing a growing sense of legal uncertainty. Results The approval of phosphoetanolamine despite the existence of any evidence of its efficacy and safety represents to the authors one of the saddest and surrealistic episodes in Brazil's recent public health history. Brazil's current economic crisis is fueling the 'judicialization' to promote access to medicines and thus reinforcing a growing sense of legal uncertainty in the context of rising economic constrains and a progressive failing state. The authors state that the Phosphoetanolamine's approval bill violates current legal prohibition of commercialisation of drugs without the Brazilian national drug regulatory agency's approval and thus may represent a potential menace to Brazil's pharmacogovernance and the country's governance to health technology assessment at the Brazilian national health systems. Conclusion Phosphoetanolamine's approval illustrates that the combination of flawed decision making, economic crisis and political interference may threaten weak governance mechanisms for drug regulation and health technology assessment and thus representing an extra burden in the sustainability of universal access-based national health systems.

  4. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

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    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey, we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making

  5. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and rat lungworm disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2013-06-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil.

  6. Where are the trees outside forest in Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert de Foresta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trees outside forests (ToF is often a misunderstood category. This is the case in Brazil as shown by the lack of data on ToF reported until now by the country. In this article, ToF are understood in relation to the FAO definition of forest because it is the definition used in Brazil for the National Forest Inventory. I provide a definition of ToF, detail the main sets as inferred from this definition, propose to focus on a category of ToF as an efficient and realistic first step towards the assessment of ToF countrywide, and I illustrate the diversity of ToF-based systems in Brazil, from relatively isolated trees in agroforestry fields to dense mixed tree formations that cannot be distinguished from forests on satellite images. A recent publication has placed Brazil as the world leader in terms of the total biomass carbon stored by one ToF set, trees on agricultural land. This result could stimulate the desire for Brazil to better assess not only trees on agricultural land but also trees on urban land, the two major sets of trees outside forests. The present paper can help those who will undertake this challenging and exciting task.

  7. Humane Education in Brazil: Organisation, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinski, Róber; Tréz, Thales; Alves, Gutemberg G; de C M Garcia, Rita; Oliveira, Simone T; da S Alonso, Luciano; Heck, Júlio X; Dias, Claudia M C; Costa Neto, João M; Rocha, Alexandro A; Ruiz, Valeska R R; Paixão, Rita L

    2015-11-01

    Humane education and the debate on alternatives to harmful animal use for training is a relatively recent issue in Brazil. While animal use in secondary education has been illegal since the late 1970s, animal use in higher science education is widespread. However, alternatives to animal experiments in research and testing have recently received attention from the Government, especially after the first legislation on animal experiments was passed, in 2008. This article proposes that higher science education should be based on a critical and humane approach. It outlines the recent establishment of the Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH), as a result of the project, Mapping Animal Use for Undergraduate Education in Brazil, which was recognised by the 2014 Lush Prize. The network aims to create a platform to promote change in science education in Brazil, starting by quantitatively and qualitatively understanding animal use, developing new approaches adapted to the current needs in Brazil and Latin America, and communicating these initiatives nationally. This paper explores the trajectory of alternatives and replacement methods to harmful animal use in training and education, as well as the status of humane education in Brazil, from the point of view of educators and researchers engaged with the network.

  8. Scorpionism in Brazil in the years 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckziegel, Guilherme Carneiro; Pinto, Vitor Laerte

    2014-01-01

    Scorpionism is a serious public health problem in Brazil. Nationwide epidemiological analyses of scorpion stings are scarce. In this context, the present study aims to provide an epidemiological analysis of accidents involving scorpions in Brazil. An analytical epidemiological study of the scorpion accidents reported in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) was conducted from 2000 to 2012 in Brazil. During this period, 482,616 accidents and 728 deaths were reported. The annual average incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 19.6 and 0.030, respectively, with annual average lethality rate of 0.16%. The highest accident frequency was recorded in male subjects, aged 20-49 years, from September to December and in urban areas, except in the northern region of the country, where accidents were most frequent in June and July, and in rural areas. Males up to age 9 and rural areas were defined as an age group and area for greatest death risk, respectively. Scorpionism in Brazil is a predominantly urban health problem that mostly affects people at an economically active age. The Northeast and Southeast hold the majority of cases and deaths, as well as the highest annual incidence and mortality averages, but the Central West and North presented the highest average annual lethality rates. The epidemiological changes described in this study highlight the need for intensifying health surveillance actions to prevent scorpion accidents in Brazil.

  9. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

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    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  10. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  11. A review on human attitudes towards reptiles in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Vieira, Kleber Silva; Santana, Gindomar Gomes; Vieira, Washington Luiz Silva; Almeida, Waltécio Oliveira; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Montenegro, Paulo Fernando Guedes Pereira; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2012-11-01

    For many millennia humans and reptiles have interacted, but the attitude of humans towards these animals has depended on culture, environment, and personal experience. At least 719 reptile species are known to occur in Brazil and about 11% of this fauna has been exploited for many different purposes, including bushmeat, leather, ornamental and magic/religious uses, and as folk medicines. Brazil can therefore serve as an interesting case study for better understanding reptile use by human societies, and the present paper catalogues some of the reptile species being used in Brazil and discusses implications for their conservation. A literature review indicated that 81 reptile species are culturally important in this country, with 47 (58%) species having multiple uses, 54 being used for medicinal purposes, 38 as food, 28 for ornamental or decorative purposes, 20 used in magic/religious practices, 18 as pets, and 40 are commonly killed when they come into contact with humans. Regarding their conservation status, 30 (37.5%) are included on State's Red List, Brazilian Red List or the IUCN Red List. There are many forms of interaction between reptiles and humans in Brazil-although most of them are quite negative in terms of wildlife conservation-which reinforces the importance of understanding such uses and interactions in the context of protecting reptiles in Brazil. A better understanding of the cultural, social, and traditional roles of these reptiles is fundamental to establishing management plans for their sustainable use.

  12. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  13. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  14. Evaluation removes obstacles to sterilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In 1978, Centro de Pesquisas de Assitencia Integrada a Mulher e a Crianca (CPAIMC) in Rio de Janeiro began to offer interval sterilizations in an attempt to increase the access of poor women to sterilization services. By the end of 1984, the program had provided in excess of 19,000 sterilizations, making CPAIMC Brazil's largest single source of voluntary interval sterilization. Despite the program's success, CPAIMC was concerned that obstacles still existed in the poor woman's path to sterilization access. A study was conducted by Family Health International (FHI) in collaboration with the Pathfinder Fund and CPAIMC's Department of Information, Evaluation and Research to locate possible barriers. The study indicated that less than half of the women who requested sterilization between June 1 and August 31, 1983 actually had the procedure. During that period, 1256 women requested sterilization at the CPAIMC clinic. Of these, 925 were approved, and 639 were scheduled for surgery. Only 559 were actually sterilized within 3 months of receiving approval. 1 possible reason why women were not receiving the surgery was that the women requesting sterilization actually were not highly motivated to obtain the service. Yet, study results indicate this probably was not the reason. During initial interviews at the clinic, many women said they had thought very carefully about being sterilized, and more than 40% reported deciding to have a tubal ligation before their last pregnancy. Almost 3/4 of the women reported that they did not plan their last pregnancy, and almost 2/3 indicated that the pregnancy was unwanted. About 63% were contracepting, and many were using effective methods. More than half of the non-contraceptors were not using a method because they had just ended a pregnancy and were not sexually active. As a group, the women requesting sterilization were highly motivated to avoid having more children. Age and number of children were the most important criteria used by

  15. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  16. Cost of visceral leishmaniasis care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Isis Polianna Silva Ferreira; Peixoto, Henry Maia; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the Brazilian direct and indirect costs of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in 2014. Cost-of-illness study on the Brazilian public health system and societal perspective. VL cases registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System in the year of 2014 were considered. Direct medical costs regarding diagnostic, treatment and care provided to patients with VL were estimated through the top-down approach. The indirect costs related to productivity loss due to premature mortality and morbidity were estimated by means of the human-capital method. In 2014, 9895 suspected cases of VL were reported in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, and 3453 were later confirmed. There were 234 patients with Leishmania-HIV coinfection underwent a secondary prophylaxis. The total cost of VL in Brazil was US$ 14 190 701.50 (US$ 14 189 150.10 to 14 199 940.53) that varied according to the sensitivity analysis. The total of direct medical costs corresponded to US$ 1 873 681.96 (US$1 872 130.55 to 1 882 920.99), and the majority of costs was associated with hospitalisation (40%), followed by treatment (22%), and secondary prophylaxis (18%). Productivity loss corresponded to US$ 11 421 683.37 for premature mortality and US$ 895 336.18 for work absence due to hospitalisation by the illness. VL represents an expensive health problem for the Brazilian public health system and society, mainly because of its productivity loss due to premature mortality. Interventions to reduce VL lethality could have a great impact on decreasing the cost of illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  18. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  19. Changes in food consumption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S P

    1997-06-01

    Changes in eating habits have occurred in the last decades in several countries associated to demographic, economic, social and epidemiologic factors. In Brazil, the available data about food consumption are the result of Family Budget Surveys undertaken by Getúlio Vargas Foundation and IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) in 1961/1963 and 1987/88, respectively, and the National Study of Family Expenditure (ENDEF), carried out by IBGE during 1974/75. They reveal as principal tendencies the decreasing consumption of staple foodstuffs (beans, rice, manioc flour), pork meat, lard and butter, the replacement of bovine meat for chicken, and the increase in the consumption of eggs, milk products and vegetable oils. Based on these surveys, the intake of macronutrients in urban areas showed a decrease of carbohydrate and an increase of fat contribution as sources of calories, an increase in the consumption of animal protein in detriment of vegetable protein, and substitution of animal fats for vegetable fats. It was also observed an increase in the use of industrialized foodstuffs, directly related to income, leading to a greater diversity of foodstuffs and lower consumption of staple foods. Recent studies with adult and elderly population from the city of São Paulo show a reduction in the consumption of fatty and fried foods and sugar, and an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables because of health concern. Studies that take into account the verified changes in eating habits and the new consumption tendencies, as well as their impact on nutritional and health conditions of the Brazilian urban population, are presently needed.

  20. Breastfeeding on prime-time in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello Branco, H

    1990-01-01

    An example of the potential power of mass media in helping implement health programs, Brazil conducted a highly successful advertising campaign aimed at increasing the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding. The advertising campaign formed part of the 1981-84 breastfeeding program, which included -- among other things -- implementing maternity laws, establishing support groups for breastfeeding mothers, and disseminating information to policymakers. While several methods to inform parents had been tried, all had encountered resistance. An intensive mass media campaign changed all that. In 1982, 100 television channels began airing frequent, prime- time commercials -- an effort supplemented by radio sports, posters, and print advertisements. The airing of commercials followed extensive research and pretesting of the material, and were intended to help break down social barrier to breastfeeding, which included: women's fears that their breast size made then incapable of breastfeeding; employers' lack of support for working mothers; the lack of unity among doctors that breastfeeding is right for every child; and "machismo" -- men's attitude that the breast is only a sexual object. In order to establish a common goal, all spots ended with the slogan: "Breastfeeding -- 6 months that build up a life." And to establish credibility, the commercials featured well-known Brazilian celebrities. A spot aimed at facilitating the act for other women showed a popular actress breastfeeding her own child; another commercial showed a well- known singer and male role model asking fathers to support breastfeeding. An evaluation conducted in 1987 indicated significant positive changes due to the advertising campaign, demonstrating the potential of mass media in raising public awareness.

  1. The epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Wünsch

    Full Text Available The city of São Paulo exhibits one of the highest incidences of laryngeal cancer in world and Brazil presents remarkable occurrence, compared with other Latin American countries. Around 8,000 new cases and 3,000 deaths by laryngeal cancer occur annually in the Brazilian population. In the city of São Paulo, incidence rates for laryngeal cancer among males have been decreasing since the late 1980s while, among females, the rates have shown a stable trend. This phenomenon is probably the expression of changes in gender behavior related to tobacco smoking. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of laryngeal cancer. The most important are tobacco smoking and alcohol intake, but occupational hazards have also been associated with the disease, such as asbestos, strong inorganic acids, cement dust and free crystalline silica. Additionally, salted meat and total fat intake have been linked to elevated risk of laryngeal cancer. Conversely, several studies have confirmed that fruits, raw leaf vegetables and legumes protect against this cancer. Some researchers have postulated a possible association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and human papilloma virus (HPV, but this is not universally accepted. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is weakly, but consistently correlated with laryngeal cancer. Familial cancer clusters, particularly of head and neck tumors, seem to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Some genetic polymorphisms, such as of genes that code for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, have shown elevated risk for laryngeal cancer according to recent studies. Public health policies regarding the control of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, and also surveillance of carcinogen exposure in occupational settings, could have an impact on laryngeal cancer. No proposals for screening have been recommended for laryngeal cancer, but one diagnostic goal should be to avoid treatment delay when suspected symptoms have been observed.

  2. Chronic fatigue among bank workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fatima Marinho de Souza, M; Messing, K; Menezes, P R; Cho, H J

    2002-06-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of chronic fatigue (CF) among bank workers in Brazil and possible associations with gender and working conditions. The study sample included all 735 workers from the department of data processing of a state bank. CF was assessed using the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Working conditions and socio-demographic, socio-economic and psychosocial factors at work were analysed. Psychiatric symptoms were measured with the SRQ-20. The overall estimate of the prevalence of CF was 8.7% [95% confidence intervals (95% CI) = 6.4-10.9%]: 7.8% (95% CI = 5.5-10.7%) among men and 11.0% (95% CI = 6.7-16.9%) among women. The male-female difference was not statistically significant, even after adjusting for minor psychiatric disorders. The overall prevalence of CF without minor psychiatric disorders was 4.5% (95% CI = 2.7-6.3%): 3.9% (95% CI = 1.9-5.9%) among men and 6.4% (95% CI = 2.0-10.1%) among women. In the final model, risk factors for CF were fast work speed [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5], dissatisfaction at work (OR = 3.1), minor psychiatric disorders (OR = 6.8), and medium (OR = 1.8) and heavy domestic workload (OR = 12.0). CF is common among these bank workers and is associated with psychosocial factors at work. Particularly among women, domestic workload, marital status and the presence of young children were associated with CF in the stratified analysis. Domestic workload may add physical and mental stress, putting employees at risk for CF from overload, or CF may cause workers to perceive domestic work as heavy.

  3. Snakebites in Paraíba, Brazil

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    H. N. Albuquerque

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological data on snakebites in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, is scarce. This accounts for the difficulties in helping the victims. Hence, to obtain the clinical and epidemic profile of the snakebite accidents in Paraíba, we studied the number of cases recorded in this state between January 1995 and December 2000. The data was collected from these sources: Center for Toxicological Assistance (Centro de Assistência Toxicológica - CEATOX and State Secretariat of Health (Secretaria Estadual de Saude, João Pessoa; 3rd Regional Health Center (3º Núcleo Regional de Saúde - NRS and the Division of Epidemiological Vigilance of the Municipal Secretariat of Health (Divisão de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde - DVE/SMS, Campina Grande. The annual distribution of the snakebite incidence showed an irregularity and an increase in March, May and August; followed by a large reduction in November and December. It was also observed that snakebites occurred more frequently in the rural area, mainly among the male laborers between 10-49 years. In most cases, the bite occurred on the leg or foot. The interval between the snakebite and the medical assistance was less than six hours. The most common symptoms were pain, edema, erythema, and bleeding. The low lethality index and the high frequency of healing, without sequels, suggest that the treatment with serum neutralized the poison, indicating the efficacy of this treatment against snakebites by the specific species found in this region.

  4. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section will...

  5. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications should...

  6. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr...

  7. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ..., Canada, and the PRC and the CVD order on castings from Brazil. U.S. Customs and Border Protection will... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

  8. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program AGENCY: Office of... Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education... institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in Latin America (in addition to Brazil) to create a...

  9. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  10. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  11. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  12. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  13. 78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. The period of review (POR) is... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil'' dated concurrently with this notice...

  14. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil... (July 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Investigation Nos. 731...

  15. A new species of the genus Xanthomicrogaster Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) from Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penteado-Dias, A.M.; Shimabukuro, P.H.F.; Achterberg, van C.

    2002-01-01

    One new Xanthomicrogaster species from Brazil is described, and X. fortipes Cameron, 1911, is redescribed and reported from Brazil and Suriname for the first time. A key to the species is presented as well as data about the geographical distribution in Brazil.

  16. U.S.-Brazil Security Cooperation and the State Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    AU/ACSC/MIKAELSEN, D/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY U.S.- BRAZIL SECURITY COOPERATION AND THE STATE PARTNERSHIP...8 C. Security Cooperation with Brazil ...began as a question of basically why Brazil does not have a State Partnership Program with the National Guard and that being the case, how could it

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo; all...

  18. First report on the entomopathogenic genus Neozygites (Entomophthoromycota) and Neozygites osornensis on aphids in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Neozygites has been known in Brazil until now only on mites, and this is its first report on aphids in Brazil. Tree-dwelling aphids (Cinara sp.) on a cypress tree were regularly monitored for entomopathogenic fungi in the city of Terezópolis de Goiás in Central Brazil between July 2014 and...

  19. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  20. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  1. Medical and agricultural entomology in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, J L

    2008-12-01

    Medical Entomology emerged in Brazil in the late nineteenth century, through the initiative of a group of physicians dedicated to researching microorganisms related to diseases of public health importance, especially yellow fever and malaria. They led the institutionalization of Bacteriology and Tropical Medicine in southeast Brazil and the sanitation of coastal cities and, subsequently, rural areas. Medical Entomology provided the professionals who would undertake campaigns against agricultural plagues, as well as the institutionalization of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine. In the present article, I intend to show how relations between the professionals who gave life to Medical Entomology in Brazil were interwoven and to illustrate their relations with entomologists in other countries. I will also present an overview of the research problems faced by Brazilian entomologists at the turn of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth.

  2. Teacher Training for Teaching Anthropology in Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amurabi Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropology became systematized as a science in the nineteenth century, and its first teachers were self-taught, and it was initially only taught at a university level, although some countries had limited experiences with Anthropology in basic education. This article analyzes the education of anthropology teachers in Brazil and Argentina, considering the various institutional and academic settings in both countries. While Argentina has fewer courses than Brazil, these courses are more specific, and focused on the education of anthropology teachers. In Brazil anthropology is offered within social science courses in basic education, and specifically within sociology classes. This paper analyzes how teacher courses in Anthropology education in these two countries deal with the challenges in their different institutional and academic contexts.

  3. Shared decision making in Brazil: history and current discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mirhelen Mendes de; Battisti, Raphael; Martins, Rachel Samhan; Baumgratz, Thiago Dias; Cuziol, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    There is no SDM in clinical practice in Brazil. The first steps have been taken towards research and tool development recently. Likewise, our society is starting to get involved with decision making in health care. This paper aims to offer an overview of the Brazilian health system history, its values, and its influence on SDM. The participative social control concept is introduced as a result of the movement against the dictatorship era. In addition, the influence of social changes on the Medical Ethical Code is delineated. SDM state of the art in Brazil is also discussed and the challenges to implement it on clinical practice are described. Regardless the challenges, it is possible to make a positive assessment of SDM in Brazil. 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. [Vaccination, smallpox, and a culture of immunization in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Gilberto

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the emergence and establishment of a "culture of immunization" in the contemporary Brazil from the eradication of smallpox. This culture is associated with a long process of introduction of vaccines, vaccination campaigns and mass vaccination undertaken by the Brazilian government since the late nineteenth century. Particular importance is attributed to the campaign to eradicate smallpox in Brazil (1966-1973). The experience of mass vaccination of the population against smallpox is contrasted with episodes of resistance as the "revolt against the vaccine", and regarded as crucial in shaping new policies and new understandings about the role of immunization in public health and its place in society Brazil.

  5. Regional Governance in Brazil's Unified Health System: a conceptual essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Tavares; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-04-01

    This article is a conceptual essay aimed at supporting analyses of the regionalization processes implemented in Brazil's Unified Health System, from the perspective of regional governance. The authors conducted a literature review in the social sciences, public administration, and critical geography, focusing on the concepts of governance, territorial governance, and regional governance in the debate on development. In dialogue with these contributions to the analysis of recent regulation and implementation of health sector regionalization in Brazil, with special reference to use of the Organizational Contract for Public Action (COAP) in the country's health regions, the article concludes that the research on governance as a modern approach to linking public policies highlights the timeliness of developing methodologies and critical reflection on the relevant national processes in Brazil for future health sector proposals, thereby pointing to a new stage in the improvement of the Unified Health System.

  6. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  7. Public health and social ideas in modern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nísia Trindade

    2007-07-01

    Public health in Brazil achieved remarkable development at the turn of the 20th century thanks in part to physicians and social thinkers who made it central to their proposals for "modernizing" the country. Public health was more than a set of medical and technical measures; it was fundamental to the project of nation building. I trace the interplay between public health and social ideas in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Physicians and social thinkers challenged the traditional belief that Brazil's sociocultural and ethnic diversity was an obstacle to modernization, and they promoted public health as the best prescription for national unity. Public health ideas in developing countries such as Brazil may have a greater impact when they are intertwined with social thought and with the processes of nation building and construction of a modern society.

  8. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  9. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurgel Jr., Garibaldi D.; Carvalho de Sousa, Islâandia M.; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles...... of universality, equity, and integrality. While the reform in Brazil aimed at improving equity and effectiveness, reforms in Europe aimed at improving efficiency in order to contain costs. The European reforms increased supply and utilization but never provided the large increase in efficiency that was hoped for......, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having...

  10. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  11. Prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy and prenatal syphilis testing in Brazil: Birth in Brazil study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Determine the coverage rate of syphilis testing during prenatal care and the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women in Brazil. METHODS This is a national hospital-based cohort study conducted in Brazil with 23,894 postpartum women between 2011 and 2012. Data were obtained using interviews with postpartum women, hospital records, and prenatal care cards. All postpartum women with a reactive serological test result recorded in the prenatal care card or syphilis diagnosis during hospitalization for childbirth were considered cases of syphilis in pregnancy. The Chi-square test was used for determining the disease prevalence and testing coverage rate by region of residence, self-reported skin color, maternal age, and type of prenatal and child delivery care units. RESULTS Prenatal care covered 98.7% postpartum women. Syphilis testing coverage rate was 89.1% (one test and 41.2% (two tests, and syphilis prevalence in pregnancy was 1.02% (95%CI 0.84;1.25. A lower prenatal coverage rate was observed among women in the North region, indigenous women, those with less education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. A lower testing coverage rate was observed among residents in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions, among younger and non-white skin-color women, among those with lower education, and those who received prenatal care in public health care units. An increased prevalence of syphilis was observed among women with < 8 years of education (1.74%, who self-reported as black (1.8% or mixed (1.2%, those who did not receive prenatal care (2.5%, and those attending public (1.37% or mixed (0.93% health care units. CONCLUSIONS The estimated prevalence of syphilis in pregnancy was similar to that reported in the last sentinel surveillance study conducted in 2006. There was an improvement in prenatal care and testing coverage rate, and the goals suggested by the World Health Organization were achieved in two regions

  12. Making the case for grid-connected photovoltaics in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruether, Ricardo, E-mail: rruther@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis - SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Zilles, Roberto, E-mail: zilles@iee.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Sao Paulo - SP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    In the developed world, grid-connected photovoltaics (PVs) are the fastest-growing segment of the energy market. From 1999 to 2009, this industry had a 42% compound annual growth-rate. From 2009 to 2013, it is expected to grow to 45%, and in 2013 the achievement of grid parity - when the cost of solar electricity becomes competitive with conventional retail (including taxes and charges) grid-supplied electricity - is expected in many places worldwide. Grid-connected PV is usually perceived as an energy technology for developed countries, whereas isolated, stand-alone PV is considered as more suited for applications in developing nations, where so many individuals still lack access to electricity. This rationale is based on the still high costs of PV when compared with conventional electricity. We make the case for grid-connected PV generation in Brazil, showing that with the declining costs of PV and the rising prices of conventional electricity, urban populations in Brazil will also enjoy grid parity in the present decade. We argue that governments in developing nations should act promptly and establish the mandates and necessary conditions for their energy industry to accumulate experience in grid-connected PV, and make the most of this benign technology in the near future. - Research highlights: {yields} With the declining costs of PV and the rising prices of conventional electricity, Brazil will soon enjoy grid parity. {yields} The availability of raw materials (Si and green electricity) make Brazil an ideal candidate to become an important player in the PV production scenario. {yields} A feed-in tariff program in Brazil should be limited in time and size. {yields} A feed-in tariff program in Brazil should be large enough to stimulate the local market, but it should at the same time be small enough in order not to impose a large financial burden to consumers.

  13. Critical issues in vascular surgery: Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ricardo C R

    2008-12-01

    Vascular surgery practice and education vary widely across the globe. In Brazil, the largest and most populated country of South America, vascular surgery is an independent specialty, with >3000 practicing specialists. Vascular surgery education in Brazil consists of 6 years of medical school, followed by a 4-year residency in vascular surgery. Endovascular surgery training is provided by part-time mini-fellowships after a residency program has been completed. The author of this report, who represents the Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e de Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV) or Brazilian Society of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, presents the critical issues in vascular surgery education in Brazil. An informal survey was conducted among residency program directors and members of the SBACV National Board to identify the critical issues in vascular surgical education in Brazil. The 25 responders pointed to two issues as the most critical. The first is funding for vascular surgical education. Currently, 73 vascular residency programs are accredited, with 142 first-year positions and 288 residents in training. Vascular surgery residents are paid a meager stipend, but instructors receive no pay. Endovascular fellows have to pay for their training. This has led to endovascular training being financed by the industry, despite the potential conflicts of interest created by this situation. The second critical issue is endovascular surgery training. The vascular surgical community in Brazil faces the huge task of how to offer training in endovascular techniques to the 140 or so young vascular surgeons coming out of residency programs every year, as well as how to teach endovascular techniques to several hundred certified vascular surgeons already in practice. Funding vascular surgery educational programs and training surgeons in the new endovascular techniques are the critical issues faced by vascular surgical educators in Brazil.

  14. Spatiotemporal Analysis of AIDS Incidence Among Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Nunes, Altacilio Aparecido; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2016-01-01

    AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis. The proposed statistical model allows obtaining a standardized incidence ratio (SIR, adjusted by gender and age). Among the men, our results show higher incidence rates in the States of the Southern regions as well as in the state of Amazonas (Northern Brazil). In females, we found other patterns for SIR, with higher incidence rates in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast region), Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (both in Southern region). Among men it was observed as an expressive association between the SIR values and the overall HDI and income and education components, but it was observed to have an inverse association with the life expectancy component. Among women, it is noted that the SIR values are associated with the overall HDI and the education components only at the beginning of the studied period. AIDS remains a major public health problem in Brazil, mainly in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. Considering its association with HDI, it is noted that the disease still remains related to the pattern observed in the early years of the studied period, at least in the more developed regions of Brazil. This certainly happened because of the chronicity of the disease, thus affecting people with good socioeconomic status.

  15. A Systematic Review of Children's Environmental Health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes Asmus, Carmen I R; Camara, Volney M; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2016-01-01

    In the region of the Americas, approximately 100,000 children under the age of 5 years die each year due to environmental hazards. Brazil, due to its large size and wide range of environmental challenges, presents numerous hazards to children's health. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature that describes children's exposures to environmental pollutants in Brazil and their effects on Brazilian children's health. A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed without language restrictions and time of publication (years). The literature search was conducted in the following key resources: PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Web of Science with the MeSH Terms: Environmental exposure AND Brazil (filters: Human, Child [birth to 18 years] and Affiliation Author). The Virtual Health Library was also employed to access the databases Scielo and Lilacs. The search strategy was [DeCS Terms]: Child OR adolescent AND Environmental exposure AND Brazil. Health effects in children associated with exposure to environmental pollutants in Brazil were reported in 74 studies, during the period between 1995 and 2015. The most frequently cited effect was hospital admission for respiratory causes including wheezing, asthma, and pneumonia among children living in areas with high concentrations of air pollutants. A broad spectrum of other health effects possibly linked to pollutants also was found such as prematurity, low birth weight, congenital abnormality (cryptorchidism, hypospadia, micropenis), poor performance in tests of psychomotor and mental development, and behavioral problems. Exposure to pesticides in utero and postnatally was associated with a high risk for leukemia in children Brazil for stricter monitoring of pollutant emissions and for health surveillance programs especially among vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and young children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement between predicted susceptibility and the landslide scar's map. Most of the studies in Brazil applied SHALSTAB, SINMAP and to a lesser extent the TRIGRS model. The majority researches are concentrated in the Serra do Mar mountain range, that is a system of escarpments and rugged mountains that extends more than 1,500 km along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, and regularly affected by heavy rainfall that generates widespread mass movements. Most part of these studies used conventional topographic maps with scales ranging from 1:2000 to 1:50000 and DEM-grid resolution between 2 and 20m. Regarding the Geotechnical and hydrological values, a few studies use field collected data which could produce more efficient results, as indicated by international literature. Therefore, even though they have enormous potential in the susceptibility mapping, even for comparison

  17. Breast cancer in Brazil: epidemiology and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio AP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adma Poliana Cecilio,1 Erika Tomie Takakura,1 Jaqueline Janaina Jumes,1 Jeane Wilhelm dos Santos,1 Ana Cristina Herrera,2 Vanessa Jacob Victorino,3 Carolina Panis11Laboratory of Inflammatory Mediators, State University o West Paraná, UNIOESTE, Campus Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil; 2Pontifícia Universidade Católica (PUC, Campus Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; 3School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University (FM-USP, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Notwithstanding the advances in tumor research, diagnosis, and treatment, breast cancer is still a challenge worldwide. This global burden of disease has been associated with population aging and the persistence of cancer-related behaviors. The number of women diagnosed with breast cancer has been estimated as increasing, especially in middle-income countries such as Brazil. Estimates from the Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA point to breast cancer as the major malignant neoplasia in Brazilian women and the main cause of death from cancer in the country. This fact has been associated with increased life expectancy, urbanization, and cancer-related behaviors. Given this scenario, it is clear that there is a need for identifying and discussing which factors have substantially contributed to this growing number of cases in Brazil, including access to treatment, prevention and early diagnosis, weaknesses of the local health policy, and intrinsic genetic peculiarities of the Brazilian population. This review aims to address the role of such factors.Keywords: breast cancer, treatment, prevention, epidemiology, Brazil, cancer screening, mammograms, health policies

  18. First record of Charadrius melodus Ord (Aves Charadriiformes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Júnior Severino Mendes de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Charadrius melodus Ord, 1824 were captured at Diamante Branco saline, at Galinhos municipal district in Rio Grande do Norte, at the Northeast coast of Brazil. Four individuals were captured in October and two in December. All of them were in adult phase, showing the intermediary plumage with moults of the outline feathers. One individual captured in October showed moult for the first primary pinion and other captured also in October showed moult in the second pair of rectrices. The captures of C. melodus in Rio Grande do Norte consist in the first record of the species for Brazil.

  19. Oil and sustainability in Brazil, an intergenerational matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Machado Vilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the present discussion in Brazil about the new legislation for the oil reserves in the pre-salt layer in the light of the historical evolution of environmental and energy regulations in Brazil. Based on the principle of sustainable development, we attempt to show the compatibility between the new model and the aims and actions defined in national policies for energy and environment in the Federal Constitution of 1988. The study upholds the construction of a holistic, participative process for the elaboration of national policies, which necessarily contemplates an intergeneration perspective.

  20. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  1. A New capitalism in Brazil? Fusions & acquisitions on Lula government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.

  2. Miconia papillosperma (Melastomataceae, Miconieae): a new species from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelangeli, Fabián A; Goldenberg, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Miconia papillosperma, a new species of Melastomataceae shrubs from Northern Brazil is described and illustrated. This new species is characterized by elliptic lanceolate leaves with the only pair of secondary veins running close to the margin. It is also unique in having seeds with a papillose testa, a character until now unknown in the Miconieae. The description of this new species from a relatively well collected area near a major road north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, is further evidence of our lack of knowledge on plants in many Neotropical areas.

  3. THE EARLY FORMATIONS OF THE COMMUNIST PROGRAM TO BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Quartim de Moraes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For Marx & Engels, communism is not a project, but a real movement of which the presupposition is the development of capitalism. The Brazilian Communist Party (PCB, as far back as 1924, offered an original contribution to the analysis of Brazilian society. The meeting of positivism and communism in the late 1920´s is the most advanced expression of Brazil´s leftist political culture. In the following decades, most communist intellectuals were leading figures in the elaboration of the national-democratic program of Brazil´s social revolution.

  4. ERIOCAULON L. from Brazil: An annotated checklist and taxonomic novelties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eriocaulonis an aquatic and cosmopolitan genus with 478 species. It is characterized by diplostemonous flowers and free petals with a black gland at the apex. There are few taxonomists studying Eriocaulon from Brazil. The species of this genus remain barely delimited, with inconsistent descriptions, and nomenclatural types not assigned or located. The analysis of nomenclatural types, specimens in scientific collections, and protologues enabled the recognition of 53 species of Eriocaulonfrom Brazil. Thirteen new synonyms and the elevation of five varietes to species level are proposed. Comments on taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat, life form, and conservation category are provided.

  5. A harder edge: reframing Brazil's power relation with Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Seabra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil's rapprochement with Africa during the last decade has been mostly explained as an attempt to improve political dialogue, raise economic interactions, and provide technical cooperation assistance. This article, however, argues that such framework does not sufficiently account for the use of Brazilian material resources in order to attain harder strategic goals towards the continent. By focusing on defense cooperation ties, it highlights an important niche in South-South relations that has also grown exponentially, with important consequences on how Brazil exerts power across the Atlantic.

  6. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zanluca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.

  7. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  8. First capture of Micronycteris homezi Pirlot (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Brazil

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    Enrico Bernard

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The first capture of the phyllostomid bat Micronycteris homezi Pirlot, 1867 in Brazil is reported. An adult male was captured in a forest fragment in Alter do Chão, Santarám, Pará State, in May 7th , 1998. A description of the species, previously reported only in Venezuela and French Guiana, is given, as well as the measures of the captured specimen. After this report, the bat fauna of Brazil is composed by 139 species.

  9. Cancer research in Brazil - stuck in second gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lepique

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main issues regarding clinical cancer research in Brazil, including both the opportunities and the hurdles. Scientists and clinicians in this field had the opportunity to talk to regulatory agencies and to the Health Ministry representative at a meeting held in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2014. Our conclusions are that we do indeed have opportunities; however, we need to move forward regarding partnerships between academia and industry, increase the availability of funding, and provide easier navigation through the regulatory processes.

  10. Ten years of unitization in Brazil; Dez anos de unitizacoes no Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonolo, Daniel Dellamora; Almeida, Mateus Passeri de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization concept, as used by the oil industry, was established in Brazil through Art 27 of the Law 9.478/97, also known as the Petroleum Law, and the first process was initiated in 2002. Within these 10 years, four processes were started and finalized, approved by ANP. These processes were developed in a maturing regulatory environment, which was improved in 2010. This article deals with the peculiarities of these processes, putting in context the regulatory framework and doubts at the time. We also verse about the regulatory scene after 2010, pointing out the main enhancements made. It is concluded that, although essential, an elaborated regulation is not the only important factor for the success of a unitization agreement, but also the agreement between parties, which has been encouraged by ANP.(author)

  11. Biodiversity of mycobiota throughout the Brazil nut supply chain: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Ferranti, Larissa S.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples......%) and A. flavus (41%). Tenuazonic acid, a toxin commonly found in Alternaria species was produced by A. bertholletius (47%), A. caelatus (77%), A. nomius (55%), A. pseudonomius (75%), A. arachidicola (50%) and A. bombycis (100%). This work shows the changes of Brazil nut mycobiota and the potential...

  12. Características dos grupos de pesquisa da enfermagem brasileira certificados pelo CNPq de 2005 a 2007 Caracteristicas de los grupos de investigación de la enfermería brasileña certificados por el CNPq de 2005 hasta 2007 Research group characteristics of the brazilian nursing certificated by the CNPq from 2005 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2008-06-01

    innovación de la enfermería.This is a documentary study and consisting a data base collected at four distinct moments: march of 2005, December of 2005, august of 2006 and April of 2007, these information are referring to the total of Research Groups of Nursing in the Directory of Research Groups of in Brazil of the CNPq. The results indicate that 92% of the research groups possess of 01 - 05 research lines, are composites of 11 - 15 members, oscillating in a average of 08 researchers, 05 doctors, 03 masters, 03 specialists, 07 student of graduation. Soon, the research groups are center of production of knowledge and formation of human resources in research. In Brazil, it had a significant growth of the research groups Nursing with the increment of the production, qualification of the integrants, the fortification of the inquiry bases and the biggest visibility and recognition of innovation of the Nursing.

  13. Pharmaceutical care in Brazil's primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Patricia Sodré; Costa, Ediná Alves; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Álvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the activities of clinical nature developed by pharmacists in basic health units and their participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion. This article is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015), a cross-sectional and exploratory study, of evaluative nature, consisting of a survey of information in a representative sample of cities, stratified by the Brazilian regions that constitute domains of study, and a subsample of primary health care services. The interviewed pharmacists (n=285) were responsible for the delivery of medicines and were interviewed in person with the use of a script. The characterization of the activities of clinical nature was based on information from pharmacists who declared to perform them, and on participation in educational activities aiming at health promotion, according to information from all pharmacists. The results are presented in frequency and their 95% confidence intervals. From the interviewed subjects, 21.3% said they perform activities of clinical nature. Of these, more than 80% considered them very important; the majority does not dispose of specific places to perform them, which hinders privacy and confidentiality in these activities. The main denominations were "pharmaceutical guidance" and "pharmaceutical care." The registration of activities is mainly made in the users' medical records, computerized system, and in a specific document filed at the pharmacy, impairing the circulation of information among professionals. Most pharmacists performed these activities mainly along with physicians and nurses; 24.7% rarely participated in meetings with the health team, and 19.7% have never participated. Activities of clinical nature performed by pharmacists in Brazil are still incipient. The difficulties found point out

  14. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  15. Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and South Africa. Failed and fragile states are attracting global attention; however, they sit at one end of a spectrum of states struggling to instill order and authority. Citizens in these countries want security and representation. Equally important ...

  16. Irregular Warfare: Brazil’s Fight Against Criminal Urban Guerrillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    criminal network that has grown too big to handle. In March 2001, Colombian Armed Forces undertook Operation Gato Negro (Black Cat) in southeastern...Colombia. Gato Negro revealed the Colombian guerrillas’ ties with narcotraffickers of Brazil, Mexico, Venezu- ela, and the United States, according to

  17. [Women's rights in Brazil: focus on maternal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana Cristina da Nóbrega Marinho Torres; Paes, Neir Antunes

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on maternal health care, the article explores the path of women's health rights in Brazil since World War II. It presents a historical survey of broader government initiatives in this arena and of the introduction of actions to provide prenatal, birth, and postpartum care, encourage breastfeeding, and establish measures aimed at women during their reproductive lives.

  18. The global nuclear safety regime and its impact in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, C. [National Commission for Nuclear Energy-CNEN, Rua General Severiano 90- Botafogo 22294-900- Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work describes the Global Nuclear Safety Regime that was established worldwide after the accident at the Tchernobyl nuclear power plant. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. The impact of this Global Regime in Brazil is also discussed. (Author)

  19. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  20. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  1. New records of thrips (Thysanoptera) species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalleri, A; Lima, M G A; Melo, F S; Mendonça, Milton de S

    2011-10-01

    This study reports four thrips species from Brazil for the first time: the terebrantians Aptinothrips rufus (Haliday) and Echinothrips caribbeanus Hood; and the tubuliferans Androthrips ramachandrai Karny and Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann). New data about biological aspects of some of these new records are presented.

  2. National Innovation Systems in Brazil, Russia, India, China and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) have put innovation at the centre of their development strategies. In each case, however, there exists scant knowledge about the national innovation system and its impact on the economy. This grant will support a comparative analysis of innovation systems in the five ...

  3. All projects related to Brazil | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    High salt diets are a major cause of high blood pressure, a leading risk factor for death, and account for close to two-thirds of strokes and one-half of heart disease incidents worldwide. Topic: POLICY MAKING, HEALTH CONDITIONS, FOOD, LATIN AMERICA, HEALTH PROGRAMMES. Region: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, ...

  4. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  5. The radioactive ion beams facility in Brazil RIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenthaler, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05389-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    A double superconducting solenoid system is installed at the Pelletron Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This system allows the production of secondary beams of {sup 8}Li, {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be and other light exotic nuclei. The first results using this facility are presented. (Author)

  6. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  7. Payroll tax reduction in Brazil : Effects on employment and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R. Scherer (Clóvis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper evaluates the effects of the elimination of a payroll tax on employment and wages in four manufacturing and service sectors in Brazil in early 2012. This tax, which accounted for 20 percent of the wage bill, was levied on employers and financed social security programmes. This

  8. Brazil's Youth Enter the Policy Arena | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... Available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. Engage Youth, Entrench Democracy Breaking the stereotypes about Brazilian youth. Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political Participation in Brazil. This book presents a searching and comprehensive picture of Brazilian youth.

  9. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  10. All projects related to Brazil | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-28

    This project will examine the dynamics of crime, violence and drug trafficking in urban centres in three Latin American countries: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro); Colombia (Medellín and Bogotá); and Mexico (Ciudad Juarez). Start Date: October 28, 2011. End Date: December 10, 2013. Topic: DRUG TRAFFIC, ORGANIZED CRIME, ...

  11. Importance of soil-water to the Caatinga biome, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Everton; Metselaar, Klaas; Jong van Lier, de Quirijn; Araújo, de José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil is hydrologically characterized by recurrent droughts leading to a highly vulnerable natural water resource system. The region contains the Caatinga biome, covering an area of approximately 800000km2. To increase insight in water balance components for this sparsely

  12. A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean Michael; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Silva-Flannery, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitable Anopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national malaria control efforts have been attempted with varying success. At present, the Amazon Basin accounts for 99% of Brazil's reported malaria cases with regional increases in incidence often associated with large scale public works or migration. Here, we provide an exhaustive summary of primary literature in English, Spanish and Portuguese regarding Brazilian malaria control. Our goal was not to interpret the history of Brazilian malaria control from a particular political or theoretical perspective, but rather to provide a straightforward, chronological narrative of the events that have transpired in Brazil over the past 200 years and identify common themes.

  13. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-29

    Mar 29, 2017 ... management of the invisible hand of Adam Smith. Résumé ... d'Adam Smith. Introduction. This article is a critical reflection of the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia,. India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its .... and 'there is no such thing as a free lunch' (Smith 2009, pp. 2-3). Things ...

  14. Economic losses due to bovine brucellosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an important zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Reliable epidemiologic brucellosis data covering approximately 90% of the cattle population in Brazil have been recently published. Therefore, considering the scarcity of information regarding the economic impact of bovine brucellosis in Brazil, the goal of this study was to estimate economic impact of brucellosis on the Brazilian cattle industry. Several parameters including abortion and perinatal mortality rates, temporary infertility, replacement costs, mortality, veterinary costs, milk and meat losses were considered in the model. Bovine brucellosis in Brazil results in an estimated loss of R$ 420,12 or R$ 226,47 for each individual dairy or beef infected female above 24 months of age, respectively. The total estimated losses in Brazil attributed to bovine brucellosis were estimated to be approximately R$ 892 million (equivalent to about 448 million American dollars. Every 1% increase or decrease in prevalence is expected to increase or decrease the economic burden of brucellosis in approximately 155 million Reais.

  15. Psychosexual Characteristics of Female University Students in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ruth M. C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Female college freshmen (n=240) in Brazil answered questions on sexuality. Most revealed satisfactory development in most of aspects surveyed and in their relationships with their parents except where sexual issues were concerned. Most students reported menstrual disturbances, and significant number of sexually active respondents reported…

  16. Congenital toxoplasmosis in dizygotic twins, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Roncada, Eduardo Vinicius; Nakazora, Deise; Pelloso, Marcela Castilho; Falavigna, Luis Felipe Morais; de Araújo, Silvana Marques; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report of congenital toxoplasmosis in dizygotic twins in Brazil. We emphasize the need for early diagnosis of the mother and follow-up of children with suspected or confirmed infection from birth to adolescence, in order to avoid the hazard and damage from congenital toxoplasmosis.

  17. The parallel materialization of REDD+ implementation discourses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoff, R. van der; Rajão, R.; Leroy, P.; Boezeman, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Reducing Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) dominates international debates on the role of forests in climate change mitigation, but concrete implementation remains a challenge. In contrast to this general trend, Brazil emerged as a noteworthy exception due to the widespread

  18. Journalism Education in Brazil: Developments and Neglected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sonia Virgínia; Lago, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    Journalism education started in Brazil in 1947. Today, it comes under the field of Social Communication, along with Advertising, Public Relations, Film, and Radio & TV. For almost 40 years, from 1970 to 2009, a journalism diploma was mandatory to work in a newsroom. As part of the field of Applied Social Sciences, journalism remains popular…

  19. All projects related to Brazil | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can science, technology, and innovation contribute to poverty reduction and inclusive development, especially in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, otherwise ... Understanding an increasingly complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data from a wide range of sources.

  20. All projects related to Brazil | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How can science, technology, and innovation contribute to poverty reduction and inclusive development, especially in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, otherwise ... Understanding an increasingly complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data from a wide range of sources.

  1. All projects related to Brazil | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Negotiations around intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly a key factor in international trade and an important item on the international development agenda. Start Date: January 1, 2008 ... Topic: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY, INNOVATIONS, Technological change. Region: Brazil, South America, China ...

  2. All projects related to Brazil | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-27

    End Date: November 27, 2015. Topic: ECONOMIC GROWTH, WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION, WOMEN WORKERS, EMPLOYMENT, SOUTH AMERICA, EMPOWERMENT. Region: Brazil, South America, North and Central America, France. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 589,500.00. Institutions for safe ...

  3. All projects related to Brazil | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-27

    End Date: November 27, 2015. Topic: ECONOMIC GROWTH, WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION, WOMEN WORKERS, EMPLOYMENT, SOUTH AMERICA, EMPOWERMENT. Region: Brazil, South America, North and Central America, France. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 589,500.00. Institutions for safe ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  5. Parmotrema hydrium, a new species of Parmeliaceae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Navarro Benatti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parmotrema hydrium is a new lichen species discovered during a survey of Parmeliaceae in the Cantareira mountain range of southeastern Brazil. In its medullary chemistry, the species contains several fatty acids and other substances, including small amounts of atranorin, typically restricted to the soralia and young lobes.

  6. Did Liberalization Start A Retail Revolution In Brazil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, Brazil opened up its retail sector to foreign direct investment. It was expected that the entry and market expansion of retail chains would spur the development of a sector long characterized by small family-run stores. However, the effects on growth have been disappointing. Our

  7. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for hepatitis B transmission in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vagner Reinaldo Zingalli Bueno; Wolf, Jonas Michel; Luz, Camila Albani da Silva; Stumm, Gláucia Zuleide; Boeira, Thais da Rocha; Galvan, Josiane; Simon, Daniel; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in Brazil. Several risk factors are involved in HBV infection and their identification by a rational and essential approach is required to prevent the transmission of this infection in Brazil. To evaluate risk factors associated with HBV infection in South Brazil. A total of 260 patients with HBV and 260 controls from Caxias do Sul (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) participated in this study. All participants were given a standard questionnaire to yield the sociodemographic information and to identify HBV risk factors. HBV infection was detected by HBsAg test in all participants. HBV infection in these cases was strongly associated with history of a family member HBV-infected, mainly mother [odds ratio (OR) = 4.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.69-13.91], father (OR = 5.28; 95% CI: 1.58-17.71), and/or siblings (OR = 22.16; 95% CI: 9.39-52.25); sharing personal objects (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.37-2.38); and having history of blood transfusion (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.10-2.84). HBV infection was strongly associated with having a family member infected with hepatitis B, sharing personal objects, and having history of blood transfusion.

  9. Dentistry in Brazil: its history and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Diniz, Diego Garcia

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anísio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today.

  10. The history of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livramento, José Antonio; Machado, Luís dos Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Analysis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in neurological diagnosis has always been considered to be a strong point among the main complementary examinations in Brazil. The present paper reviews the main events in the history of CSF in the neurological sciences, with emphasis on the founders of several CSF schools in our country from the beginning of the 20th century to the present time.

  11. Eucalypt powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera pannosa in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia R. Fonseca; Lucio M. S. Guimaraes; Raul P. Pires; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2017-01-01

    Eucalypt powdery mildew is an important disease in greenhouses and clonal hedges of Eucalyptus spp. in Brazil, which can cause leaf and shoot distortion, shoot discoloration, and growth reduction that results in production losses. Because reliable information regarding the causal agent of the disease is lacking, this study used ITS and 28S rDNA sequencing and...

  12. Brazil, Catholic Religion and Education: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, José Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Taking the great change that began in the 1960s in terms of Church, society, and education in Brazil as a starting point, this article extends the existing discussion by turning its attention to three fundamental aspects of it: (1) how to manage and coordinate Catholic education; (2) how to deal with the diversification process of the religious…

  13. LITERARY CLINIC: GLOBAL LITERATURES AND ENGLISH TEACHER EDUCATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Spofford XAVIER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Departing from the polyvalent metaphor of the “clinic,” this article discusses the results of the first phase of an English teacher education project, part of the Teaching Initiation Scholarship Program (PIBID/CAPES at a federal university in Brazil. Given the effects of globalization on language teaching and learning, the English teacher certification program needs to incorporate critical and intercultural perspectives in the reflexive dimension of the teacher education curriculum. One possible approach is the study of global English, or Anglophone, literatures utilizing a cultural studies and postcolonial theoretical framework. In accordance with recent observations by Festino (2011 and Lourenço (2011 about the importance of literatures in English for education in Brazil, I propose a multimodal and critical approach to the study of Anglophone literatures connected to teaching in basic education that also stimulates teacher reflection. This approach also seeks to illuminatethe role of English in Brazil and clarify the notion of content in English classes, as it relates to narrative. My analysis involves a triptych of literary genres from different countries: Kendal Hippolyte (poetry – St. Lucia, Chinua Achebe (novel – Nigeria, and Jhumpa Lahiri (short story – United States and India. Some strategies for transposing literary studies to the middle school English classroom in Brazil are also outlined.

  14. Realism under Hegemony: Theorizing the Rise of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Weyland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What light can international relations theory shed on how developing countries such as Brazil have achieved regional leadership and international influence? This comprehensive examination of Brazilian foreign policy over the last few decades argues that Realism provides a better account of Brazil’s strategy than Liberalism and Constructivism. Despite changes of government and regime, Brasília has persistently pursued relative political gain, especially international influence. However, because this rising country has faced an established hegemon in the form of the United States, it has not been able to employ conventionally Realist instruments and tactics. Its subordinate position in the current power constellation has forced Brazil to forego political or military confrontation and instead use economic cooperation, both with the hegemon and its weaker neighbors. Through this collaboration, Brazil hopes to derive disproportionate benefits that will enhance its relative power. By elucidating these complex calculations, the present essay explains the Realist strategy that ambitious nations such as Brazil have pursued and helps design a version of Realism that captures recent power dynamics in the international system.

  15. Semantic categories in the indigenous languages of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Braga, M.L.; de Melo Barbosa, E.; Silveira Coriolano, J.; Jezuino da Costa, J.; de Souza Martins, M.; Leite de Oliveira, D.; Maciel de Oliveira, V.; Gomes Pereira, L.; Santana, L.; do Carmo Santos, C.L.; dos Ramos Soares, V.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates which semantic categories, as defined in Functional Discourse Grammar, formally manifest themselves in a sample of native languages of Brazil, and the extent to which the distribution of these manifestations across categories can be described systematically in terms of

  16. Energy trends and the water-energy binomium for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele O. Da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands of energy saving and carbon emission reduction, the water vs. energy nexus has become a major concern worldwide. Brazil occupies a singular position in the global energy system. A major portion of the Brazilian occupancies has electricity and the energy system expansion that, at first, possesses adequate means for supporting the economic growing may experience some turnovers. The Brazil determination through alternative fuels was a natural choice, given its large hydropower potential and land agricultural base. In the transportation sector Brazil has developed its energy matrix towards an important rate of ethanol and biodiesel. Although those fuels are low carbon emitter, they may probably not be an affordable alternative regarding land use, food security and water footprint. In this way, considering the recent advances in the exploration of oil from Pre-salt (9-15 million barrels and the discovery of shale gas wells up to 245 tcf, together to unfavorable social and environmental issues associated to biofuels, the Brazilian energy matrix might turn back to the fossil fuels again. These represent challenges to the Brazilian policymakers and how they will be solved will reflect not only in Brazil but also to the world at large.

  17. Intercultural Education in Brazil: Between Conservatism and Radical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence of intercultural education in the Brazilian educational system. After summarizing the debate on international convergence in intercultural education, it traces the development of interethnic relations in Brazil, describing the heavy legacy of slavery and colonization. It then investigates recently adopted…

  18. The Place of Pluriactivity in Brazil's Agrarian Reform Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Livelihood diversification by Brazil's peasantry has intensified as rural areas have become more integrated with the country's urban fabric and as landlessness and poverty have increased. Despite the growing awareness of pluriactivity by rural households, key agrarian institutions have not addressed this key feature of life of the people they…

  19. Prisons as reservoir for community transmission of tuberculosis, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Flávia P C; Praça, Renata M; Tatara, Mariana B; Simonsen, Vera; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Croda, Mariana G; Suffys, Philip N; Ko, Albert I; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Dourados, Brazil, to assess the relationship between incarceration and TB in the general population. Incarceration was associated with TB in an urban population; 54% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were related to strains from persons in prisons. TB control in prisons is critical for reducing disease prevalence.

  20. Decolonialization, Art Education, and One Guarani Nation of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christine Ballengee; Mirin, Karai'; Rizzi, Christina

    2000-01-01

    Explores an educator's attempt and failure to establish an indigenous school on a reservation in Brazil using art education and the language of the arts and illustrates historical, social, and cultural issues through narratives from individuals who participated. Indicates that the curriculum and instruction encouraged positive cultural identity in…

  1. Envenomation by Bothrops atrox in a traveler to Manaus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larréché, Sébastien; Imbert, Patrick; Mornand, Pierre; Andriamanantena, Dina; Mion, Georges; Rapp, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Snakebites are an infrequent but real risk for travelers. We report a case of envenomation by Bothrops atrox in a traveler to Manaus, Brazil. Rapid administration of specific antivenom prevented the expected systemic disorders. This case gives opportunity to review prevention and first aid measures of snakebites in travelers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The man revamping Brazil's approach to water quality | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-20

    Sep 20, 2017 ... Following the rupture of a large dam in southeastern Brazil, metal waste and mud flowed downstream, contaminating the water and wreaking havoc as the worst environmental disaster in the nation's history. Adalto Bianchini's research is helping the country rewrite its rules on one of its most precious ...

  3. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...

  4. Curriculum: The Contradictions in Theatre Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo Nogueira, Marcia; de Medeiros Pereira, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The history of arts education in Brazil is summarised, based on its contradictions. Some aspects of the Brazilian educational system and the National Curriculum Parameters are presented, in order to identify the predominant approach to theatre education. Three situations of the theatre education landscape in the state of Santa Catarina, southern…

  5. Transformative Learning through Music: Case Studies from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nan; Veblen, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we consider meaningful, emancipatory, and affirming music-making in Brazil through the lens of five case studies. Each illustrates aspects of transformative theory through music-making in music education as advanced by Mezirow, Freire, and contemporary Brazilian music educators.

  6. Blurring the Boundaries of Public and Private Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil

    2013-01-01

    A typical analysis of the privatization of education in Latin America focuses on private sector development at the expense of public education. In this paper, I propose a different view that will highlight the blurring of boundaries between public and private education in Brazil. This confusion perpetuates the historical duality of the education…

  7. Pouzolzia saxophila sp. nov. (Urticaceae tribe Boehmerieae) from Bahia, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib; Monro, Alex K.

    2015-01-01

    of xerophytic scrub vegetation on rocky outcrops in the Boa Nova National Park, Bahia, Brazil. The new species is somewhat similar to P. pringlei, a Mexican endemic, and to P. amambaiensis from the Brazil–Paraguay border, but also to the widespread Asiatic P. zeylanica. However, the similarities...

  8. The Drivers of Brazil's Expansion into Africa: A Critical Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rise of neoliberalism and global power reorganization through globalization and capital expansion allows emerging economies like Brazil to redefine their role in an international arena and challenge the traditional power dynamics between North and South. In this sense, and by giving a 'human face' to the neoliberal ...

  9. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. R. Fonseca; L. M. S. Guimaraes; R. P. Pires; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; A. C. Alfenas

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew diseases are caused by biotrophic fungi in the Erysiphales. These fungal pathogens are easily observed by the whitish powdery appearance caused by their colonization of the aerial surfaces on living plants (Stadnik & Rivera, 2001) (Figure 1). In Brazil, powdery mildew of Eucalyptus spp is increasing under the current nursery production...

  10. Proceedings of the fourth WHBBN workshop, Brazil 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Isabel Moreno; Pablo Elizondo; C. John Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The fourth workshop of the Western Hemisphere Bird Banding Network (WHBBN) was held at the 25th International Ornithological Congress in Compos do Jordão, Brazil on August 22, 2010. 38 individuals representing 11 countries within the Americas attended the congress, as well as individuals from Australia and the UK. A total of 6 people were able to attend the workshop...

  11. Biosafety regulations in Brazil | Sampaio | African Crop Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 3, No 3 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Biosafety regulations in Brazil. MJA Sampaio. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  12. Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E...

  13. Food innovation: Perspectives for the poultry chain in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ferreira, G. C.; Vieira, L. M.

    a multinational company from the poultry sector in Brazil, aiming to investigate its innovative positioning in the market. Visual observation of innovative poultry products was held at retail stores. Results indicate an opportunity for companies to invest in food innovations in the Brazilian market, since...

  14. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam has its origin in Tropical America. In Sergipe State (Brazil), its production is very important, and to explore its potential in local agriculture in the State, the Embrapa Coastal Tableland created a collection with 52 accessions located in Umbaúba City. Some accessions were from ...

  15. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  16. Scientific research in hospitality studies in Brazil: challenges to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper intends to typify the contents of this scientific production, considering the theoretic base developed in Brazil and other countries. The documentary research analysed the contents of the dissertations based on author, title, abstract, keywords, and year of submission; it also arranged the studies according to sectors, ...

  17. Soil Water Dynamics In Central Europe and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Markus; Mahler, Claudio F.; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The comprehension of the soil water dynamics is important for the study of environmental processes. Precipitation, temperature, and water balance of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil and locations in Germany, Central Europe, are significantly different. Experience from one region could not be used...

  18. Cryoconservation of plant germplasm native to Brazil | Civatti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preservation of biological material at -196°C, that is, at liquid nitrogen temperature, or its vapor (between -150 and -178°C), is a long-term storage procedure called cryopreservation or cryoconservation. This article reports studies made in Brazil for cryoconservation of native plant species and highlights what might be ...

  19. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  20. All projects related to Brazil | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brazil has witnessed an unprecedented rise of women to economic and political power. Start Date: ... Understanding non-violent male identities for safe and inclusive cities ... This study will adopt a groundbreaking approach to understanding and responding to urban violence in two cities: Cape Town and Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Assessing Deaf and Hearing Children's Communication in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtig, Ida; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Mecca, Fabiola F. D. N.; Hartley, Sally; Wirz, Sheila; Woll, Bencie

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil there are no specific tests for either signed or spoken language for deaf children. A protocol evaluating communicative abilities independent of modality of communication (sign language or spoken language), and comprising assessments of (a) pragmatic profile; (b) modality of communication and linguistic level; (c) complexity of…

  2. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  3. Participatory slum upgrading as a disjunctive process in Recife, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the coproduction of urban space by focusing on a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil. It argues that the urban situation is essentially inconsistent, unpredictable and unstable. It documents the history of urban planning in Recife, paying special attention to the

  4. Evaluation of child education policies in Brazil: advances and setbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete Regina Gomes Arelaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main educational policies established for basic education in Brazil, in the 21st century, with repercussions inchild education or specially destined for it. It evaluates their implementation under three criteria: the democratization of access, the quality of care and the stimulus to democratic management, analyzing the positive and negative repercussions of them.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 31- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH3- Federal Univers...

  6. Small retailers in Brazil : Are formal firms really more productive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the productivity of formal and informal retailers in Brazil by simultaneously estimating a stochastic production frontier and an efficiency model for a cross-section of some 11,000 retail firms with, at most, five workers. Results show that the efficiency of firms is positively

  7. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Tobacco use in many Latin American countries is high among boys, girls, men, and women. However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates between lower- and higher-income groups in middle-income countries such ...

  8. Being Negro in Recife Brazil: A Political Aesthetics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerzem, van L.; Nuijten, M.C.M.; Vries, de P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the role of cultura negra and what it means to be negro for a particular segment of the population of Recife, Brazil. We zoom in on participants in Terça Negra (negro Tuesday), one of the foremost weekly events in the city. For these participants, self-identifying as

  9. Debating Deindustrialization: A Comparative Analysis of Brazil and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    75 Pierre Salama, “China-Brasil: Industrialización Y Desindustrialización Temprana,” Revista Cuadernos de Economía 31, no. 56...Desindustrialización Temprana”(China-Brazil: Early Industrialization and Deindustrialization). Revista Cuadernos de Economía 31, no. 56 (2012

  10. 77 FR 65906 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... COMMISSION Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...\\ and that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from China and Ukraine would be... dissenting with regard to Ukraine. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on August 1, 2011 (76...

  11. A new species of Sipapoantha (Genianaceae: Heliae) from northern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepis, K.B.; Maas, P.J.M.; Struwe, L.

    2011-01-01

    A new species from Gentianaceae (tribe Helieae) is described from northern Brazil. Sipapoantha obtusisepala sp. nov. is distinct from the previously single member of the genus, Sipapoantha ostrina, by having a woody and branched habit, sessile and ovate leaves with an acute apex, and a smaller calyx

  12. A new species of Sipapoantha (Gentianaceae: Helieae) from northern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepis, K.B.; Maas, P.J.M.; Struwe, L.

    2011-01-01

    A new species from Gentianaceae (tribe Helieae) is described from northern Brazil. Sipapoantha obtusisepala sp. nov. is distinct from the previously single member of the genus, Sipapoantha ostrina, by having a woody and branched habit, sessile and ovate leaves with an acute apex, and a smaller calyx

  13. Serratia marcescens harboring SME-4 in Brazil: A silent threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayô, Rodrigo; Leme, Rodrigo Cuiabano Paes; Streling, Ana Paula; Matos, Adriana Pereira; Nodari, Carolina Silva; Chaves, Jessica Reis Esteves; Brandão, Jorge Luiz Ferreira; de Almeida, Maíra Fernandes; Carrareto, Valério; de Castro Pereira, Marco Aurélio; de Almeida, Jean Pierre Aquino; Ferreira, Demian Candido; Gales, Ana Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic polymyxin resistance displayed by Serratia marcescens makes the acquisition of carbapenemase encoding genes a worrisome event. This study report a SME-4-producing S. marcescens isolate causing septic shock in Brazil. The insertion of novel resistance determinants and their consequent spread in our territory is noteworthy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Movements in Brazil and Their Educational Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Elie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews grassroots initiatives in Brazil, arguing that despite differences in composition and aims, movements such as landless rural workers, indigenous groups, and the women's movement that have attempted to shift current socioeconomic order toward a new equilibrium, are best described as historic movements. Describes these movements in relation…

  15. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  16. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferreira, Jonatas B C; Santana, Daniella B; Cuba, César A Cuba

    2008-08-01

    Sylvatic triatomines of the genus Rhodnius commonly fly into houses in Latin America, maintaining the risk of Chagas disease transmission in spite of control efforts. In the recent past, adult bugs collected inside houses in central Brazil were identified as R. prolixus, a primary disease vector whose natural geographical range excludes this region. Three nearly sibling species (R. neglectus, R. nasutus, and R. robustus), secondary vectors with limited epidemiological significance, occur naturally south of the Brazilian Amazon. The specific status of Rhodnius specimens found inside houses in central Brazil is therefore an epidemiologically important (and still debated) issue. We used wing and head geometric morphometrics to investigate the taxonomic status of 230 adult specimens representing all four 'R. prolixus group' species (19 populations from palm trees, domiciles, and reference laboratory colonies). Discriminant analyses of shape variation allowed for an almost perfect reclassification of individuals to their putative species. Shape patterning revealed no consistent differences between most specimens collected inside houses in central Brazil and R. neglectus, and showed that R. robustus and R. neglectus occur sympatrically (and fly into houses) in southern Amazonia. Furthermore, all Brazilian specimens clearly differed from our reference R. prolixus population. Using geometric morphometrics, we confidently ascribed individual triatomines to their species within the problematic 'R. prolixus group', illustrating the potential value of this approach in entomological surveillance. Our results strongly support the idea that R. neglectus, and not R. prolixus, is the species invading houses in central Brazil.

  17. Energy trends and the water-energy binomium for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Gisele O; Dos Anjos, Jeancarlo P; De Andrade, Jailson B

    2015-01-01

    According to the demands of energy saving and carbon emission reduction, the water vs. energy nexus has become a major concern worldwide. Brazil occupies a singular position in the global energy system. A major portion of the Brazilian occupancies has electricity and the energy system expansion that, at first, possesses adequate means for supporting the economic growing may experience some turnovers. The Brazil determination through alternative fuels was a natural choice, given its large hydropower potential and land agricultural base. In the transportation sector Brazil has developed its energy matrix towards an important rate of ethanol and biodiesel. Although those fuels are low carbon emitter, they may probably not be an affordable alternative regarding land use, food security and water footprint. In this way, considering the recent advances in the exploration of oil from Pre-salt (9-15 million barrels) and the discovery of shale gas wells up to 245 tcf, together to unfavorable social and environmental issues associated to biofuels, the Brazilian energy matrix might turn back to the fossil fuels again. These represent challenges to the Brazilian policymakers and how they will be solved will reflect not only in Brazil but also to the world at large.

  18. Evaluating vocational training program for women in Brazil | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... It also allows tracks satisfaction levels, self-esteem, and public participation of the participants. The Mulheres Mil program was scaled up in 2011 and is expected to benefit 100,000 women by the end of 2014. It will then be integrated into a national skills training program throughout Brazil, with the goal of ...

  19. Michanthidium almeidai, a new species from northeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Danúncia; Parizotto, Daniele Regina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Michanthidium Urban (Hymenoptera, Megachilinae)is described and figured from Sergipe and Bahia States, northeastern Brazil. An identification key, illustrations, and a distribution map for the three species of the genus are presented. The male genitalia of Michanthidium almeidai sp. n. and Michanthidium albitarse are illustrated and compared for the first time. PMID:22140334

  20. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...