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Sample records for brass

  1. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  2. Corrosion Behavior of Brass In Tio2 Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Ge, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Hong-Wang

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion behavior of brass electrode in TiO2 nanofluids was analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results show that TiO2 nanoparticles promote corrosion of brass. The corrosion resistance of brass electrode decreases with the increase of the temperature of the TiO2 nanofluids. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) is a dispersant in nanofluids and also appears corrosion inhibition to brass, and the corrosion inhibition enhances with the increase of SDBS concentration. The corrosion resistance of brass in TiO2 nanofluids would decrease when the concentration of dispersant SDBS exceeds a certain value.

  3. Surface topography characterization of brass alloys: lead brass (CuZn39Pb3) and lead free brass (CuZn21Si3P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vijeth V.; Vedantha Krishna, Amogh; Schultheiss, Fredrik; Rosén, B.-G.

    2017-06-01

    Manufactured surfaces usually consist of topographical features which include both those put forth by the manufacturing process, and micro-features caused by disturbances during this process. Surface characterization basically involves study of these features which influence the functionality of the surface. This article focuses on characterization of the surface topography of machined lead brass and lead free brass. The adverse effect of lead on human health and the environment has led the manufacturing sector to focus on sustainable manufacturing of lead free brass, as well as how to maintain control of the surface integrity when substituting the lead content in the brass with silicon. The investigation includes defined areal surface parameters measured on the turned samples of lead- and lead free brass using an optical coherence scanning interferometer, CSI. This paper deals with the study of surface topography of turned samples of lead- and lead free brass. It is important to study the topographical characteristics of the brass samples which are the intermediate link between the manufacturing process variables and the functional behaviour of the surface. To numerically evaluate the sample’s surface topography and to validate the measurements for a significant study, a general statistical methodology is implemented. The results indicate higher surface roughness in turned samples of lead brass compared to lead free brass.

  4. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1970-01-01

    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  5. Solute effects on deformation and fracture of beta brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the ductility of several ternary beta brass alloys in air and in several liquid metals can be related to the operative slip and grain boundary relaxation processes. Nickel and manganese were chosen as alloying elements because they are expected to respectively enhance and suppress cross slip in beta brass. Single-phase binary and ternary beta brass alloys were used in both polycrystalline and single crystal form.

  6. Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1994-07-01

    Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

  7. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of sulfidation of brass at the rubber/brass interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kenichi, E-mail: ozawa.k.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya [Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., Oiwake, Hiratsuka 254-8601 (Japan); Mase, Kazuhiko [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2-min vulcanization reaction is enough to convert the interface composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five S-containing species are identified at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong rubber-brass adhesion is related to the Cu{sub 2}S/CuS ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of adhesion proceeds along with desulfidation of the interface. - Abstract: High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface to elucidate the origin of strong adhesion as well as the degradation between rubber and brass. Special attention has been given to copper sulfides formed at the interface during the vulcanization reaction at 170 Degree-Sign C. At least five sulfur-containing species are identified in the adhesive interlayer including crystalline CuS and amorphous Cu{sub x}S (x Asymptotically-Equal-To 2). These copper sulfide species are not uniformly distributed within the layer, but there exits the concentration gradation; the concentration of Cu{sub x}S is high in the region on the rubber side and is diminished in the deeper region, while vice versa for that of CuS. Degradation of the interface adhesive strength by prolonged vulcanization arises from the decrease in the Cu{sub x}S/CuS ratio accompanying desulfurization of the adhesive layer.

  8. Lots of Brass, Lots of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Those entering the foyer ahead of the brass concert find several installations on the ground floor of the Copenhagen Opera House. Each installation explores the relationship between music and color, and there are musical instruments (trombones) available for people to play. On a large TV screen......, streams of colored particles represent the musical sounds that are picked up by a microphone when playing the trombone. People are also invited to take their own ‘particle LED light’ into the concert hall and use them to accompany the music. When seated, the link becomes obvious: Music and colors become...

  9. Wettability transition of laser textured brass surfaces inside different mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huangping; Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Raiz B.; Khew, Si Ying; Li, Fengping; Hong, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophobic surface on brass has attracted intensive attention owing to its importance in scientific research and practical applications. Laser texturing provides a simple and promising method to achieve it. Reducing wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity remains a challenge. Herein, wettability transition of brass surfaces with hybrid micro/nano-structures fabricated by laser texturing was investigated by immersing the samples inside different mediums. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were employed to characterize surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated surfaces of brass samples. Wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity was shortened by immersion into isopropyl alcohol for a period of 3 h as a result of the absorption and accumulation of organic substances on the textured brass surface. When the textured brass sample was immersed into sodium bicarbonate solution, flower-like structures on the sample surface played a key role in slowing down wettability transition. Moreover, it had the smallest steady state contact angle as compared to the others. This study provides a facile method to construct textured surfaces with tunable wetting behaviors and effectively extend the industrial applications of brass.

  10. Structural Evolution and Mechanisms of Fatigue in Polycrystalline Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejlø

    planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This empha-sizes brass as being a convenient model...... further developed to account for the ob-served intergranular damage evolution on Cu-30%Zn. With these modifications the model pre-dicts the fatigue life curve of Cu-30%Zn and 316L....

  11. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  12. Failure analysis of cracked brass turrets used in electronic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Ninan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Copper alloys are widely used in electrical circuits mainly due to their electrical conductivity. In electrical circuits, solder terminals are used to provide multiple electrical connections and swage type turret terminals are preferred owing to their high reliability under dynamic environments where the electrical systems are subjected to higher vibrations and line currents, as in the case of satellite launch vehicles. Owing to high machinability, free-cutting brass is preferred in the manufacture of such small sized terminals, which will be cold worked/swaged to the printed circuit boards. Improper selection of the composition of free-cutting brass can lead to cracking of the terminals, thereby affecting the reliability of the system. This paper describes cracking of turret terminals made of free cutting brass during swaging operation. The crack propagation tendency during cold working of brass turret terminals made from different compositions is studied through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Finally, composition for obtaining crack free terminals during swaging is suggested for applications involving cold swaging.

  13. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, F J M; Dirven, R; Jacobi, I; van den Brekel, M W M

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can 'free' both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective assessment of voicing and music playing parameters was carried out in 2 laryngectomised patients with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis able to play brass instruments (tenor horn and slide trombone): sound pressure levels in dB, maximum phonation time in seconds and trachea pressures in mmHg; videofluoroscopy, stroboscopy and digital high speed endoscopy to assess neoglottis vibration and opening. The dynamic range of the voice in the patients was 29 and 20 dB, and maximum phonation time was 22 and 19 sec, respectively; intratracheal pressures during voicing varied from 7 mmHg for the softest /a/ to 49 mmHg for the loudest /a/. For brass instrument play, the intratracheal pressures varied from 14 mmHg for the softest tone to 48 mmHg for the loudest tone. Imaging confirmed earlier findings that the neoglottis is closing and vibrating during voicing and remains 'open' without vibrations during music play, indicating good neoglottis control and innervation. From these objective measurements, we can conclude that trachea pressures during brass instrument play are within physiological ranges for tracheoesophageal voicing with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis. Furthermore, it was shown that application of a stable baseplate for retaining an automatic speaking valve and an additional customisable 'neck brace' makes bimanual play possible again.

  14. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  15. Identification of force constants in β-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J. C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    , the data did not allow an identification of these constants. By comparisons of neutron group intensities from two β-brass crystals, one with normal Cu and the other isotopically enriched with 65Cu, we are able to identify conclusively these force constants: αZn-Zn2nd similar, equals 10αCu-Cu2nd.......The phonon dispersion curves of β-brass have previously been measured by Gilat and Dolling and a fit was obtained to a Born-von Kármán model with forces extending to the fourth nearest neighbours. Although a factor of 10 was found between the second-nearest-neighbour Cu-Cu and Zn-Zn force constants...

  16. Custom brass instrument player mouthguard for orthodontic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Dias Lopes; Paula Vaz; Maria João Ponces; Luís Loureiro

    2011-01-01

    Mouthguards reduce greatly the frequency and the severity of injuries on intraoral tissues (Bishop et al., 1985) absorbing and dispersing the energy of the force impact (Park et al., 1994). The brass instruments known as 'lip-vibrated instruments' (Baines, 1993) are played by blowing air through closed lips. The pressure applied on the lips, particularly the upper lip, can cause laceration and bruising. The use of mouthguards can prevent those damages producing some relief on orthodontics pat...

  17. The effect of deformation on stress corrosion of brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kadłuczka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Brass are some of the most common copper alloys, both due to its characteristics and utility technology. Corrosion fracture after stress corrosion are the most common form of destruction of brass.This is particularly dangerous because of the lack of early, visible signal of decohesion of the material. It is therefore important to know exactly this phenomenon to design and manufacture heavy loaded industrial constructions exposed to aggressive environments, as wellas minimize the danger of destroying the structure. This paper presents the results of the influence of degree of plastic deformation on the stress corrosion of brass M63 grade. Material for the study were subjected to varying degrees of deformation. Research was conducted in the corrosive sea water environment. The tests were performed based on the method of BF. Brown beam test. Analyzing the results of stress corrosion tests it was found that the greater degree of deformation cause the greater resistance to stress corrosion fracture of this material. The paper also contains a characteristic scanning surfaces investigation of exemplary samples after stress corrosion tests.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of musical reed and brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. M.

    1999-06-01

    A musical wind instrument transforms a constant pressure input from the player's mouth into a fluctuating pressure output in the form of a radiating sound wave. In reed woodwind and brass instruments, this transformation is achieved through a nonlinear coupling between two vibrating systems: the flow control valve formed by the mechanical reed or the lips of the player, and the air column contained by the pipe. Although the basic physics of reed wind instruments was developed by Helmholtz in the nineteenth century, the application of ideas from the modern theory of nonlinear dynamics has led to recent advances in our understanding of some musically important features of wind instrument behaviour. As a first step, the nonlinear aspects of the musical oscillator can be considered to be concentrated in the flow control valve; the air column can be treated as a linear vibrating system, with a set of natural modes of vibration corresponding to the standing waves in the pipe. Recent models based on these assumptions have had reasonable success in predicting the threshold blowing pressure and sounding frequency of a clarinet, as well as explaining at least qualitatively the way in which the timbre of the sound varies with blowing pressure. The situation is more complicated for brass instruments, in which the player's lips provide the flow valve. Experiments using artificial lips have been important in permitting systematic studies of the coupling between lips and air column; the detailed nature of this coupling is still not fully understood. In addition, the assumption of linearity in the air column vibratory system sometimes breaks down for brass instruments. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of high amplitude sound waves can lead to the development of shock waves in trumpets and trombones, with important musical consequences.

  19. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, H., E-mail: helena.fajfar@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Z. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šmit, Ž. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-11-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  20. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. A comparison of fingerprint sweat corrosion of different alloys of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Stephanie; Bond, John W

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint sweat from 40 donors was deposited onto samples of five α and α + β phase brasses, comprising five alloys with different copper and zinc concentrations, two of which also had the addition of small concentrations of lead. Visual grading of the visibility of the corrosion revealed that brasses with the least amount of zinc produced the most visible and fully formed fingerprints from the most donors. Consideration of previously reported mechanisms for the corrosion of brass suggests red copper (I) oxide as a likely corrosion product for low zinc brasses, and a consideration of the color, composition, and solubility of fingerprint sweat corrosion products suggests that copper (I) oxide produces good contrast and visibility with the brass substrate. Scanning electron microscope images of the corrosion of all five alloys confirmed the enhanced contrast between corroded and uncorroded areas for low zinc alloys. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Cvikel, D. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel); Stern, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Klein, S. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Facheinheit Mineralogie, J. W. Goethe Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel)

    2014-06-01

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  4. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  5. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Our basic aim with the present review is to address the classical problem of the “fcc rolling texture transition” – the fact that fcc materials may, depending on material parameters and rolling conditions, develop two different types of rolling textures, the copper-type texture and the brass......-type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...... of the brass-type texture after the nineteen sixties covering texture measurements and microstructural investigations. The main observations are: (1) The brass-type texture deviates from the copper-type texture from an early stage of texture development. (2) Deformation twinning has a decisive effect...

  6. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  7. Fundamentals of Embouchure in Brass Players : Towards a Definition and Clinical Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldendorp, Kees H.; Boschma, Hans; Boonstra, Anne M.; Arendzen, Hans J.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2016-01-01

    Brass players may experience problems producing an optimal sound (or range of sounds) in their instrument. Assessing and treating dysfunctional embouchure requires knowledge of functional embouchure, but peer-reviewed literature on dysfunctional and functional embouchure is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This

  8. Dosimetric characteristics of brass mesh as bolus under megavoltage photon irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Neil D; Daniel, Jim M; Whitbourn, Joe R; Greenhalgh, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a set of dosimetric measurements describing the properties of brass mesh (Whiting and Davis, Attleboro Falls, MA) under megavoltage photon irradiation conditions, with particular relevance to its use in breast radiotherapy. The effectiveness of brass mesh as a bolus material was investigated using 6-, 15- and 6-MV flattening filter-free photon beams. The effect on dose build-up at the entrance surface, build-down at the beam-exit surface, dose with surface entrance obliquity, beam profiles, penumbra and percentage depth doses were investigated. One layer of the brass mesh produces a build-up effect equivalent to 1.1 mm of water at 6 MV and 1.9 mm at 15 MV. The brass generates a backscattered component of dose, if the photon beam exits through it. Percentage depth-dose curves are largely unaffected by the mesh and are shown to be equivalent to plain-field data. Beam penumbra and profiles are unchanged by the brass except within the first millimetre (mm) of phantom, where a periodic pattern of dose enhancement is seen. The data presented demonstrate that one layer of brass mesh provides a similar dose build-up effect equivalent to only a few millimetres of water. However, backscatter from the high atomic number (Z) mesh, at the beam exit, contributes appreciably to the overall dose surface enhancement. This dosimetric consequence cannot be neglected and indeed should be considered and accounted for, when determining the bolus effect of the brass mesh in the case of tangential breast irradiation. Advance in knowledge: This article provides dosimetric data necessary for the introduction of brass mesh bolus into the clinical setting for external-beam breast radiotherapy.

  9. Chemical analysis of copper/brass samples from Christian Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Farquhar, R.M.; Pavlish, L.A. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Finlayson, W.A.

    1994-12-31

    In 1639, French Jesuit missionaries established the fortified mission of Ste. Marie I at Midland, Ontario. Ten years later, following a series of Iroquoian war-party raids that were facilitated by Dutch and English trading interests, the mission was abandoned and destroyed. The missionaries and local Wendats (Hurons) debated new venues, finally settling on Christian Island in southwestern Georgian Bay as a temporary safe haven rather than their original first choice, the more distant and safer Manitoulin Island. In 1649, they began establishing the fortified mission of Ste. Marie 11. A Wendat settlement existed on the island, but unlike the fort whose walls are intact today, little evidence remains of the island`s single-year population of {approximately} 10000 Wendats, most of whom perished. There was extreme deprivation on the island during the winter of 1649-1650. People died of famine, disease, and ill-fated sorties to the mainland. In June of 1650, after a single year of occupation, the site of Ste. Marie 11 was abandoned when the missionaries were recalled to the relative safety of Quebec City. The remaining Wendats were either assimilated by other groups or killed by the Iroquois. An analysis was performed of the brass goods discarded in the area of the island fort and nearby villages.

  10. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  11. Effects of La2O3 on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of H62 Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangwei; Luo, Hong; Sheng, Meng; Liu, Huanchao; Xiao, Zhen; Geng, Haoran

    2017-02-01

    In this article, the effects of lanthanum oxide (La2O3) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of H62 brass were investigated by using the universal testing machine, Brinell hardness tester, optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Immersion corrosion and electrochemical measurements were carried out to identify the influence of La2O3 on the corrosion behavior of the H62 brass. The phase constitution, microstructure, and phase composition of the H62 brass were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, SEM, and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. The results show that the microstructure of α phase changes from dendrite grains to equiaxed grains, and the content and distribution of β phase are improved significantly. When the La2O3 content reaches 0.8 wt.%, the H62 brass obtains favorable comprehensive mechanical properties and the strength and hardness decrease but elongation increases, which is conducive to plastic processing. In addition, under the optimum amount of 0.8 wt.% La2O3 content, the corrosion rate of immersion corrosion attains the minimum values: As 12.6 g m-2 h-1, it decreases by 24%; as the corrosion potential changes from -1.1327 V to -0.328 V, it increases by 70.9%; and as the corrosion current density decreases from -2.833 mA mm-2 to -3.28 mA mm-2 corrosion, it decreases by 15.78%, when compared with H62 brass.

  12. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A.; Belasri, A.

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C CF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C certified were very close.

  13. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A., E-mail: sidahmed.beldjilali@univ-usto.dz; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran Mohamed Boudiaf USTO-MB, LPPMCA (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C{sub CF-LIBS} calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C{sub certified} were very close.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Friction Coefficient and Wear Rate of Brass and Bronze under Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senhadji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is conducted in order to compare the frictional and wear behaviour under mixed lubrication of two pins: bronze (CuSn9P and brass (CuZn39Pb2, sliding on a steel disc (XC42. The selection of this type of brass and bronze was made because they are not large differences in microhardness, however, have a completely different microstructure. All tests were carried out by using a pin-on-disc tribometer, with a plane contact mode and a pure sliding velocity. The results indicate that friction coefficient and the wear coefficient of brass are significantly higher in comparison to bronze for the two studied roughness (Ra = 2 and 0.15 μm. We also note that for the brass the friction is slightly affected by the roughness of the discs, and the running time is reduced. Regarding bronze, the friction passes from 0.17 for the rough disc (Ra = 2 μm to 0.02 for the smooth disc (Ra = 0.15 μm with a time of running about 2000 s; the low value of friction corresponds to the transition to a hydrodynamic regime. The analysis of the microstructure of brass shows a high shear of the surface layers, with a severe plastic deformation, which is not the case for the bronze that is not affected by observable deformations.

  15. Role of the Structural and Thermal Peclet Numbers in the Brass Continuous Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwapisiński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Structural Peclet Number has been estimated experimentally by analyzing the morphology of the continuously cast brass ingots. It allowed to adapt a proper development of the Ivantsov’s series in order to formulate the Growth Law for the columnar structure formation in the brass ingots solidified in stationary condition. Simultaneously, the Thermal Peclet Number together with the Biot, Stefan, and Fourier Numbers is used in the model describing the heat transfer connected with the so-called contact layer (air gap between an ingot and crystallizer. It lead to define the shape and position of the s/l interface in the brass ingot subjected to the vertical continuous displacement within the crystallizer (in gravity. Particularly, a comparison of the shape of the simulated s/l interface at the axis of the continuously cast brass ingot with the real shape revealed at the ingot axis is delivered. Structural zones in the continuously cast brass ingot are revealed: FC - fine columnar grains, C - columnar grains, E - equiaxed grains, SC - single crystal situated axially.

  16. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  17. Influence of benzotriazole derivatives on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, R.; Rajendran, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of new corrosion inhibitors namely N-[1-(benzotriazol-1-yl)ethyl]aniline (BTEA), and N, N-dibenzotriazol-1-ylmethylaminoethane (DBME) on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution was investigated using weight-loss measurements and electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results obtained revealed that these compounds were very good inhibitors and behaved better in NaCl solution. Polarization studies showed that the BTEA and DBME behave as a mixed-type of inhibitors for 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution. They decrease the anodic reaction rate more strongly than the cathodic reaction rate and renders the open circuit potential of brass more positive in NaCl solutions. Solution analysis revealed the decrease in dissolution of both copper and zinc in the presence of these inhibitors.

  18. Inhibition of the Cu65/Zn35 brass corrosion by natural extract of Camellia sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramde, Tambi, E-mail: t_ramde@univ-ouaga.bf [Equipe Chimie Physique et Electrochimie, Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux, Université de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rossi, Stefano; Zanella, Caterina [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the corrosion inhibition of brass was studied using natural plant extract, Camellia sinensis, in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solutions with pH 7 and pH 4. Electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the brass corrosion behavior in presence and absence of the extract. The results indicated that the extract is a very effective corrosion inhibitor for brass corrosion process in both the acidic and neutral media by virtue of adsorption. The inhibition effect increases by time as demonstrated by the EIS monitoring for 120 h. In the blank solution the corrosion process leads to the formation of a dark oxide patina at pH 7 and induces localized corrosion morphology at pH 4. The extract presence can avoid both the dark patina and the pits formation.

  19. The Chemical Fate of Brass Dust in Waters of Varying Hardness Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    many species of freshwater algae. Results from studies on the acute exposure of microalgae to brass dust indicate that concentrations of 0.06 to 0.32 mg...W.T., and Landis, W.G., "The Toxicity of Brass Dust to the Microalgae An istrodesmus falcatus and Selenn m canricornutu," J. A . Tx Vol. 6(4), pp...Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, DC, p 653, 1985. 7. "Method 314B," Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater , 15th Edition

  20. SU-E-T-19: A Comparison of the Dosimetric Effects of Brass Mesh and Superflab Boluses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, JS; Gong, J; Pavord, D [Vassar Brothers Hospital, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We compared the dosimetric effects of brass mesh (Whiting and Davis, Attleboro Falls, MA) and Superflab (CNMC, Nashville, TN) boluses to verify equivalence between the two. Brass mesh bolus may be a convenient alternative to traditional bolus as it better conforms to the skin surface. Methods: Measurements were taken using a 6MV 10×10cm field produced by an Infinity linear accelerator (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) in a solid water phantom using a parallel plate ion chamber (Model 96035, Keithley Instruments, Cleveland, OH). Measurements compared 0.5cm and 1cm of Superflab to one to six layers of brass bolus mesh. Measurements were performed at depths from 0cm (‘skin’) to 10cm. Oblique beams were not studied. Results: Four layers of brass mesh were equivalent to 0.5cm Superflab within 5% at all depths. Six layers of brass compares most favorably with 0.5cm Superflab, with doses at all depths within 3%. Six layers of brass were not fully equivalent to 1cm Superflab, although the agreement was within 5% for depths greater than 3mm. Surface dose was 12% lower than 1cm Superflab. Surface dose can be up to 34% different between Superflab and brass mesh, but is less than 5% different with 4–6 layers of brass when compared to 0.5cm Superflab. To achieve surface dose agreement better than 5% compared to 1cm Superflab, more than 6 layers would be needed. The attenuation at depth was a maximum of 0.17cm per layer. Conclusion: Between four and six layers of brass mesh can be equivalent to 0.5cm Superflab, depending on the level of agreement desired. Equivalence within 5% at all depths to 1cm Superflab was not achieved even with six layers. This data agrees with measurements taken by Utsunomiya et al. (2010). More point measurements at shallower depths should be taken prior to clinical implementation of brass bolus mesh.

  1. Surface study of films formed on copper and brass at open circuit potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, R.; Schreiner, W. H.; Vázquez, M.; Ceré, S.

    2013-03-01

    The corrosion resistance of Cu-Zn alloys strongly depends on the quality of the protective passive film. This study focuses on the influence of Zn on the composition of oxide films on copper and brass (Cu77Zn21Al2) in borax 0.1 mol L-1 (pH 9.2) solution, where the solubility of copper oxides is minimal. The effect of the presence of chloride ions at low concentration (0.01 mol L-1) in the electrolyte was also evaluated. Both conditions were studied using a set of different electrochemical, optical and surface techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential reflectance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A duplex Cu2O/CuO layer forms on copper at potentials positive to the open circuit potential (OCP), while in the case of brass, zinc compounds are also incorporated to the surface film. It also became evident that a surface film can be formed on these materials even at potentials negative to the OCP. Zn(II) species are the main constituents of the films growing on brass, while copper oxides are incorporated to the surface film when approaching the OCP. The presence of chloride ions at low concentrations contributes to the dissolution of the oxo-hydroxides formed during the early stages of the aging process at open circuit potential. Also, copper chloro-compounds are formed, as shown by Raman spectroscopy for both copper and brass electrodes.

  2. Longe-Range Order in beta-Brass Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, Ole; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1974-01-01

    The long-range order, M(T), in β-brass has been measured by neutron diffraction from a small extinction-free crystal. The results agree with those obtained recently by x-ray diffraction. Near Tc our data are in accordance with a power law M(T)=D(1-T/Tc)β with the critical exponent β=0...

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF TITANIUM ALLOY USING COPPER, BRASS AND ALUMINUM ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DHANABALAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an evaluation has been done on Material Removal Rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (SR and Electrode Wear Rate (EWR during Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM of titanium alloy using copper, brass and aluminum electrodes. Analyzing previous work in this field, it is found that electrode wear and material removal rate increases with an increase current. It is also found that the electrode wear ratio increases with an increase in current. The higher wear ratio is found during machining of titanium alloy using a brass electrode. An attempt has been made to correlate the thermal conductivity and melting point of electrode with the MRR and electrode wear. The MRR is found to be high while machining titanium alloy using brass electrode. During machining of titanium alloy using copper electrodes, a comparatively smaller quantity of heat is absorbed by the work material due to low thermal conductivity. Due to the above reason, the MRR becomes very low. Duringmachining of titanium alloy using aluminium electrodes, the material removal rate and electrode wear rate are only average value while machining of titanium alloy using brass and copper electrodes.

  4. Evaluation of beam hardening and photon scatter by brass compensator for IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shimpei; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yukio; Miyashita, Hisayuki; Chang, Weishan; Kawachi, Toru; Katayose, Tetsurou; Kobayashi, Nao; Kunieda, Etsuo; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2012-11-01

    When a brass compensator is set in a treatment beam, beam hardening may take place. This variation of the energy spectrum may affect the accuracy of dose calculation by a treatment planning system and the results of dose measurement of brass compensator intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In addition, when X-rays pass the compensator, scattered photons are generated within the compensator. Scattered photons may affect the monitor unit (MU) calculation. In this study, to evaluate the variation of dose distribution by the compensator, dose distribution was measured and energy spectrum was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. To investigate the influence of beam hardening for dose measurement using an ionization chamber, the beam quality correction factor was determined. Moreover, to clarify the effect of scattered photons generated within the compensator for the MU calculation, the head scatter factor was measured and energy spectrum analyses were performed. As a result, when X-rays passed the brass compensator, beam hardening occurred and dose distribution was varied. The variation of dose distribution and energy spectrum was larger with decreasing field size. This means that energy spectrum should be reproduced correctly to obtain high accuracy of dose calculation for the compensator IMRT. On the other hand, the influence of beam hardening on k(Q) was insignificant. Furthermore, scattered photons were generated within the compensator, and scattered photons affect the head scatter factor. These results show that scattered photons must be taken into account for MU calculation for brass compensator IMRT.

  5. A computational study of adhesion between rubber and metal sulfides at rubber–brass interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Chian Ye; Hirvi, Janne T.; Suvanto, Mika; Bazhenov, Andrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI80101 Joensuu (Finland); Ajoviita, Tommi; Markkula, Katriina [R & D, Car Tyres, Nokian Tyres plc., P.O. Box 20, FI37101 Nokia (Finland); Pakkanen, Tapani A., E-mail: tapani.pakkanen@uef.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FI80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2015-05-12

    Highlights: • An atomic level model for brass–rubber interactions has been presented. • The main adhesion force has been tracked to the rubber sulfur–brass zinc or brass copper interaction. • The model gives new understanding of the adhesion and can be used for further developments of the system. - Abstract: Computational study at level of density functional theory has been carried out in order to investigate the adhesion between rubber and brass plated steel cord, which has high importance in tire manufacturing. Adsorption of natural rubber based adsorbate models has been studied on zinc sulfide, ZnS(1 1 0), and copper sulfide, Cu{sub 2}S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1), surfaces as the corresponding phases are formed in adhesive interlayer during rubber vulcanization. Saturated hydrocarbons exhibited weak interactions, whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with the metal atoms of sulfide surfaces more strongly. Sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with ZnS(1 1 0) surface stronger than unsaturated hydrocarbons, whereras both Cu{sub 2}S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1) surfaces showed opposite adsorption preference as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed stronger than sulfur-containing adsorbates. The different interaction strength order can play role in rubber–brass adhesion with different relative sulfide concentrations. Moreover, Cu{sub 2}S(1 1 1) surface exhibits higher adsorption energies than CuS(0 0 1) surface, possibly indicating dominant role of Cu{sub 2}S in the adhesion between rubber and brass.

  6. 2-Amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole as inhibitor of brass corrosion in 3% NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Radovanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviour of brass and anticorrosion effect of 2-amino-5- ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AETD in chloride solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. Results show that inhibition efficiency depended on inhibitor concentration and immersion time of brass electrode in inhibitor solution. Mechanism of brass corrosion inhibition by 2-amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole includes adsorption of inhibitor on active sites on electrode surface. Adsorption of AETD in 3% NaCl solution obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  7. On the effect of β phase on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded commercial brass alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Akbar; Saeid, Tohid

    2015-12-01

    Conventional fusion welding of brass (Cu-Zn) alloys has some difficulties such as evaporation of Zn, toxic behavior of Zn vapor, solidification cracking, distortion, and oxidation [1], [2], [3]. Fortunately, friction stir welding (FSW) has been proved to be a good candidate for joining the brass alloys, which can overcome the fusion welding short comes [4], [5], [6], [7]. The data presented here relates to FSW of the single and double phase brass alloys. The data is the microstructure and mechanical properties of the base metals and joints.

  8. Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω) and the p......The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω...

  9. SAFETY ALERT - Failure of brass non-return valves in gas point installations

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2016-01-01

    There have been three recent failures in brass non-return valves in separate high pressure gas point installations across CERN. Whilst each was in a different gas service, the visual nature of the failure has been similar.   In all three cases, these components were connected to stainless steel flexible connections and stainless steel pipework. From the metallurgical investigation of the failed component, it appears that the failure is linked to uncontrolled tightening, leading to a localised weakening resulting in premature failure when subjected to pressure. Lead levels in the examined components appear to be a contributing factor to the reduction in ductility but are not identified as the root cause. It has also not been possible to attribute failure to a particular batch of material. The Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit prescribes the following actions to be taken, aligned with the CERN Safety Rules: Verification of all brass non-return valves (prioritising...

  10. Morphology Controlled Fabrication of InN Nanowires on Brass Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth of semiconductor nanowires on cheap metal substrates could pave the way to the large-scale manufacture of low-cost nanowire-based devices. In this work, we demonstrated that high density InN nanowires can be directly grown on brass substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that Zn from the brass substrates is the key factor in the formation of nanowires by restricting the lateral growth of InN. The nanowire morphology is highly dependent on the growth temperature. While at a lower growth temperature, the nanowires and the In droplets have large diameters. At the elevated growth temperature, the lateral sizes of the nanowires and the In droplets are much smaller. Moreover, the nanowire diameter can be controlled in situ by varying the temperature in the growth process. This method is very instructive to the diameter-controlled growth of nanowires of other materials.

  11. Valoniopsis pachynema Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, R.; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy, and entropy change) and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half-life) for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, and follows first-order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor and the higher inhibition surface coverage on the brass was predicted. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface study techniques (FT-IR and SEM) were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.

  12. A STUDY OF ERROR ON ENGLISH SPEECH USED BY THE RADIO ANNOUNCER AT BRASS FM KEDIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Sardanto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Error is violation from the rule of English grammar. The purpose of this study is to describe the kinds of errors and to calculate the frequency of occurrences of the types of errors made by the announcer at Brass FM Kediri. The data in this study were obtained from the English conversation program at Brass FM Kediri. The data was collected by doing 2 week observation to investigate the process of English conversation between announcer and participants of Brass FM in English Corner program. The researcher used the recording to know the errors of English speaking made by the announcer. The errors found were analyzed using Surface Strategy Taxonomy from Dulay (1982 and were classified into errors of omission, errors of addition, errors of misformation, and errors of disordering. Based on the analysis, it is show that highest frequency of occurrence of the types of errors is misformation with the percentage 47.92 %, omission with the percentage 33.33 % then followed by addition with the percentage of 16.67%, and the last percentage disordering 2.08%. From the data above that the announcer still makes errors in using grammar especially in the use of plural –s/-es, pronoun and to be. Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded that the announcer of radio Brass FM in English Corner still has many problems in using grammar in conversation on English broadcast. It suggests that the language learner must study more about English grammar and not forget to pay attention the punctuation, conjunction, preposition and any kinds of tenses to make of English grammar mastery.

  13. Angle-Resolved HAXPES Investigation on the Chemical Origin of Adhesion between Natural Rubber and Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Kakubo, Takashi; Amino, Naoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Ikenaga, Eiji; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2017-09-26

    Bulk sensitivity of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) makes this technique suitable for chemical state analysis of bulk and deeply buried interfaces of solid materials. HAXPES is employed in the present study to examine the chemical state of adhesive interfaces between natural rubber and copper-zinc alloy, i.e., brass, while maintaining the adhesion structure in order to understand the chemical mechanism of rubber-to-brass adhesion. Angle-resolved measurements allow to distinguish between chemical species in rubber and those at the adhesive interface. We specially focus on sulfur-containing species because metal sulfides at the interface have been suggested to be crucial for adhesion. Line-shape analysis of S 1s spectra reveals that the interface that exhibits a strong adhesive property is mainly composed of copper sulfides with a predominant amount of CuS. This type of the interfacial chemical state is obtained when a rubber-bonded brass sample is subjected to vulcanization at 170 °C for 10 min. However, prolonged vulcanization leads to a partial dissolution of CuS as well as accumulation of Zn species in the form of ZnO/Zn(OH)2 and ZnS, and as a result, adhesion strength is lowered. The present study paves the way for accurate and detailed discussion on the chemical state of deeply buried interfaces through bulk sensitive in-situ measurements.

  14. Solid Obtained by Electrocoagulation of Vinasse, new Inhibitor for Acid Corrosion of Brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ojeda-Armaignac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of research related to obtaining a corrosion inhibitor from vinasse, whose basic advantages is the possibility of using an industrial waste from distilleries ethyl alcohol as raw material in the production of a solid corrosion inhibitor of national production by electrocoagulation, which implies import substitution and cost reductions. The inhibitory action of the solids obtained by electrocoagulation of vinasse was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the efficiencies of inhibition against the brass into the electrolyte solution were very good, behaving as an efficient inhibitor in acid medium. Inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration. The maximum inhibition efficiency was of 93,43 % for the concentration of 2 mg / L of vinasse. Thermodynamic parameters were obtained at the study temperature. It was found that the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the surface of brass obey the Langmuir isotherm, and the values of adsorción free energy of - 23.06 kJ mol-1 show the spontaneity of adsorption and indicate that the inhibitor is strongly adsorbed on the surface of brass, study of potentiodynamic polarization curves confirmed that it is a mixed type inhibitor, with an anode predominance and there is a predominant mechanism of physical adsorption combined with a chemisorption.

  15. A galvanic corrosion study of brass/stainless steel and brass/cast iron couples; Estudio de corrosion galvanica en pares laton/acero inoxidable y laton/fundicion de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Zinola, C. F.

    2011-07-01

    Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multi galvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass UNS C268 and Admiralty brass UNS C443) compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 degree centigrade in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals. (Author) 33 refs.

  16. Fundamentals of Embouchure in Brass Players: Towards a Definition and Clinical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldendorp, Kees H; Boschma, Hans; Boonstra, Anne M; Arendzen, Hans J; Reneman, Michiel F

    2016-12-01

    Brass players may experience problems producing an optimal sound (or range of sounds) in their instrument. Assessing and treating dysfunctional embouchure requires knowledge of functional embouchure, but peer-reviewed literature on dysfunctional and functional embouchure is scarce. This study aimed to provide a narrative overview of embouchure based on information from different scientific and clinical fields. This should be regarded as a first step in constructing a reliable, valid, and practical multi-item method to assess embouchure for brass players. Literature reviews were conducted concerning: 1) the definition of embouchure, 2) physics and acoustics of embouchure, 3) functioning of embouchure-related structures, and 4) instruments to assess embouchure. Also, embouchure experts (clinicians, scientists, and elite wind players) were consulted for information and discussion. A proposal for a new definition of embouchure, an overview of the relevant physics and acoustics, functions of embouchure-related body structures, and the main methods to measure embouchure in brass playing are presented. Peer-reviewed information about the fundamentals of dysfunctional embouchure is scarce and sometimes contradictory. A new definition for embouchure is proposed: embouchure is the process needed to adjust the amount, pressure, and direction of the air flow (generated by the breath support) as it travels through the mouth cavity and between the lips, by the position and/or movements of the tongue, teeth, jaws, cheeks, and lips, to produce a tone in a wind instrument. An integrative overview is presented which can serve as a transparent foundation for the present understanding of functional and dysfunctional embouchure and for developing an evidence-based multi-item assessment instrument.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custidiano, E.R., E-mail: ernesto7661@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Valenzuela, M.R., E-mail: meraqval@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Dumont, J.L., E-mail: Joseluis.Dumont@elekta.com [Elekta CMS Software, St.Louis, MO (United States); McDonnell, J., E-mail: josemc@express.com.ar [Cumbres Institute, Riobamba 1745, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rene, L, E-mail: luismrene@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Center, Crespo 953, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M., E-mail: juakcho@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.

  18. Determination of Cu-Zn Fraction of an Ancient Brass Pipe by Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Moon, J. H.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) has an advantage over most other methods in the investigation of archeological and cultural objects which must be dealt with a non-destructive method. In this study, we study about how to determine the copper-zinc fraction in archeological objects such as a smoking pipe made from brass, where the proportions of copper and zinc can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. In this study, a Japanese smoking pipe was analyzed to determine the copper-zinc fraction at the KAERI-SNU PGAA facility.

  19. Shockley surface state on α-brass(111) and its response to oxygen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Mimori, Yuhei; Kato, Hiroo; Emori, Masato; Sakama, Hiroshi; Imanishi, Saori; Edamoto, Kazuyuki; Mase, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the Shockley-type surface state on the (111) surface of α-brass, a Cu-Zn alloy with a face-centered cubic structure. An energy position and an effective mass of the Shockley-state band are determined, respectively, to be 0.51 eV and 0.52me with me being the rest mass of an electron. A decay length of the Shockley-state wave function into the bulk is also estimated to be 0.43 nm. These parameters are compared with those of the Shockley state on Cu(111), and it is concluded that the Cu sp orbitals in α-brass have a more isolated nature than those in Cu. Also examined in this study is the response of the Shockley state to oxygen adsorption. The behavior of the Shockley state upon oxygen adsorption strongly depends on the substrate temperature. At room temperature, the Shockley state is quenched along with the binding-energy shift towards the Fermi level. Contrastingly, oxygen adsorption at low temperatures (≤ 180 K) hardly affects the energy position of the Shockley state. The conversion of the surface oxidation process at a certain temperature between 180 K and room temperature is proposed.

  20. Dealloying evidence on corroded brass by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy mapping and depth profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, R.; Casal, A.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2017-04-01

    The dealloying phenomenon, also called demetalification, is a; consequence of a corrosion problem found in binary alloys where an enrichment of one of the two main elements of the alloy is produced at the expense of the leaching of the other element. In the present work, the ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection and characterization of dealloying films formed on metal has been tested. For this purpose, specific areas of brass specimens have been subjected to a chemical attack of the surface in order to produce a selective leaching of zinc or dezincification. For the lateral and in-depth characterization of the dealloyed areas by LIBS, depth profiles, 2D and 3D maps have been generated from the treated samples and from a reference non-treated sample. The differences in the maps and depth profiles between the corroded and non-corroded regions have allowed to reveal the localization and extension of the dealloying process along the brass sample surface and to estimate the thickness of the dezincification layers, demonstrating the capability of LIBS technique for the characterization of dealloying phenomena.

  1. Microstructural study of brass matrix internal tin multifilamentary Nb3Sn superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Nobuya; Miyamoto, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Kyoji

    2018-03-01

    Zn addition to the Cu matrix in internal-tin-processed Nb3Sn superconductors is attractive in terms of the growth kinetics of the Nb3Sn layers. Sn activity is enhanced in the Cu-Zn (brass) matrix, which accelerates Nb3Sn layer formation. Here, we prepared multifilamentary wires using a brass matrix with a Nb core diameter of less than 10 μm and investigated the potential for further Jc improvement through microstructural and microchemical studies. Ti was added into the Sn cores in the precursor wire. Microchemical analysis showed that Ti accumulates between subelements consisting of Nb cores, which blocks Sn diffusion through this region when the spacing between the subelements in the precursor wire is a few microns. The average grain size was found to be about 230 nm through image analysis. To date, matrix Jc values of 1470 and 640 A/mm-2 have been obtained at 12 and 16 T, respectively. The area fraction of Nb cores in the filamentary region of the precursor wire was about 36.3%. There was still some unreacted Nb core area after heat treatment. Insufficient Ti diffusion into the Nb3Sn layers was identified in the outer subelements. These findings suggest that there is still room for improvement in Jc.

  2. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction Studies of the Texture in Cold-Rolled Alpha-Beta Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpunar, J.; Gerward, L.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction can be used for simultaneous measurement of several pole figures and that the accuracy is sufficient for the determination of the crystallite orientation distribution. The method is applied to the study of the texture in Cu-43 wt % Zn duplex...... alpha-beta brass rolled to 80% reduction....

  3. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Ethanol by Electrochemical Synthesis Method Using Brass as A Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Ramadan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of potential and gas flow rate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a NaHCO3 electrolyte solution in an electrochemical reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As cathode is used brass, while as anode is used carbon. The result of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced qualitatively and quantitatively. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide to ethanol are potential and gas flow rate are 3 volts and 0.5 L/minutes with ethanol concentration yielded 1.32%.

  4. Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T...

  5. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Electrochemical and Corrosion Properties of Aluminum Brass in Seawater Desalination Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and mechanism of aluminum brass (HAl77-2 in seawater desalination plant were investigated using electrochemical measurement, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The electrochemical results revealed that the corrosion of HAl77-2 in the desalination artificial seawater depended on chloride ion concentrations, displaying a maximum with a chloride ion concentration of 2.3 wt.%. Corrosion rate of HAl77-2 initial increased and subsequently decreased with the increasing of chloride ion concentration. Moreover, corrosion of HAl77-2 becomes more severe when temperature rises. The above results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests were in a good agreement. The results of SEM and EDX methods showed selective localized corrosion appeared remarkably on the surface of HAl77-2.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.17170

  7. Performance capabilities of EDM of high carbon high chromium steel with copper and brass electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, B.; Swain, Sudiptha; Suleman, Abu Jafar; Choudhury, Suvan Dev

    2017-07-01

    The paper address the statistical modeling of input-output relationships of electric discharge machining. In the present work, peak current (I) pulse on time (T) and gap voltage of electric discharge machining (EDM) process are chosen as control parameters to analyze the performance of the process. The output characteristics, namely radial overcut, electrode wear rate (EWR) and metal removal rate (MRR) are treated as the responses. A full factorial design (FFD) of experiments has been used to conduct the experiments and linear regression models are developed for different process characteristics. While conducting the experiments, high carbon and high chromium steel is considered as work piece material and brass and copper are used as electrode material. It is important to note that the experimental conditions are kept similar while machining with the help of different electrode materials. The data obtained from the experiments has been used to develop the regression models for three process parameters for two electrode materials.

  8. Acoustics and signal processing techniques for physical modeling of brass instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berners, David Patrick

    Webster's equation is used to model the acoustics of brass instruments. This model is used to characterize anechoically terminated acoustic waveguides with negative flare, which, when modeled by others using piecewise conical elements, produced noncausal reflection functions. Equivalence is shown between Webster's equation and conical element modeling for conical junctions under the assumption of zero interaction width between the conical segments of the waveguide. Webster's equation is used to show the effects of increasing interaction width on reflectance functions. Proof is given that, regardless of interaction width, reflectances generated by Webster's equation tend towards one-pole active filters for conical junctions with negative flare. Proof is also given that, under Webster's equation, all waveguide segments with an overall decrease in taper angle are modeled as active, while all segments with zero or positive change in taper angle are modeled as passive. Accurate methods are introduced for producing Sturm- Liouville models of acoustic waveguides based on Webster's equation from discrete physical measurements of waveguide radius. Numerical methods for the solution of Schrödinger's equation are taken from the physics community and applied to Webster's equation. These methods are generalized to deal with impulsive Schrödinger potential functions specific to modeling of musical horns. Hyperbolic waveguide elements are Introduced, which produce reflectance functions which are passive for the entire set of boundary conditions which produce active reflectances using conical elements. A synthesis method for brass tone production is developed which eliminates problems in stability and intonation which are associated with most physical models, while retaining many of the good features of standard physical modeling synthesis.

  9. Addressing the NASM health and safety standard through curricular changes in a brass methods course: an outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Amy; Chesky, Kris

    2014-09-01

    The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) recently ratified a new health and safety standard requiring schools of music to inform students about health concerns related to music. While organizations such as the Performing Arts Medicine Association have developed advisories, the exact implementation is the prerogative of the institution. One possible approach is to embed health education activities into existing methods courses that are routinely offered to music education majors. This may influence student awareness, knowledge, and the perception of competency and responsibility for addressing health risks associated with learning and performing musical instruments. Unfortunately, there are no known lesson plans or curriculum guides for supporting such activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) develop course objectives and content that can be applied to a preexisting brass methods course, (2) implement course objectives into a semester-long brass methods course, and (3) test the effectiveness of this intervention on students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibly of health risks that are related to learning and performing brass instruments. Results showcase the potential for modifying methods courses without compromising the other objectives of the course. Additionally, students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibility were positively influenced as measured by changes in pre to post responses to survey group questions.

  10. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and iron treatment of brass foundry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Douglas S

    2003-01-15

    The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to determine if wastes contain extractable components subject to hazardous waste regulations. This paper examines the limitations of the TCLP and the way it is used by studying a particular example. Waste casting sand from brass foundries to which iron metal has been added passes the TCLP test but when placed in a landfill for several years may start to leach lead, copper, and zinc. Results of TCLP tests of waste sand alone and with the additives iron metal, zinc metal, hydrous ferric oxide, and hematite are reported. Three processes were studied: reduction by metallic iron, sorption by hydrous ferric oxide, and precipitation of hydroxides. Lead, copper, and zinc behave differently with respect to these three processes, and their measurement allows some deductions as to what is occurring in a TCLP test or a landfill. Iron addition does not result in long-term stabilization of a waste placed in the ground. The chemistry of a laboratory extraction can be very different from the chemistry of a waste placed in the environment. Wastes that are treated to pass the TCLP test, but are not permanently stabilized, are a threat to the environment.

  11. Ambient dependence of the phase of nanowires grown by annealing brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Himanshu; Ganguli, Tapas; Tiwari, Pragya; Srivastava, A. K.; Deb, S. K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2012-06-05

    The growth of oxide nanowires has been studied by the annealing of brass (Cu 65%, Zn 35%) at different annealing temperatures and in different ambient. The annealing temperature was varied from 400 deg. C to 650 deg. C. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results showed that the temperature has a significant effect on the density and size of the nanowires. The annealing temperature of 600 deg. C was found to be optimum for the growth of nanowires. The growth at 600 deg. C was observed in two ambient-air and moist nitrogen. Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) results on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed that with changing the ambient from air to moist nitrogen, the phase of the nanowires changed from Zn doped CuO to Cu doped ZnO. This result can be of significance importance as it suggests the use of ambient for the tuning of phase of oxide nanowires and in turn for the tuning of their physical properties.

  12. Walk-through survey report, Central Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, March 20, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaebst, D.D.; Seligman, P.J.; Bloom, T.F.

    1988-11-01

    In order to evaluate controls used to reduce or eliminate worker exposures to lead, a survey was undertaken at the nonferrous foundry, Central Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. After a review of the exposure and blood lead monitoring data, along with interviews with management and union officials and a tour of the facility, the investigators conclude that there is evidence to support excessive exposures to work-place lead at the time of compensation claims made early in 1985. Since that time the company has taken steps to reduce these exposures. Some engineering controls had been installed in October of 1984, including portable flexible-duct local exhaust hoods, side draft local exhaust systems and traveling hoods. Improvements or replacements were also made to existing equipment including doubling the ventilation capacity of the exhaust system on polishing equipment and replacing local exhaust hoods on all grinding machines. All new employees receive a complete physical examination including audiometry, pulmonary function test, and blood-lead screening. The frequency of subsequent blood lead monitoring was based on the previous blood-levels. The respiratory protection program seemed generally adequate. With the improvements made, a correlation between the decline in ambient lead and blood-lead levels was noted.

  13. Structural Zones in Large Static Ingot. Forecasts for Continuously Cast Brass Ingot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Some metallographic studies performed on the basis of the massive forging steel static ingot, on its cross-section, allowed to reveal the following morphological zones: a/ columnar grains (treated as the austenite single crystals, b/ columnar into equiaxed grains transformation, c/ equiaxed grains at the ingot axis. These zones are reproduced theoretically by the numerical simulation. The simulation was based on the calculation of both temperature field in the solidifying large steel ingot and thermal gradient field obtained for the same boundary conditions. The detailed analysis of the velocity of the liquidus isotherm movement shows that the zone of columnar grains begins to disappear at the first point of inflection and the equiaxed grains are formed exclusively at the second point of inflection of the analyzed curve. In the case of the continuously cast brass ingots three different morphologies are revealed: a/ columnar structure, b/ columnar and equiaxed structure with the CET, and c/ columnar structure with the single crystal formation at the ingot axis. Some forecasts of the temperature field are proposed for these three revealed morphologies. An analysis / forecast of the behavior of the operating point in the mold is delivered for the continuously cast ingot. A characteristic delay between some points of breakage of the temperature profile recorded at the operating point and analogous phenomena in the solidifying alloy is postulated.

  14. Differences in wedge factor determination in air using a PMMA mini-phantom or a brass build-up cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelom, S; Lanson, J H; Mijnheer, B J

    1997-12-01

    The head scatter dose contribution to the output of a treatment machine has been determined for an open and wedged 60Co gamma-ray beam and for open and wedged x-ray beams of 4, 8, and 16 MV. From those data wedge factor values "in air" have been deduced, expressed as the ratio of the dose to water, measured in air, for the situation with and without wedge, for the same number of monitor units (or treatment time for 60Co). The measurements have been performed using a polymethyl-metacrylate (PMMA) and a graphite-walled ionization chamber inserted in a brass build-up cap and in a PMMA mini-phantom, respectively. Absolute wedge factor values deduced with both detector systems and based on the ratio of ionization chamber readings, differ for the investigated photon beams, up to 3.5% for the 4 MV x-ray beam. The deviations results from the difference in composition between the detector materials and water and can be taken into account by conversion of the ionization chamber readings for both the open and wedged photon beams to the absorbed dose to water. For the brass build-up cap detector system the ratio of the conversion factors for the wedged and open beam changes the ratio of the ionization chamber readings up to about 3.6% for the 4 MV x-ray beam. For the mini-phantom the conversion factors for the wedged and open beam are almost equal for all photon beams. Consequently, for that system wedge factors based on ionization chamber readings or dose values are the same. With respect to the wedge factor variation with field size a somewhat larger increase has been determined for the 60Co and 4 MV photon beam using the brass build-up cap: about 1% for field sizes varying between 5 cm x 5 cm and 15 cm x 15 cm. This effect has to be related to an apparent more pronounced variation of the head scatter dose contribution with field size for the wedged photon beams if the brass build-up cap detection system is used. It can be concluded that determination of wedge factors "in

  15. Effect of welding speed on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of laser welded-brazed Al/brass dissimilar joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Luo, L. Y.; Tan, C. W.; Li, Z. Y.; Song, X. G.; Zhao, H. Y.; Huang, Y. X.; Feng, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Laser welding-brazing process was developed for joining 5052 aluminum alloy and H62 brass in butt configuration with Zn-15%Al filler. Effect of welding speed on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of joints were investigated. Acceptable joints without obvious defect were obtained with the welding speed of 0.5-0.6 m/min, while lower and higher welding speed caused excessive back reinforcement and cracking, respectively. Three reaction layers were observed at welding speed of 0.3 m/min, which were Al4.2Cu3.2Zn0.7 (τ‧)/Al4Cu9/CuZn from weld seam side to brass side; while at welding speed of 0.4-0.6 m/min, two layers Al4.2Cu3.2Zn0.7 and CuZn formed. The thickness of interfacial reaction layers increased with the decrease of welding speed, but varied little at different interfacial positions from top to bottom in one joint. Tensile test results indicated that the maximum joint tensile strength of 128 MPa was obtained at 0.5 m/min, which was 55.7% of that of Al base metal. All the joints fractured along the weld seam/brass interface. Some differences were found regarding fracture locations with three and two reaction layers. The joint fractured between Al4Cu9 and τ‧ IMC layer when the interface had three layers, while the crack occurred between CuZn and τ‧ phase in the case of two layers.

  16. Source identification of copper, lead, nickel, and zinc loading in wastewater reclamation plant influents from corrosion of brass in plumbing fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, David Eugene

    2009-04-01

    A natural experiment indicated that a link between the presence and concentration of four elements, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in the influent to two wastewater reclamation plants to the presence and concentrations of the same four elements in the tap water of residential properties. There were 36 populations of results that were assessed for the normality of their distribution, the difference in their median concentrations, the similarity in the ratios of their median concentrations, and the correlations of the concentrations. The results of this study suggest that brass corrosion is the major source of these four elements in the water reclamation plants influent and that there are two distinct populations of brass sources, those in the early stages of dezincification where the release of the non-copper elements is dominant and those in the later stages where the release of copper dominates and the type of brass that is corroding.

  17. The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on precipitation strengthened Cu40Zn brass using powder metallurgy and hot extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shufeng, E-mail: shufenglimail@gmail.com [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Atsumi, Haruhiko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University (Japan); Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu [San-Etsu metals Co. Ltd., 1892, OHTA, Tonami, Toyama (Japan); Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi [Nippon Atomized Metal Powders Corporation, 87-16, Nishi-Sangao, Noda, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti is readily segregated in primary particle boundaries in BS40-1.0Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sn was proposed as an additive to inhibit segregation of Ti in BS40-1.0Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The introduction of Sn to BS40-1.0Ti brass effectively impedes Ti segregation. - Abstract: The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass were studied by powder metallurgy processing. The super-saturated solid solution of Ti creates a high precipitation reaction chemical potential in water-atomized BS40-1.0Ti brass powder. Consequently, BS40-1.0Ti brass was remarkably strengthened by the addition of Ti. However, Ti readily segregated in the primary particle boundaries at elevated temperatures, which detrimentally affected the mechanical properties of BS40-1.0Ti brass. Accordingly, Sn was proposed as an additive to BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti to inhibit the segregation of Ti. Consequently, the Ti precipitate was retained in the form of CuSn{sub 3}Ti{sub 5} in the interior of grains and grain boundaries rather than in the primary particle boundaries. This result demonstrates that the addition of Sn can effectively hinder Ti segregation in the primary particle boundaries. Sn addition produced significant grain refinement and mechanical strengthening effects in BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti brass. As a result, outstanding strengthening effects were observed for BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti sintered at 600 Degree-Sign C, which exhibited a yield strength of 315 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 598 MPa, and a Vickers micro-hardness of 216 Hv. These values represent increases of 27.5%, 20.1% and 45.6%, over those of extruded BS40-1.0Ti brass.

  18. Quantitative analysis of a brass alloy using CF-LIBS and a laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Abdullah, M.; Ahmed, Rizwan; Piracha, N. K.; Aslam Baig, M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of a brass alloy using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-MS). The emission lines of copper (Cu I) and zinc (Zn I), and the constituent elements of the brass alloy were used to calculate the plasma parameters. The plasma temperature was calculated from the Boltzmann plot as (10 000  ±  1000) K and the electron number density was determined as (2.0  ±  0.5)  ×  1017 cm‑3 from the Stark-broadened Cu I line as well as using the Saha–Boltzmann equation. The elemental composition was deduced using these techniques: the Boltzmann plot method (70% Cu and 30% Zn), internal reference self-absorption correction (63.36% Cu and 36.64% Zn), EDX (61.75% Cu and 38.25% Zn), and LA-TOF (62% Cu and 38% Zn), whereas, the certified composition is (62% Cu and 38% Zn). It was observed that the internal reference self-absorption correction method yields analytical results comparable to that of EDX and LA-TOF-MS.

  19. Inhibition of Brass (80/20 by 5-Mercaptopentyl-3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole in Neutral Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan А. Arkhipushkin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the adsorption of 5-mercaptopentyl-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (MPATA on the corrosive behavior of brass (Cu80/Zn20 in neutral (pH 7.4 borate buffer solutions with and without 0.01 M NaCl was studied. Electrochemical methods show significant decrease of the anodic and cathodic currents on the polarization curves in the presence of MPATA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS reveals MPATA adsorption on the brass surface from an inhibitor solution. After 17 h of exposure, a mixed complex [CuxZnyMPATAz] with a thickness of about 3–3.5 nm is formed on the surface. This nanolayer has sufficient protective ability to withstand corrosion tests in a salt fog chamber: after 5 days of testing, the samples remain glossy and less than 1% of the surface has been damaged. After corrosion tests in a salt fog chamber, the surface of unprotected samples is enriched with zinc, while at the surface of inhibitor-treated samples, the copper and zinc are present in practically equal contents.

  20. On the possible importance of mechanical twinning for the development of the brass-type rolling texture and final comment on the above remarks by T. Leffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben

    1970-01-01

    The author presents his final comments on the discussion between himself and Heye and Wasserman (see abstrs. A11834 and A11835 of 1970) which arose from the latter authors' paper on mechanical twinning (see abstr. A19815 of 1969). The validity of the twinning theory for the brass-type rolling tex...

  1. Injection Moulding Pilot Production: Performance Assessment of Tooling Process Chains Based on Tool Inserts Made from Brass and A 3d Printed Photopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Tosello, Guido; Nielsen, Daniel K. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing is becoming a viable option for the production of injection molding inserts in pilot production settings. This work compares an insert made from brass using conventional machining with an insert made from a proprietary photopolymer using Digital Light Processing (DLP) through...

  2. Development of precipitation strengthened brass with Ti and Sn alloying elements additives by using water atomized powder via powder metallurgy route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shufeng, E-mail: shufengli@hotmail.com [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu [San-Etsu Metals Co. LTD., 1892 OHTA, Tonami, Toyama (Japan); Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi [Nippon Atomized Metal Powders Corporation, 87-16, Nishi-Sangao, Noda, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Effect of Ti and Sn alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass has been studied via the powder metallurgy (P/M) route. The water-atomized BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti (Cu40wt%Zn-0.6wt%Sn1.0wt%Ti) pre-alloyed powder was consolidated at various temperatures within range of 400-600 Degree-Sign C using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot extrusion was carried out at 500 Degree-Sign C. Effects of extrusion temperature on microstructure and tensile strength were investigated by employing SEM-EDS/EBSD, TEM, XRD and tensile test. Results indicated that super-saturated solid solution Ti and Sn elements created high chemical potential for a precipitate reaction in rapidly solidified brass powder, which showed significant strengthening effects on the extruded sample consolidated at lower temperature. Solid solubility of Ti in brass matrix decreased with increasing of sintering temperature, thus resulted in degradation of mechanical properties. Consequently, lower hot processing temperature is necessary to obtain excellent mechanical properties for BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti during sintering and extrusion. An yield strength of 398 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 615 MPa were achieved, they respectively showed 31.3% and 22.9% higher values than those of extruded Cu40Zn brass. -- Graphical abstract: The Ti and Sn alloying elements additions showed significant grain refinement on Cu40Zn-0.6Sn1.0Ti brass (b) as comparing with that of the conventional Cu40Zn brass (a), detected by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The grain boundaries maps of (a) BS40 (b) BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti SPS compact sintered at 400 Degree-Sign C reveals by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuSn{sub 3}Ti{sub 5

  3. Process Parameters Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of Pure Aluminium to Brass (CuZn30 using Taguchi Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfar O. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the friction stir welding of dissimilar commercial pure aluminium and brass (CuZn30 plates was investigated and the process parameters were optimized using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The considered process parameters were the rotational speed, traverse speed and pin offset. The optimum setting was determined with reference to ultimate tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimum value of ultimate tensile strength was confirmed by experimental run using optimum parameters. Analysis of variance revealed that traverse speed is the most significant factor in controlling the joint tensile strength and pin offset also plays a significant role. In this investigation, the optimum tensile strength is 50% of aluminium base metal. Metallographic examination revealed that intermetallic compounds were formed in the interface of the optimum joint where the tensile failure was observed to take place.

  4. The Effect of Varying the Composition of Fingerprint Sweat Deposits on the Corrosion of Brass and Fingerprint Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Dunn, Alice; Jones, Owen; Bond, John W

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion of α-phase brass by sebaceous sweat fingerprint deposits produced identifiable impressions in a majority of samples (n = 40) 4 days after deposition. Combining sebaceous with eccrine sweat yielded a greater percentage of identifiable fingerprint deposits, although this increase was not statistically significant. Production of identifiable fingerprints from eccrine sweat deposits was dependent on the sampling time of year with deposits taken during summer months giving similar percentages of identifiable fingerprints to sebaceous deposits. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between elapsed days after deposition and identifiable eccrine (ρ = 0.787, p sweat deposits was statistically significant compared to winter eccrine deposits (p sweat. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Densification and volumetric change during supersolidus liquid phase sintering of prealloyed brass Cu28Zn powder: Modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to use response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for modeling and optimizing the effect of sintering variables on densification of prealloyed Cu28Zn brass powder during supersolidus liquid phase sintering. The mathematical equations were derived to predict sintered density, densification parameter, porosity percentage and volumetric change of samples using second order regression analysis. As well as the adequacy of models was evaluated by analysis of variance technique at 95% confidence level. Finally, the influence and interaction of sintering variables, on achieving any desired properties was demonstrated graphically in contour and three dimensional plots. In order to better analyze the samples, microstructure evaluation was carried out. It was concluded that response surface methodology based on central composite rotatable design, is an economical way to obtain arbitrary information with performing the fewest number of experiments in a short period of time.

  6. The effect of small additions of Zr, Cr, Mg, Al, and Si on the oxidation of 6∶4 brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Bok; Moon, Jae-Jin

    2002-05-01

    The oxidation behavior of 60%Cu-40%Zn brass having small amounts of Zr, Cr, Mg, Al, and Si was studied between 873 and 1043 K in air. The alloying element of Mg was harmful, while other alloying elements were beneficial to oxidation resistance. Particularly, the simultaneous addition of Al and Si decreased the oxidation rate drastically. During oxidation, Zr formed ZrO2 Cr formed CuCr2O4, Mg formed MgO, Al formed Al2CuO4, and Si formed amorphous SiO2. These oxides were incorporated in the oxide scale composed predominantly of ZnO. The oxide scales formed on all the tested alloys were prone to cracking, wrinkling, and spallation.

  7. Standard test method for determining whether gas-leak-detector fluid solutions can cause stress corrosion cracking of brass alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an accelerated test method for evaluating the tendency of gas leak detection fluids (LDFs) to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass components in compressed gas service. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Influence of water quality and temperature on the corrosion of brass; Einfluss der Wasserqualitaet und der Temperatur auf das Korrosionsverhalten von Messing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, J.; Fischer, R. [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserchemie; Reissig, H. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Wasserguetefragen, Dresden (Germany); Rahner, D. [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie

    2003-07-01

    In the contribution on correlation between the water quality and the short circuit current in the couple brass and copper are investigated. The examined water quality parameters are temperatures, chloride, sulphate and hydrogencarbonate concentration as well as the pH value. These parameters were varied in experiments and analysed. Predictions about the corrosion tendency can be made from the short circuit current, particularly the corrosion of the investigated brass, and its dependence on investigated water quality parameters. While hydrogencarbonate reduces the short-circuit current, it becomes larger during temperature rise. In the case of chloride and sulphate, changes of the short circuit current depend on the other examined parameters, too. However, chloride has the strongest influence. (orig.)

  9. Causality pattern of the blood lead, monoamine oxidase A, and serotonin levels in brass home industry workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Marianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyse the effects of lead (Pb chronic exposure on blood lead levels, Monoamine oxidase A enzyme (MAO A and serotonin levels of brass craftsmen in Pati, Central Java, Indonesia, and to examine the connections among these three variables. The brass home industry area was polluted by lead. Thus, it chronically exposes the workers to lead pollution. Therefore, their blood lead level increased and later raised the level of MAO A and reduced the level of serotonin. Path analysis results show that the path coefficient (ñ of lead effects in decreasing serotonin through MAO A pathway is -0.411. Furthermore, lead effects that directly affect serotonin level without passing through MAO A pathway is -0.391 with residual coefficient (e of 0.572. In conclusion, the increase of blood lead level causes an increase in level of MAO A and drop in the level of serotonin.

  10. SU-E-T-176: Clinical Experience of Brass Mesh Bolus: Patient-Specific Parameters as Predictors of Measured Dosimetric Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yock, A; Manger, R; Einck, J; Yashar, C; Sanghvi, P; Hattangadi-Gluth, J; Cervino, L [University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Increasingly, brass mesh bolus is used to insure dosimetric coverage of the skin for patients treated post-mastectomy for breast cancer. Contribution of photoelectrons from interactions between the bolus and the primary beam increases dose superficially without affecting dose at greater depths. We present our experience using brass mesh bolus – including patients for whom the bolus was dosimetrically inadequate – along with analysis of relevant patient-specific parameters. Methods: Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) were used to determine the effect of the bolus for 15 patients. They were positioned beneath the bolus within the tangent fields at three positions: 1.5–3cm inside the medial and lateral field edges, and midway between the two. All OSLDs were midfield in the cranial-caudal direction. The measurements were compared with patient-specific parameters including separation, chest wall/breast tissue thickness, beam angle incidence, and planned surface dose. Results: The average OSLD measurement at the medial field edge, midfield, and lateral field edge position was 86.8%, 101.8%, and 92.8% of the prescription dose, respectively. A measurement for one patient was low enough (77.0%) to warrant a switch to an alternative type of bolus. Anatomic parameters were analyzed to investigate the low dose in this case, not observed in the planning system. The patient was observed to have a thin chest wall and very oblique beam angles. A second patient was also switched to an alternative type of bolus due to her being high risk and treated with an electron patch that extended onto the breast. Conclusion: Brass mesh bolus increases dose superficially while leaving dose at greater depths unaffected. However, our results suggest that this effect may be insufficient in patients with a thin chest wall or very oblique beam angles. More data and analysis is necessary to proactively identify patients for whom brass mesh bolus is effective.

  11. The influence of mandibular third molar germectomy on the treatment time of impacted mandibular second molars using brass wire: a prospective clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, M; Altieri, F

    2017-07-01

    The brass wire ligature is an efficient method to correct a moderately mesially impacted mandibular second molar (MM2). The aim of this prospective clinical pilot study was to evaluate the influence of mandibular third molar (MM3) germectomy on the treatment time for this procedure and to determine its impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The STROBE guidelines were followed. Impacted MM2 were assigned randomly to receive brass wire ligature treatment either with germectomy (group A) or without germectomy (group B). Descriptive statistics and the Student t-test were used in the statistical analysis; significance was set at P≤0.05. One thousand and thirty patients were assessed. Fourteen subjects with 20 mesially angulated (range 25-40°) impacted MM2 were identified. Paired comparisons of groups A and B showed no statistically significant difference in treatment time (171days for group A and 174days for group B; P=0.440), but a statistically significant difference in OHIP-14 values at the 3- (P=0.017) and 7-day (P=0.002) follow-up. The brass wire technique can be used effectively in moderately impacted MM2, but the combined use of MM3 germectomy does not influence the treatment time and shows a negative impact on OHRQoL. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative study of microstructure and mechanical properties between friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Saeid, T., E-mail: saeid@sut.ac.ir

    2016-01-01

    This study was done in order to compare the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded single and double phase brass alloys. The microstructure of the joints were examined using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, tensile test and fractography were applied to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. The results showed that the grain size of the stir zone in the double phase joint was smaller than that of the single phase alloy. In comparison with base metals, both of the joints contained high density of dislocations with a qualitatively similar texture. However, the dislocation density of the double phase joint was somewhat lower than that of the single phase one. Moreover, the joints had higher tensile strength, lower elongation and less ductile fracture compared to their base metals due to their finer grain size and higher dislocation density. The double phase joint had higher strength and lower elongation than single phase joint due to the effect of the second phase.

  13. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  14. Modeling and prediction of cutting forces during the turning of red brass (C23000 using ANN and regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanief

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The life of a cutting tool is greatly influenced by the forces acting on it during a cutting operation. A machining operation is a complex process. It is very difficult to develop a comprehensive model involving all the parameters. The present study aims to develop a model to investigate the effects of cutting parameters (speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the cutting forces during the turning operation of red brass (C23000 using high speed steel (HSS tool. The experimental results are based on full factorial design methodology to increase the reliability and confidence limit of the data. Artificial neural network and multiple regression approaches were used to model the cutting forces on the basis of cutting parameters. In order to check the adequacy of the regression model, analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. It was clear from the ANOVA that the regression model is capable to predict the cutting forces with high accuracy. However, ANN model was found to be more accurate than the regression model.

  15. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelicarslan, A.; Saridede, M. N.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO{sub 4}), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (EmimHSO{sub 4}) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO{sub 4} and HmimHSO{sub 4}, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO{sub 4} system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 degree centigrade leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO{sub 4} concentration at 60 degree centigrade and 80 degree centigrade in the following order; 40%>20%>60%>80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc. (Author)

  16. Enhanced Photoluminescence and Raman Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Prepared Using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methanol Assisted with Heated Brass

    OpenAIRE

    Tamil Many K Thandavan; Siti Meriam Abdul Gani; Chiow San Wong; Roslan Md Nor

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as ...

  17. Tribological studies of composite material based on CuZn38Al2Mn1Fe brass strengthened with δ-alumina fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaczmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of tribological studies (friction coefficient, wear resistance of the frictional couple of composite material based on CuZn38Al2Mn1Fe brass strengthened with δ-alumina fibres (Saffil and cast iron are shown in this paper. The wear investigations were conducted applying the tribological pin-on-disc tester and the friction forces between composite materials containing 10 and 20 vol. % of δ-alumina fibres (Saffil and cast iron were registered. Wear was determined on the base of the specimen mass loss after 1, 3,5 and 8.5 km of friction distance.

  18. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    possible biofilm composition and understand the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration process. Using these methodologies, the box was correctly identified as being made of cellulose acetate plastic with brass decorations and the white film was identified as being composed mainly of polymer exudates, namely sulphonamides and triphenyl phosphate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Understanding the Cu-Zn brass alloys using a short-range-order cluster model: significance of specific compositions of industrial alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H. L.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2014-11-01

    Metallic alloys show complex chemistries that are not yet understood so far. It has been widely accepted that behind the composition selection lies a short-range-order mechanism for solid solutions. The present paper addresses this fundamental question by examining the face-centered-cubic Cu-Zn α-brasses. A new structural approach, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model, is introduced, which suits specifically for the description of short-range-order structures in disordered systems. Two types of formulas are pointed out, [Zn-Cu12]Zn1~6 and [Zn-Cu12](Zn,Cu)6, which explain the α-brasses listed in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. In these formulas, the bracketed parts represent the 1st-neighbor cluster, and each cluster is matched with one to six 2nd-neighbor Zn atoms or with six mixed (Zn,Cu) atoms. Such a cluster-based formulism describes the 1st- and 2nd-neighbor local atomic units where the solute and solvent interactions are ideally satisfied. The Cu-Ni industrial alloys are also explained, thus proving the universality of the cluster-formula approach in understanding the alloy selections. The revelation of the composition formulas for the Cu-(Zn,Ni) industrial alloys points to the common existence of simple composition rules behind seemingly complex chemistries of industrial alloys, thus offering a fundamental and practical method towards composition interpretations of all kinds of alloys.

  20. Influence of increasing zinc contents in brass in the early stages of corrosion investigated by in-situ TM-AFM and SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleber, Christoph; Schreiner, Manfred [Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Analytical Chemistry Division, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/151, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Science and Technologies in Art, Academy of Fine Arts, Schillerplatz 3, 1010 Vienna (Austria); Rosner, Martin; Hutter, Herbert [Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Analytical Chemistry Division, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/151, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-09-01

    In-situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM), a powerful, high-resolution imaging technique for determining the structure of surfaces and ex-situ secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), a multielement, high-depth-resolution method, were used to examine the influence of increasing zinc contents in brass in the early stages of corrosion. Four different samples (pure Cu, pure Zn, Cu/Zn=90/10 wt% and Cu/Zn=70/30 wt%) were studied in order to determine their chemical behaviour under various atmospheric conditions. The in-situ TM-AFM investigations were carried out in synthetic air with 60% relative humidity (RH) and 80% RH with 250 ppb SO{sub 2}. The samples for the ex-situ SIMS experiments were weathered over a period of 60 h in 80% RH and 250 ppb SO{sub 2}. The in-situ TM-AFM investigations have shown that an increasing Zn content in brass increases the corrosion rate. (orig.)

  1. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of ionic liquids (ILs, 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO4 and HmimHSO4, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO4 system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 °C leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO4 concentration at 60 °C and 80 °C in the following order; 40% > 20% > 60% > 80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc.Este trabajo investiga el uso de líquidos iónicos (LIs, hidrogenosulfato de 1-metillimidazolio (HmimHSO4, hidrogenosulfato de 1-etil-3- metilimidazolio (EmimHSO4 y cloruro de 1-butil-1-metilimidazolio (BmimCl, como agentes de lixiviación de cobre y zinc a partir de residuos de latón en presencia de un oxidante, peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2. Se estudiaron distintos factores que afectan a la velocidad de disolución del cobre y el zinc, como la concentración del líquido iónico, el tiempo y la temperatura. Los resultados indican que el zinc se disuelve completamente en las disoluciones que contienen EmimHSO4 y HmimHSO4. La temperatura no tiene un efecto significativo en la velocidad de disolución del cobre, mientras que dicha velocidad aumenta al disminuir la concentración del líquido iónico. En los sistemas que contienen EmimHSO4, los mejores

  2. The Effects of Voltage and Concentration of Sodium Bicarbonate on Electrochemical Synthesis of Ethanol from Carbon Dioxide Using Brass as Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Septian; Fariduddin, Sholah; Rizki Aminudin, Afianti; Kurnia Hayatri, Antisa; Riyanto

    2017-11-01

    The effects of voltage and concentration of sodium bicarbonate were investigated to determine the optimum conditions of the electrochemical synthesis process to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol. The conversion process is carried out using a sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution in an electrochemical synthesis reactor equipped with a cathode and anode. As the cathode was used brass, while as the anode carbon was utilized. Sample of the electrochemical synthesis process was analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the content of the compounds produced. The optimum electrochemical synthesis conditions to convert carbon dioxide into ethanol are voltage and concentration of sodium bicarbonate are 3 volts and 0.4 M with ethanol concentration of 1.33%.

  3. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids and evaluation of their leaching performance in the recovery of copper and zinc from industrial brass slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahina, A.K.; Atalaya, T.S.; Atbakarb, M.; Ocalb, N.; Saridede, M.N.

    2016-07-01

    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids, 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, 1-benzyl-3-ethylimidazolium trifluoroacetate and 1-benzyl-3-propylimidazolium trifluoroacetate were prepared by simple methods, when compared with those in literature sources, and characterized by IR, NMR and GC-MS and LC-MS. These ILs (Ionic Liquids) were employed as leaching agents in the treatment of industrial copper and zinc bearing slag for the recovery of metals. Results showed that synthesized all novel ionic liquids meet the standard specifications of an ionic liquid. Metal recovery rates decrease with time except for zinc dissolution in 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. 1,3-dibenzylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, when compared with others, is a more effective leaching agent for the treatment of copper and zinc bearing brass slag. Metal recovery rates achieved with this IL are 62.58% for zinc and 24.95% for copper. (Author)

  4. Microbiologically influenced corrosion evaluation on brass (UNS C68700, UNS C443) and AISI 316 stainless steel; Estudio de la influencia microbiologica en la corrosion de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443) y acero inoxidable AISI 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Russi, P.; Pianzzola, M. J.; Menes, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of bio films: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These bio films affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (Uns C.a.), admiralty brass (Uns C.a.) and stainless steel Asi 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay). The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Ei). The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel Asi 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration. (Author)

  5. RhCd{sub 9+δ} (-1.18 ≤δ≤0.29) a γ-brass related cubic giant cell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Partha Pratim [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-09-01

    The compound RhCd{sub 9+δ} (-1.18 ≤δ≤0.29) has been synthesized and the average structure has been analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The average structure crystallizes in the face centered cubic space group F43m (216) and contains ∝405 atoms/unit cell. It represents a (2a{sub γ}){sup 3}-superstructure of cubic γ-brass and is isostructural to Rh{sub 7-x}Mg{sub 44+x}. The comparison between the structures of RhCd{sub 9+δ} and Rh{sub 7-x}Mg{sub 44+x} has been presented using a layer description. The structure of the title phase has also been described by a ''cluster'' concept. The electronic structure of RhCd{sub 9+δ} (-1.18 ≤δ≤0.29) shows that the phase is stabilized by a Hume-Rothery mechanism.

  6. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface.

  7. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  9. Effect of clearance and punch speed on the cutting surface quality results of a brass blanking on the micropunch CNC machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiawan, Ichsan; Mahardika, Muslim

    2017-04-01

    This study is an early stage of testing of micro punch CNC machine that has been created to obtain the best parameters in the blanking process by using certain variables. An experiment to determine the effect of clearance and the punch speed in brass with the workpiece in the form of a circular hole diameter of 800 µm was conducted. This study uses micro punch CNC machine designed and tested through simulations and experiments directly related to the ability and requirement. Clearance used is 2.5 to 10% with a certain range. The slab thickness used is 300 µm. The punch speed variation used is 100, 800, 1600 and 2500 mm / minute. This study shows the influence of clearance on the punch result surface quality, the smaller of the clearance then the greater burnish area produced than the roll over, fracture and burr zone. The effect of the punch speed used show low leverage. Design, manufacturing, and testing of this machine is an early reference to the development of punch machine in the manufacturing of medical devices and micro-sized mechanics such as micro-filter and bone plates.

  10. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cryorolling (CR strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α−brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10−3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10−3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10−5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  11. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehse, Steven J., E-mail: rehse@wayne.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Mohaidat, Qassem I., E-mail: mohaidat_76@yahoo.co [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  12. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards.Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p<0.01, while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p<0.01. Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p<0.05. There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p<0.01.This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance.

  13. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  14. Evaluation of dislocation density in copper and brass α deformed by XRD peak width analysis; Avaliacao de densidade de discordancias em cobre e latao α deformados por analise de largura de pico de DRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Talita Gama de

    2014-07-01

    The determination of dislocation density in metallic materials has been available for many years in scientific environment. This is due to the fact that the dislocations are the main responsible for plastic deformation, which, thereafter, markedly influences the mechanical properties. In this work, the dislocation density was analyzed through peak broadening of Xray diffraction (XRD) using Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) program. The measurements obtained by XRD were compared with those obtained from images observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The materials used in this study were pure copper and brass α as alloy 268 (6 % Cu and 34 % Zn), deformed by rolling and ECA (equal channel angular extrusion) processes. The results indicate that the XRD is a powerful tool for the characterization of the microstructure in relation to the dislocation density, as they were consistent to the TEM measurements, and also showed good relationship with measurements of hardness. Furthermore, through the dislocation density it was possible to verify the influence of stacking fault energy (SFE) in the evolution of the copper samples deformation process and its alloy, and that the presence of texture in rolled samples did not impair the measurements obtained by XRD technique. (author)

  15. A facile approach for the fabrication of 3D flower-like Cu2S nanostructures on brass mesh with temperature-induced wetting transition for efficient oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Kang, Zhixin

    2017-11-01

    3D flower-like Cu2S nanostructures on brass meshes have been fabricated for the first time, with a reversible wetting transition and excellent durability. In the present work, we demonstrated a simple and environmentally-benign method to fabricate the nanostructures utilizing an electrolyte containing CuSO4·5H2O, EDTA-2Na and CH3CSNH2. The superhydrophobicity was achieved by drying thoroughly at 200 °C, instead of using low surface energy materials. After annealing at 300 °C for 6 min, the superhydrophobic surface was oxidized and became superhydrophilic. However, the superhydrophobicity can be restored by heating at 200 °C for several hours. In simpler terms, the reversible wetting transition is responded to the temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to characterize the surfaces and analyze the wetting transition mechanism. Furthermore, different kinds of oily sewages were separated by as-prepared mesh with high separation efficiency. It is believed that this method should have a promising future in expanding the applications of copper alloys.

  16. Toxicity of Brass Particulate to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    adults, were used as the experimental animals. The culture techniques used were described by Goulden et al. 2 Ten neonates were placed in each 250-mi...Density on the Acute Toxicities of Surfactants , Copper, and Phenol to Daphnia magna Straus. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 51-53T9T3). 7. Berglind

  17. Propagation speed of gamma radiation in brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose T.P.D.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovich, Henrique

    2009-07-01

    The propagation speed (PS) of visible light -represented by a short frequency range in the large frame of electromagnetic radiations (ER) frequencies- in air was measured during the last century, using a great deal of different methods, with high precision results being achieved. Presently, a well accepted value, with very small uncertainty, is c= 299,792.458 Km/s) (c reporting to the Latin word celeritas: 'speed swiftness'). When propagating in denser material media (MM), such value is always lower when compared to the air value, with the propagating MM density playing an important role. Until present, such studies focusing propagation speeds, refractive indexes, dispersions were specially related to visible light, or to ER in wavelengths ranges dose to it, and with a transparent MM. A first incursion in this subject dealing with {gamma}-rays was performed using an electronic coincidence counting system, when the value of it's PS was measured in air, C{sub {gamma}}{sub (air)}298,300.15 Km/s; a method that went on with later electronic improvements. always in air. To perform such measurements the availability of a {gamma}-radiation source in which two {gamma}-rays are emitted simultaneously in opposite directions -as already used as well as applied in the present case- turns out to be essential to the feasibility of the experiment, as far as no reflection techniques could be used. Such a suitable source was the positron emitter {sup 22}Na placed in a thin wall metal container in which the positrons are stopped and annihilated when reacting with the medium electrons, in such way originating -as it is very well established from momentum/energy conservation laws - two gamma-rays, energy 511 KeV each, both emitted simultaneously in opposite directions. In all the previous experiments were used photomultiplier detectors coupled to NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators, which have a good energy resolution but a deficient time resolution for such purposes. Presently, as an innovative improvement, were used BaF{sub 2} and Cs F crystal scintillators which display a much better time resolution. Incidentally, the use of {gamma}-rays would a 110 W a determination of ER propagation values in non-transparent MM, non transparent for visible light; and in such a way better sketching their structural -or of other nature- properties that may interfere with this propagation. (author)

  18. Eletrodissolução de ligas de latão empregando sistemas de análise em fluxo para a determinação de cobre, zinco e chumbo por ICP-AES Electrodissolution of brasses alloys employing flow systems for determination of copper, zinc and lead by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. Gervasio

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available An on-line electrodissolution procedure implemented in a flow injection system for determination of copper, zinc and lead in brasses alloys by ICP-AES is described. Sample dissolution procedure was carried out by using a PTFE chamber and a DC power supply with constant current. Solid sample was attached to chamber as anode and a gold tubing coupled in the chamber was used as cathode. An electrolytic solution flowing through the gold tubing closed the electric circuit with sample, in order to provide condition for electric dissolution when the DC power supply was switched on. The best results were achieved by using a 1.5 mol l-1 nitric acid solution as electrolyte and a 2.5 A current intensity. The procedure presented a good performance characterized by a relative standard deviation better than < 5% (n=5 and a sample throughput of 180 determinations per hour for Cu, Zn and Pb. Results were in agreement with those obtained by conventional acid dissolution (99% confidence level.

  19. Getting down to brass tacks: Is your organization really aligned?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullrich, Kristoph

    2017-01-01

    Simply operating more efficient, cost-effective supply chains is not enough to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. Instead, a company’s ability to respond quickly to changes in demand or supply without stockpiling unnecessary inventory must be complemented by cost efficiency. In addition to

  20. Black Eyes and Brass Knuckles: Science Policy in Washington DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slakey, Francis

    2002-04-01

    Washington DC is a majestic and tranquil city, beautifully stationed along the shores of the dazzling Potomac river. Not! The nation's capitol sits in the middle of a drained swamp and it has the most hostile atmosphere this side of Venus. Francis Slakey, a professor of Physics and Biology at Georgetown University and a lobbyist for the American Physical Society, will give an intro to the political process and describe some of the battles waged on behalf of the APS.

  1. Fatigue performance of brass breakaway light pole couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Breakaway couplings connect light pole bases to foundation anchor bolts and are intended to fracture on impact after vehicle collision to : protect drivers and passengers from severe injury. The coupling consists of an internally threaded hollow hexa...

  2. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, C., E-mail: carla.martini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Chiavari, C., E-mail: cristina.chiavari@unibo.it [C.I.R.I. M.A.M (Advanced Applications in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Technology Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Ospitali, F., E-mail: francesca.ospitali@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Grazzi, F., E-mail: francesco.grazzi@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Scherillo, A., E-mail: antonella.scherillo@stfc.ac.uk [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Neutron Source, OX0QJ Didcot (United Kingdom); Soffritti, C., E-mail: chiara.soffritti@unife.it [TekneHub, Department of Architecture, University of Ferrara, Via Quartieri 8, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Garagnani, G.L., E-mail: gian.luca.garagnani@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina.

  3. Relative Armor Penetration of Jacketed Lead, Solid Copper, Solid Brass, and Steel Core Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    square) and a proprietary fiber composite armor (glass backed with aramid fabric) were tested against four different types of bullets in 5.56mm...penetration of four different projectile types (all in 5.56mm NATO) on both 6.35mm thick steel plate (A36) and proprietary glass/ aramid composite armor...different projectile types (all in 5.56mm NATO) on both 6.35mm thick steel plate (A36) and proprietary glass/ aramid composite armor. The bullet

  4. RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF ZINC ANODES FOR BRASS-PLATING OF STEEL CORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are examined the questions of optimization by means of mathematic modeling of the processes of blending and mixing of ceramic sialon powders, as particles sizes, their allocation and composition determine solidity and efficiency of ceramics.

  5. Friction and wear studies on the temperature dependence of brake-pad materials containing brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brake pad materials for automobile applications are basically polymer matrix composites. Various reinforcing constituents used in brake pads are organic, metallic and ceramic fillers which play among others an important role on the mechanical and thermal properties, and the wear resistance at high temperature. Friction and wear depend on various parameters such as the micro-chemical structure of the pad and of the metallic counter-face, the rotation speed, the pressure, and the contact surface temperature (M.G. Jacko 1983. This latter parameter can be locally as high as 600 up to 1.500 ∘C depending on the brake type (M.G. Jacko 1983; Blau 2001. Thermal models have been developed to study interface effects at contacting surfaces (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Frictional energy can be dissipated through different mechanisms such as oxidation, rise in temperature, formation of wear particles, entropy changes associated to viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation, and noise generation (Eddoumy, Addiego et al. 2011. Studies of friction brake show that more than 95% of the dissipated energy is transformed into heat (Kasem, Thevenet et al.; Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Thermal analysis is therefore a primordial step in the study of brake systems since it provides thermo-mechanical properties (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. The influence of the addition of metallic fibers on the performance of organic friction composites has been investigated using friction tests (Qu, Zhang et al. 2004. Benefits or limitations of the different fibers have been reported, however the issues of thermo-mechanical properties or effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior were not yet investigated (Bijwe, Kumar et al. 2008. No effort was done to correlate the thermo-mechanical and thermal properties with the friction and wear behavior. An important prerequisite is to get a good understanding on how brake materials behave. However, a link between thermal transitions and tribological behavior occurring at different temperatures is still missing.

  6. Pair-correlation function in disordered β-brass as studied by neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.

    1967-01-01

    Critical neutron scattering around a superlattice reflection above Tc yields information on the pair correlation function for occupation of lattice sites. The Ornstein-Zernike correlation function e-k 1 r/r is proved to fit the data excellently, and at 8.9deg K above Tc the inverse correlation...

  7. An EBSD Investigation of Cryogenically-Rolled Cu-30%Zn Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-07

    prone to activation of these two deformation mechanisms. Due to its very low stacking fault energy , extensive twinning and shear banding usually occur...deformation induced microstructure, the cryo rolled material was stored in a freezer at ~−20 °C prior to examination. Microstructure characterization was...Jian, A. Kauffmann, H. Conrad, J. Freudenberger, Y.T. Zhu, Role of stacking fault energy in strengthening due to cryo-deformation of FCC metals, Mater

  8. In-situ tomographic investigation of creep cavity evolution in brass

    OpenAIRE

    Cerceau Isaac Neta Pinto, Augusta

    2009-01-01

    In der Arbeit wurde die Möglichkeit zur zerstörungsfreien Prüfung mittels der Röntgenmikrotomographie genutzt, um in-situ Untersuchungen an Kriechbruch verursachende Hohlraumbildung in Messing zu ermöglichen. An aufeinander folgende rekonstruierte Probenvolumina konnte durch Anwendung von Bildverarbeitungsmethoden die Entwicklung der kriechbedingten Hohlräume verfolgt werden. Die Wachstumsrate von über 1000 einzelnen Hohlräumen konnte im Bereich zwischen der Nachweisgrenze und der...

  9. Popcom brass report on China: simplicity, IEC methods impress no. 2 official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, B D

    1978-08-01

    In the People's Republic of China, the national family planning goals of deferred marriage, increased birth intervals, and smaller family size are communicated to the citizens of the country primarily through small group activities, and conformity to these goals is achieved by bringing peer and community pressure to bear on the individual. The State Council and the Office of Family Planning formulate national population policy which is then implemented by the Ministry of Health. Ministry officials organize local family planning committees in schools, factories, villages, and other institutions. These local committees are charged with the responsibility of motivating their co-workers, neighbors, and colleagues toward compliance with national goals. Women are expected to discuss their own family planning goals with their assigned committee and each committee must submit a plan for their group designating the number of births that will occur in the future, who will give birth, and when these births will occur. In the schools, sex education is not given until the secondary level and at that time a member from each class is selected and made responsible for the family planning education of his fellow classmates. This grass-roots approach to family planning is unique and may have applicability in other developing countries.

  10. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  11. 75 FR 18801 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... production costs, then the proper methodological remedy might be a potential change in the temporal structure... and 19 CFR 351.411. We based this adjustment on the difference in the variable cost of manufacture... for differences in merchandise based on the difference in the variable cost of manufacturing (VCOM...

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of the Artificial Neural Network Outputs in Friction Stir Lap Joining of Aluminum to Brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Shojaeefard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Mg and CuZn34 alloys were lap joined using friction stir welding while the aluminum alloy sheet was placed on the CuZn34. In addition, the mechanical properties of each sample were characterized using shear tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to probe chemical compositions. An artificial neural network model was developed to simulate the correlation between the Friction Stir Lap Welding (FSLW parameters and mechanical properties. Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of each input parameter on the output in terms of magnitude and direction. Four methods, namely, the “PaD” method, the “Weights” method, the “Profile” method, and the “backward stepwise” method, which can give the relative contribution and/or the contribution profile of the input factors, were compared. The PaD method, giving the most complete results, was found to be the most useful, followed by the Profile method that gave the contribution profile of the input variables.

  13. Anatomical studies of timber and EPMA analysis of brass artefacts collected from steam engine shipwreck of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    to rolling surf and the amidships and cabins were filled with water. Colombo formed a breakwater against the rolling waves, and the dis- tance between the ship and the land was short that women, children and the sick were dragged by the natives through...

  14. 75 FR 66347 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Comment 3: Whether To Revise Wieland's General and Administrative (G&A) Expense Ratio Comment 4: Whether... fabrication costs and G&A expenses; (2) we used Wieland's day-specific metal costs to calculate the cost of.... Where appropriate, to calculate the entered value, we subtracted international movement expenses (e.g...

  15. 78 FR 52759 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... McMahon, AD/CVD Operations, Office 8, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... or withdrawal from warehouse for consumption, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.212(c)(1)(i). The.... Gary Taverman, Senior Advisor for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations. BILLING CODE 3510-DS...

  16. 78 FR 52133 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Review; 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Operations, Office 1, Import Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue... the time of entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.212(c... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Operations. BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P ...

  17. 75 FR 14443 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for Revere Copper and Brass in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Job Duties: Extruders and Shapes Specialists who worked in the Rod and Shape Mill. Period of Employment: January 1, 1943 through December 31, 1984. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stuart L. Hinnefeld.... Information requests can also be submitted by e-mail to [email protected] . John Howard, Director, National...

  18. A Two-Step Approach for Producing an Ultrafine-Grain Structure in Cu-30Zn Brass (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    rolling almost tripled the microhardness relative to the as-received, as-cast condition. The pronounced material strengthening was likely related to the...unlimited. © 2015 ELSEVIER LTD (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH...S) Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7750 Air Force Materiel

  19. Comparison between acoustic measurements of brass instruments and one-dimensional models with curved wavefronts and transformed axial coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduña-Bustamante, Felipe; Rendón, Pablo Luis; Martínez-Montejo, Erika

    2017-10-01

    A progressive spherical or spheroidal wavefront approximation has previously been found to be a necessary step for a more accurate application of Webster's wave equation to rapidly flaring horns. This leads to a necessary transformation of the horn area function, from the usual flat cross-sectional area in terms of the axial coordinate, into a curved cap-like wavefront area as a function of either the axial coordinate, the arc-length coordinate along the horn profile, the leading curved wavefront coordinate, or still other possible longitudinal coordinates. In this article, horn functions, and related frequency potential functions are calculated from the measured horn profiles of a trombone and a trumpet for several of the above parameterizations. From them, cutoff frequencies and effective lengths are determined. A comparison is drawn between theoretical results using different parameterizations, results calculated via transfer-matrix models, and experimental measurements of the acoustical input impedance and reflection function of both instruments. Results indicate that one-dimensional models accurately predict the effective lengths, and consequently the fundamental resonance frequency of the instruments within ±25 cents, but fail noticeably in predicting cutoff frequencies, leading to what is probably an inaccurate representation of perceived timbre.

  20. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably foreseeable time. A schedule... Commission's TDD terminal at 202-205- 1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special...

  1. Long-Range Order and Critical Scattering of Neutrons below the Transition Temperature in β-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.

    1967-01-01

    The temperature dependence of long-range order langPrang has been determined from the temperature variation of a superlattice Bragg reflection. The results fitted a power law langPrang prop (Tc-T)beta with Tc the critical temperature and beta = 0.305plusmn0.005, in agreement with the theoretical ...

  2. Influence of constant magnetic field on the tribological parameters of rubbing couples steel-brass in surface active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Свирид

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  Maintainability of surfaces of sensitive pairs of friction is analysed in surroundings with high electrical resistance in the conditions of friction. The model of tribological unit, determining conditions and conformities to the law of formation of protective tribological pellicles, is worked out. The parameters of reparation of friction surfaces are determined by a tribomagnetic method. The parameters of renewal of sensitive tribopairs are also defined on uncollapsible technologies by joint influence of triboelectrochemical method and tribomagnetic components.

  3. Dechová hudba v jižních Čechách se zaměřením na historii a současnost dechových souborů a jejich výrazných uměleckých osobností

    OpenAIRE

    ŽIŽKOVÁ, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    The bachelor thesis maps brass music in South Bohemia. The thesis describes developement of brass music from it's beginning to present brass music. The thesis is further focused to map history and developement of small brass bands. This includes description of their performing at various festivals, competitions all over Czech Republic. The thesis also follows up important members of described brass bands. The interviews with experts, conductors and performers and rehearsal of brass music by y...

  4. Evaluation Characterization of Mechanisms Controlling Fate and Effects of Army Smokes. (Transport, Transformations, Fate and Terrestrial Ecological Effects of Brass Obscurants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-29

    2500 6.0 NS. Chi, Dwarfed 3 Tall Femme Burbank 0 1,0 NB, Chi 25 2.0 NS,Chl 100 2.0 NB, Chi500 6.0 NS, Chi, Stunted(o)2500 5.0 NO, Chi, Stunted...Voris et al, 1988; Cataldo et al, 1990), where decided numbers of deaths occurred during this period, no fatalities among the populations exposed were...Cataldo et al. 1990)], where decided numbers of deaths occurred during this period, we noted no fatalities among the populations exposed. In fact, egg

  5. Where there's muck, there's brass: Creating sustainable franchise micro-businesses to do water services operation and maintenance in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships, using the basic principles of social franchising, could address many challenges in the operation and/or maintenance of water services. Development of this concept in South Africa is moving from research into practice....

  6. The Verbenaceae, collected in Papua by L. J. Brass for the Archbold Expedition. (American Museum of Natural History), 1933—1934

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Mr. BRASS’S New Guinea collection has yielded valuable data to our knowledge of the Verbenaceae. He discovered one new genus (Archboldia), 3 new species (Clerodendron Brassii, C. populneum and Premna inaequilateralis) and some interesting additions to the area’s of earlier described species, among

  7. Comparison of the influence of acoustically enhanced pulsating water jet on selected surface integrity characteristics of CW004A copper and CW614N brass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klichová, Dagmar; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Hvizdoš, P.; Fides, M.; Botko, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 110, November 2017 (2017), s. 230-238 ISSN 0263-2241 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * surface integrity * mass material removal * copper * nanoindentation Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0263224117304396/1-s2.0-S0263224117304396-main.pdf?_tid=783a1e88-7d09-11e7-9063-00000aacb362&acdnat=1502286708_794e233dee7c309f6d1566e4775d6ff0

  8. Effect of silicon carbide addition on the corrosion behavior of powder metallurgy Cu−30Zn brass in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Mohammed Ali, E-mail: maalmomani7@just.edu.jo [Department of Industrial Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Tyfour, Wa' il Radwan, E-mail: wrtyfou@just.edu.jo [Department of Industrial Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Nemrat, Mohammed Hani, E-mail: mohammednemrat@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Applied Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-09-15

    A study was made to evaluate the corrosion behavior when Cu−30Zn alloy is reinforced with different weight fractions of silicon carbide (SiC) particles in a simulated sea solution (3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution). The composites were produced via powder metallurgy (PM) route. For the sake of comparison, the corrosion behaviors of unreinforced and reinforced alloy were examined. Electrochemical measurements (potentiodynamic testing) showed that the corrosion rate of the composites decreased with increase of SiC weight percentages, as a result of weak microgalvanic couple between reinforcement particles and Cu−30Zn matrix, and the low possibility of intermetallic phases formation. ANOVA test indicated that the variations of corrosion rate of the composites upon changing weight percentages of SiC particles are statistically significant. Polarization curves showed that the passive film tends to be less stable, and the potential difference between passivation and free corrosion points increased with increase of SiC weight percentages, as SiC cathodically protect the matrix material by sacrificial anodic dissolution of crevice regions about reinforcement particles. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of the sample's surfaces before and after testing are in agreement with the electrochemical results. - Highlights: • Effect of adding SiC on both uniform and localized corrosion of Cu−30Zn alloy is studied. • Reinforcing Cu−30Zn with nonconductive SiC particles decreases its tendency to uniform and localized corrosion. • Reinforcement particles cathodically protect the matrix material, and retard pit propagation to the matrix.

  9. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  10. Numerical modelling of coupled phenomena within molten glass heated by induction and mechanically stirred; Modelisation numerique de phenomenes couples dans des bains de verre brasses mecaniquement et elabores en creuset froid inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoutot, L

    2006-11-15

    This study reports on a new vitrification process developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, Marcoule). This process is used for the treatment of high activity nuclear waste. It is characterized by the cooling of all the metal walls and by currents directly induced inside the molten glass. In addition, a mechanical stirring device is used to homogenize the molten glass. The goal of this study is to develop numerical tools to understand phenomena which take place within the bath and which involve thermal, hydrodynamic and electromagnetic aspects. The numerical studies are validated using experimental results obtained from pilot vitrification facilities. (author)

  11. Caracterización Experimental de un Empaque Estructurado de Gasa de Latón de Alta Eficiencia Experimental Characterization of a High Efficiency Brass Gauge Structured Packing

    OpenAIRE

    R.H Chávez; J.J Guadarrama

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se muestra la operación de un empaque estructurado construido en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), del tipo gasa de alambre y fabricado en latón. Los resultados experimentales son las caídas de presión generadas por el paso de los flujos gaseoso y líquido que cruzan el empaque, las retenciones volumétricas del líquido, los coeficientes volumétricos de transferencia de masa por el lado líquido y las alturas de unidades de transferencia de masa del líqui...

  12. WAYS TO OBTAIN AMIDES CONTAINING SALTS 3D-METALS BASED ON TALL OIL ROSIN AND STUDYING THEI INFLUENCE ON THE PROPERTIES OF THE SYSTEM "RUBBER - BRASSED METAL CORD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Kolnogorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This article discusses how to obtain amide-containing salts of 3d-metals based on tall rosin. A scheme of obtaining amide containing salts 3dmetals. The scheme of obtaining amide-containing salts of 3d-metals presented here. Ammonolysis maleopimaric acid was carried out, the technological parameters of the process were identified. Found that the process of ammonolysis affected by the following controlled technological factors: the ratio of the components, the temperature of the reaction medium and the duration of holding ammonolysis. The results of studies of the effect of additives on the received technical and technological properties of the elastomer compositions, adhesion and corrosion resistance rubber-systems are presented. The most efficient promoters are metalcord-rubber adhesion systems for use in the manufacture of tires fitted. Providing the necessary technological properties of manufacturing rubber compounds achieved when using elastomeric compositions consisting of a cobalt salt of amide MTC. Found that necessary to adjust the composition of the vulcanizing system using the synthesized compounds. It was revealed that the elastomeric composition comprising cobalt salt of amide maleated rosin and cobalt naphthenate are less susceptible to oxygen and air at elevated temperature compared to rubber containing salts Mn (II and Cr (III amide MTC. The results of studies of bond strength rubber with steel showed that the adhesive properties of rubber-systems with the test components depend on the dosage and rubber compound. It was determined that the introduction of salts of Co (II, based on amide maleated tall oil rosin at a dosage of 1.5 wt. parts per 100 wt. phr produces indicators adhesion and corrosion properties at the level of those with industrial modifier cobalt naphthenate. The results of research of obtained compounds influence on the technical and technological properties of the elastomer compositions, adhesion and corrosion resistance of rubber-cord systems are given.

  13. The Inhibition of Vapor-Phase Corrosion. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    good protection towards steel, grey cast iron, Cu, brass, galvanised iron, and Pb in humid atmosphere 85 . A ternary mixture comprising of...humid atmosphere by Komrova 8 8 on steel, Cu, brass and galvanised iron using dibutyl- phthalate (128), isoamylcinnamate (129), triamylborate (130...protection - towards steel, Cu and brass at relative humidity values up to 98% and of galvanised iron at relative humidity values up to 85%88. Besides the

  14. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (3) July, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abimbola

    sculptures, brass memorial heads and plaques, and carved ivory tusks, et cetera, that immortalize Benin Kings. Benin court art is ... Kings are brass memorial trophy heads. They are depictions of executed insurgent rulers whose ... Benin National Museum (Egharevba, 2005). Royal War Exploits. Apart from the internal civil ...

  15. Specificity in liquid metal induced embrittlement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available compounds between the solid and liquid metals. To study the embrittlement of two brass alloys by molten gallium (Tm = 29.8 °C), Tensile tests on smooth, unnotched specimens were used. The alloys used were CZ106, a 70/30 alpha-brass, and CZ109, a 60/40 alpha-beta...

  16. The Sweet Tyranny of Creating One's Own Life: Rethinking Power and Freedom in English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2010-01-01

    In this historical study of English teaching, Jory Brass adopts a governmentality perspective to highlight the contingency and limits of pedagogical arguments that construct an oppositional relation between power and freedom. In the first part of the essay, Brass historicizes contemporary critiques of transmission pedagogies by comparing them with…

  17. 75 FR 47268 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... that include stainless steel, brass and aluminum. Gulf Crown Seafood Company, Inc 306 Jon Floyd Rd, 7..., Inc. manufactures Ave, North RI 02911. metal findings using steel, brass, and stainless steel. Fulford... manufactures a full line of steel Corporation. Brooklyn NY 11232. display hardware. McTeigue & McClelland, Inc...

  18. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  19. TWEE (7) DUITSE VLIEGTUIE VAN DUALA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revolution Counter Flexible Shaft Chains and. 2 Prs. Terminals. Flexible Shaft Chain with Brass Ends Complete. Exhaust Pressure Valves. Petrol Filters. Petrol Taps, with unions for pipe. 5/16". Brass Petcocks. Pipe and Unions for Petrol Level Indicator. Grease Lubricators. Revolution Counter Cable Brackets width. 1 Spare ...

  20. Obscurants for Infrared Countermeasures III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owrutsky, J

    2001-01-01

    ... transmission are determined simultaneously. Carbon black was found to be the best obscurant material of the possible alternatives to brass investigated in this laboratory. Its volume extinction coefficient is lower than that of brass (by a factor of 2-3), but if the relative toxicities are taken into account, it may be a preferable obscurant material.

  1. APPLICATION OF THE X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCES- SES OF WIRE PRODUCTION AT BMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diffraction methods of qualitative and quantative analysis of phase composition of the brass coating, scale on the surface of brass wire, rod, patented wire, methods of determining the characteristics of the microstrains the lattice ferritic matrix pearlitic high-carbon steel, are explored.

  2. Evaluation and characterization of mechanisms controlling fate and effects of Army smokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McKinley, J.P.; Mi, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1990-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to characterize the fate and response of soil and biotic components of the terrestrial environment to aerosols, deposited brass, and brass in combination with fog oil. Important physical, chemical, and biotic aspects were investigated using an environmental wind tunnel. Air/surface deposition rates were determined for foliar and soil surfaces, both in the absence and presence of fog oil. Deposition velocities for foliage ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 cm/s at wind speeds of 2 to 10 mph, respectively. Foliar contact toxicity was assessed using five different types of terrestrial vegetation representative of Army training sites and surrounding environments. No significant foliar contact toxicity was observed for brass. The weathering and chemistry of brass aerosols deposited and amended to soils was assessed, along with the impacts of acid precipitation and moisture regimes on weathering rates. Rates of brass weathering and the fate of solubilized Cu and Zn are discussed. The influence of soil weathering processes and brass solubilization on seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects were noted after seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects were noted after 160 days of soil incubation. The effects were proportional to soil-loading levels. Influence of soil weathering processes and contaminant solubilization on soil microbiological activities indicated that soil dehydrogenase activity was more susceptible to impacts than was phosphatase activity or microbial biomass. Nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were not significantly affected by brass. Invertebrates (earthworms) associated with soil contaminated with brass were only slightly impacted, and only at loading rates >445 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}.

  3. 75 FR 36666 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Rochester Museum & Science Center, Rochester, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ....33) was by Harrison Ground, Tonawanda Reservation, and has brass eyes made by Cephas Hill, Tonawanda...) are made of elkhorn. The fourth (AE 4710/36.389.62) is made of cow bone. On February 1, 1940, the...

  4. Metal polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal polishes are used to clean metals, including brass, copper, or silver. This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing metal polish. This article is for information only. DO NOT use ...

  5. Observations on marine biofouling on electroplated metallic surfaces in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Sawant, S.S.

    The panels of metallic brass electroplated with cadmium as well as nickel-chromium were kept suspended in the near-shore marine environment of Goa, India for biofouling studies. The results for the premonsoon period, which coincides...

  6. Hydatid Cyst of Fallopian Tube

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain and imaging showed cystic lesions in the liver and adnexa. Definite .... placement is, especially when they are inserted between teeth.[1]. Placement of a ... been used to facilitate safe placement of interradicular miniscrews. Brass Wires or ...

  7. 7 CFR 58.914 - Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaporated milk fillers having brass parts may be approved if free from corroded surfaces and kept in good... Standards for Plastic, and Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Fillers shall be designed so that they in no...

  8. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 2 SBIR proposal describes the design, fabrication and calibration of a brass-board Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM). The SVHM instrument...

  9. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  10. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... into contact with brake fluid, including iron, steel, aluminum, brass, copper, and SBR. Currently in... corrosion and pitting. Disregard staining or discoloration. (c) Place the strips in a dessicator containing...

  11. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIBS) for quantitative analysis of materials, illustrated by CF-LIBS applied to a brass ... Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, India; Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research ...

  12. DEPENDENCE FOR CALCULATION OF METAL CORD BREAKAGE IN THE PROCESS OF SPIN ON WIRE SAWS OF DOUBLE TORSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of analytical and experimental studies of processes of the high-carbonaceous brass-plated wire twist the dependence allowing to estimate fully the influence of twist conditions on metal cord breakage is defined.

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Study for Selective Dissolution of a Cu-Zn Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Y.; Tabei, K.; Shitanda, I.; Itagaki, M. [Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The anodic dissolution behavior of copper and brass in an electrolyte solution of 0.5M NaCl containing 0.5 mM NaHCO{sub 3} was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Nyquist plots of the copper impedance described a small loop in the high-frequency range and a large locus in the low-frequency range. Additionally, the features of the impedance spectrum of the brass were similar to those of the copper. This indicates that the copper-enriched layer formed on the brass surface due to the selective dissolution of the zinc from the surface. In addition, the rest potential and the anodic polarization curve for each sample were measured in order to discuss the selective dissolution of the zinc from the brass surface.

  14. Estudio de corrosión galvánica en pares latón/acero inoxidable y latón/fundición de hierro

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, M.; Díaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Zinola, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multigalvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass –UNS C268– and Admiralty brass –UNS C443–) comp...

  15. Optimización de los parámetros tecnológicos para la obtención de piezas de latón por pulvimetalurgia

    OpenAIRE

    Krivij, N.; Suwardjo, W.; Cores, A.

    1995-01-01

    Powders of brass 60 (40 % Zn) and brass 80 (20 % Zn) have been produced by spraying molten metal with water at high pressure in the powder metallurgy plant belonging to the Metallurgical Research Centre (CIME) in Havana. A physical-chemical and technological characterization of the powders has been carried out and the optimum parameters have been determined for the formation and sintering of details from these powders. The mechanical properties of these details can rival bronze and iron in ap...

  16. Designing, Testing, and Using Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) Systems: What Causes the Disconnects and What Can be Done About Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-28

    7. no. 4. (April 1994), 12. 49 Joyce Endoso . "Pentagon Brass Behind Schedule in Nominating Standard Systems," Government Computer News. 7 Fcbruary...integral part of the management of their 113 Joyce Endoso . "Software Shops Won’t Go to DISA; Paige Lets Central Design Activities Revert to the...Joyce Endoso . "Pcntagon Brass Behind Schedule in Nominating Standard Systems." Government Computer News. 7 Februarnl 1994. 3. 32.2 Joyce Endoso , "DOD

  17. Tarawa to Okinawa: The Evolution of Amphibious Operations in the Pacific during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    craft developed by Andrew Jackson Higgins, and a tracked landing craft developed by Donald Roebling. Both of these craft would ultimately be...from Tarawa. Smith, Holland M. and Percy Finch. Coral and Brass. Washington: Zenger Publishing, 19 79. Personal memoirs of Major General Holland M...and Percy Finch, Coral and Brass (Washington: Zenger P ublishing, 1979), 120. 64 73 Smith, 120-121. 74 Smith, 133. 75 Shaw, 109. 76 Isley, 575

  18. Ühis- ning erijooni Soome ja Eesti Kaitseliitude puhkpillimuusikas aastatel 1925-1934.

    OpenAIRE

    Amon-Merilain, Maris

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the similarities and differences between the Estonian Defence League and the Finnish Civil Guard brass bands during the period 1925-1934. By 1934 this paramilitary volunteer state defence organisation had reached stability in its development, such that social, cultural and patriotic education of the people - with the help of brass band music among other means- had acquired a significant role, in addition to prioritised military and sports activities. The study begin...

  19. PELATIHAN TEKNIK ELEKTROPLATING NIKEL BAGI INDUSTRI KERAJINAN KUNINGAN DI DESA KAMASAN KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Tirta Nindhia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Village of Kamasan at Klungkung in the Province of Bali is recognized as a centre of metal handicrafts,especially the handicraft made from brass. Many home industries for the brass handicraft are established in thisvillage. Recently due to Rapid progress of Tourism in Bali, The brass handicraft in Kamasan are growing wellbecause the demand for the souvenir. However some problem arise such as limited of variation, and surface qualityof the brass handicraft that tend to become blurred or dull due to the process of oxidation. This condition makethe brass handicrafts become not so interest as silver handicrafts that can shine for quite long time. To overcomethis problem it is needed to coating the surface of the brass handicrafts so that there will be no contact withoxygen. The coating will be more benefit if able to exhibit more interesting appearance, as what nickel coatingcan affect the appearance of the surface to become like silver but more clear. Equipment for nickel elektroplatingwas designed for this purpose and donated for this purpose. The unique of the equipment that was donated weresmall in size therefore only low electric power is needed, only 1 liter electrolyte was used and can be use manytime. The positive result is obtained for this activity where all participants able to operate the elektroplatingprocess with excellent result.

  20. Model tests for corrosion influence of electrode surface on electroosmosis in marine sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingwei; Li, Jinzhu; Shi, Hanru

    2017-11-01

    The corrosion of metal electrodes is inevitable on electroosmosis in soil. Surface corrosion of electrodes is also one of the reasons for increasing energy consumption in electroosmosis treatment. A series of laboratory tests were conducted employing three kinds of materials, aluminium, steel, and brass. To explore the impact of surface corrosion degree on electroosmosis, metal electrodes were pretreated with durations 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h. After the pretreatment, corroded electrodes are used as anodes on electroosmosis. Water discharge, current, voltage potential were measured during the tests; water content was also tested at three points after the electroosmosis. The results showed that aluminium was better than steel in electroosmotic drainage while brass provided the worst dewatering performance. Surface corrosion did not influence the aluminium and steel on electroosmosis in marine sludge, but brass did. In the pretreatment of brass electrodes, corrosion rate had started to slow down at later periods, with the deterioration rate of dewatering reduced afterwards. As the results showed, it is not recommended to employ those easily deteriorated electrode materials from surface corrosion in practical engineering, such as brass; electrode material with higher electroosmosis exchange rate is recommended, such as aluminium.

  1. Standard Practice for Use of Mattsson's Solution of pH 7.2 to Evaluate the Stress- Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Copper-Zinc Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of Mattsson's solution of pH 7.2 as an accelerated stress-corrosion cracking test environment for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The variables (to the extent that these are known at present) that require control are described together with possible means for controlling and standardizing these variables. 1.2 This practice is recommended only for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The use of this test environment is not recommended for other copper alloys since the results may be erroneous, providing completely misleading rankings. This is particularly true of alloys containing aluminum or nickel as deliberate alloying additions. 1.3 This practice is intended primarily where the test objective is to determine the relative stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of different brasses under the same or different stress conditions or to determine the absolute degree of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, if any, of a particular brass or brass component ...

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy study of interaction of oxygen with the (111) surface of a Cu-Zn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Mimori, Yuhei; Kato, Hiroo; Imanishi, Saori; Edamoto, Kazuyuki; Mase, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Interaction of O atoms with the (111) surface of a Cu-Zn alloy with a face-centered cubic structure (α-brass) is investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron radiation. The O adatoms interact mainly with the Zn atoms to form the ZnO islands, whereas the Cusbnd O bond formation is negligible in the initial oxidation stages at room temperature. O adsorption induces a binding-energy shift of the Shockley-type surface states towards the Fermi level. Also induced is a lowering of the work function of the α-brass(111) surface. These O-induced changes resemble those on the alkali-metal-covered Cu (111) surface. Similarity between Zn on the brass surface and alkali metals adsorbed on Cu (111) in initial oxidation is discussed.

  3. Evaluation of the contact switch materials in high voltage power supply for generate of underwater shockwave by electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Higa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the high voltage power-supply unit by Cockcroft-Walton circuit for ingenerate high pressure due to underwater shockwave by electrical discharge. This high voltage power supply has the problem of the metal contact switch operation that contact switch stop by melting and bonding due to electrical spark. We have studied the evaluation of materials of contact switch for the reducing electrical energy loss and the problem of contact switch operation. In this research, measurement of discharge voltage and high pressure due to underwater shockwave was carried out using the contact switch made of different materials as brass plate, brass-carbon plate-brass and carbon block. The contact switch made of carbon is effective to reduce energy loss and problem of contactor switch operation.

  4. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  5. Application of macro-polarization curve method to corrosion analysis of heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Dept. of Computational Science and Engineering, Toyo Univ., Kawagoe, Saitama (Japan); Amaya, K. [Dept. of Mechanical and Environmental Informatics, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Miyuki, H. [Iron and Steel Research Labs., Sumitomo Steel Co. Ltd., Fuyocho, Amagasaki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    A boundary element corrosion analysis was performed for a heat exchanger to predict the effect of zinc sacrificial anodes. Since a heat exchanger has thousands of stainless steel tubes held with two naval brass tube-holder plates, and hence the conventional BEM does not work, the equivalent macro-polarization curve method was applied. At first the part of the tube-holder plate surfaces which consist of a great number of stainless steel tube edges and brass tube-holder plate was assumed to be made of a homogeneous virtual material. Then, its equivalent macro-polarization curve was determined by analyzing a tube unit, which consists of a stainless steel tube and a part of naval brass tube-holder plate. By using the equivalent macro-polarization curve thus obtained, the heat exchanger was effectively analyzed with a small number of elements. (orig.)

  6. Aplikasi Cetakan Permanen untuk Meningkatkan Produksi dan Kualitas Produk IKM Pengecoran Logam Kuningan di Ngawen, Sidokarto, Godean, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyitno Suyitno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SME brass foundry in Ngawen Sidokarto, District of Godean, Sleman, Yogyakarta mostly produced cow necklace accessories (klonthong and jathilan accessories (klinthing. Te industry and business management are arranged within the scope of family. Te products are relatively low in quality and its market share is limited and tend to be traditional. Tis condition is caused by the weak knowledge of the management and the method of casting metals and metal science. Brass casting methode, that was used at IKM partner, is casting with mold of sand or soil. Tis process requires the making process of sand molds, that is removed afer the brass solidify. For large quantities products, this process is inefcient and takes a long time. It would require a more efcient and faster method in the production process. Method of sand casting and ceramics have been used by SMEs cast brass in Yogyakarta, however it  has many disadvantages in terms of increased productivity and quality as well as the expansion of product applications. Te permanent mold casting of iron is a casting method which has many advantages over other methods, but the use for SMEs has not been applied in the SME of cast brass. Te permanen mold casting methods was introduced to SME partners. Tis replaces the sand mold materials and molding sand. It is expected the casting process is faster because the mold can be used for a large number of products. Te results show that the application of the technology results in products with precision and consistent in shape and size. Community Service of UGM with Appropriate Technology has also collaborated with  Industry and Trade service of Yogyakarta donation of production machinery for making permanent mold. It can be concluded that the application of permanen mold in the brass foundry industry improve the product precision and the speed of produsction.

  7. A new electron spectroscopy system for measuring electron emission from fast ion interactions with atomic, molecular, and condensed phase targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Wilson L.

    Ultrasonic powder consolidation (UPC) is a novel, low-temperature, rapid powder consolidation process, capable of producing full-density materials from powders in a few seconds. The objective of this work was to investigate the phase evolution in a Cu-Zn powder mixture subjected to UPC in comparison with that in other high-strain rate materials processing methods such as ball milling. Systematic UPC experiments were performed with a Cu-48 wt% Zn powder mixture at nominal consolidation temperatures of 25 °C to 300 °C, using 20 kHz, 9 microm-amplitude ultrasonic vibration applied to the powder compact for a duration of 1 to 4 s. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of gamma-brass at the interface of Cu and Zn powder particles in the samples consolidated at or above 200 °C. The gamma-brass formation increased with increasing consolidation temperature and vibration time and approached 70 vol% in a sample consolidated at 300 °C for 4 s. No new phase formed in a reference sample made at 300 °C but with no vibration, despite the close contact between Cu and Zn achieved in the reference sample. The gamma-brass formation in the UPC samples is contrasted by the direct formation of beta-brass in ball-milled composite powders of the Cu-48 wt% Zn composition. The phase selection in UPC is governed by the local state at the Cu-Zn interface. The high excess vacancies generated at the Cu-Zn interface enhance the interdiffusion at the Cu-Zn interface by many orders of magnitude, allowing the interfacial Cu and Zn concentrations to exceed the normal solubility limits before a new phase can nucleate. This, in turn, increases the driving force for the nucleation of gamma-brass at the Cu-Zn interface. The driving for beta-brass nucleation does not increase as much because of the large solubility of Zn in Cu. Adding a pre-UPC step, such as a heat treatment or ball milling for a very short time (before any new phase formation is detectable), facilities

  8. The Federal Basis for Weights and Measures: A Historical Review of Federal Legislative Effort, Statutes, and Administrative Action in the Field of Weights and Measures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-06-05

    adoption as State standards 1 steel end meter bar. of the standards so received from the Federal Gov. I set of brass capacity measures, I liter and 1... steel end meter bar and directly behind It Is the brass line meter bar. At the left rear are the 1liHte and 1-dekhtiter eapeclty measures. At right...Title 15, Ch. 6.] cubic inches, and standard grades, for applies shipped 1921. The "Packers and Stockyards Act of in interstate commerce. (The standard

  9. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas Fiscal Year 1987: The MCA range Construction, Pidcoke Land Exchange, and Phantom Range Projects. Archeological Resource Management Series Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iron pocket knife and a brass razor head (1899+). This site is reported to be in good condition, with 25% of the surface area affected by military...glaze bowl - rim with gold decoration with molded/ gilded rim 41BL0951 050-0012 1 Lavender glass bottle lip/neck improved tooled (1880--1915) 41BL0951...body with undecorated decoration (1900--1988) 41BL0951 050-0025 1 Iron pocket knife 41BL0951 050-0026 1 Brass razor head (1899--1988) 41BL0952 050

  10. A simulation tool for brassiness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joël; Menguy, Ludovic; Campbell, Murray

    2008-04-01

    A frequency-domain numerical model of brass instrument sound production is proposed as a tool to predict their brassiness, defined as the rate of spectral enrichment with increasing dynamic level. It is based on generalized Burger's equations dedicated to weakly nonlinear wave propagation in nonuniform ducts, and is an extension of previous work by Menguy and Gilbert [Acta Acustica 86, 798-810 (2000)], initially limited to short cylindrical tubes. The relevance of the present tool is evaluated by carrying out simulations over distances longer than typical shock formation distances, and by doing preliminary simulations of periodic regimes in a typical brass trombone bore geometry.

  11. Pro Forma Registration of Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the view taken by Community law on companies' pro forma registration in another EU or EEA country. Community law recognises pro forma registration under company law, i.e. a brass plate is sufficient, whereas it does not recognise pro forma registration under tax law, i.......e. a brass plate is not sufficient. The article provides reasons for the differential treatment of the two contexts and clarifies the difference on the basis of the Hubbard criterion, in which it was ruled that the effectiveness of Community law cannot vary according to the various branches of national law....

  12. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R

    2010-01-01

    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  13. The Software Crisis and a Senior Leaders Awareness Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    34Qualities of Good Software." MIS week, (13 October 1982), p. 38. Official Documents General Accounting Office. Contracting_ 4-r Computer Software Development - Serious...1986. 4) n. **~ ~ ~ Brass, Edward M., Lt Col, USAF. " Computer Software Development : Managerial Insights." Research study AU-AWC-86-027, prepared at

  14. Subjective impression of differences in realism, source width, and orientation between auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    in realism and source width. Auralizations were made using three different types of musical instruments: woodwinds (flute), brass (trombone) and strings (violin). Subjects were asked to rate each musical track on a seven-point scale for the degree of realism and source width. An analysis of variance (ANOVA...

  15. JAHUN'*, BB M., ii/sssAN', A. 2., and REMLADEWUMIZ, n. 1).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of anuric renal failure associated with zinc intoxication was also detected in a dog following ingestion of an ornamental brass knob from a toilet paper holder (Volrner er alt, 2004). These show that ingestion of foreign body may pose a severe consequence in dogs. KEYWORDS: Diarrhoea, Foreign body, ...

  16. Intestinal Foreign Body With Concurrent Canine Parvovirus Enteritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of anuric renal failure associated with zinc intoxication was also detected in a dog following ingestion of an ornamental brass knob from a toilet paper holder (Volmer et al., 2004). These show that ingestion of foreign body may pose a severe consequence in dogs. Keywords: Diarrhoea, Foreign body, Metal ...

  17. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.3 (1) January, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-01-09

    Jan 9, 2014 ... 1929. The British colonial government closure of the Nembe-Brass port in 1921 also warranted the outward movement of Ijaws to Central. Africa. Perspectives on Ijaw Cross-Border Movements to Central Africa. The first group of willing Ijaw migrants to Central Africa arrived in the Tiko District of Cameroon in ...

  18. Afghanistan: Are We Doing What We Need To Do To Win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    percussion section, and the woodwind, brass and string sections all reading from different sheets of music, the resulting cacophony would be... centres /defence/04_garon.PDF (accessed 3 April 2008). Gebauer, Matthias. “Does NATO want out of Afghanistan?” http://archive.salon.com/news

  19. Plaadid / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Neil Siamond "12 Songs", The Bamboos "Step It Up", Van Morrison "Pay The Devil", Mystery Jets "Making Dens", In Extremo "Raue Spree 2005", "Bossa n' Marley", Liv Kristine "Enter My Religion", Ugly Ducling "Bang The Buck", "Big Boi Presents", Youngblood Brass Band "Is That A Riott", Tosca "Souvenirs", Azymuth "Pure", Eels "With Strings", "Metal For The Masses"

  20. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Thick Section High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    corrosion cracking of alpha brass in ammoniacal copper sulfate and concluded that the experimental results were best supported by the film r.Apture...steel heat treatment was that a stronger product could be produced without resort to quenching with its attendant danger of warping and cracking; the

  1. fireforce - one man's war in the rhodesian light infantry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Rhodesian Light Infantry is an illustrious one. The. RLI produced many of the senior brass who led the Rhodesian Army including Gen Peter Walls. It was arguably Rhodesia's premier fighting unit (if one excludes Rhodesia's two special forces outfits, the Special Air. Service and the Selous Scouts).

  2. Lack of Involvement of Fenton Chemistry in Death of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Destruction of Their Genomes on Wet or Dry Copper Alloy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Keevil, C William

    2016-01-29

    The pandemic of hospital-acquired infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has declined, but the evolution of strains with enhanced virulence and toxins and the increase of community-associated infections are still a threat. In previous studies, 10(7) MRSA bacteria applied as simulated droplet contamination were killed on copper and brass surfaces within 90 min. However, contamination of surfaces is often via finger tips and dries rapidly, and it may be overlooked by cleaning regimes (unlike visible droplets). In this new study, a 5-log reduction of a hardy epidemic strain of MRSA (epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus 16 [EMRSA-16]) was observed following 10 min of contact with copper, and a 4-log reduction was observed on copper nickel and cartridge brass alloys in 15 min. A methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strain from an osteomyelitis patient was killed on copper surfaces in 15 min, and 4-log and 3-log reductions occurred within 20 min of contact with copper nickel and cartridge brass, respectively. Bacterial respiration was compromised on copper surfaces, and superoxide was generated as part of the killing mechanism. In addition, destruction of genomic DNA occurs on copper and brass surfaces, allaying concerns about horizontal gene transfer and copper resistance. Incorporation of copper alloy biocidal surfaces may help to reduce the spread of this dangerous pathogen. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Heterodyne Holography for Vibration Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    recorded hologram is shown in Fig.6 Standart acousto-optical modulators at 40 Mhz driving fre- quency can be used straightforward as amplitude modulators or...piezo force-gage (Wilcoxon Research, Model L10), which serves for direct force monitoring. Finally, the force gage is fixed to a large mass (brass

  4. Shipwreck archaeology of Goa: Evidence of maritime contacts with other countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    . The NIO has been exploring shipwrecks in Sunchi Reef and St George’s Reef, off Goa since 1989. The findings of Sunchi Reef include a brass barrel of a handgun, Chinese ceramic, Martaban pottery, bases of glass bottles, elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth...

  5. AcEST: DK953371 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ragment) OS=Brass... 36 1.7 tr|Q590K5|Q590K5_9ROSI Maturase K OS=Phragmotheca ecuador... 464 S+F + HGD Sbjct: 67 SLFVYLHGD 75 >tr|Q590K5|Q590K5_9ROSI Maturase K OS=Phragmotheca ecuador

  6. Corrosion Aggressivenes of Soil Related to the Activity of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naoc

    Investigation of sulphate-reducing bacteria induced corrosion potential of soils along 18-inch 45km Tebidaba/Brass underground oil pipeline in Southern Ijaw LGA of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, is carried out experimentally. The analysis involves determination of some physico-chemical parameters of soils in the pipeline route, ...

  7. Relationships among Impulsiveness, Locus of Control, Sex, and Music Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksza, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study is an investigation of relationships among impulsiveness, locus of control, sex, observed practice behaviors, practice effectiveness, and self-reported practice habits in a sample of 40 college brass players. Practice effectiveness was defined by the amount of change in pretest and posttest performance achievement scores over one…

  8. Understanding the performance of CMS calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The performance of the CMS hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam facilities at CERN. Two wedges of brass-scintillator calorimeter are exposed to negative and positive beams with momenta between 3 and 300 GeV/c. Light produced in the scintillators are collected using wavelength shifting fibres and read out ...

  9. Joint Service Solvent Substitution (JS3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Test Types • Total Immersion • Effects on Polysulfide Sealants • Elevated Temp Corrosion • Effects on Acrylics • Effects on Unpainted Surfaces...0.49 Zinc (ASTM B 852) “ Brass (ASTM B 121 C35600) “ Steel (ASTM A 36) “ Cadmium (A-A-51126) “ Effects on Polysulfide

  10. An Investigation of the Influence of Timbre on Gender and Instrument Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of timbre, as a cue, on gender-instrument associations by third-grade students. Indicates that gender-timbre associations were strong for this age group: males were associated with brass instruments and cello; females were associated with flute and violin. Discusses implications of gender-instrument associations for music…

  11. Sensory evaluation: The last hurdle in varietal development of yams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three year period, plus 3 farmers' checks were assessed on parameters such as enzymatic oxidation, colour attractiveness, aroma, taste, texture and overall acceptability in relation to farmers' checks (Dente, Brass and Dorban). Gender differences existed in the degree of perception of texture and taste of yams.

  12. Examination of Ife Bronze Casting Culture and Its Decline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ile-Ife, the Yoruba ancient city is known for its vibrant cultural environment. This city of ancient civilization and one of the home for bronze casting in the Western region of Nigeria have made significant contributions to the world of culture through its great artistic traditions in terracotta, bead making, bronze and brass casting ...

  13. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-29

    placards and . slogans carried and chanted by the marchers; ft1 is not the stirring gutsy music of the steelbands and the drums and the brass blaring...chief radicals, the leaders in this clan, effervesce over television — their favourite platform where they are always welcome — of the dangers

  14. A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional problems. Figure 1. An electrolytic tank model with two brass laminas A and B separated by a distance D. CLASSROOM problems. • To find'a suitable experimental substitute for Laplace's equation. • To extend this for complex problems. 2. Laplace Equation. Whenever the electric potential V corresponding to a.

  15. 77 FR 26489 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Department first determined that Colombia, Indonesia, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Ukraine... explained below, (3) the Philippines provides the best opportunity to use quality, publicly available data..., brass scrap, labor, energy, water, ammonia and acid wash) for models DG16 and DG20 based on its...

  16. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-14

    attending. As a result, since last year, Taiwan has sent gymnasts , table tennis players, athletes in judo, handball, basketball, sailing, archery...organizations also often visit foreign countries. The Shenyang and Dalian acrobatic troupes, the Haicheng Stilts and Yangko troupe, and the peasant brass

  17. Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A variety of works, such as paintings of all types (including frescos and illuminated manuscripts), bronzes and brasses, gold alloys, silver alloys, ceramics, porcelains and faiences, papers, ink, stones of all types (marbles, obsidians etc.), stamps, etc. can be studied using a portable EDXRF equipment. In this paper, examples ...

  18. The Effects of Orchestration on Musicians' and Nonmusicians' Perception of Musical Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of orchestration on musicians' and nonmusicians' (N = 40) perception of musical tension. Participants were asked to register their perceptions of tension using the Continuous Response Digital Interface dial while listening to three orchestrations (full orchestra, brass quintet, and solo piano)…

  19. Simultaneous determination of trace-levels of alloying zinc and copper by semi-mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis with chemometric data treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Assays of copper and zinc in brass samples were performed by Semi-Mercury Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (S-MF PSA) using a thin-film mercury covered glassy-carbon working electrode and dissolved oxygen as oxidizing agent during the stripping step. The stripping peak transients were...

  20. Engineering Design Handbook: Maintenance Engineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    bronze, zinc diecasting alloys Brass, nickel chrome, , tin As discussed under steel. Magnesium alloy Dichromate treat- ment Anodize...coefficient of friction. Used to some extent on nonferrous met- als, particularly when diecast . Chrome-plated ob- jects usually receive a base

  1. Retrodirective Radar Calibration Nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    were milled out of 6061-T6 aluminum using a CNC machine. The cradle hinge for the patch antenna, how- ever, was machined out of brass due to its...of GPS satellites at a given time16. This eliminates the need to manually switch between several patch antennas as the attitude of the satellite

  2. Investigation Of The Microbial-Induced Corrosion Potential Of Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of sulphate-reducing bacteria induced corrosion potential of soils along 18-inch 45km Tebidaba/Brass underground oil pipeline in Southern Ijaw LGA of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, is carried out experimentally. The analysis involves determination of some physico-chemical parameters of soils in the pipeline route, ...

  3. Russian orchestral works. Torgny Sporsen / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Russian orchestral works. Torgny Sporsen (bass). Gothenburg Symphony Brass Band. Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" D6 MC 429 984 - 4 GH; CD 429 984 - 26H (76 minutes). Borodin: In Central Asia. Prince Igor - Polovtsian Dances

  4. 01 Awoonor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tom

    2004-02-25

    Feb 25, 2004 ... imprisoned by the Acheampong military regime and released in 1976. From the early 1980s to the early 90s, ... School of Music and Drama, the Ghana Dance Ensemble, the Ghana. Theatre Movement and the .... coup led by the top military brass, who were thoroughly discredited. The book is very much an ...

  5. Physico-chemical conditions and distribution of phytoplankton in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ... that further investigations will be beneficial and the effluent from the oil installations should be properly treated before they are emptied into the Brass River system to ensure that the food chain which eventually lead up to the Homo sapiens is not disrupted as this will be catastrophic to the very existence of Homo sapiens.

  6. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... particles. Rubber, copper, brass, galvanized metal, epoxy glues, and lead should not come in contact with... and then rinsed in sequence with clean water, pesticide-free acetone, clean water, and 5 percent nitric acid, followed by two or more changes of dilution water. (vi) Dilution water. (A) Clean surface or...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fixture in a clean and sanitary condition without any danger of backflow or siphonage. (See table in... copper tubing, approved or listed plastic or other approved or listed material. (i) Plastic piping. All... together. (ii) Fittings for copper tubing shall be cast brass or drawn copper (sweat-soldered) or shall be...

  8. Effect of Cutting Fluids on the Flank Wear of High Speed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of some cutting fluids namely: Mentholated spirit, paraffin, and soluble oil on the flank wear of High-speed steel and carbide tipped tools by orthogonal cutting has been studied. Cente lathe was used for cylindrical turning operated at a speed of 370rpm and depth of cut of 1mm to machine aluminum, brass, mild ...

  9. Mineralogy of Galvanic Corrosion By-products in Domestic Drinking Water Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the results of a visual and mineralogical characterization of scales developed over long time periods at galvanically coupled lead-brass and lead-copper pipe joints from several different drinking water distribution systems. The long-term exposure aspect of t...

  10. An Examination of Secondary Wind Instrument Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Juchniewicz, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current secondary woodwind, brass, and combined wind instrument methods courses for preservice music teachers across the United States. Two-hundred eleven (N = 211) wind methods course instructors from National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions completed an online survey that…

  11. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  12. Optimization in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study highlights a multi-objective optimization problem by applying utility concept coupled with Taguchi method through a case study in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass. The study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy multiple requirements ...

  13. Low-Cost Timer to Measure the Terminal Velocity of a Magnet Falling through a Conducting Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish R.; Huli, Saurabhee; Lahane, Rohan; Sawant, Sumedh

    2014-01-01

    Dropping a magnet into a conductive pipe (made up of copper or brass or aluminum) is a very popular demonstration in many physics classrooms and laboratories. In this paper we present an inexpensive timer that can be used to measure the terminal velocity of the magnet falling through a conducting pipe. The timer assembly consists of Hall effect…

  14. K.S. micro-implant placement guide | Sharma | Annals of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many techniques have been used to facilitate safe placement of interradicular miniscrews. Brass Wires or metallic markers are easy to place in the interproximal spaces, but because their relative positions may be inconsistent in different radio -graphic views, they are not always accurate. K.S. micro implant placement guide ...

  15. CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING DRINKING WATER QUALITY AT THE TAP: CONTAMINATION WITH TOXIC LEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging drinking water infrastructure in the US was given a grade of D (poor) by the American Society of Civil Engineers, and was voted as the most urgent of all societal infrastructure challenges. Legacy lead pipe, leaded solder and/or leaded brass are a particularly notorious old...

  16. Kontserdipeegel / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2000-01-01

    Kontsertidest Estonia kontserdisaalis ئ 17. veebr. ERSO A. Tshistjakovi juhatusel, solist S. Kuulmann; 28. veebr. Eesti-Soome SO A. Tali juhatusel kontserdiga "Armastus"; 2. märtsil ERSO A. Manzano juhatusel, solistid M. Mikalai, M. Männi ja P. Tarvas; 3. märtsil The Brass Brothers

  17. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  18. Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge of an Expert Band Director Teaching Lips Slurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millican, J. Si

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to describe how one band director used pedagogical content knowledge while working with beginning-band students to help them develop the skill of playing brass lip slurs. Data were generated from (1) video recordings of each class over two different weeks during the school year, (2) "think aloud"…

  19. Miscellaneous ad bibliographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.; Meeuse, A.D.J.

    1938-01-01

    Referring to the identification of BRASS 5219 from Papua as a representative of the Verbenaceous Faradaya chrysoclada K. SCHUM. by E. BEER and H. J. LAM (Blumea 2, 1936, 225), Dr C. G. G. J. VAN STEENIS, the monographer of the Malaysian Bignoniaceae drew our attention to the possibility that this

  20. Sediment Properties Off Broome, Port Headland and Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    measured at sea on box-cores were obtained using a vane shear test device ( Monney , 1971). This consisted of two square brass vanes, arranged in a...259. 10. Monney , N. T. (1971) Measurements of the engineering properties of marine sediments. Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 5, 21 -30. 11. Mulhearn, P. J

  1. Effects of carbon fibres on the life cycle assessment of additively manufactured injection moulding inserts for rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2017-01-01

    properties and lifetime. The additively manufactured inserts are compared to the standard materials steel, aluminium and brass. The investigated part of the production and prototyping phase considers the insert itself, the moulded part, and resulting waste material of the injection moulding process....

  2. Effects of loading variables on fatigue-crack growth in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE) refers to the loss of ductility in normally ductile metals and alloys when stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behaviour of brass in molten gallium...

  3. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. (Online) 90 East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Teunissen LL, Rinkel GJE, Algra A, van Gijn J. Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage. A systemic review. Stroke 1996; 27: 544-549. 22. Levine SR, Brust JC, Futrell N, Brass LM, Blake D, Fayad P, et al. A comparative study of cerebro- vascular complications of cocaine: alkaloidal versus hydrochloride. Neurology 1991 ...

  4. Efficient Heat Dissipation of Uncooled 400-Gbps (16×25-Gbps) Optical Transceiver Employing Multimode VCSEL and PD Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Ruei-Nian; Wu, Chao-Hsin; Huang, Jian-Jang; Jou, Jau-Ji; Lee, Tai-Cheng; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2017-04-01

    An effective heat dissipation of uncooled 400-Gbps (16×25-Gbps) form-factor pluggable (CDFP) optical transceiver module employing chip-on-board multimode 25-Gbps vertical-surface-emitting-laser (VCSEL) and 25-Gbps photodiode (PD) arrays mounted on a brass metal core embedded within a printed circuit board (PCB) is proposed and demonstrated. This new scheme of the hollow PCB filling with thermally-dissipated brass metal core was simulated and used for high temperature and long term stability operation of the proposed 400-Gbps CDFP transceiver. During one-hour testing, a red-shift of central wavelength by 0.4-nm corresponding temperature increment of 6.7 °C was observed with the brass core assisted cooler module. Such a temperature change was significantly lower than that of 28.3 °C for the optical transceiver driven with conventional circuit board. After 100-m distance transmission over a multimode fiber (OM4), the 400-Gbps CDFP transceiver exhibited dispersion penalty of 2.6-dB, power budget of ≧ 3-dB, link loss of ≦ 0.63-dB, mask margin of 20%, and bit error rate (BER) of VCSEL and PD arrays, effective coupling lens arrays, and well thermal-dissipation brass metal core is suitable for use in the low-cost and high-performance data center applications.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion inhibition efficiency of N-(4-(Morpholinomethyl Carbamoyl Phenyl Furan-2-Carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulfareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mannich base namely N-(4-(Morpholinomethyl Carbamoyl Phenyl Furan-2-Carboxamide (MFC was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The molecular weight of MFC was confirmed by LC-MS. The inhibition effect of MFC on brass in 1 M HCl medium has been investigated by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltametry (CV. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, entropy and enthalpy were calculated to describe the mechanism of corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency of MFC increases with increase in concentration and temperature ranges from 30 °C to 60 °C. Polarization measurements indicated that MFC acts as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor. AC impedance indicates that Rct value increases with increase in the concentration of inhibitor. CV reveals that the oxidation of the copper is controlled by the addition of inhibitor on the brass metal. Surface analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM shows a significant morphological improvement on the brass surface with the addition of the inhibitor. The adsorption of MFC on brass obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The molecular structure of MFC was distorted to quantum chemical indices using density functional theory (DFT which indicates that the inhibition efficiency of MFC is closely related to quantum parameters.

  6. MM97.48 Influence of multidirectional deformation mode on flow stress behaviour during cold forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Maria; Pavel, Huml; Mendoza, Camus Luis

    1997-01-01

    In the present experimental investigation the influence of strain path on behaviour and final properties has been simulated in uni-, two- and three-directional deformation regimes. Pure iron and a low carbon steel have been investigated considering stress strain behaviour. Brass and copper...

  7. Influence of environmental health services on students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of environmental health services on students' academic performance in secondary schools in Brass Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The sample for the study comprised a total of 245 students and 59 teachers, amounting to 304 ...

  8. Acute Toxicological Effects of Crude Oil On Haematological And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicological effects of Brass blend of crude oil on the haemoglobin concentration, and Liver functions in the Guinea pig were studied. 25 Guinea pigs divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into 5 groups. One group served as a control group, while the others received ...

  9. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  10. AcEST: DK953298 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S1 OS=Brass... 105 2e-21 tr|Q9ZTK6|Q9ZTK6_TOBAC Peroxisomal targeting signal 1 re...QRVLSNFLHSFVESSRGGIPF 152 >tr|Q9ZTK6|Q9ZTK6_TOBAC Peroxisomal targeting signal 1 receptor OS=Nicotiana tabac

  11. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he…

  12. 29 CFR 1910.157 - Portable fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) When there is corrosion that has caused pitting, including corrosion under removable name plate... extinguishing agent has been used in a stainless steel shell. (3) In addition to an external visual examination... (soldered brass shells) (until 1/1/82) (1) Soda acid (stainless steel shell) 5 Cartridge operated water and...

  13. Passivation of Cu–Zn alloy on low carbon steel electrodeposited from a pyrophosphate medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Abdulcabbar; Yakup Hacıibrahimoğlu, M.; Bedir, Metin

    2018-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to understand whether zinc-based alloy also has a passivation behaviour similar to zinc itself. Cu–Zn alloys were electrodeposited potentiostatically from a pyrophosphate medium on a carbon steel electrode and their corrosion behaviours were studied. Pt and carbon steel electrodes were used in order to examine the corrosion/passivation behaviour of bare Cu, bare Zn and Cu–Zn alloy coatings. The passivation behaviour of all brass-modified electrodes having Zn content between 10% and 100% was investigated. The growth potential affects the morphology and structure of crystals. The brass coatings are more porous than their pure components. The crystalline structure of Cu–Zn alloys can be obtained by changing the deposition potential. The zinc content in brass increases when the deposition voltage applied decreases. However, the growth potential and the ratio of zinc in brass do not affect the passivation behaviour of the resulting alloys. The coatings obtained by applying different growth potentials were immersed in tap water for 24 h to compare their corrosion behaviours with carbon steel having pitting formation.

  14. Substitution of Wax and Grease Cleaners With Biodegradable Solvents: Phase 1. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    136-R INGREDIENT --- SODIUM SILICATE, TERASODIUM, PROPHOSPHATE, SODIUM DODECY ENE SULFONATE APPLICATION -- OIL, GREASE METALS -------- AI,BRASS,Cu,Ni,Ni...PETROLEUM NAPTHA,2-BUTOXYETHANOL, DODECYL BENZENE , SULFO ACID,POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE,CYCLOHEXANOL APPLICATION -- GREASE, OIL, CARBON METALS -------- ALL... SODIUM HYDROXIDE CAUSTIC SODA APPLICATION -- CARBON REMOVER METALS -------- NONE SPECIFIED SUGGESTED CONCENTRATIONS TEMPERATURE °F 4 OZ/GAL 180 4 OZ

  15. Corrosion of metals and alloys in the coastal and deep waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Corrosion rate of mild steel (MS), stainless steel (SS), copper, brass and cupro-nickel has been determinEd. by exposing metallic coupons in coastal and oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Amongst the metals and alloys under study...

  16. Page 1 290 R. Bär sound waves are only excited during the time of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disappear by shielding off the portion of the liquid close to the sound-quartz. An analogous wing can also be generated by placing a brass-rod, which must only be a few degrees warmer than the liquid, for some seconds in contact with the glass wall of the vessel, on which the quartz is cemented. Conversely a wing on the ...

  17. 46 CFR 161.006-4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 161.006-4 Section 161.006-4 Shipping COAST... Requirements. (a) Corrosion-resisting materials. Silver, corrosion-resisting steel, copper, brass, bronze and... intensity. (k) Bolts, nuts, and screws. Bolts and nuts shall conform to the requirements of Navy Department...

  18. 77 FR 32986 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Alabama Museums, Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the... than 2,032 glass beads, 1 lot of more than 17 shell beads, 1 unidentified bead, 1 gun lock, 1 gun butt plate, 1 gun stock, 2 gun barrels, 1 brass ramrod support, 8 musket balls, 2 iron buckles, 1 iron handle...

  19. Things Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  20. Investigation of tribological and mechanical properties of metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper, aluminum and tin–lead based alloys are widely used as journal bearing materials in tribological applications. Bronze and brass are widely used as journal bearing materials for copper based alloys. Zamacs find applications as journal bearing materials for zinc based alloys, while duralumines are chosen as journal ...

  1. National Small Arms Center (NSAC) Inaugural Five-Year Other Transaction Agreement. Summary Report FY05 through FY09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    elements of serendipity to create those paradigm-shifting results. Contrary to some common perceptions, technology breakthroughs are not occasioned by...materials science that could provide the functionality of extant brass casings at reduced weight/manufacturing costs? 2. Recoil attenuation

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of a fatal peritonitis. To solve this problem, a third intermediate phase was in- troduced. The ewe is fitted with a harness, identical to those used for the collection of faeces from wethers, without the bag. 265 attached. After removal of the suture, brass clamp and oc- cluded mmen fold, one end of a polyethylene ...

  3. The Golden Age of Technical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses a historical perspective to describe the development of the profession of technical communication through three ages: Brass, Beige, and Glass. I compare this development to the growth of the academic discipline and both to the explosion of noninstitutional technical communication--the growing body of tactical technical…

  4. 76 FR 80887 - Antidumping Order on Aluminum Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., supplier relationships or customer base in any meaningful way. In accordance with section 751(b) of the Act...) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships, and (4) customer base. See, e.g., Brass Sheet and Strip..., customers, suppliers, etc. Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by the order is aluminum extrusions...

  5. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ...; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and..., supplier relationships, or customer base. In its initial submission, dated May 17, 2010, TUNA and Lamina y... also maintained relationships with additional suppliers for other material, finished goods and services...

  6. 76 FR 27005 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final... Saehan to TAMK resulted in little or no change in management, production facilities, supplier relationships, or customer base. In its initial submission, dated December 21, 2010, TAMK states that the change...

  7. 75 FR 67685 - Notice of Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... operations, supplier relationships or customer base in any meaningful way. In accordance with section 751(b...) supplier relationships, and (4) customer base. See, e.g., Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final Results..., supplier relationships, or customer base in a meaningful way. In its September 10, 2010, submission AMLT...

  8. Science.gov (United States)

    DIRVEN, R.; JACOBI, I.; BREKEL, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can 'free' both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective assessment of voicing and music playing parameters was carried out in 2 laryngectomised patients with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis able to play brass instruments (tenor horn and slide trombone): sound pressure levels in dB, maximum phonation time in seconds and trachea pressures in mmHg; videofluoroscopy, stroboscopy and digital high speed endoscopy to assess neoglottis vibration and opening. The dynamic range of the voice in the patients was 29 and 20 dB, and maximum phonation time was 22 and 19 sec, respectively; intratracheal pressures during voicing varied from 7 mmHg for the softest /a/ to 49 mmHg for the loudest /a/. For brass instrument play, the intratracheal pressures varied from 14 mmHg for the softest tone to 48 mmHg for the loudest tone. Imaging confirmed earlier findings that the neoglottis is closing and vibrating during voicing and remains 'open' without vibrations during music play, indicating good neoglottis control and innervation. From these objective measurements, we can conclude that trachea pressures during brass instrument play are within physiological ranges for tracheoesophageal voicing with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis. Furthermore, it was shown that application of a stable baseplate for retaining an automatic speaking valve and an additional customisable 'neck brace' makes bimanual play possible again. PMID:26246666

  9. Spontaneous ZnO nanowire formation during oxidation of Cu-Zn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Wang, Chao; Cai, Rongsheng; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-07-01

    A combination of electron microscopy and in-situ x-ray diffraction is employed to study the thermal oxidation of brass (Cu0.7Zn0.3 alloy) in order to elucidate the mechanism of one-dimensional growth of ZnO nanostructures. Oxidation of the brass alloy results in the growth of a ZnO overlayer with ZnO nanowire formation on the ZnO layer. Increasing the oxidation temperature thickens the ZnO overlayer while suppressing ZnO nanowire formation on the top, which provides clear evidence that the formation of ZnO nanowires is related to a stress-driven mechanism that involves accumulation of compressive stress generated from the ZnO/Cu-Zn interfacial reaction and relaxation of the compressive stress by outward grain-boundary diffusion of Zn.

  10. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  11. Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques Possibilities for Centrifugal Cast Copper Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konar R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with ultrasonic testing possibilities of the copper alloy centrifugal casts. It focused on the problems that arise when testing of castings is made of non-ferrous materials. Most common types of casting defects is dedicated in theoretical introduction of article. Ultrasonic testing technique by conventional ultrasound system is described in the theoretical part too. Practical ultrasonic testing of centrifugal copper alloy cast - brass is in experimental part. The experimental sample was part of centrifugally cast brass ring with dimensions of Ø1200x34 mm. The influence of microstructure on ultrasonic attenuation and limitations in testing due to attenuation is describes in experimental part. Conventional direct single element contact ultrasound probe with frequencies of 5 MHz, 3.5 MHz and 2 MHz were used for all experimental measurements. The results of experimental part of article are recommendations for selecting equipment and accessories for casting testing made of non-ferrous metals.

  12. A novel approach of deposition for uniform diamond films on circular saw blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxiu, ZHOU; Boya, YUAN; Jilei, LYU; Nan, JIANG

    2017-11-01

    Uniform diamond films are highly desirable for cutting industries, due to their high performance and long lifetime used on cutting tools. Nevertheless, they are difficult to obtain on cutting tools with complicated shapes, greatly limiting the applications of diamond films. In this study, a novel approach of deposition for uniform diamond films is proposed, on circular saw blades made of cemented carbide using reflectors of brass sheets. Diamond films are deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). A novel concave structure of brass sheets is designed and fabricated, improving the distribution of temperature field, and overcoming the disadvantages of the conventional HFCVD systems. This increases the energy efficiency of use without changing the structure and increasing the cost of HFCVD. The grains are refined and the intensities of diamond peaks are strengthened obviously, which is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra respectively.

  13. A Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Copper and Its Alloy in Pongamia pinnata Oil at Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi H. N. Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are promising substitutes for petrodiesel as they can be produced from numerous oil seed crops that can be cultivated anywhere and have high energy contents, exhibiting clean combustion behavior with zero CO2 emission and negligible SO2 generation. The impact of biofuel on the corrosion of various industrial metals is a challenge for using biofuel as automotive fuel. Fuel comes in contact with a wide variety of metallic materials under different temperatures, velocities, and loads thereby causing corrosion during storage and flow of fuel. Hence, the present investigation compares the corrosion rates of copper and brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (O100, 3% NaCl, and oil blend with NaCl (O99 obtained by static immersion test and using rotating cage. The corrosivity and conductivity of the test media are positively correlated. This study suggested that the corrosivity of copper is higher than brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (PO.

  14. [(123)I]FP-CIT ENC-DAT normal database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Dickson, John C; Sera, Terez

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: [(123)I]FP-CIT is a well-established radiotracer for the diagnosis of dopaminergic degenerative disorders. The European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) of healthy controls has provided age and gender-specific reference values for the [(123)I]FP-CIT specific binding ratio...... quantifications methods, BRASS and Southampton, and explores the performance of the striatal phantom calibration in their harmonisation. RESULTS: BRASS and Southampton databases comprising 123 ENC-DAT subjects, from gamma cameras with parallel collimators, were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP......) and iterative reconstruction OSEM without corrections (IRNC) and compared against the recommended OSEM with corrections for attenuation and scatter and septal penetration (ACSC), before and after applying phantom calibration. Differences between databases were quantified using the percentage difference...

  15. Non-Gold Base Dental Casting Alloys. Volume 2. Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    aluminum - bronze (80-85% copper, 8-10% aluminum, 1-3% nickel, plus iron); beta -brass ." (60% copper and 40% zinc), and other lesser known entities. The...gypsum investment, plaster is the binder and silica is the refractory. Beauty-Cast and Cristobalite are examples of such investments. In general, gypsum... Cristobalite ) on heating. LIQUIDUS - The temperature above which an alloy is entirely molten. 4. LIQUIDUS RANGE - The temperature range from the

  16. War in the Atlantic: A Historical Case of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    chancellor who, on October 5, 1918, asked President Wilson for an armistice. Negotiations dragged on for a month before the Treaty of Versailles was...submarine menace had been solved by convoys and minefields in World War I, and because U-boats were forbidden in the Treaty of Versailles , naval brass did...Britain’s commerce in 1939 was Germany’s pocket battleships. Built to conform to restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles , these small vessels

  17. Geo-Environmental Change and the United States Military: How History Can Inform Future Arctic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    and the Northern Sea Route, extraction of potential oil and gas resources, and expanded fishing and tourism .‖ 6 The Arctic‘s vast natural resources...sudden and substantial increase in commercial shipping, marine tourism , and large passenger vessels in the Arctic poses significant challenges to the...R. Millet and Williamson Murray (Washington DC: OSD/NA, June 1994), 68; Holland M. Smith and Percy Finch, Coral and Brass (New York: Ace Books, 1949

  18. Stress Corrosion Cracking Control Plans. 3. Copper Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    binary copper-zinc alloys (brasses). ..... . ..... mm iiili m md d~ i i . -1 2 AMMONIACAL SCC A principal environment causing SCC in copper alloys...although not the only one, is generally believed to involve ammoniacal compounds. SCC in the copper/ammoniacl- system has often been termed "season...any possible confusion the term " ammoniacal SCC" will be used here instead, though even so it should be understood that the word " ammoniacal " is a

  19. Microgalvanic Aspects of the Seawater Corrosion of Marine Materials in the Presence of Hypochlorite Ion Fouling Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    to as "cartridge brass." This material received the same polishing treatment as the CDA 101 specimen, but was etched with ammoniacal hydrogen peroxide...Figure 20. Optical micrograph of CDA 260 (70/30 copper-zinc). Specimen polished and then etched in ammoniacal hydrogen peroxide. 10OX. Figure 21...Corrosion Rate Hierarchy It is dangerous to predict hierarchies (such as those to follow) since they are based strictly on penetration rates. For

  20. Effects of finishing on the surface quality of precision castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patejuk A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some manufacturing problems concerning leaded brass casting using the precision casting method. It shows that the quality of the alloy depends on the intermetalic phase compounds known as hard inclusions that are formed in the alloy. The intrusions, composed mainly of iron, have also negative influence on obtaining good quality i.e. smooth surfaces of products. One of the methods to improve surface smoothness proposed by authors is to apply additional copper plating and fine polishing.

  1. Kingston Soundpainting Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Minors, Helen Julia; Kingston Soundpainting Ensemble

    2012-01-01

    This performance is designed to introduce teachers and school musicians to this live multidisciplinary live composing sign language.\\ud \\ud Led by Dr. Helen Julia Minors (soundpainter, trumpet, voice), the Kingston Soundpainting Ensemble, led by Dr. Minors at Kington University, is representated by a section a varied set of performers, using woodwind, brass, voice and percussion, spanning popular, classical and world styles. This performance consists of:\\ud \\ud Philip Warda (electronic instru...

  2. German Explosive Ordnance (Projectiles and Projectile Fuzes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-03-01

    under the anvil in the base of the primer. The cap contains: 24.6 percent mercury fulminate . 37.6 percent potassium chlorate. 29.6 percent...the base below a brass anvil. The cap consists of: 21 percent mercury fulminate . 40.3 percent potassium chlorate. 37.8 percent antimony sulphide...chloride. 16.7 percent mercury fulminate . 43.4 percent antimony sulphide. 10.8 percent abrasives. ACTION. The firing pin hits the rear of the

  3. The vacancies formation and agglomeration under centrifugal force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Bartek

    2017-10-01

    In this paper the vacancies formation and agglomeration under centrifugal force - sedimentation will be analyzed. The evolutionary algorithm for diffusion and vacancy evolution will be shown. The model predicts the location of vacancies agglomeration during the sedimentation process - the most probably place of voids formation. The computed results will be compared with experiments in Cu-brass diffusion couple. The influence of the centrifugal force on the vacancies migration will be presented.

  4. Sound / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Uriah Heep "Sonic Origami", Amanda Lear "Follow Me Back In My Arms", No Mercy "More", Dr.Bombay "Rice & Curry", Vanilla Ice"Hard To Swallow", Orgy "Cancỳass", Bee Gees "One Night Only", PJ Harvey "Is This Desire", Mudhoney "Tomorrow Hit Today", Frank Sinatra "Sinatra And Swingin Brass", Kurupt "Kuruption!", Mike Scott & The Waterboys "The Whole Of The Moon", Dodgy "Ace As & Killer Bs"

  5. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Vivekanandan; Sangeetha, Arunachalam; Kumar, Vinaya

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Materials and Methods: Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns) and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns). The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Newman–Keul's test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. Conclusion: This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization. PMID:23066294

  6. Tropical Engineering. Design Manual-11.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    of the project, and the least lifecycle cost of the item and within the available funds. Where possible, the better quality material shall be specified...Polyethylene (Hypalon*) (d) Polyvinyl Chloride ( PVC ) (b) Ethylene Propylene Diene (e) Butyl Terpolymer (EPDM) (3) Selection of Elastomeric Roofing. The...conforming to ASTM B88 with flared brass or solder-type bronze or wrought copper fittings conforming to ANSI B16.26 or B16.22. Poly- vinyl chloride ( PVC

  7. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek? Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer?s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of ...

  8. Filters for Submillimeter Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    New manufacturing process produces filters strong, yet have small, precise dimensions and smooth surface finish essential for dichroic filtering at submillimeter wavelengths. Many filters, each one essentially wafer containing fine metal grid made at same time. Stacked square wires plated, fused, and etched to form arrays of holes. Grid of nickel and tin held in brass ring. Wall thickness, thickness of filter (hole depth) and lateral hole dimensions all depend upon operating frequency and filter characteristics.

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement, Bel Marin Keys Unit 5. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    problem or limitation caused by low fertility , acidity, or toxicity. I I Source: USDA Soil Conservation Service I IV-1 ... ,__ -.. 2 " . A f...Intro- duced species such as wild radish , red brome grass, Italian rye grass, winter vetch, and brass buttons are common, and native pickle- weed...plant, salt grass, sow-thistle, and wild radish . The plants in the undis- turbed marsh area are native species typical of coastal salt marsh. Sow

  10. coming to terms with our colonial past: regina di fiori e di perle by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    La mente mi si accese. Chissà cosa c'era dentro? Forse i segreti della vita del vecchio Yacob.8 (Ghermandi, 2007:8). 7. “When I was small […]” 8. Spiders and spider webs in every hole and in every corner of the room. Finally, at the foot of the bed a chest painted with peeling green enamel, sealed with two enormous brass ...

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF THE NEW STEEL 75‘/25ГМФС FOR THE INSTRUMENT OF COLD FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Fedulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of improving tool life of cold deformation. Composition designed and studied mechanical properties of the new tool steel 75H5GMFS, by allowing the application of different types of heat treatment, including high-temperature tempering after casting, the use for the manufacture of cold-forming tool, for example, upon receipt of the housings of watches brass billets.

  12. Characterization, dielectric and electrical behaviour of BaTiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    thick suspension of BaTiO3 nanoparticles were spread on a carbon conductive tape attached to the surface of SEM brass stub. The particles on the stub were coated with gold–palladium by plasma sputtering for 3 min for the preparation for FE–SEM imaging. The FE–SEM image of. BaTiO3 nanoparticles prepared is shown ...

  13. Oxidation Protection Systems for Carbon-Carbon Composites Formed by Chemical Vapor Deposition and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-22

    combination. They may be in the form of a piece of felt. stacked multiple layers of cloth, filament windings of uni- or multi-directional tubes or cones, as...the measurement was preformed. A 10 gram brass standard balance weight was used for this purpose. Its volume was also measured by Archimedes ’ principle...engine turbine blades from oxidation. 20 These type of diffusion treatments are also used with carbon and nitrogen for carburizing or nitriding metals. 2

  14. Investigation Of Ballast Water Treatment’s Effect On Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    steel and cast iron specimens were grit blasted with aluminum oxide grit, followed by a degreasing procedure (wash with methanol or acetone). Brass...and copper-nickel specimens were degreased . Following degreasing , all specimens were weighed with a Sartorius Genius scale with a resolution of 0.1...These specimens were then grit blasted, degreased and weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg. Following weighing, a 1-7/8-inch diameter rudder zinc was attached

  15. Relation between the Fluctuating Wall Pressure and the Turbulent Structure of a Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-12

    review S by Lueptow (1988) provides an excellent summary of the effect of transverse curvature on the mean properties of the flow field. When the...represern ±0. I 0 S S 6 0 S 0 0 0 4, 187 X), U00 3/8-in. -Diamneter Cylindrical ModelO .022-in.-O.D. ~ Stainless Steel Tube Brass 3/8 in. 0-Ring Half-Ring

  16. Evaluation of the TRAC Variable Diameter Rotor: Preliminary Design of a Full-Scale Rotor and Parametric Mission Analysis Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    thickness desired. The spar components, including the brass counterweight and prefabricated boron/epoxy slabs , are bonded together in two steps in an...production, rolled or stretch-formed skins would be utilized. The unidirectional boron/epoxy slabs were prefabricated in a closed metal mold. The inner...out of track , causing an increase in vibration level. The nut reaction tube avoids these potential problems by trans- mitting the nut torque directly to

  17. Personnel Security during Joint Operations with Foreign Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the Soviets inherited. Objective: Why Do They Hate Us? This article addresses the primary issue of the dramatic increase in the number of insider...sense of duty to country. It is the basic rule that governs every job we do, from flying advanced air- craft to polishing brass. Successfully applying...Drug Control and Crime ] and USG [US government] esti- mates, cultivation there was down between 3 and 19 percent this year [2012], respectively. These

  18. Description of the manufacture of a Geiger-Muller counter with window; Descripcion de la fabricacion de un contador Geiger-Muller con ventana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, C. E.

    1959-07-01

    Total details about the manufacture elements in counter fabrication and the way of obtention are described as well as total indications useful in the installation process and filling of the counter. The appropriate materials and precautions that might be adopted in order to obtain counters with uniform operation and good characteristics, are described. Counters are of brass, with thin mica or aluminium windows and operate at 1100 V approximately with a slope lower than 5 % 1100 V. (Author)

  19. The Art of the Possible: T. E. Lawrence and Coalition Liaison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    During the same period Lawrence also became interested in medieval architecture, collecting brass rubbings from medieval churches in the area, as well as...considered individually, to truly achieve understanding one needed to see and appreciate the byzantine and convoluted interplay between them over hundreds of...reticence was Paris’s postwar desire to rule Lebanon and Syria: Lebanon because France felt protective of the large Maronite Christian community

  20. Characterization of PEOS Plasma Parameters and Conduction Phase Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    schematic of the experiment is shown in Fig. 1. The electrodes were made up of a 70-80• optically transmitting brass screen and an Aerodag coated...into the gun reached = 40 kA in 0.5 Ws. 2 "V4 Il0I TEST APPARATUS GEOMETRY y PLASMA % GUN S~FARADAY 7.5 cm.- -• CUP .2.5c , PLATE SCREEN ( AERODAG COATED

  1. Plasma Studies in Ion Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    stainless, and brass cathodes...... 116 Figure 5.4 Micrographs of Aerodagged cathodes .......................... 117 Figure 5.5 Micrographs of different...Figure 6.7 Gaps for different materials and surface coating ............... 142 Fig’ ,e 6.8 The effect of Aerodag coating ......... ............... 143...were made to prepare the graphite sur- faces. For some shots the cathodes were coated with a spray on graphite coating ( Aerodag G ",,). In this case

  2. Deterring gun crime materially using forensic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermon, Paul A; Worsley, Myles P; Cheng, Yu; Courtney, Lee; Shinar-Bush, Verity; Ruzimuradov, Olim; Hopwood, Andy J; Edwards, Michael R; Gashi, Bekim; Harrison, David; Xu, Yanmeng

    2012-09-10

    Surface coatings that can help deter and solve gun crime are described. These nanoengineered coatings have been applied and evaluated on brass cartridge cases, where they increase associative forensic evidence through nanotag donation to the handler and the retention of handler's DNA. In future we expect this approach to be used for other surfaces and conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In-Situ Shipboard Heat Exchanger Cleaning and Maintenance Using Innovative I2 Bubble Infusion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    5) mature biofilm 6 The I2MP method (see Figure 2.4) uses a timed infusion of iodinated air bubbles to prevent or reduce...Brass N Butyl Stainless Steel 316 Viton Titanium Grade 2 Also at the I2 Air Fluid Innovation facility, coupons of the metal materials noted in...Carla C. C. R. (2007), Biofilms : Recent Developments on an Old Battle, Recent Patents on Biotechnology Vol. 1, pp. 49-57. 29. Donnelly, B., O’Donovan

  4. Army Symposium: ’Leadership Challenges of the 21st Century Army’ Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    while the moral and political consequences of actions become more visible and more complicated. (Boas Shamir and Eyal Ben-Ari, The Hebrew University...out of Issues BG(r) Hal Nelson Mr. Robert Emmerichs COL Robert L. Jordan , Jr. COL Charles S. Hurt Dr. Michael Gurstein Dr. Daniel J. Brass Dr. Boas... Shamir A-4 r Group 4: Short- and Long-Term Development Strategies (particularly self development) to Stay Ahead of Mission, Structural, Technological

  5. Comparing dose in the build-up region between compensator- and MLC-based IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javedan, Khosrow; Zhang, Geoffrey G; Hoffe, Sarah; Feygelman, Vladimir; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-09-06

    The build-up dose in the megavoltage photon beams can be a limiting factor in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. Excessive surface dose can cause patient discomfort and treatment interruptions, while underdosing may lead to tumor repopulation and local failure. Dose in the build-up region was investigated for IMRT delivery with solid brass compensator technique(compensator-based IMRT) and compared with that of multileaf collimator (MLC)-based IMRT. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator equipped with an MLC was used for beam delivery. A special solid brass step-wise compensator was designed and built for testing purposes. Two step-and-shoot MLC fields were programmed to produce a similar modulated step-wise dose profile. The MLC and compensator dose profiles were measured and adjusted to match at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Build-up dose in the 1-5 mm depth range was measured with an ultrathin window, fixed volume parallel plate ionization chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were used to model the brass compensator and step-and-shoot MLC fields. The measured and simulated profiles for the two IMRT techniques were matched at the isocenter depth of 10 cm. Different component contributions to the shallow dose, including the MLC scatter, were quantified. Mean spectral energies for the open and filtered beams were calculated. The compensator and MLC profiles at 10 cm depth were matched better than ± 1.5%. The build-up dose was up to 7% lower for compensator IMRT compared to MLC IMRT due to beam hardening in the brass. Low-energy electrons contribute 22% and 15% dose at 1 mm depth for compensator and MLC modalities, respectively. Compensator-based IMRT delivers less dose in the build-up region than MLC-based IMRT does, even though a compensator is closer to the skin than the MLC.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available field mustard Brassica rapa Brassica_rapa_L.png Brassica_rapa_NL.png Brassica_rapa_...S.png Brassica_rapa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brass...ica+rapa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NS ...

  7. Estudio de la influencia microbiológica en la corrosión de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443) y acero inoxidable AISI 316;

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Mauricio; Díaz, Verónica; Corengia, Mariana; Russi, Paola; Pianzzola, María Julia; Menes, Rodolfo Javier

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of biofilms: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These biofilms affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (UNS...

  8. Symposium on Flow-Induced Vibrations Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 9-14 December 1984. Volume 1. Excitation and Vibration of Bluff Bodies in Cross Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    goes back to the time of Leonardo da Vinci , and even to the first mention in anticuity of the wind-induced vibration and sound of the Aeolian harp...Cylinder material Investigator( s ) A Flexible Water PVC King (1977T - *cantilever PVC Aluminum Stainle3s steel 0 Pivoted Water Brass Vickery and rigid...case of flexible, cylindrical marine structures by Griffin (41 in a study of OTEC cold water pipe vibra- tions. Measurements of the drag coefficient

  9. Stability of submerged rock berms exposed to motion of liquefied soil in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    . Various berm materials were used, stones of size 0.74–2.5cm, plastic balls of size 3.6cm, brass of size 2.5cm and steel of size 1.0cm. The experiments show that rock berms that are stable under very large waves can be unstable when they are exposed to the motion of liquefied soil. The limited data...

  10. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandan Ramkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Materials and Methods: Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns. The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and Newman-Keul′s test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. Conclusion: This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization.

  11. صناعة راس المال الفكري والاداء الوظيفي ( العلاقة والتأثير ) دراسة تطبيقية في المعهد التقني /بابل

    OpenAIRE

    جوان فاضل مهدي

    2017-01-01

    The intellectual capital of modern concepts that have emerged in the last decade of the century, it was realized that a lot of organizations important fact, which is that its real value is based on everything may be more important than the head of the physical her money, which today is called Brass intellectual capital, which represents one of the most important elements of successful organizations in the atheist and the twentieth century, and is the knowledge and skill of employees, and the ...

  12. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Health Monitoring and Materials Damage Prognosis for Metallic Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the rolled plates of copper and brass. Figure 32. Series of aluminum alloys from laser line source-in/laser-out method. Al2024 exhibits...an uncertainty of +/-0.3%. Figure 32 displays velocity results for aluminum alloys 2024 and 6061. For Al2024 (in both rolled plate and...wave polarization. Overall, uncertainty for extracting shear wave speeds was +/-0.3% while the maximum variation in wave speed for Al2024 was 1.5

  13. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...... in normal workshop conditions using common equipment for turning as well as in a test laboratory. The evaluation tests can be carried out using the desired number of repetitions in terms of workpiece materials and tools....

  14. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Mineral oil - RM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RM. The methods were developed to be applicable...... in normal workshop conditions using common equipment for turning as well as in a test laboratory. The evaluation tests can be carried out using the desired number of repetitions in terms of workpiece materials and tools....

  15. Changes in the interface structure and strength of diffusion brazed joints of Al-Si alloy castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, T. [Aoyamagakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Technology

    1995-06-01

    The diffusion brazing process, which utilizes diffusion between the base metal and the filler metal, has been tried for joining Al-Si alloy castings. If a ternary eutectic Al-Cu-Si alloy system with a lower melting point than the Al-Si system base metal is produced at the braze interface by the diffusion reaction between the base metal and the cooper filler metal, it may be possible to join an Al-Si system alloy casting by the diffusion brazing process, using a ternary eutectic Al-Si-Cu alloy as a filler metal. In this experiment both copper and brass materials were used as preforms. It was clarified that the diffusion brazing process with a copper or brass preform could be used for all hypoeutectic, eutectic and hypereutectic alloys of Al-Si system castings, and that the minimum temperature where the braze interface, showed a liquid phase structure was 530 C for the copper preform and 510 C for the brass preform. The shear strength of the diffusion brazed joint was dependent on the chemical compositions of the base metal, the type of material for the preform, and brazing temperature and time. The maximum strength of the diffusion brazed joint under optimum conditions was 130 to 150 MPa for the base metal of both Al-7Si and Al-12Si alloy castings and 100 to 130 MPa for the base metal of Al-20Si alloy casting.

  16. Water sorption and dimensional changes of denture base polymer reinforced with glass fibers in continuous unidirectional and woven form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, N E; Hersek, N; Sahin, E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dimensional accuracy and water sorption of a denture base polymer that was reinforced with glass fibers in continuous unidirectional and woven form in different weight fractions. Ten rhombic brass plates were prepared with reference points, and 70 heat-cured denture base polymer specimens were produced using these brass models. Ten of 70 were used for controls, and 60 were reinforced with glass fibers in continuous parallel and woven form. The dimensional changes of polymer and fiber-reinforced composite specimens after processing, drying for 4 days at 37 degrees C, and storage in 37 degrees C water for 90 days were calculated by the change of the distance vector. The measurements were made between the reference points on the specimens and were compared with those on the brass model at 4 different stages. The water sorption calculations were made at 10 different time intervals on 70 specimens, which were immersed in a 37 degrees C distilled water bath and weighed. The polymerization shrinkage and water sorption of denture base polymers is lower when the specimens are reinforced with glass fibers in continuous unidirectional and woven form. The highest fiber content showed the smallest dimensional change (0.069 mm, or 0.25%), and the unreinforced group showed the largest change (0.139 mm, or 0.54%). Water sorption occurred mainly during the first 14 days. As the fiber content increases, the dimensional change and water sorption decrease.

  17. The antimicrobial activity of copper and copper alloys against nosocomial pathogens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from healthcare facilities in the Western Cape: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar, S; Wiid, I; Todorov, S D

    2008-01-01

    Clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) were tested against copper (Cu) and its alloys. Stainless steel and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were used as controls. The amount of Cu required to inhibit test isolates at room temperature (24 degrees C) and at 4 degrees C was determined. At room temperature, Cu, DZR Brass (Cu 62%, Pb 2.5%, arsenate 0.13% and Zn 22.5%) and Brass 70/30 (Cu 70% and zinc 30%) inhibited C. albicans and K. pneumoniae at 60 min; nickel silver (NiAg) inhibited C. albicans at 60 min and K. pneumoniae at 270 min. P. aeruginosa was inhibited by Brass 70/30 and nickel silver (NiAg) at 180 min and at 270 min by Cu and DZR. Cu and DZR inhibited A. baumannii at 180 min while the other alloys were effective at 360 min. Stainless steel and PVC showed little or no inhibitory activity. Two M. tuberculosis strains, one isoniazid resistant (R267) and the other multidrug resistant (R432), demonstrated growth inhibition with Cu of 98% and 88% respectively compared with PVC; the other alloys were less active. Time to positivity (TTP) for R267 was >15 days with Cu and 11 days for the other alloys; with R432 it was 5 days. Effective inhibition of nosocomial pathogens and MTB by Cu and alloys was best when the Cu content was >55%.

  18. Matisse to Picasso: a compositional study of modern bronze sculptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marcus L; Schnepp, Suzanne; Casadio, Francesca; Lins, Andrew; Meighan, Melissa; Lambert, Joseph B; Dunand, David C

    2009-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to determine the bulk metal elemental composition of 62 modern bronze sculptures cast in Paris in the first half of the twentieth century from the collections of The Art Institute of Chicago and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. As a result, a comprehensive survey of the alloy composition of the sculptures of many prominent European artists of the early twentieth century is presented here for the first time. The sculptures in this study consist of predominantly copper with two main alloying elements (zinc and tin). By plotting the concentrations of these two elements (zinc and tin) against each other for all the sculptures studied, three clusters of data become apparent: (A) high-zinc brass; (B) low-zinc brass; (C) tin bronze. These clusters correlate to specific foundries, which used specific casting methods (sand or lost wax) that were influenced by individual preferences and technical skills of the foundry masters. For instance, the high-zinc brass alloys (with the highest levels of tin and zinc and the lowest melting temperature) correspond to most of the Picasso sculptures, correlate with the Valsuani foundry, and are associated with the most recent sculptures (post-WWII) and with the lost-wax casting method. By expanding the ICP-OES database of objects studied, these material correlations may become useful for identifying, dating, or possibly even authenticating other bronzes that do not bear foundry marks. Figure.

  19. Measurement of 9 mm cartridge case external temperatures and its forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, B; Edwards, M R; Sermon, P A; Courtney, L; Harrison, D; Xu, Y

    2010-07-15

    The external temperature of the cartridge cases of 9 mm parabellum ammunition during the firing sequence was measured by a series of methods. Using a thermal imaging camera was the most successful method and showed that aluminium alloy cases reached higher temperatures than did brass cases. Peak temperatures for brass cases were 336 K at the case mouth after 1.2 ms and 331 K at the case base after 2 ms. Corresponding temperatures for aluminium alloy cases were 363 K at the mouth after 0.8 ms and 372 K at the base after 1.2 ms. These times at temperature would not be sufficient to destroy any DNA residues left on the case. Measurement of the DNA of fired cartridges showed that DNA deposited on the cartridge case before firing was not affected by the temperatures reached during the firing sequence. Estimates of temperatures to be found in pure aluminium and mild steel cases were made, these indicating that pure aluminium would give higher temperatures than aluminium alloy and steel a lower temperature than for brass. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Semi-quantitative evaluation of texture components and fatigue properties in 2524 T3 aluminum alloy sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Fanghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yi, Danqing, E-mail: yioffice@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); National Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nonferrous Structural Materials and Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yjiang@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wang, Bin; Liu, Huiqun; Tang, Cong; Shou, Wenbin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2016-03-07

    Effect of main texture components (Cube, Goss and Brass) on the fatigue property of 2524 T3 (Al–Cu–Mg) aluminum alloy sheet was investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction, electron back scattering diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and fatigue tests. A new kind of factors, which was based on the intensity ratio of texture components, were firstly defined to evaluate and discuss the relationship between texture components and the fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate semi-quantitatively. The results showed that the rate of FCG in the stable stage (II) decreased with an increase of the factor F{sub CGB} (the intensity ratio of Cube to Brass texture) obviously. When the new factor F{sub CGB}, F{sub CG} (the intensity ratio of Cube to Goss texture), and F{sub GB} (the intensity ratio of Goss to Brass texture) all exceeded than 1, as well as F{sub CG} was close to F{sub GB}, the 2524 T3 sheet exhibited the lowest fatigue crack growth rate (ΔK=33 MPa m{sup 1/2}, da/dN<2.0×10{sup −3}). The Schmid factor and misorientation of grains boundaries would be responsible for such influence on the fatigue property.

  1. Estudio de corrosión galvánica en pares latón/acero inoxidable y latón/fundición de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multigalvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass –UNS C268– and Admiralty brass –UNS C443– compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 °C in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na2SO4 solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals.

    El ataque por corrosión en los sistemas intercambiadores de calor constituye un problema para el mantenimiento de cualquier planta industrial. Se trata de sistemas multigalvánicos con particular complejidad geométrica y fluidodinámica. Las patologías corrosivas incluyen el fenómeno de dealeación selectiva de cinc en las aleaciones de cobre. A fin de explicar un caso particular de ataque por decinficación (deterioro en placa de intercambiador de calor de tubos de inoxidable, el presente trabajo aborda en ensayos a escala de laboratorio, la caracterización e interacciones entre dos aleaciones de cobre y cinc, (Yellow brass –UNS C268– y Admiralty brass –UNS C443–, respecto a acero inoxidable AISI 316 y fundición gris de hierro. Los ensayos se realizan a 20 °C en disoluciones de NaCl 1,5 % y Na2SO4 1,5 % y pH 8. Se caracterizan electroquímicamente las aleaciones y materiales involucrados mediante barridos potenciodinámicos. Los pares galvánicos formados se analizan mediante el

  2. Determination of heat transfer parameters by use of finite integral transform and experimental data for regular geometric shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaghat, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This article offers a study on estimation of heat transfer parameters (coefficient and thermal diffusivity) using analytical solutions and experimental data for regular geometric shapes (such as infinite slab, infinite cylinder, and sphere). Analytical solutions have a broad use in experimentally determining these parameters. Here, the method of Finite Integral Transform (FIT) was used for solutions of governing differential equations. The temperature change at centerline location of regular shapes was recorded to determine both the thermal diffusivity and heat transfer coefficient. Aluminum and brass were used for testing. Experiments were performed for different conditions such as in a highly agitated water medium ( T = 52 °C) and in air medium ( T = 25 °C). Then, with the known slope of the temperature ratio vs. time curve and thickness of slab or radius of the cylindrical or spherical materials, thermal diffusivity value and heat transfer coefficient may be determined. According to the method presented in this study, the estimated of thermal diffusivity of aluminum and brass is 8.395 × 10-5 and 3.42 × 10-5 for a slab, 8.367 × 10-5 and 3.41 × 10-5 for a cylindrical rod and 8.385 × 10-5 and 3.40 × 10-5 m2/s for a spherical shape, respectively. The results showed there is close agreement between the values estimated here and those already published in the literature. The TAAD% is 0.42 and 0.39 for thermal diffusivity of aluminum and brass, respectively.

  3. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  4. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain.

  5. Thresholds of auditory-motor coupling measured with a simple task in musicians and non-musicians: was the sound simultaneous to the key press?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris T; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is able to predict the sensory effects of its actions. But how precise are these predictions? The present research proposes a tool to measure thresholds between a simple action (keystroke) and a resulting sound. On each trial, participants were required to press a key. Upon each keystroke, a woodblock sound was presented. In some trials, the sound came immediately with the downward keystroke; at other times, it was delayed by a varying amount of time. Participants were asked to verbally report whether the sound came immediately or was delayed. Participants' delay detection thresholds (in msec) were measured with a staircase-like procedure. We hypothesised that musicians would have a lower threshold than non-musicians. Comparing pianists and brass players, we furthermore hypothesised that, as a result of a sharper attack of the timbre of their instrument, pianists might have lower thresholds than brass players. Our results show that non-musicians exhibited higher thresholds for delay detection (180 ± 104 ms) than the two groups of musicians (102 ±65 ms), but there were no differences between pianists and brass players. The variance in delay detection thresholds could be explained by variance i n sensorimotor synchronisation capacities as well as variance in a purely auditory temporal irregularity detection measure. This suggests that the brain's capacity to generate temporal predictions of sensory consequences can be decomposed into general temporal prediction capacities together with auditory-motor coupling. These findings indicate that the brain has a relatively large window of integration within which an action and its resulting effect are judged as simultaneous. Furthermore, musical expertise may narrow this window down, potentially due to a more refined temporal prediction. This novel paradigm provides a simple test to estimate the temporal precision of auditory-motor action-effect coupling, and the paradigm can readily be incorporated in

  6. Thresholds of auditory-motor coupling measured with a simple task in musicians and non-musicians: was the sound simultaneous to the key press?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris T van Vugt

    Full Text Available The human brain is able to predict the sensory effects of its actions. But how precise are these predictions? The present research proposes a tool to measure thresholds between a simple action (keystroke and a resulting sound. On each trial, participants were required to press a key. Upon each keystroke, a woodblock sound was presented. In some trials, the sound came immediately with the downward keystroke; at other times, it was delayed by a varying amount of time. Participants were asked to verbally report whether the sound came immediately or was delayed. Participants' delay detection thresholds (in msec were measured with a staircase-like procedure. We hypothesised that musicians would have a lower threshold than non-musicians. Comparing pianists and brass players, we furthermore hypothesised that, as a result of a sharper attack of the timbre of their instrument, pianists might have lower thresholds than brass players. Our results show that non-musicians exhibited higher thresholds for delay detection (180 ± 104 ms than the two groups of musicians (102 ±65 ms, but there were no differences between pianists and brass players. The variance in delay detection thresholds could be explained by variance i n sensorimotor synchronisation capacities as well as variance in a purely auditory temporal irregularity detection measure. This suggests that the brain's capacity to generate temporal predictions of sensory consequences can be decomposed into general temporal prediction capacities together with auditory-motor coupling. These findings indicate that the brain has a relatively large window of integration within which an action and its resulting effect are judged as simultaneous. Furthermore, musical expertise may narrow this window down, potentially due to a more refined temporal prediction. This novel paradigm provides a simple test to estimate the temporal precision of auditory-motor action-effect coupling, and the paradigm can readily be

  7. X-ray fluorescence - a non-destructive tool in investigation of Czech fine and applied art objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojek, T.; Musílek, L.

    2017-08-01

    A brief review of application of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) to fine and applied arts related to Czech cultural heritage is presented. The Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionising Radiation of CTU-FNSPE has used XRFA in collaboration with various Czech institutions dealing with cultural history for many kinds of artefacts, (e.g., Roman and medieval brass, gemstones and noble metals from the sceptre of one of the faculties of the Charles University in Prague, millefiori beads, etc.). In some cases, a combination of various other techniques alongside XRFA was used for enhancing our knowledge of a measured object.

  8. Heavy vehicle simulator testing on pre-cast concrete panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available pavement slabs and perform in the same way. Dowel slots cast on the bottom of the slabs provide two benefits. First, they keep dowel grout on the bottom, protecting it from de-icing chemicals and degradation from freeze/ thaw activity. Secondly... an indication of their size, the brass sensor caps are 75mm in diameter). Drill cores obtained from various locations in both test sections indicated very good performance of the dowel grout. There was no sign of looseness of the dowel, which means...

  9. Bagatellid : maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld, Ivo Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2011-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: 14. Tšaikovski nimelisest konkursist. Daniel Barenboim tõstetakse rüütliseisusesse. Orkestrist I, Culture Orchestra. Charles Dutoit plaanib luua Lõuna- ja Põhja-Koread ühendava orkestri. Lahkus Josef Suk. Seiji Ozawa pälvis Praemium Imperiale auhinna. Cardiffi lauljate konkursi võitis Valentina Nafornita. Lahkus Nikolai Petrov. Venetsueelas lööb laineid noor dirigent Jose Omar Davila. "Jazzkaare" täht Brass Jaw sai Suurbritannias suure tunnustuse osaliseks. Põhjamaade Nõukogu muusikaauhinna teenis Mats Gustafsson. Black Eyed Peas paneb pillid kotti. Kuuba kitarrist Manuel Galban surnud. Eesti on Tšehhi jazziraadio fookuses

  10. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases.

  11. Occupational Medicine Relevant to Aviation Medicine, Conference Proceedings of the Aerospace Medical Panel Symposium Held at London on 4 October 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    10 min 30 min 60 min 30 ppm 20 ppm 10 ppm b. Industrial and Production Plants : Short Term Public Limits (STPL) 10 min 30 min 1 60 min 15 ppm l0 ppm 5...Wt amen~s A creer une methodologie, complete associant un modele-feu original et un proto- cole d’exposition d’animaux aux gaz toxiques produits afin... toxiques volatils a cause du volume d’air brass6 par les poumons. - 12 A 14 m spar jour pour un individu ayant une activite physique normale, - et en

  12. Corrosion behaviour of metals and alloys in the waters of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    varied quantitatively from station to station, being more at CAST and less at WA.ST; this difference has been attributed to the variations in the depths of exposure at different stations. The depth of exposure at the upper and CORROSION PREVENTION...). SEM ("SOO) of the brass panel from 2900m depth. showing inlergranular corrosion. CORROSION PREVENTION & CONTROl. December 1990 155 ~14 f'je ~12 Ol E LO UJ ti • a:: z • Q ~.. 0:: ~2 U o M·$·~8ra.. • Aluminium F.g.3. Rate of corroaion of mild steel...

  13. One-way propagation of acoustic waves through a periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Xu, Wei; Yan, Xu; Qian, Menglu; Cheng, Qian

    2018-02-01

    One-way acoustic transmission is achieved through a brass plate with a periodic grating on the surface. Using the Schlieren imaging technique, the positive and negative propagation processes of acoustic waves through the periodic structure were experimentally observed. Simulations were performed using the finite-element method. Both the experimental and simulation results revealed a very large transmission ratio between positive and negative incidence, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using this structure as an acoustic rectifier. The results indicate that the structure has a broadband working frequency. The structure has potential applications in ultrasonic medical devices and sonochemical reactors.

  14. Methodology for fabrication of hydraulics mini turbines with composite materials; Metodologia para a fabricacao de mini turbinas hidraulicas com materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, M.T.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEMEC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: mtcdf@uol.com.br; Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (EHR-UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@bol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the description of methodological procedure specially developed for manufacturing mini turbines. This procedure is used in the design of a Francis type mini turbine with 12.5 kW. The housing volute and the suction tube of this equipment are manufactured with using composed material based on glass fiber and its distributor system is manufactured with stainless steel and brass. At the end it is presented an estimate cost of design / manufacturing of such equipment and a comparison with other equipment in the market.

  15. Fanfare, Op.3

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Jonathan D.

    2006-01-01

    This brief fanfare is scored for 4 trumpets, 4 horns, 3 trombones + tuba, 2 sets of timpani, plus percussion – comprising bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbals and 2 tam-tams. The 2 sets of timpani are ideally to be positioned at either side of the stage, with the rest of the brass stretching across the front of the stage, in an arc (with percussion behind). Finally, the 2 sets of 2 trumpeters are positioned on each side of the auditorium balcony (opposite and facing the stage) – for maxim...

  16. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The authors briefly summarize semiconductor bridge operation and review their ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite as a function of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) firing set capacitance, charge holder material and morphology of the CuO. Ignition thresholds were obtained using a brass charge holder and a non-conducting fiber-glass-epoxy composite material, G10. At - 18 C and a charge voltage of 50V, the capacitance thresholds were 30.1 {mu}F and 2.0 {mu}F respectively. They also present new data on electrostatic discharge (ESD) and radio frequency (RF) vulnerability tests.

  17. Effect of Flow and Dissolved Oxygen on the Compatibility of Pongamia pinnata Biodiesel with Common Construction Materials Used in Storage and Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel (PBD and its NaCl blends on aluminium, brass, copper, carbon steel, and mild steel has been studied by static mass loss and rotating cage methods. The effects of dissolved oxygen and flow on the metal corrosion in PBD were also observed. This study confirmed that the copper strip test alone is not enough to determine the fuel property since the corrosion of ferrous metal was found to be high in PBD compared to other metals. The least corrosion rate of aluminium was confirmed by surface morphology and elemental analysis.

  18. Tinless Solder Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1937-06-24

    tin solder. 4. By soldering coated thin (.015*) plates of tin- plate, terne-plate and galvanised iron with this mixture, the tensile strength in...9700 lbs/ln2 Average 9500 lbs/ln2 •The plates used In this test were tin-plate. Tests on bright annealed, terne-plate, brass and galvanised ...plates (tin-plate, terne- plate and galvanised iron) had coatings, it was impossible to use emery oloth OB them to completely remove the rust or

  19. Influence of Material Structure Crystallography on its Formability in Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnikov, F. V.; Surudin, S. V.; Erisov, Ya A.; Kuzin, A. O.; Bobrovskiy, I. N.

    2017-12-01

    The finite element simulation was used to analyze the effect of crystallographic texture on material formability in typical sheet metal forming processes: stretch forming, hole expansion, drawing and bending. It is defined that the best formability (maximum cupping depth, flanging ratio, drawing depth, minimum bending radius) is provided by a rotated cube orientation; the worst – by Goss orientation. Some texture components provide better formability than the isotropic case (rotated cube), some - worse (cube, goss) or close to isotropy (copper, brass or S-orientation).

  20. Stochastic cooling equipment at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The photo shows (centre) an experimental set-up for stochastic cooling of vertical betatron oscillations, used at the ISR in the years before the ICE ring was built. Cooling times of about 30 min were obtained in the low intensity range (~0.3 A). To be noted the four 50 Ohm brass input/output connections with cooling fins, and the baking-out sheet around the cylinder. On the left one sees a clearing electrode box allowing the electrode current to be measured, and the pressure seen by the beam to be evaluated.

  1. Non-invasive chemical and phase analysis of Roman bronze artefacts from Thamusida (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzo, Elisabetta, E-mail: gliozzo@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rarletti@unimore.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Largo S. Eufemia 19, 41100 Modena (Italy); Cartechini, Laura, E-mail: laura@thch.unipg.i [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR (CNR-ISTM), c/o Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Imberti, Silvia, E-mail: Silvia.Imberti@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kockelmann, Winfried A., E-mail: Winfried.Kockelmann@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Memmi, Isabella, E-mail: memmi@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Rinaldi, Romano, E-mail: rrinaldi@unipg.i [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Tykot, Robert H., E-mail: rtykot@cas.usf.ed [Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A repertory of Roman military bronze equipment (1st- 3rd century AD) found at the archaeological site of Thamusida (Rabat, Morocco) was analysed by non-destructive X-ray fluorescence and time of flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Most objects are made of leaded alloys, where copper is combined with tin and/or zinc and, in six cases, to arsenic as well. A mixed technology was employed, making a limited use of 'pure' semi-finished materials if compared with the large utilization of recycled materials (brass and bronze).

  2. Fabrication of a Flexible Array for Tactile Sensors with Microcantilevers and the Measurement of the Distribution of Normal and Shear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Daiki; Uematsu, Tatsuya; Sohgawa, Masayuki; Mito, Wataru; Kanashima, Takeshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Noma, Haruo

    2011-06-01

    A Tactile sensor system consisting of elements with three microcantilevers embedded in a cylindrical elastomer has been fabricated by micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. These sensor small size (3 ×4 mm2) chips are mounted on a flexible sheet, and thus the fabricated sensor array can be set even on a curved surface. In addition, the spacial distribution of normal and shear forces is obtained when two kinds of objects (an acrylic hemisphere and a brass cylinder) come in contact with the fabricated sensor shifted laterally. The distribution results appropriately reflect the surface shape of the object and give the behavior of the forces vector.

  3. OTS Selective Bibliography. High Temperature Metallurgy and Heat Resistant Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-02-01

    date have not shown appreciable IMPROVED SINTEED BRASS COMPACTS (Substantially oxidation resistance), by Raymond. Final rept. 19 higher properties were...iron), by Zaleski and Powell. a cubic phase of ZrO2 and Hf02 results. Refractory 1959. 25p. analogues of zircon have been prepared using IfO Order...from LC mi$2.70 ph$4 . 8 0 PB 142509 and ThN2 to replace Zr02. Hafnium silicate has exhibited unusually good resistance to severe Watertown Arsenal Labs

  4. Extractants to assess zinc phytoavailability in mineral fertilizer and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analytical methods for the quantification of plant-available Zn contained in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products are fundamental for the control and marketing of these inputs. In this sense, there are some doubts on the part of the scientific community as well as of the fertilizer production sector, whether the extractor requested by the government (Normative Instruction No. 28, called 2nd extractor, which is citric acid 2 % (2 % CA (Brasil, 2007b, is effective in predicting the plant availability of Zn via mineral fertilizers and about the agronomic significance of the required minimal solubility of 60 % compared to the total content (HCl (Brasil, 2007a. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alternative extractors DTPA, EDTA, neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, buffer solution pH 6.0, 10 % HCl, 10 % sulfuric acid, 1 % acetic acid, water, and hot water to quantify the contents of Zn available for maize and compare them with indices of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers and industrial by-products when applied to dystrophic Clayey Red Latosol and Dystrophic Alic Red Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The rate of Zn applied to the soil was 5 mg kg-1, using the sources zinc sulfate, commercial granular zinc, ash and galvanic sludge, ash and two brass slags. Most Zn was extracted from the sources by DTPA, 10 % HCl, NAC, 1% acetic acid, and 10 % sulfuric acid. Recovery by the extractors 2 % CA, EDTA, water, and hot water was low. The agronomic efficiency index was found to be high when using galvanic sludge (238 % and commercial granular zinc (142 % and lower with brass slag I and II (67 and 27 %, respectively. The sources galvanizing ash and brass ash showed solubility lower than 60 % in 2 % CA, despite agronomic efficiency indices of 78 and 125 %, respectively. The low agronomic efficiency index of industrial by-products such as brass slag I and galvanizing ash can be compensated by higher doses, provided there is no

  5. Broadband aberration-free focusing reflector for acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixia; Qu, Shaobo; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Jiang, Wei; Feng, Mingde

    2017-11-01

    An aberration-free focusing reflector (AFR) for acoustic waves is proposed with the aim to eliminate spherical aberration and coma simultaneously. Meanwhile, the AFR can focus acoustic waves with low dispersion in a wide frequency range of 14-50 kHz. The broadband aberration-free focusing effect is originated from an elliptical reflection phase gradient profile, which is achieved by milling different depths of axisymmetric grooves on a planoconcave-like brass plate using the ray theory. Theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement. The designed AFR can find broad engineering, industrial and medical applications.

  6. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  7. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture...... of the copper-type texture is best simulated with {111} slip combined with type CL/PR lattice rotation and relatively strong interaction between the grains-but not with the full-constraint Taylor model and neither with the classical relaxed-constraint models. The development of the brass-type texture is best...

  8. Compendium of Shock Wave Data. Volume 1. Revision 1. Introduction. Section A1-Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    STANDARD MATERIALS: 2024. AL ALLOY "•. ASTM BI6 BRASS DATA REDUCTION TECHNI- UE B. 3) THE VALUE OF VOl WAS OBTAINED FROM A. TAYLOR AND BRENDA J...3.59J 3206. . 6433 NI 7.14 3 8.964 11.572 4.581 4699. .6041 FS 7.93’ i 6.864 11.607 4.616 4741. .6023 FS 7.993 1 US a 4.456 * I.165vUP KM/SEC SIO.US a

  9. Materi Dakwah Pada Grup Ban Non-Religi(Analisis Pesan Dakwah Dalam Lirik Lagu Grub Band GIGI)

    OpenAIRE

    Aripudin, Acep; Ridwan, M. Roiz

    2009-01-01

    Not all aspects of music identical with caprice and banter, but they can also serve as medium of da'wah material conveyor. For example, band group lyric Fills of GIGI, of five song sample that analyzed by researcher for example: Reach for victory, I'tiraf, Peace, Apostle pine and God. Every thing gets classified massage da'wah. With this songs Groups A Brass Band GIGI intend to give resuscitations and asking out to fanses for always near his self on The Infinite Creator Mighty.

  10. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...

  11. High-Resolution, Two-Wavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Henry, Paul K.; Logiurato, D. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Modified two-color pyrometer measures temperatures of objects with high spatial resolution. Image focused on hole 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) in diameter in brass sheet near end of bundle, causing image to be distributed so fibers covered by defocused radiation from target. Pinhole ensures radiation from only small part of target scene reaches detector, thus providing required spatial resolution. By spreading radiation over bundle, pinhole ensures entire active area of detectors utilized. Produces signal as quiet as conventional instruments but with only 1/64 input radiation.

  12. Sistema limpo em linha para extração em fase sólida de contaminantes emergentes em águas naturais An in-line clean system for the solid-phase extraction of emerging contaminants in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Sodré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase in-line extraction system for water samples containing low levels of emerging contaminants is described. The system was specially developed for large volume samples (up to 4 L using commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges. Four sets containing PTFE-made connectors, brass adapters and ball valves were used to fit SPE cartridges and sample bottles to a 4-port manifold attached to a 20 L carboy. A lab-made vacuum device was connected to the manifold cap. The apparatus is robust and less expensive than the typical available system. Its also provides less experimental handling, avoiding cross contamination and sample losses.

  13. Capsae belonging to the so-called necropolis of the plots numbers 45 and 46 in Segobriga (Saelices, Hispania Citerior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Cebrián Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several incinerations belonging to the so-called necropolis of the plots numbers 45 and 46 in Segobriga contained elements of locks and metal fittings in brass and iron, corresponding to seven wooden caskets (“capsae”. They are dated in the second half of the 1st century AD and mainly they contained personal female care items and cosmetics. They were burned at the same time as the deceased, in a widespread funeral practice throughout the Roman provinces. We present here the review and study of these materials with a typological approach to the cases considering other specimens known elsewhere in the Empire.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of titanium in saline environments: The effects of temperature, pH, and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanVliet, K.J.; Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research investigates the effects of temperature, pH, degree of salinity, galvanic coupling, microstructure, and composition on the electrochemical behavior of commercially pure titanium in a saline environment. Essentially, the findings establish that increased temperature, altered microstructure, decreased pH, and decreased purity of titanium all serve to increase the corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate, thus making the metal more susceptible to hydrogen absorption. Further, the data indicate that galvanic coupling with certain metals such as naval brass and stainless steel can anodically polarize titanium, whereas coupling with metals such as aluminum, HY80 steel, and zinc catholically polarizes titanium, thus promoting hydrogen evolution on the titanium surface.

  15. [(123)I]FP-CIT ENC-DAT normal database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Dickson, John C; Sera, Terez

    2017-01-01

    (SBR) under optimised protocols for image acquisition and processing. Simpler reconstruction methods, however, are in use in many hospitals, often without implementation of attenuation and scatter corrections. This study investigates the impact on the reference values of simpler approaches using two...... of their SBR in the dopamine transporter-rich striatum, with their significance determined by the paired t test with Bonferroni correction. Attenuation and scatter losses, measured from the percentage difference between IRNC and ACSC databases, were of the order of 47% for both BRASS and Southampton...... quantifications. Phantom corrections were able to recover most of these losses, but the SBRs remained significantly lower than the "true" values (p

  16. GEAR WHEELS THE PROCESSED BY ELECTRICAL EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCEL S.POPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For low tooth loads and low peripheral speeds between 0.3 and 2 m / s are chosen based alloys and steels, gray cast iron. In industry are preferable ferrous alloys: bronze, brass and aluminum alloys, and where speeds and demands are low gears are made of sheet steel or alloys. Wheel group required less include some hand-operated mechanisms, such as jacks, some trolls. These wheels are larger and they are made of alloy steel, semi-hard and sometimes gray cast iron FC250, FC300.

  17. Pick and Place Assembly Technique for Fabrication of Groove Gapwaveguide Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjana, Sadia; Zaman, A. U.; Enoksson, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Gap waveguide are an innovative technology for millimeter-wave RF applications. There are some factors to be considered while using this technology at millimeter wave frequencies or above, particularly for low cost RF applications. Surface mount technology and pick and place machine technique can demonstrate a way to solve this problem. In this paper a groove resonator is presented which is manufactured by using pick and place technique. Brass pins of diameter 1.6mm and height 2.3mm was mounted on a 5mm thick copper plate. Lead free solder paste was used for solder joint.

  18. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Institute of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilek, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-10-15

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  19. Bragg Fibers with Soliton-like Grating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaychuk S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamical system corresponding to the optical holography in a nonlocal nonlinear medium with dissipation contains stable localized spatio-temporal states, namely the grid dissipative solitons. These solitons display a non-uniform profile of the grating amplitude, which has the form of the dark soliton in the reflection geometry. The transformation of the grating amplitude gives rise many new atypical effects for the beams diffracted on such grating, and they are very suitable for the fiber Brass gratings. The damped nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived that describes the properties of the grid dissipative soliton.

  20. BATING A REFERENCE INSTALLATION BASED ON CONTROLLED-POTENTIAL COULOMETRY METOD IN THE FRAME OF IMPROVING THE STATE PRIMARY STANDARD GET 176 AND ITS MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zyskin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of developing of reference installation, based on a controlled-potential coulometry, in the frame of improving the State primary standard of the units of mass (molar fraction and mass (molar concentration of a component in the liquid and solid substances and materials GET 176 are presented. The physical principles of controlled-potential coulometry, content and metrological characteristics of the developed installation are considered. Measurement results of copper, iron and lead contents in the certified reference materials of metals' solutions and CRM of brass produced by BAM, Germany, obtained using reference installation are given.

  1. POM (Program Objective Memorandum) FY-85 BP 1500 Cost Growth and Leadtime Adjustments: Research Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-28

    South African and Turkish chromite ore. The major reason for this price stability appears to be the expanding of the market to include previously...51.4 Brass, Bronze & Copper Castings 5.0 7.5 9.3 51.4 Aluminum Production 5.8 7.5 9.0 51.4 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 6.6 7.5 8.6 45.0 - Electron...Changes in technology are, in many applications, IV-13 , -, . - Near-Term PPI Projection Industry/Product (Annual % Change) Primary Copper -2.4 Gold

  2. Causes of temporal variability of lead in domestic plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, M R

    1990-07-01

    Sources of lead in drinking water are primarily lead pipe, lead/tin solder, and brass fixture materials.Lead levels in the water depend upon many solubility factors, such as pH, concentrations of substances such as inorganic carbonate, orthophosphate, chlorine, and silicate, the temperature, the nature of the pipe surface, etc. Physical factors, time, and chemical mass transfer are significant in governing lead levels in nonequilibrium systems. The diameter and length of lead pipe is extremely important, as well as the age and chemical history of the solder and brass fixtures. Analytical variability is not particularly significant relative to between-site and within-site variability. Knowledge of temporal variability at each site is necessary to define a statistically valid monitoring program. An analysis of published data covering repetitive measurements at a given site show that the variability of lead concentration at each site tends to be characterized by the frequent occurrence of 'spikes'. Variability expressed as approximate relative standard deviations tends to be of about 50 to 75% in untreated water, regardless of the mean lead concentration. The distributions are frequently nonnormal for small numbers of samples. Monitoring programs must incorporate controls for the causes of the within-site and between-site variability into their sampling design. The determination of necessary sampling frequency, sample number, and sample volume must be made with consideration of the system variability, or the results will be unrepresentative and irreproducible.

  3. Lead concentrations and isotopic signatures in vintages of French wine between 1950 and 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Chisholm, W.; Jimi, S. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Candelone, J.P. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)]|[Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement; Boutron, C.F. [Domaine Univ., Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l`Environnement]|[Univ. Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (France); Teissedre, P.L. [Univ. Montpellier (France). Centre de Formation et de Recherche; Adams, F.C. [Univ. of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    Vintages of French wine from 1950 to 1991 were analyzed for lead isotopes and concentration to investigate whether they might be used to archive the isotopic composition of the anthropogenic lead in aerosols to which the vineyard was exposed. Early vintages (1950--1980) contained 78--227 ng/g of lead with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios between 1.152 and 1.173, while the later vintages displayed significantly lower concentrations and a smaller range of isotopic ratios. The concentration of trimethyl lead, which is associated with automobile emissions, was found to be poorly correlated with total lead in the wines, suggesting that automobile aerosols were not a significant source of the lead. This result was supported by lead isotope data which showed a poor correlation with the available petrol and aerosol data. To identify its origin lead isotopes were measured in vineyard aerosols, soil particles, bottle caps, corks, and brass components used to dispense the wine. Although a dominant source could not be identified there was some evidence to suggest that brass which had a high lead concentration was a significant contributor. Because the lead contribution from the processing of wine was probably relatively high in the past it is unlikely that old vintages of wine will be a suitable archive for lead isotopes in aerosols.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of Cu, Zn, and Cu-Zn alloys protected by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Saman; Forslund, Mattias; Johnson, C. Magnus; Pan, Jinshan; Leygraf, Christofer

    2016-06-01

    In this article results from earlier studies have been compiled in order to compare the protection efficiency of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkanethiols for copper, zinc, and copper-zinc alloys exposed to accelerated indoor atmospheric corrosion conditions. The results are based on a combination of surface spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The protection efficiency of investigated SAMs increases with chain length which is attributed to transport hindrance of the corrosion stimulators in the atmospheric environment, water, oxygen and formic acid, towards the copper surface. The transport hindrance is selective and results in different corrosion products on bare and on protected copper. Initially the molecular structure of SAMs on copper is well ordered, but the ordering is reduced with exposure time. Octadecanethiol (ODT), the longest alkanethiol investigated, protects copper significantly better than zinc, which may be attributed to the higher bond strength of Cu-S than of Zn-S. Despite these differences, the corrosion protection efficiency of ODT for the single phase Cu20Zn brass alloy is equally efficient as for copper, but significantly less for the heterogeneous double phase Cu40Zn brass alloy.

  5. Comparative assessment of microstructure and texture in the Fe-30.5Mn-8.0Al-1.2C and Fe-30.5Mn-2.1Al-1.2C steels under cold rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Mendes Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigation of microstructure and texture has been done for cold rolled Fe-30.5Mn-8.0Al-1.2C (8Al and Fe-30.5Mn-2.1Al-1.2C (2Al (wt.% steels. They were rolled to a strain of ~0.70. Refinement of a crystallographic slip band substructure in low to medium rolling strain and nucleation of twins on the mature slip bands at a higher strain were suggested as deformation mechanisms in the 8Al steel. Mainly shear banding contributed to the formation of a Copper texture in such steel. Brass-texture development in the 2Al steel is mainly due to deformation twinning and shear banding formation. Detailed images of KAM maps showed that the stored deformation energy was mainly localized in the twinned areas and shear bands, which generated the inhomogeneous deformation microstructures in both steels at a higher strain. Goss and Brass texture intensity decreases and Cu-texture intensity increases as the Al wt.% increases in different cold rolled High-Mn (Mn ~30 wt.% steels.

  6. Optimización de los parámetros tecnológicos para la obtención de piezas de latón por pulvimetalurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivij, N.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of brass 60 (40 % Zn and brass 80 (20 % Zn have been produced by spraying molten metal with water at high pressure in the powder metallurgy plant belonging to the Metallurgical Research Centre (CIME in Havana. A physical-chemical and technological characterization of the powders has been carried out and the optimum parameters have been determined for the formation and sintering of details from these powders. The mechanical properties of these details can rival bronze and iron in applications such as in household electrical goods and in construction.

    Se han producido polvos de latón 60 (40 % de Zn y latón 80 (20 % de Zn mediante la atomización del metal fundido con agua a alta presión, en la planta de pulvimetalurgia del Centro de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CIME de La Habana. Se ha realizado la caracterización fisicoquímica y tecnológica y se han determinado los parámetros óptimos para conformar y sinterizar piezas a partir de estos polvos. Las propiedades mecánicas de estas piezas pueden competir con las de bronce y hierro, en aplicaciones para equipos electrodomésticos y en construcción.

  7. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  8. Evaluation of Lead Release in a Simulated Lead-Free Premise Plumbing System Using a Sequential Sampling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Quan Ng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study, a modified sampling protocol was evaluated for the detection of lead contamination and locating the source of lead release in a simulated premise plumbing system with one-, three- and seven-day stagnation for a total period of 475 days. Copper pipes, stainless steel taps and brass fittings were used to assemble the “lead-free” system. Sequential sampling using 100 mL was used to detect lead contamination while that using 50 mL was used to locate the lead source. Elevated lead levels, far exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value of 10 µg·L−1, persisted for as long as five months in the system. “Lead-free” brass fittings were identified as the source of lead contamination. Physical disturbances, such as renovation works, could cause short-term spikes in lead release. Orthophosphate was able to suppress total lead levels below 10 µg·L−1, but caused “blue water” problems. When orthophosphate addition was ceased, total lead levels began to spike within one week, implying that a continuous supply of orthophosphate was required to control total lead levels. Occasional total lead spikes were observed in one-day stagnation samples throughout the course of the experiments.

  9. New Numerical Solution of von Karman Equation of Lengthwise Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Pernis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of average material contact pressure to rolls base on mathematical theory of rolling process given by Karman equation was solved by many authors. The solutions reported by authors are used simplifications for solution of Karman equation. The simplifications are based on two cases for approximation of the circular arch: (a by polygonal curve and (b by parabola. The contribution of the present paper for solution of two-dimensional differential equation of rolling is based on description of the circular arch by equation of a circle. The new term relative stress as nondimensional variable was defined. The result from derived mathematical models can be calculated following variables: normal contact stress distribution, front and back tensions, angle of neutral point, coefficient of the arm of rolling force, rolling force, and rolling torque during rolling process. Laboratory cold rolled experiment of CuZn30 brass material was performed. Work hardening during brass processing was calculated. Comparison of theoretical values of normal contact stress with values of normal contact stress obtained from cold rolling experiment was performed. The calculations were not concluded with roll flattening.

  10. Hot mold casting process of ancient East India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Mandal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ancient casting process for production of brass or bronze utensils and icons were made in hot molds using clay molded investment casting or piece mold process, as presumed by archaeologists. Piece mold process is still traditionally practiced in many parts of Eastern India and Bangladesh along with investment casting process. Incidentally, Bengal artisans are more accustomed to piece mold process unlike tribal artisans who practiced investment casting process. This piece mold casting process has been reconstructed to get the idea of metal characteristics in order to investigate ancient casting process of Bengal and Bangladesh. The characterization of ancient archaeo-metal products come to a type of cast Cu-Sn-Zn-Pb type quaternary alloy produced by a slow freezing process. Though these alloys physically differ from the traditional cast alloy of binary Cu-Zn type brass, the physical characteristics are similar to the binary cast alloy character. This investigation throws light on the similarity of the production processes by which ancient artisans probably produced cast metal products.

  11. Convenient telemetry system for precise and continuous measurement of groundwater level and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunakawa, Hideo; Asada, Toshi

    1988-03-25

    A telemeter system has been developed, a device easy to manufacture and install and which facilitates data collection and achieves a relative precision to at least 1 cm in underground water level and 5 m deg C in underground water temperature, thus contributing to earthquake prediction. Its underground water level sensor feeds as voltage the differential pressure of a membrane to which a semiconductor sensor chip is attached. The sensor uses a 12V DC power supply and achieves a sensitivity of 8 mV/cm to sense a 0-5 m water level change as a 1-5 V voltage fluctuation. This sensor is put into a 40 mm-diameter, 100 mm-long brass container and dipped in water at a depth of about 2.5 m. To detect underground water temperature sensor, a semiconductor sensor LM35 is placed in a 25 mm-diameter, 50 mm-long brass container and submerged at a desired depth. The system uses a 12-bit data logger. Telemetry takes place at 1,200 bps via modems and NTT's(Nippon Telegraph and Telecommunications) public telephone line. An example of measurement is shown and mentioned. (2 figs, 5 refs)

  12. Van kind tot jong volwassene: Die ontwikkeling van die hoofkarakter in De koperen tuin van Simon Vestdijk

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    B. van der Westhuizen

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available From child to young adult: The development of the main character in De koperen tuin (The garden where the brass band played by Simon Vestdijk From an intertextual study it emerges that the postulated view of reality in the psychological-philosophical text De toekomst der religie (The future of religion (1947 is transposed in narrative form in the text-internal vision of reality in the novel De koperen tuin (The garden where the brass band played (1950. In both these texts the religious point of departure of the meaning of existence is reflected upon. Existential aspects especially highlighted, include the following: the I, the relationship with others, being involved in the situation, freedom, responsibility, guilt, angst, death, that which is “too-late”. Furthermore the extension of the moment, the directedness at a personal passion, and the individual’s courage to be and to keep “becoming” are also highlighted. All these aspects emphasizing existentialism are portrayed in the development of the main character, Nol Rieske, from little boy to young adult.

  13. The effect of pouring time on the dimensional accuracy of casts made from different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supneet Singh Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the time dependent accuracy of casts made from three different irreversible hydrocolloids. Materials and Methods: The effect of delayed pouring on the accuracy of three different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials - Regular set CA 37(Cavex, The Netherlands, regular set chromatic (Jeltrate, Dentsply, and fast set (Hydrogum soft, Zhermack Clinical was investigated. A brass master die that contained two identical posts simulating two complete crown-tapered abutment preparations with reference grooves served as a standardized master model. A total of 120 impressions were made using specially prepared stock-perforated brass tray with 40 impressions of each material. The impressions were further sub-grouped according to four different storage time intervals: 0 min (immediately, 12 min, 30 min, and 1 h. The impressions were stored at room temperature in a zip-lock plastic bag. Interabutment and intraabutment distances were measured in the recovered stone dies (Type IV, Kalrock using a profile projector with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The data so obtained was analyzed statistically. Results: Results of this study showed no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of casts obtained at different time intervals. Conclusion: Because it is not always possible to pour the impression immediately in routine clinical practice, all irreversible hydrocolloid materials studied could be stored in a zip-lock plastic bag for upto 1 h without any significant distortion.

  14. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  15. Recent progress in single sided gamma-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    The use of scattered radiation for radiography has many potential advantages over conventional projection techniques: For high energy photons the scattering process strongly dominates all other processes. The intensity of scattered radiation is due directly to the electron density and highly insensitive to chemical composition. Finally, the use of scattered radiation allows the investigator to position the radiation source-on-the same side of the object as the detector. In this paper I will present some recent results of a set of measurements made with our uncollimated Compton backscattering tomography apparatus. This technique uses the Compton energy shift of scattered gamma rays to determine the scattering site. By measuring the spectrum of these scattered gamma rays it is then possible to determine the electron density of the object being investigated. I will give a brief description of the apparatus and present the results of numerous measurements made on a brass phantom with voids placed at various depths. These results imply that for this crude apparatus occlusions as small as one cubic millimeter may be located to an accuracy of about one millimeter at depths of about 15 millimeters in solid brass.

  16. Investigation of Wear and Friction Properties Under Sliding Conditions of Some Materials Suitable for Cages of Rolling-Contact Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Bisson, Edmond E

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of wear and friction properties of a number of materials sliding against SAE 52100 steel was conducted. These materials included brass, bronze, beryllium copper, monel, nichrome v, 24s-t aluminum, nodular iron, and gray cast iron. The metals investigated may be useful as possible cage (separator or retainer) materials for rolling-contact bearings of high-speed turbine engines. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding is a most important factor in both dry friction and boundary lubrication. On the basis of wear and resistance to welding only, the cast irons were the most promising materials investigated; they showed the least wear and the least tendency to surface failure when run dry, and when boundary lubricated they showed the highest load capacity. On the basis of mechanical properties, nodular iron is superior to gray cast iron. Bronze had the lowest friction coefficient under dry sliding conditions. The results with brass, beryllium copper, and aluminum were poor and these materials do not appear, with regard to friction and wear, to be suitable for cages.

  17. Microstructure of planar glass substrates modified by Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) of metal targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey-García, F. [UA Microóptica and Óptica GRIN, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), María de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Flores-Arias, M.T.; Gómez-Reino, C. [UA Microóptica and Óptica GRIN, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lahoz, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), María de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fuente, G.F. de la, E-mail: xerman@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), María de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Assenmacher, W.; Mader, W. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Bonn, Romerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Geometrically controlled, channel-like structures were prepared on commercial, soda-lime glass substrates, by a Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) process using a commercial Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser fitted with a beam steering galvanometer mirror unit. 70Cu30Zn Brass alloy, Ag and Al metal targets were evaporated onto glass substrates by simple irradiation through the same glass substrates. The resultant structures were characterized by SEM, TEM, and UV-vis-nIR spectroscopy. These revealed the presence of metal nanostructures in the case of brass and Ag targets, with their typical local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands. In contrast, Al was not found in its elemental form, but rather integrated into the glass substrate. These results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) studies, performed with TEM and SEM observation on representative, polished cross section samples. Preliminary light guiding studies demonstrated the potential to develop burried waveguides just below the surface of the glass substrates in all cases, suggesting that LAB may be a convenient method to prepare stable waveguides by modifying inexpensive, commercial window glass.

  18. MR-guided focused ultrasound robot for performing experiments on large animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, N.; Damianou, C.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction: In this paper an experimental MRI-guided focused ultrasound robot for large animals is presented. Materials and methods: A single element spherically focused transducer of 4 cm diameter, focusing at 10 cm and operating at 1 MHz was used. A positioning device was developed in order to scan the ultrasound transducer for performing MR-guided focused ultrasound experiments in large animals such as pig, sheep and dog. The positioning device incorporates only MRI compatible materials such as piezoelectric motors, Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic, brass screws, and brass pulleys. The system is manufactured automatically using a rapid prototyping system. Results: The system was tested successfully in a number of animals for various tasks (creation of single lesions, creation of overlapping lesions, and MR compatibility). Conclusions: A simple, cost effective, portable positioning device has been developed which can be used in virtually any clinical MRI scanner since it can be sited on the scanner's table. The propagation of HIFU can be via a lateral or superior-inferior approach. This system has the potential to be marketed as a cost effective solution for performing experiments in small and large animals.

  19. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie - I.P.N.A.S., Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 10 Bat-15, Sart Tilman, 4000-Liege 1 (Belgium)], E-mail: hcalvo@ulg.ac.be; Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Salinas Nolasco, M.F. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Mejia, L.M. [Direccion de Arqueologia Subacuatica, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Perdigon, K. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for ename0008.

  20. Analytical capability of the plasma induced by IR TEA CO2 laser pulses on copper based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of nanosecond infrared (IR transversely excited atmospheric (TEA CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm and 100 ns pulse length (initial spike, induced plasma under reduced air pressure for spectrochemical analysis of bronze and brass samples was investigated. The plasma consisted of two clearly distinguished and spatially separated regions and expanded to a distance of about 10 mm from the surface. Elemental composition of the samples was determined using a time-integrated space-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (TISR-LIPS technique. Sharp and well resolved spectral lines mostly atomic, and negligibly low background emission, were obtained from a plasma region 7 mm from the target surface. Good signal to background and signal to noise ratios were obtained. Estimated detection limits for trace elements Mg, Fe, Al and Ca were in the order of 10 ppm in bronze and around 50 ppm in brass. Damage on the investigated samples induced by TEA CO2 laser radiation was negligible. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  1. One-step fabrication of copper sulfide nanoparticles decorated on graphene sheets as highly stable and efficient counter electrode for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessein, Amr; Wang, Feiju; Masai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Kazunari; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are thin-film photovoltaics and highly promising as next-generation solar cells owing to their high theoretical efficiency, easy fabrication process, and low production cost. However, the practical photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSSCs are still far below the theoretically estimated value owing to the lack of an applicable design of the materials and electrodes. In this work, we developed a highly stable and efficient counter electrode (CE) from copper sulfide nanocrystals and reduced graphene oxide (Cu x S@RGO) for QDSSC applications. The Cu x S@RGO electrocatalyst was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, then directly applied to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by the simple drop-casting technique. Owing to the synergistic effect between Cu x S nanocrystals and conductive RGO sheets, the Cu x S@RGO CE showed high electrocatalytic activity for polysulfide electrolyte reduction. A CdS QDSSC based on the Cu x S@RGO CE yielded a high and reproducible PCE of 2.36%, exceeding those of 1.57 and 1.33% obtained with the commonly used Cu2S/brass and Pt CEs, respectively. Moreover, the QDSSC with the Cu x S@RGO CE showed excellent photostability in a light-soaking test without any obvious decay in the photocurrent, whereas the cell based on the Cu2S/brass CE was severely degraded.

  2. A comparative evaluation of linear dimensional accuracy of the dies obtained using three conceptually different die systems in the fabrication of implant prosthesis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the linear dimensional accuracy between the implant master die and three conceptually different die systems such as Pindex system, Accu-trac precision die system, and Conventional brass dowel pin system. Materials and Methods: Thirty impressions of implant master die were made with polyether impression material. Ten experimental implant casts were fabricated for each of the three different die systems tested: Accu-trac precision die tray system, Pindex system, and conventional brass dowel pin system. The solid experimental casts were sectioned and then removed from the die system 30 times. Linear distances between all six possible distances were measured from one centre of the transfer coping to the other, using a co-ordinate measuring machine in millimeters up to accuracy of 0.5 microns. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed by Binomial non parametric test using SPSS version 15. Results: Significant differences were found for distance A-B (P = 0.002, A-C ( P = 0.002, A-D (P value = 0.002, and B-D ( P = 0.021 in Conventional Dowel pin system however for Accu-trac precision die tray system, it was significant only for distance A-D (P = 0.002 but for Pindex system it was non-significant for all the distances measured. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of Pindex system is recommended when sectioned dies are needed for a multi implant retained prosthesis.

  3. Dynamics of femto- and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoff, B.; Harilal, S. S.; Freeman, J. R.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment and School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of temperature and electron density associated with femto- and nanosecond laser-produced plasmas (LPP) from brass under similar laser fluence conditions. For producing plasmas, brass targets were ablated in vacuum employing pulses either from a Ti:Sapphire ultrafast laser (40 fs, 800 nm) or from a Nd:YAG laser (6 ns, 1064 nm). Optical emission spectroscopy is used to infer the density and temperature of the plasmas. The electron density (n{sub e}) was estimated using Stark broadened profiles of isolated lines while the excitation temperature (T{sub exc}) was estimated using the Boltzmann plot method. At similar fluence levels, continuum and ion emission are dominant in ns LPP at early times (<50 ns) followed by atomic emission, while the fs LPP provided an atomic plume throughout its visible emission lifetime. Though both ns and fs laser-plasmas showed similar temperatures ({approx}1 eV), the fs LPP is found to be significantly denser at shorter distances from the target surface as well as at early phases of its evolution compared to ns LPP. Moreover, the spatial extension of the plume emission in the visible region along the target normal is larger for fs LPP in comparison with ns LPP.

  4. Dynamics of femto- and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoff, B.; Harilal, S. S.; Freeman, J. R.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of temperature and electron density associated with femto- and nanosecond laser-produced plasmas (LPP) from brass under similar laser fluence conditions. For producing plasmas, brass targets were ablated in vacuum employing pulses either from a Ti:Sapphire ultrafast laser (40 fs, 800 nm) or from a Nd:YAG laser (6 ns, 1064 nm). Optical emission spectroscopy is used to infer the density and temperature of the plasmas. The electron density (ne) was estimated using Stark broadened profiles of isolated lines while the excitation temperature (Texc) was estimated using the Boltzmann plot method. At similar fluence levels, continuum and ion emission are dominant in ns LPP at early times (<50 ns) followed by atomic emission, while the fs LPP provided an atomic plume throughout its visible emission lifetime. Though both ns and fs laser-plasmas showed similar temperatures (˜1 eV), the fs LPP is found to be significantly denser at shorter distances from the target surface as well as at early phases of its evolution compared to ns LPP. Moreover, the spatial extension of the plume emission in the visible region along the target normal is larger for fs LPP in comparison with ns LPP.

  5. A Statistical Review of Alternative Zinc and Copper Extraction from Mineral Fertilizers and Industrial By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenciani de Souza, Camila Prado; Aparecida de Abreu, Cleide; Coscione, Aline Renée; Alberto de Andrade, Cristiano; Teixeira, Luiz Antonio Junqueira; Consolini, Flavia

    2018-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and low-cost alternative analytical methods for micronutrient quantification in fertilizers are fundamental in QC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products determined by the alternative methods USEPA 3051a, 10% HCl, and 10% H2SO4 are statistically equivalent to the standard method, consisting of hot-plate digestion using concentrated HCl. The commercially marketed Zn and Cu sources in Brazil consisted of oxides, carbonate, and sulfate fertilizers and by-products consisting of galvanizing ash, galvanizing sludge, brass ash, and brass or scrap slag. The contents of sources ranged from 15 to 82% and 10 to 45%, respectively, for Zn and Cu. The Zn and Cu contents refer to the variation of the elements found in the different sources evaluated with the concentrated HCl method as shown in Table 1. A protocol based on the following criteria was used for the statistical analysis assessment of the methods: F-test modified by Graybill, t-test for the mean error, and linear correlation coefficient analysis. In terms of equivalents, 10% HCl extraction was equivalent to the standard method for Zn, and the results of the USEPA 3051a and 10% HCl methods indicated that these methods were equivalents for Cu. Therefore, these methods can be considered viable alternatives to the standard method of determination for Cu and Zn in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products in future research for their complete validation.

  6. PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER IN INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative copper (Cu sources could be used in fertilizer production, although the bioavailability of copper in these materials is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extractants neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, 2 % citric acid, 1 % acetic acid, 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, buffer solution pH 6.0, DTPA, EDTA, water, and hot water in the quantification of available Cu content in several sources, relating them to the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE of wheat grown in a clayey Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (Oxisol and Neossolo Quartzarênico (Typic Quartzipsamment. Copper was applied at the rate of 1.5 mg kg-1 as scrap slag, brass slag, Cu ore, granulated copper, and copper sulfate. The extractants 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, and NAC extracted higher Cu concentrations. The RAE values of brass slag and Cu ore were similar to or higher than those of Cu sulfate and granulated Cu. Solubility in the 2nd NAC extractant, officially required for mineral fertilizers with Cu, was lower than 60 % for the scrap slag, Cu ore, and granulated copper sources. This fact indicates that adoption of the NAC extractant may be ineffective for industrial by-products, although no extractant was more efficient in predicting Cu availability for wheat fertilized with the Cu sources tested.

  7. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  8. Migration protocol to estimate metal exposure from mouthing copper and tin alloy objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrestarazu, Paola; Villavicencio, Germán; Opazo, Margaret; Arbildua, José; Boreiko, Craig; Delbeke, Katrien; Rodriguez, Patricio H

    2014-08-11

    Low blood lead levels previously thought to pose no health risks may have an adverse impact on the cognitive development of children. This concern has given rise to new regulatory restrictions upon lead metal containing products intended for child use. However few reliable experimental testing methods to estimate exposure levels from these materials are available. The present work describes a migration test using a mimetic saliva fluid to estimate the chronic exposure of children to metals such as lead while mouthing metallic objects. The surrogate saliva medium was composed of: 150 mM NaCl, 0.16% porcine Mucin and 5 mM buffer MOPS, adjusted to pH 7.2. Alloys samples, in the form of polished metallic disc of known surface area, were subjected to an eight hours test. Two whitemetal alloys Sn/Pb/Sb/Cu and three brass alloys Cu/Zn/Pb were tested using the saliva migration protocol. In the case of the whitemetal alloys, first order release kinetics resulting in the release of 0.03 and 0.51 μg lead/cm2 after 8 hours of tests were observed, for lead contents of 0.05-0.07% and 5.5%, respectively. Brasses exhibited linear incremental release rates of 0.043, 0.175 and 0.243 μg lead/cm2h for lead contents of 0.1-0.2%, 1.7-2.2% and 3.1-3.5%, respectively. The linear regression analysis of lead release rates relative to Pb content in brasses yielded a slope of 0.08 μg lead/cm2h%Pb (r2 = 0.92). Lead release rates were used to estimate the mean daily mouthing exposure of a child to lead, according to age-specific estimates of mouthing time behavior. Calculated daily intakes were used as oral inputs for the IEUBK toxicokinetic model, predicting only marginal changes in blood lead levels (0.2 μg lead/dL or less) for children aged 0.5 to 1 years old exposed to either class of alloy. The results of this study as a whole support the use of migration data of metal ions, rather than total metal content, to estimate health risk from exposure to metals and metal alloys substances

  9. Texture Analysis using The Neutron Diffraction Method on The Non Standardized Austenitic Steel Process by Machining,Annealing, and Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hardi Priyanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic steel is one type of stainless steel which is widely used in the industry. Many studies on  austenitic stainless steel have been performed to determine the physicalproperties using various types of equipment and methods. In this study, the neutron diffraction method is used to characterize the materials which have been made from  minerals extracted from the mines in Indonesia. The materials consist of a granular ferro-scrap, nickel, ferro-chrome, ferro-manganese, and ferro-silicon added with a little titanium. Characterization of the materials was carried out in threeprocesses, namely: machining, annealing, and rolling. Experimental results obtained from the machining process generally produces a texture in the 〈100〉direction. From the machining to annealing process, the texture index decreases from 3.0164 to 2.434.Texture strength in the machining process (BA2N sample is  8.13 mrd and it then decreases to 6.99 in the annealing process (A2DO sample. In the annealing process the three-component texture appears, cube-on-edge type texture{110}〈001〉, cube-type texture {001}〈100〉, and brass-type {110}〈112〉. The texture is very strong leading to the direction of orientation {100}〈001〉, while the {011}〈100〉is weaker than that of the {001}, and texture withorientation {110}〈112〉is weak. In the annealing process stress release occurred, and this was shown by more randomly pole compared to stress release by the machining process. In the rolling process a brass-type texture{110}〈112〉with a spread towards the goss-type texture {110}〈001〉 appeared,  and  the  brass  component  is markedly  reinforced  compared  to  the undeformed state (before rolling. Moreover, the presence of an additional {110} component was observed at the center of the (110 pole figure. The pole density of three components increases withthe increasing degree of thickness reduction. By increasing degrees

  10. Commissioning of modulator-based IMRT with XiO treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the procedures for correction of the modulator thickness and commissioning of the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) for modulator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (M-IMRT). This modulator manufacturing system adopts a method in which the modulator is milled using a floor-type computer-aided numerical control milling machine (CNC-mill) with modulator data calculated by XiO TPS. XiO TPS uses only effective attenuation coefficients (EAC) for modulator thickness calculation. This article describes a modified method for assessing modulator thickness. A two-dimensional linear attenuation array was used to correct the modulator thickness calculated by XiO. Narrow-beam geometry was used for measuring the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) at off-axis positions (OAP) for varying brass thicknesses. An equation for the two-dimensional LAC ratio (2D-LACR) can be used to calculate the corrected modulator thickness. It is assumed that the broad beam EAC of a small field varies with the brass thickness and the OAP distance in the same way as that of LACR, so the two-dimensional EAC (2D-EAC) is equal to the EAC corrected using the LACR. The dose distribution was evaluated for three geometric patterns and one clinical case on low energy x ray (4 MV) with a large field size (20 x 20 cm2). The results using the proposed correction method of modulator thickness showed a good agreement between the measured dose distributions and the dose distributions calculated by TPS with the correction. Hence, the method is effective to improve the accuracy of M-IMRT in XiO TPS. An important problem for the brass modulator is the milling condition, such as the drill diameter and the cutting pitch size. It is necessary to improve the accuracy of M-IMRT for the "softening" and "hardening" effects of the beam to be considered in dose calculation in patients and the modulator profile design.

  11. Extension of the preceding birth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1994-01-01

    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  12. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem A. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Even though [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with

  13. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  14. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Layer wise evolution of the Cu-Zn alloy microstructure after sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yuriy N.; Vasylyev, Mihail A.; Trofimova, Lidiya N.; Makeeva, Irina N.; Filatova, Vera S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports our recent studies on structural changes of a brass alloy (Cu-37Zn) after sandblasting. Investigation of the alloy foils using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obtained at different distance from the treated surface. The existence of three structural surface layers after sandblasting was shown. The upper surface layer about 5 μm, corresponds to nano-crystalline state, the second one, consisting of nano-crystalline, ultra-microcrystalline and microcrystalline grains with FCC and orthorhombic structure mixture, occurs deeper than 5 μm and reaches the depth of 30 μm. The third layer can be attributed to the FCC disoriented cellular structure with multi-layer stacking-faults. The parameters characterizing changes of the nano-crystalline grains and polygonal structures are given. The role of the structural changes from one layer to another is discussed.

  16. Study on Microtexture and Martensite Formation of Friction Stir Lap-welded DP 590 Steel within A1 to A3 Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Hrishikesh; Lee, Kwang-Jin; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2017-07-01

    Friction stir lap welding of dual phase 590 steel has been successfully performed within the A1 to A3 temperature range upon adjusting the process parameters. The microstructures and the texture have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction analysis. The martensite volume fraction increases with an increasing travel speed from 100 to 300 mm/min for a constant tool rotational speed of 300 rpm. Under severe deformation and high strain rate during friction stir welding, the grain orientation shifts toward the and directions compared to the base metal. The base metal shows γ fiber components, whereas the friction stir welded specimen shows strong brass with weak cube fibers.

  17. Quantitative analysis of scaling error compensation methods in dimensional X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, P.; Hiller, Jochen; Dai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    and repeatability of dimensional and geometrical measurements. The aim of this paper is to discuss different methods for the correction of scaling errors and to quantify their influence on dimensional measurements. Scaling errors occur first and foremost in CT systems with no built-in compensation of positioning...... errors of the manipulator system (magnification axis). This article also introduces a new compensation method for scaling errors using a database of reference scaling factors and discusses its advantages and disadvantages. In total, three methods for the correction of scaling errors – using the CT ball...... geometry and is made of brass, which makes its measurements with CT challenging. It is shown that each scaling error correction method results in different deviations between CT measurements and reference measurements from a CMM. Measurement uncertainties were estimated for each method, taking...

  18. Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dřínovský, J.; Kejík, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by © Agilent Technology.

  19. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper...

  20. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present paper...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for fast determination of appropriate coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper. The method has...

  1. Modelling and Simulation of Crude Oil Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai JIMOH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to develop a model equation for the dispersion of crude oil in water. Seven different crude oils (Bonny Light, Antan Terminal, Bonny Medium, Qua Iboe Light, Brass Light Mbede, Forcados Blend and Heavy H were used as the subject crude oils. The developed model equation in this project which is given as...It was developed starting from the equation for the oil dispersion rate in water which is given as...The developed equation was then simulated with the aid of MathCAD 2000 Professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the model equation were plotted on the same axis against time of dispersion. The model results revealed close fittings between the experimental and the model results because the correlation coefficients and the r-square values calculated using Spreadsheet Program were both found to be unity (1.00.

  2. The ability of spiderlings of the widow spider Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) to pass through different size mesh screen: implications for exclusion from air intake ducts and greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Flanders, Christopher P; Rust, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Experiments tested the ability of newly emerged spiderlings of a black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae), to crawl through brass screen of various mesh size. The purpose was to determine whether immatures of these medically important spiders could be excluded from buildings. In horizontal orientation, black widow spiderlings were able to easily pass through mesh with openings of 0.83 mm and were prevented from passing in four of five tests with mesh of 0.59-mm openings. Spiderlings also readily pass through 0.83-mm mesh in vertical orientation. Our laboratory studies indicate that the mesh size sufficient for exclusion is too small for practical use in most cases, although there are some specialized situations where such small mesh might be useful. The results are discussed in regard to actual conditions found in typical commercial building situations.

  3. The Effect of Chilling and Ce Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-23Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeesh, V.; Narayan Prabhu, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present work involves the study of the effect of varying concentration of Ce addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-23%Si alloys. Melt-treated alloys were solidified in copper, brass, stainless steel molds to assess the effect of cooling rate. The effect on microstructure was assessed by measuring the fineness of primary silicon and eutectic silicon particle characteristics. The Ce melt treatment transformed the coarse and irregular primary silicon into refined polyhedral silicon crystals, and the effect was more significant at higher cooling rates. Although the melt treatment had refined the eutectic silicon at lower cooling rates, it did not show any considerable effect on the eutectic silicon at higher cooling rates. The mechanical properties of the alloy increased significantly with increase in cooling rates and cerium concentration. Analysis of the results and literature reveals that the refined primary silicon was formed as a result of an invariant reaction between Ce compounds and primary silicon at higher temperatures.

  4. Analysis of WEDM Process Parameters on Surface Roughness and Kerf using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfana Banu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In obtaining the best quality of engineering parts, the quality of machined surface plays an essential role. The fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece are some of the aspects of the qualities that can be improved. This paper investigates the effect of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM process parameters on surface roughness and kerf on stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The selected process parameters are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical models using Taguchi method were developed for the estimation of surface roughness and kerf. The analysis revealed that off time has major influence on surface roughness and kerf. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness and kerf were found to be 10 V open voltage, 2.84 µs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  5. Festival Branding – Case Study: The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stamenković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (The Republic of Serbia is a unique competition of folk brass bands in the world and one of the most important events of the overall national creativity and cultural amateurism in Serbia. Therefore, Guča represents an event which is used for branding of tourist offer and musical culture of Serbia at regional and international level. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 50th anniversary of The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (DTF in August 2010. The results were based on 300 questionnaires. The questionnaire contained, in one of its parts, questions regarding festival branding and influences, i.e. effects which brands (various advertisements of great sponsors and festival donators may produce and thus leave an impression on perception of each visitor as well as on a destination itself.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence study of the astrolabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notis, Michael [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Newbury, Brian [ExxonMobil Development Company, Houston, TX (United States); Stephenson, Bruce [Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL (United States); Stephenson, G.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The astrolabe is an ancient analogue astronomical computing device used for calculations relating to position and time of the observer's location. In its most common form (the planispheric astrolabe), it consists of an engraved plate or series of plates held together and pinned in a housing, the assembly usually being made of brass. The present study describes the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in a synchrotron to elucidate the composition of, and fabrication techniques used for, the major component parts of the astrolabe. The synchrotron XRF studies are compared to similar studies made with a handheld XRF instrument and the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence study of the astrolabe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notis, Michael; Newbury, Brian; Stephenson, Bruce; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2013-04-01

    The astrolabe is an ancient analogue astronomical computing device used for calculations relating to position and time of the observer's location. In its most common form (the planispheric astrolabe), it consists of an engraved plate or series of plates held together and pinned in a housing, the assembly usually being made of brass. The present study describes the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in a synchrotron to elucidate the composition of, and fabrication techniques used for, the major component parts of the astrolabe. The synchrotron XRF studies are compared to similar studies made with a handheld XRF instrument and the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed.

  8. Technology and Properties of Layered Composites as Coatings for Heat Transfer Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatys, R.; Orman, Ł. J.

    2017-07-01

    The mechanical properties of porous structures consisting of copper wires reinforced with carbon and glass fibers for assessment of the adhesion strength of the porous structure produced and cohesion between components of the structures investigated, which are used for heat exchangers, are considered. The internal structure of bonds between their elements was analyzed by metallographic techniques. The statistical relationships for bonds between layers are given. The auxiliary characteristics of technology connected with the "hydrogen disease" of copper are discussed. Specimens were tested for characteristics of their tensile strength. The thermal performance of sintered heat exchangers was also investigated on brass-copper, bronze-copper, and copper-copper samples. The nucleate boiling mode of heat transfer was selected for experiments with distilled water and ethyl alcohol as working fluids.

  9. Nacjonalizm zwyczajnych ludzi. Etnicy­zowanie tradycji muzycznej na przykładzie festiwalu w Gučy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kuligowski

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I discuss a few contradictions in the relationship between tradition, nationalism and music. An excellent example illustrating specific nature of these contradictions is Dragačevski sabor trubača (Guča Trumpet Festival in Guča, Serbia and particular music genre – brass music. In my opinion there are three distinctive discourses/narrations about history and meaning this festival and specific kind of music: dominating Serbian discourse, ‘weak’ Gypsy discourse, and researcher’s discourse. This study is effect an ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2010 by an author and large group of students from Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland.

  10. Esquisse d’une philosophie des normes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ruby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La demande vient de l’éditeur et il a eu raison de solliciter la remise en public des cinq articles rédigés, par Pierre Macherey, ce vieux dinosaure de la philosophie (cf. Macherey, 1998, sur Georges Canguilhem et Michel Foucault. Car la question brassée autant par ces auteurs que par les textes de Macherey ici présentés demeure actuelle 1  : qu’est-ce que vivre et vivre en société, sous des normes ? Pourquoi l’existence humaine est-elle confrontée à des normes ? D’où ...

  11. Nocturnal radiation from a solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Chiang, C. W.

    1980-11-01

    As the sky temperature during the night is relatively low compared to the ambient temperature, the temperature of the absorber plate in a solar collector can be lower than the ambient temperature due to nocturnal radiation. Measurements have been made for Lennox Solar Collectors installed in a solar heating and cooling project, a same collector in Rapid City and a simple home-made collector in the laboratory. The home-made collector consists of a brass-copper plate sprayed with flat-black paint, covered with glass sheets and boxed with two inch thick styrofoam insulation. A cooling as much as 10 C in winter has been observed. It is expected to be appreciably more in summer. This suggests a potential utilization of nocturnal radiation for air conditioning. Theoretical analysis is presented.

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of a torus as a primary feed in reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnizer, B.; Pascher, W.

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of toroidal primary-feed antennas for radio telescope applications are reported, summarizing and extending the findings of Schnizer et al. (1986). Integral equations for the antenna current in the case of a torus in free space and a torus above an infinite ideally conducting plate are derived on the basis of the delta-generator model of Chang (1971) and solved as described by Pascher et al. (1985). Numerical results for a solid brass torus of outer diameter 97.6 mm and for silver-coated styrofoam tori of outer diameter 98.5 and 66.5 mm are compared with experimental measurements in graphs. Significant discrepancies are found and attributed to the failure of the model to account for the currents on the feeds and the finite radius of the plate below the torus.

  13. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of a HMX-based pressed explosive: Effects of combined high pressure and strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumel, H.; Lambert, P.; Biessy, M.

    2012-08-01

    The paper presents a study of the combined effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the behaviour and microstructure evolutions of a HMX-based explosive. Hopkinson bar compression experiments are carried-out on samples confined with a brass sleeve. The latter is instrumented in order to determine the confining pressure on the explosive sample, directly function of the sleeve thickness and yield strength. A sample confined at 75 MPa and deformed at 250s-1 is recovered, cross-sectioned and studied using optical microscopy. Distributed microplasticity and microcracking appear similar to those induced by confined quasi-static experiments, indicating that stress triaxiality is the most important loading parameter. The sample also displays a large shear macrocrack, resulting from the formation of an adiabatic shear band. Shear banding seems to proceed by strong plastic strain gradients, followed by dynamic re-crystallization. Further strong thermal effects are observed, resulting in local reactive melting.

  14. A versatile atomic force microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, J.; Strunz, T.; Fantner, E. J.; Fantner, G. E.; Cordill, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    A versatile atomic force microscope (AFM), which can be installed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is introduced. The flexible design of the instrument enables correlated analysis for different experimental configurations, such as AFM imaging directly after nanoindentation in vacuum. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the specially designed AFM installed inside a SEM, slip steps emanating around nanoindents in single crystalline brass were examined. This example showcases how the combination of AFM and SEM imaging can be utilized for quantitative dislocation analysis through the measurement of the slip step heights without the hindrance of oxide formation. Finally, an in situ nanoindentation technique is introduced, illustrating the use of AFM imaging during indentation experiments to examine plastic deformation occurring under the indenter tip. The mechanical indentation data are correlated to the SEM and AFM images to estimate the number of dislocations emitted to the surface.

  15. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretti, Enrico; Giaccherini, Andrea; Martinuzzi, Stefano M.; Innocenti, Massimo; Schubert, Thomas J.S.; Stiemke, Frank M.; Caporali, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((Bmim)Cl)/AlCl3 (40/60 mol %) as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm) aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication). These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties. PMID:28773839

  16. Radiopaque deposits surrounding a contact small-caliber gunshot wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, P E; Jerome, W G; Jaworski, J A

    1994-03-01

    Primer residue typically contains some combination of lead, antimony, or barium, whereas bullet residue from nonjacketed bullets is 70-100% lead. The amount of lead particles produced by low-velocity bullets (projectile residue) may be exceedingly high. Copper- or brass-coated bullets generate an admixture of lead and copper particles whereas jacketed and semijacketed bullets produce the least amount of lead particles and only a small amount of copper-containing residue. We recently studied a suicidal contact small-caliber gunshot wound with an unusual amount of bullet residue deposited on the epidermal margins and within the wound track. The entrance wound was encircled by radiopaque particulate material visible on the postmortem radiograph. Soft radiography delineated the material to the wound track and adjacent epidermis. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays identified the principle element as lead.

  17. Parameters Selection for Electropolishing Process of Products Made of Copper and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciąg T.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electropolishing is electrochemical method used in metal working that has a vital role in production of medical apparatus, in food or electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to determine optimal current parameters and time required for conducting electropolishing process from the perspective of changes of surface microgeometry. Furthermore, effect of different types of mechanical working used before electropolishing on final surface state was evaluated by observation in changes of topography. Research was conducted on electrolytic copper and brass. Analysis of surface geometry and its parameters (Ra, Sa was used as criterion describing efficiency of chemical electropolishing. Results of the experiment allow for current parameter optimization of electrochemical polishing process for selected non-ferrous alloys with preliminary mechanical preparation of the surface.

  18. Butterfly-valve inductive orientation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Steven

    1980-04-01

    Relative changes of inductance ΔL/L of a single layer coil surrounding a thin electrically conducting disk which can rotate about an axis perpendicular to the coil axis are studied experimentally as a means of measuring angular displacements. ΔL/L is found to be a strong function of disk diameter and is weakly dependent on the ratio of disk thickness to electromagnetic skin depth when this ratio is of the order unity. Values of ΔL/L as a function of disk diameter are given for lead, brass and copper. Detection sensitivities using a resonant tank circuit or an astatic transformer are given in terms of ΔL/L and it is shown that sensitivities of the order of 10-3 to 10-4 deg are practical. Application of this system to the Rayleigh disk and cryogenic environments are emphasized and an expression for the magnetic torque due to detection currents is given.

  19. Resurrection, Re-Imagination, Reconstruction: New Viewpoints on the Hereford Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Lepine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hereford Screen is one of the most complex and intricate choir screens of the Victorian era. Positioned in the gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum’s main entrance, its glistening metalwork, brass, and terracotta effect surfaces, incrustations of wrought floral forms, Gothic Revival lettering, and semi-precious stones combine with delicate slivers of glinting glass that wink at each of the museum’s visitors, whether they journey up the stairs to gaze at this monument up close or regard it from afar on their way to the galleries beyond. The Hereford Screen is one of a family of screens produced by the architect George Gilbert Scott and the metalwork firm of Francis Skidmore for British cathedrals in the mid- to late nineteenth century. The Hereford Screen was perceived by many to be the pinnacle of Victorian Gothic Revival metalwork. Before its installation in Hereford Cathedral it was shown at the 1862 International Exhibition in London.

  20. Layer wise evolution of the Cu–Zn alloy microstructure after sandblasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Yuriy N.; Vasylyev, Mihail A.; Trofimova, Lidiya N.; Makeeva, Irina N.; Filatova, Vera S., E-mail: tchudo55@hotmail.com

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports our recent studies on structural changes of a brass alloy (Cu–37Zn) after sandblasting. Investigation of the alloy foils using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obtained at different distance from the treated surface. The existence of three structural surface layers after sandblasting was shown. The upper surface layer about 5 μm, corresponds to nano-crystalline state, the second one, consisting of nano-crystalline, ultra-microcrystalline and microcrystalline grains with FCC and orthorhombic structure mixture, occurs deeper than 5 μm and reaches the depth of 30 μm. The third layer can be attributed to the FCC disoriented cellular structure with multi-layer stacking-faults. The parameters characterizing changes of the nano-crystalline grains and polygonal structures are given. The role of the structural changes from one layer to another is discussed.

  1. Application of risk analysis and quality control methods for improvement of lead molding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gołaś

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the significance of implication of risk analysis and quality control methods for the improvement of parameters of lead molding process. For this reason, Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA was developed in the conceptual stage of a new product TC-G100-NR. However, the final product was faulty (a complete lack of adhesion of brass insert to leak regardless of the previously defined potential problem and its preventive action. It contributed to the recognition of root causes, corrective actions and change of production parameters. It showed how these methods, level of their organization, systematic and rigorous study affect molding process parameters.

  2. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  3. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  4. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  5. [Study of Paints and Drawing Techniques of Fine Brushwork Yunlong Ripples Painting in Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Sheng-cai; Shi, Ji-long; Wang, Ji-gang; He, Qiu-ju; Qi, Xiao-kun; Zhou, Zhong; Zhou, Wen-hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the paints and techniques of decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves, the materials based on a Qing Dynasty meticulous painting were measured by three-dimensional video microscopy, Raman microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the green clothes was firstly colored by Paris green, the decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves were then painted by hematite, the edge was delineated by brass powder at last. The dark yellow area within the decorative patterns was presented due to the interaction of green and red paints. In addition, ultramarine blue was checked in the painting. According to the first synthesized time of ultramarine blue and Paris green, we can make sure the time limit of the painting finished.

  6. Exceptional Portable Sundials at Harvard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments at Harvard University has the largest assemblage of sundials in North America. The dials date from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and most are designed to be carried in one’s pocket or put on a window sill. They take advantage of the sun’s changing altitude, azimuth, hour angle, or a combination of the foregoing in order to find the time. Many are also usable at a wide range of latitudes, and therefore are suitable tools for travelers. Fashioned of wood, paper, ivory, brass, and silver, the sundials combine mathematical projections of the sun’s apparent motion with artistry, fashion, and exquisite craftsmanship. This paper will explore the wide variety of sundials and what they tell us about the people who made and used them.

  7. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Its President is Hubert Curien - former French Minister of Research and Space Research, and President of the CERN Council from 1994 to 1996. Photo 01: (left to right) Konrade Von Bremen, Claude-Olivier Rochat, T. Virdee and Guillaume Pictet in front of one of the two end-caps of the CMS detector at the assembly site. The brass structure in the top right-hand corner is part of the hadronic calorimeter that will measure the energy of strongly interacting particles produced in collisions at the LHC.

  8. Design and characterization of a radio-frequency-powered glow discharge source for double-focusing mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, D.C.; Donohue, D.L.; Smith, D.H.; Lewis, T.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Marcus, R. K. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States))

    1993-09-15

    A radio-frequency- (rf-) powered glow discharge has been interfaced to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. This type of discharge allows direct analysis of nonconducting, as well as conducting, solids. The rf discharge source and electrical system overcome several problems which have inhibited success in prior efforts. Problems of inadequate rf shielding, maintaining the necessary dc bias potential on the sample surface, preventing rf modulation of ion energies, and coupling of the accelerating potential to the discharge are resolved. Representative spectra of glass, soil, and brass matrices are presented. Preliminary relative sensitivity factors for conducting and non-conducting matrices show relatively small differences in ion yields across the periodic table. 31 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((BmimCl/AlCl3 (40/60 mol % as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication. These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties.

  10. A methodology for segregating rural-urban mortality estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagtolun-an, I G

    1986-01-01

    " This study deals mainly in estimating rural/urban mortality differentials in countries where death registration by place of residence is nonexistent or inadequate. The methodology was applied to Philippine death registration data of 1975 and the result was compared to those estimates obtained by applying Brass, Sullivan and Trussell techniques on the 1978 World Fertility Survey data of children ever born and children still living. Basically, the methodology allocates death registration data to rural and urban areas by applying to each geographic unit several indices of urbanization. This is possible when death registration in developing nations is tabulated by geographic units, such as province, region, state, island, etc. The underlying assumption is that some geographic units are more urbanized than others. The process involves identification of these units and combining them into urban areas. This likewise implies that the remaining areas can be combined as rural." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  11. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of a HMX-based pressed explosive: Effects of combined high pressure and strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biessy M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the combined effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the behaviour and microstructure evolutions of a HMX-based explosive. Hopkinson bar compression experiments are carried-out on samples confined with a brass sleeve. The latter is instrumented in order to determine the confining pressure on the explosive sample, directly function of the sleeve thickness and yield strength. A sample confined at 75 MPa and deformed at 250s−1 is recovered, cross-sectioned and studied using optical microscopy. Distributed microplasticity and microcracking appear similar to those induced by confined quasi-static experiments, indicating that stress triaxiality is the most important loading parameter. The sample also displays a large shear macrocrack, resulting from the formation of an adiabatic shear band. Shear banding seems to proceed by strong plastic strain gradients, followed by dynamic re-crystallization. Further strong thermal effects are observed, resulting in local reactive melting.

  13. Study on a novel Sn-electroplated silver brazing filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Peng, Jin; Cui, Datian

    2017-08-01

    Novel Sn-electroplated Ag brazing filler metal with a high tin content was prepared by combining the plating and thermal diffusion method. The BAg45CuZn alloy was used as a base filler metal, and a Sn layer was electroplated on it. Then the H62 brass was brazed with the Sn-plated brazing filler metal containing 6.2 wt% of Sn. The results showed that the microstructure of the brazed joints with the Sn-plated filler mainly consisted of the Ag phase, Cu phase, CuZn phase and Cu5Zn8 phase. The tensile strength of the joints brazed with the Sn-plated filler metal was 326 MPa, which was higher than that of the joints with the base filler metal. Fracture analysis showed that the fractures of the joints brazed by the Sn-plated filler metal was mainly ductile fracture mixed with a small quantity of brittle fracture.

  14. Test results of 12/18 kA ReBCO coated conductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Naumov, A. V.; Novikov, M. S.; Novikov, S. I.; Ilin, A. A.; Polyakov, A. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2017-07-01

    A pair of hybrid current leads (brass + stacked & soldered ReBCO tapes) rated for 12 kA in steady state and for up to 18 kA at pulsed over current conditions was designed, developed and tested at NRC ;Kurchatov Institute; (NRC ;KI;). During the experiment at LN2 temperature, the current leads (CLs) were successfully charged with 18 kA at 100 A/s ramp rate. To date, as far as we know, this is the highest current capacity achieved for 2G HTS current leads. The feasibility of ;stack-and-soldering technique; for 10 kA+ class coated conductor CLs for accelerators and fusion was demonstrated. This paper gives an overview of the leads design and presents the preliminary test results. Detailed studies of magnetic properties and current sharing process for the stacked and staggered HTS joints are also reported.

  15. CORROSION AND SURFACE PROTECTION IN MACHINE MATERIALS FRICTION HAVE DIFFERENT SURFACE PAIRS EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai YALCINKAYA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction force, normal force, linear change. The normal force varies with the loads on the friction object. In order to determine the friction force and the friction coefficient, the friction object and the friction speed are used. The experimental work was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, the effect of normal force on the friction force was studied. In the second step, the friction force of the friction surface area is influenced. The effect of the change of the shear rate in step 3 on the friction force was investigated. At the last stage, the experimental study of the effect of the material selection on the friction force was made and it was seen that the aluminum / brass surface pair had the smallest friction coefficient as a result of the opening. The greatest coefficient of friction is found in the pair of glass / felt objects.

  16. Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    formed as intermediates in the cathodic reaction during the corrosion process. In this study, antioxidants (i.e., free radical scavengers and peroxide decomposers) have been incorporated into various generic types of coatings to investigate the effect of antioxidants on the rate of cathodic delamination......, copper, aluminum, galvanized steel, and brass also showed a reduction in the rate of cathodic delamination when the coating was modified with a free radical scavenger. The protective mechanism of free radical scavengers investigated for the primers are similar to that of antioxidants used for protection...... against photochemical degradation by UV-radiation of top coatings. Both substrate corrosion and degradation of a coating exposed to UV-radiation lead to the formation of free radicals as reactive intermediates....

  17. Corrosion characteristics of seven metals in three aqueous environments for forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tianqi

    Corrosion characteristics of seven varieties of metals---zinc, brass C260, stainless steel 302, stainless steel 316, stainless steel 420, stainless steel 430, and stainless steel 440---in three aqueous media---Atlantic Ocean, Charles River, and deionized waters---were assessed via mass loss methods over 32 weeks, with supplemental data in the form of photomicrographic records. Concurrently, tests were conducted to determine the degree of measurement error resulting from the analytical scale used during corrosion assessment. This was accomplished by using reference samples of each type of metal and a glass vial as the container that held the metal and water samples. These error tests indicated that while the mass error associated with the metal samples was low, the error in mass associated with the vial displayed error margins two orders of magnitude larger than the error margins for the smaller metal samples. Further, control tests and statistical analysis indicated that this variation was the result of some quality inherent to the vial. The metal samples involved in the corrosion assessment experiment generally displayed corrosion characteristics in agreement with trends reported in the literature. Zinc produced the greatest quantity of corrosion residues out of all the metals studied. Brass C260 also developed visible corrosion. For example, brass C260 developed dark green/brown adherent residue and whitish blue-tinted nonadherent residue in Atlantic Ocean water, faint greenish tarnishing and some dark green spots and dots over time in Charles River water, and only faint greenish tarnish in deionized water. In contrast with zinc and brass C260, the stainless steels did not exhibit signs of significant corrosion rates excepting stainless steel 420 (SS420), which displayed pitted features surrounded by multi-colored rings on all of its Atlantic Ocean immersion samples and 25% of its Charles River immersion samples. Atlantic Ocean water generally caused the greatest

  18. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2012-01-01

    www.interfon.fr « Nouveaux partenaires » chez Interfon « Brasserie Gessienne » Fabrication de bière biologique artisanale brassée à l’ancienne et non filtrée. Tout au long de l’année, bénéficiez de 5 % de remise immédiate sur tous vos achats. Ouverture début septembre. N’oubliez pas de présenter votre carte Interfon pour obtenir cette remise. Ce nouveau partenaire sera présent à notre « Portes Ouvertes » le 4 octobre pour vous offrir une dégustation gratuite. ZA de la Maladière – 358, rue de Perruet – 01210 – ORNEX Tél : 04 50 40 59 89 – www.brasseriegessienne.fr « Homme ou femme » bénéficiez de  20 % en présentant votre carte Interfo...

  19. Characterization of Photoelectron Emission for SGEMP Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    XRD Emitter Aluminum 9.4 + 0.6 9. + 1. Gold -- 7.5 + 0.5 Copper -- 5.4 + 0.7 Brass 5.4 + 0.6 Graphite -- 1.4 + 0.2 Aerodag 1.45 + 0.15 White Paint 3.8...pm, with a nominal composition of Cl1 H 8 0 An Aerodag was applied to the back. 9. Kapton. Ihickness of 7 pm and 125 pm were studied with the thick...Copper 1.5 + 0.3 2.71 5.4 + 0.6 9.7 Glass 1.1 + 0.3 1.04 2.4 + 0.6 5.3 Carbon ( Aerodag ) 0.30 + 0.1 0.39 1.4 + 0.2 1.63 Mylar (6 m) 0.42 + 0.08 0.39 0.9

  20. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  1. Rehabilitation of the Barón de Ariza’s town house in Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Noguera

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Barón de Ariza’s town house, designed by the architect A. Ferrer, was totally unknown until its rehabilitation as the headquarters of the Valencia Entrepreneurial Confederation. However, the refurbished facade, the spatial layout of the reception rooms on the noble floor and the ornamentation make of this work a valuable prototype of the Valencian eclecticism of the end of the 19th century. The rehabilitation strove to achieve an equilibrium between its architectural and functional qualities, and to enhance the pieces or elements that best contributed to its historic artistic value. The explanation of the work performed on the building are closed by an article by Enriqueta González about the restoration of the ornaments and brass decorations of the noble floor.

  2. Technical note: measurement of collapse cavitation in ultrasound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, M; Duck, F A; Lenz, E J; Price, G J

    1995-11-01

    This note describes a method for the measurement of hydroxyl free radical concentration due to collapse acoustic cavitation in medical ultrasound fields using aqueous terephthalic acid (TA) solution. An enclosed cylindrical chamber with acoustically transparent membranes at either end was used. Control of cavitation activity was achieved by seeding the solution with polystyrene microspheres to provide cavitation centres. Insonation experiments using unseeded TA previously exposed to air gave very variable results, sometimes detecting cavitation activity and at other times detecting nothing, under the same exposure conditions. Introduction of polystyrene microsphere seeds into the TA enabled it to detect reproducibly levels of cavitation activity at least one order of magnitude higher than in unseeded solutions. An experiment using the seeded TA in a standing wave ultrasound field, set up using a brass reflecting plate, demonstrated that the presence of a standing wave inhibited the measured cavitation yield.

  3. Microstructure-Based Counterfeit Detection in Metal Part Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachowicz, Adam; Chaduvula, Siva Chaitanya; Atallah, Mikhail; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2017-11-01

    Counterfeiting in metal part manufacturing has become a major global concern. Although significant effort has been made in detecting the implementation of such counterfeits, modern approaches suffer from high expense during production, invasiveness during manufacture, and unreliability in practice if parts are damaged during use. In this paper, a practical microstructure-based counterfeit detection methodology is proposed, which draws on inherent randomness present in the microstructure as a result of the manufacturing process. An optical Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) protocol is developed which takes a micrograph as input and outputs a compact, unique string representation of the micrograph. The uniqueness of the outputs and their robustness to moderate wear and tear is demonstrated by application of the methodology to brass samples. The protocol is shown to have good discriminatory power even between samples manufactured in the same batch, and runs on the order of several seconds per part on inexpensive machines.

  4. Anticorrosive Performance of Zinc Phosphate Coatings on Mild Steel Developed Using Galvanic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arthanareeswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticorrosive performance of zinc phosphate coatings developed by galvanic coupling technique on mild steel substrates using the cathode materials such as titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, brass (BR, nickel (Ni, and stainless steel (SS is elucidated in this study. Thermal and chemical stability tests, immersion test in 3.5% NaCl, ARE salt droplet test, and salt spray test were carried out. The study reveals that the mild steel substrates phosphated under galvanically coupled condition showed better corrosion resistance than the one coated without coupling. The open circuit potential (OCP of phosphated mild steel panels in 3.5% NaCl was found to be a function of phosphate coating weight and porosity of the coating.

  5. An implantable nerve cooler for the exercising dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, P; Versteeg, P G

    1984-01-01

    An implantable nerve cooler has been constructed to block cervical vago-sympathetic activity in the exercising dog reversibly. An insulated gilt brass container implanted around the nerve is perfused with cooled alcohol via silicone tubes. The flow of alcohol is controlled by an electromagnetic valve to keep nerve temperature at the required value. Nerve temperature is measured by a thermistor attached to the housing and in contact with the nerve. It is shown that, during cooling, temperature at this location differs less than 2 degrees C from nerve core temperature. Measurement of changes in heart rate revealed that complete vagal block in the conscious animal is obtained at a nerve temperature of 2 degrees C and can be achieved within 50 s. During steady-state cooling in the exercising animal nerve temperature varied less than 0.5 degree C. When the coolers after 2 weeks of implantation were removed they showed no oxydation and could be used again.

  6. Can spectral-spatial image segmentation be used to discriminate experimental burn wounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluchowski, Lukasz A.; Nordgaard, Håvard B.; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Hov, Håkon; Berget, Sissel M.; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a noncontact and noninvasive optical modality emerging the field of medical research. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of HSI and image segmentation to discriminate burn wounds in a preclinical porcine model. A heated brass rod was used to introduce burn wounds of graded severity in a pig model and a sequence of hyperspectral data was recorded up to 8-h postinjury. The hyperspectral images were processed by an unsupervised spectral-spatial segmentation algorithm. Segmentation was validated using results from histology. The proposed algorithm was compared to K-means segmentation and was found superior. The obtained segmentation maps revealed separated zones within the burn sites, indicating a variation in burn severity. The suggested image-processing scheme allowed mapping dynamic changes of spectral properties within the burn wounds over time. The results of this study indicate that unsupervised spectral-spatial segmentation applied on hyperspectral images can discriminate burn injuries of varying severity.

  7. A Flexible Two-Dimensional Mortality Model for Use in Indirect Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, John; Zureick, Sarah; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Inoue, Mie; Sawyer, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Mortality estimates for many populations are derived using model life tables, which describe typical age patterns of human mortality. We propose a new system of model life tables as a means of improving the quality and transparency of such estimates. A flexible two-dimensional model was fitted to a collection of life tables from the Human Mortality Database. The model can be used to estimate full life tables given one or two pieces of information: child mortality only, or child and adult mortality. Using life tables from a variety of sources, we have compared the performance of new and old methods. The new model outperforms the Coale-Demeny and UN model life tables. Estimation errors are similar to those produced by the modified Brass logit procedure. The proposed model is better suited to the practical needs of mortality estimation, since both input parameters are continuous yet the second one is optional. PMID:22150635

  8. Evaluation of wear during the injection process with the use of optical profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P.; Díaz, M.; Covelo, E.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    This article deals with the study of wear of non-conventional materials in the plastic injection industry, particularly in inserts for reusable injection molds. A methodology for the analysis of wear is proposed using new measurement parameters. Superficial parameters like roughness average (Ra) have proven not to be quite effective for this purpose. Therefore new coefficients are suggested, as the Minimum Wear Area (MWA), which takes advantage of the collected data and appears to be a better choice for wear characterization. A Polyamide with 30% load of fiberglass has been injected into two cavities manufactured in different material (aluminum and brass) and with the same geometry, in which the wear at different points has been evaluated. We have used interferometry and an optical microscope as measurement tools. Finite element analysis and simulation software has also been used.

  9. X-ray pole figure analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, D.M.; Lacey, D.E.

    1978-09-01

    Crystal orientation in a polycrystalline material determines the characteristics of the material. When a material is deformed, a specific crystallographic orientation of the grains with respect to the deformation direction becomes predominant. A technique used to determine crystal orientation or texture is the construction of a pole figure. A pole figure is a contour map, in stereographic projection, of the concentration of poles of selected crystallographic planes as a function of spatial orientation. The data used to produce pole figures are obtained by X-ray diffraction techniques. The techniques are complicated and can be simplified using computerized data acquisition, reduction, and CRT display techniques. Pole figures of cold-rolled cartridge brass (70Cu--30Zn) taken from published literature were found to closely compare with results achieved at Bendix Kansas City.

  10. Near-net shape manufacturing of miniature spur gears by wire spark erosion machining

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    This work describes an experimental investigation with the aim to evaluate and establish wire spark erosion machining (WSEM) as a viable alternative for high quality miniature gear manufacturing. External spur type miniature brass (ASTM 858) gears with 12 teeth, 9.8 mm outside diameter and 5 mm face width were manufactured by WSEM. The research work was accomplished in four distinct experimental stages viz., preliminary, pilot, main and confirmation. The aim, scope and findings of each stage are progressively presented and discussed. In essence, the investigation found that it was possible to manufacture miniature gears to high quality by using WSEM. Gears up to DIN 5 quality with a good surface finish (1.2 µm average roughness) and satisfactory surface integrity were achieved. The results suggest that WSEM should be considered a viable alternative to conventional miniature gear manufacturing techniques and that in some instances it may even be superior. This work will prove useful to researchers and profess...

  11. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    University. There are three axes of rotation in this design (compared to two axes in the previous version). The addition of the third axis allows us to calibrate more complex devices. An electronic compass based on a vector fluxgate magnetometer and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer...... is one example. The new platform can also be used to evaluate the parameters of the compass in all possible variations in azimuth, pitch, and roll. The system is based on piezoelectric motors, which are placed on a platform made of aluminum, brass, plastic, and glass. Position sensing is accomplished...... through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  12. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone Oxime as an Analytical Reagent for Copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miss Krishna Purohit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenoneoxime (HMBO was developed as a new analytical reagent for the gravimetric determination of Cu(II. In pH 2.5-9.0 the reagent gives brown coloured precipitate with Cu(II. Spectrophotometric methods revealed that the stoichiometry of the complex is 1:2 (metal: ligand. Beer's law is obeyed up to 31.75 ppm of Cu(II. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity at 400 nm were found to be 7.0×102 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.090 μg/cm2 respectively. The stability constant of Cu(II-HMBO complex is found to be 6.13×109. Gibb’s free energy change for complex formation reaction was found to be -13.93 Kcal/mol. The reagent can be used for the analysis of brass.

  13. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri LILLE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7439

  14. Optimization of machining parameters for green manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis is affecting the world badly. While the production in developed countries stabilizes, in the developing world it continues to expand. This results in higher energy use, thereby releasing higher CO2. Thus, a pilot experiment was conducted to check and subsequently take corrective measures to reduce the energy consumption of manufacturing industry. Here, the emphasis is laid particularly on the turning operation for the cutting parameters, and effort has been made to optimize them, using Design Expert, with regard to the energy consumed. Also the optimized values, from the, for the different parameters under study have been checked and compared by those being generally used. For experimental studies, the machining was first carried on mild steel and then after aluminum and brass were also considered for study. All the values show an appreciable reduction in the energy consumption, thus reducing the carbon emission, for all the materials.

  15. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  16. Development of Lead-Free Copper Alloy-Graphite Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, P.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (US)

    1999-10-01

    In this project, graphite is used as a substitute for lead in order to maintain the machinability of plumbing components at the level of leaded brass. Graphite dispersed in Cu alloy was observed to impart good machinability and reduce the sizes of chips during machining of plumbing components in a manner similar to lead. Copper alloys containing dispersed graphite particles could be successfully cast in several plumbing fixtures which exhibited acceptable corrosion rate, solderability, platability, and pressure tightness. The power consumption for machining of composites was also lower than that of the matrix alloy. In addition, centrifugally cast copper alloy cylinders containing graphite particles were successfully made. These cylinders can therefore be used for bearing applications, as substitutes for lead-containing copper alloys. The results indicate that copper graphite alloys developed under this DOE project have a great potential to substitute for lead copper alloys in both plumbing and bearing applications.

  17. Inverted Fuel Cell: Room-Temperature Hydrogen Separation from an Exhaust Gas by Using a Commercial Short-Circuited PEM Fuel Cell without Applying any Electrical Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Sebastian; Geppert, Benjamin; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-06-26

    A short-circuited PEM fuel cell with a Nafion membrane has been evaluated in the room-temperature separation of hydrogen from exhaust gas streams. The separated hydrogen can be recovered or consumed in an in situ olefin hydrogenation when the fuel cell is operated as catalytic membrane reactor. Without applying an outer electrical voltage, there is a continuous hydrogen flux from the higher to the lower hydrogen partial pressure side through the Nafion membrane. On the feed side of the Nafion membrane, hydrogen is catalytically split into protons and electrons by the Pt/C electrocatalyst. The protons diffuse through the Nafion membrane, the electrons follow the short-circuit between the two brass current collectors. On the cathode side, protons and electrons recombine, and hydrogen is released. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Hutto, William R.; Philips, Albert R.

    1989-09-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  19. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. García-Chocano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  20. Birth intervals, postponement, and fertility decline in Africa: a new type of transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moultrie, Tom A; Sayi, Takudzwa S; Timæus, Ian M

    2012-11-01

    We investigated birth-interval dynamics in 24 African countries using data from 76 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted since 1986. Controlling for selection bias in the birth-history data using the Brass-Juárez method and regression models produced almost identical results. Birth intervals have lengthened in every country examined. This analysis uncovered a distinctive and previously undocumented pattern of childbearing that is prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa. After allowing for time trends in birth-interval length, the lengthening of birth intervals in almost every country varies little by women's age or parity. Moreover, in several countries, birth intervals are now too long to be explicable by birth spacing contingent on the age of women's youngest child. Rather, women are postponing births for other reasons. These findings offer empirical support for the idea that the fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa is following a different pattern from that observed elsewhere.

  1. The Center is Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, David H

    2012-01-01

    "The Center is Everywhere" is a sculpture by Josiah McElheny, currently (through October 14, 2012) on exhibit at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. The sculpture is based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), using hundreds of glass crystals and lamps suspended from brass rods to represent the three-dimensional structure mapped by the SDSS through one of its 2000+ spectroscopic plugplates. This article describes the scientific ideas behind this sculpture, emphasizing the principle of the statistical homogeneity of cosmic structure in the presence of local complexity. The title of the sculpture is inspired by the work of the French revolutionary Louis Auguste Blanqui, whose 1872 book "Eternity Through The Stars: An Astronomical Hypothesis" was the first to raise the spectre of the infinite replicas expected in an infinite, statistically homogeneous universe. Puzzles of infinities, probabilities, and replicas continue to haunt modern fiction and contemporary discussions of inflationary cosmo...

  2. Authenticating Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by government bodies which have sought to demonstrate their nativist or multiculturalist orientations, aboriginal elites not only publicly worshipped ancestor gods and enacted animal sacrifices in so called ‘revitalized’ public rituals, but also used these occasions to point to the primordial power...... or society (Turner 1969), they simultaneously carry those often elite-dominated mechanisms that are described by Hobsbawm and Ranger (1983) in their examinations of the processes of cultural invention for the needs of political and cultural entities, as well as by Paul Brass (1991) in his analyses of elite...... competition. In other words, while these rituals may in many cases have efficacy with regard to the constitution of society and identity, the traditionalist rituals in particular frequently serve the authentication exigencies of various elites. Finally, I suggest that if one wants to provide the culture...

  3. Quasi-discrete particle motion in an externally imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., “hopping”) motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.

  4. Direct Machining of Low-Loss THz Waveguide Components With an RF Choke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Samantha M; Nanni, Emilio A; Temkin, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    We present results for the successful fabrication of low-loss THz metallic waveguide components using direct machining with a CNC end mill. The approach uses a split-block machining process with the addition of an RF choke running parallel to the waveguide. The choke greatly reduces coupling to the parasitic mode of the parallel-plate waveguide produced by the split-block. This method has demonstrated loss as low as 0.2 dB/cm at 280 GHz for a copper WR-3 waveguide. It has also been used in the fabrication of 3 and 10 dB directional couplers in brass, demonstrating excellent agreement with design simulations from 240-260 GHz. The method may be adapted to structures with features on the order of 200 μm.

  5. Endemic Tyrolean infantile cirrhosis: an ecogenetic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, T; Feichtinger, H; Berger, H; Muller, W

    1996-03-30

    138 infants and young children died from an endemic infantile liver cirrhosis in a circumscribed rural area of western Austria between 1900 and 1974. Frequency of the disease peaked between 1930 and 1960. It has disappeared from this area since 1974. Clinical and genetic data on the patients was gathered; pedigrees analysed and ethnographic studies and interviews were undertaken. The disease, which was clinically and pathologically indistinguishable from Indian childhood cirrhosis and hepatic copper toxicosis, was transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. Cow's milk, contaminated with copper from untinned copper or brass vessels, may have contributed to the development of copper toxicosis. Replacement of untinned copper cooking utensils by modern industrial vessels has eradicated the disease. Our findings strongly suggest that the endemic Tyrolean childhood cirrhosis-and by analogy non-Wilsonian hepatic copper toxicosis occurring elsewhere-is an ecogenetic disorder requiring the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors for the disease to become manifest.

  6. Expansion dynamics of ultrafast laser produced plasmas in the presence of ambient argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, P. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Phillips, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the expansion dynamics of fs laser ablated brass plasma in Ar at various pressure levels ranging from 10-5 Torr to atmospheric conditions using time-resolved and spectrally resolved two-dimensional imaging. Significant changes in plume morphology were noticed at varying pressure levels which included free expansion, spherical to cylindrical geometry changes, sharpening, and confinement. The temporal evolution of excited Cu and Zn species in the plume were imaged using narrow band-pass interference filters, and their hydrodynamic expansion features were compared. 2D imaging coupled with monochromatic line selection showed velocity differences, uneven distribution, and aspect ratio differences among the plume species. Plume morphological changes were found to be significant at intermediate pressure levels (˜10 Torr) where plasma emissivity was found to be maximum. The expansion features of plume were compared with various models and found to be generally in good agreement.

  7. Digital holographic inspection system for the inner surface of a straight pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Masayuki; Koyama, Teppei; Takeda, Kazufumi

    2017-10-01

    A multicolor digital holographic inspection system achieving both automatic scanning sensing head and automatic correction of a distortion in the profile due to positional error of a sensing head has been applied to the inner surface of a straight brass pipe having artificial defects on its wall. To investigate the inner surface of the pipe, the sensing head consisting of a cone-shaped mirror (CSM) glued to an aluminum base in the pipe is illuminated by the collimated RGB laser beams from the outside of the pipe. In the system, by changing the wavelength of the illumination light and scanning the CSM in the pipe, data acquisitions and analysis are performed using a personal computer. It is shown that the pipe inspection, including a classification of defects, can be successfully conducted by comparing the multicolor intensity images and the height profile of inner surface of pipe.

  8. Effect of gas ratio on tribological properties of sputter deposited TiN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mahesh R., E-mail: maheshchavda1990@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology, Mogar-388340 (India); Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Rawal, Sushant K., E-mail: sushantrawal.me@charusat.ac.in [CHAMOS Matrusanstha Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chandubhai S. Patel Institute of Technology, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-388421 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited on Si, corning glass, pins of mild steel (MS, ϕ3mm), aluminium (Al, ϕ4mm) and brass (ϕ6mm) substratesby DC magnetron sputtering. The argon and nitrogen (Ar:N{sub 2})gas ratio was precisely controlled by Mass Flow Controller (MFC) and was varied systematically at diffract values of 10:10,12:08, 16:04 and 18:02sccm. The structural properties of TiN coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its surface topography was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The tribological properties of TiN coatings were investigated using pin-on-disc tribometer.

  9. Clock hypothesis of relativity theory, maximal acceleration, and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potzel, W., E-mail: wpotzel@ph.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Results obtained several years ago using the high-resolution 93.3 keV Mössbauer resonance in {sup 67}ZnO and β{sup ′}-brass have been reanalyzed with the notion that the clock hypothesis of Special Relativity Theory is not sufficient, but that a maximal acceleration a{sub m} exists and that an acceleration a contributes to the temperature dependence of the center shift by a term ±(1/2)(a/a{sub m}){sup 2}. The significance of the sign of this term is discussed in detail. For both substances a lower limit of a{sub m}>1.5⋅10{sup 21}m/s {sup 2} is inferred which is more than two orders of magnitude larger than - and thus excludes - the value a{sub m}=1⋅10{sup 19}m/s {sup 2} suggested by {sup 57}Fe rotor experiments.

  10. High performance flight computer developed for deep space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an advanced space flight computer for real time embedded deep space applications which embodies the lessons learned on Galileo and modern computer technology is described. The requirements are listed and the design implementation that meets those requirements is described. The development of SPACE-16 (Spaceborne Advanced Computing Engine) (where 16 designates the databus width) was initiated to support the MM2 (Marine Mark 2) project. The computer is based on a radiation hardened emulation of a modern 32 bit microprocessor and its family of support devices including a high performance floating point accelerator. Additional custom devices which include a coprocessor to improve input/output capabilities, a memory interface chip, and an additional support chip that provide management of all fault tolerant features, are described. Detailed supporting analyses and rationale which justifies specific design and architectural decisions are provided. The six chip types were designed and fabricated. Testing and evaluation of a brass/board was initiated.

  11. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  12. Three-dimensional simulations of sound propagation in a trumpet with accurate mouthpiece shank geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Resch, Janelle; Vanderkooy, John

    2016-01-01

    The length and bore geometry of musical instruments directly influences the quality of sound that can be produced. In brass instruments, nonlinear effects from finite-amplitude wave propagation can lead to wave distortion giving sounds a brassy timbre [3, 5, 14, 20, 26]. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model to describe nonlinear wave propagation in a trumpet and investigate the importance of the mouthpiece shank geometry. Time pressure waveforms corresponding to B_3(b) and B_4(b) notes were recorded at the mouthpiece shank and used as inputs for our model. To describe the motion of compressible inviscid fluid, we numerically solved the compressible Euler equations using the discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate our approach, the numerical results were compared to the recorded musical notes outside the bell of the trumpet. Simulations were performed on computational trumpets where different bore geometries were considered. Our results demonstrate that the shape of the narrow region near mou...

  13. Flute-like musical instruments: a toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Soizic; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modeled by nonlinear dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modeled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasi-periodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  14. Clinical Signs and Subjective Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Instrumentalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Young; Kwon, Jeong Seung; Lee, Debora H; Bae, Jung Hee; Kim, Seong Taek

    2016-11-01

    Most of the reports on instrumentalists' experiences of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been reported not by clinical examinations but by subjective questionnaires. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs and subjective symptoms of TMD in a large number of instrumentalists objectively. A total of 739 musicians from a diverse range of instrument groups completed a TMD questionnaire. Among those who reported at least one symptom of TMD, 71 volunteers underwent clinical examinations and radiography for diag-nosis. Overall, 453 participants (61.3%) reported having one or more symptoms of TMD. The most frequently reported symptom was a clicking or popping sound, followed by temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, muscle pain, crepitus, and mouth opening limitations. Compared with lower-string instrumentalists, a clicking or popping sound was about 1.8 and 2 times more frequent in woodwind and brass instrumentalists, respectively. TMJ pain was about 3.2, 2.8, and 3.2 times more frequent in upper-string, woodwind, and brass instrumentalists, respectively. Muscle pain was about 1.5 times more frequent in instrumentalists with an elevated arm position than in those with a neutral arm position. The most frequent diagnosis was myalgia or myofascial pain (MFP), followed by disc displacement with reduction. Myalgia or MFP was 4.6 times more frequent in those practicing for no less than 3.5 hours daily than in those practicing for less than 3.5 hours. The results indicate that playing instruments can play a contributory role in the development of TMD.

  15. An intelligent approach to optimize the EDM process parameters using utility concept and QPSO algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmaya P. Mohanty

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although significant research has gone into the field of electrical discharge machining (EDM, analysis related to the machining efficiency of the process with different electrodes has not been adequately made. Copper and brass are frequently used as electrode materials but graphite can be used as a potential electrode material due to its high melting point temperature and good electrical conductivity. In view of this, the present work attempts to compare the machinability of copper, graphite and brass electrodes while machining Inconel 718 super alloy. Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been employed to collect data for the study and analyze effect of machining parameters on performance measures. The important performance measures selected for this study are material removal rate, tool wear rate, surface roughness and radial overcut. Machining parameters considered for analysis are open circuit voltage, discharge current, pulse-on-time, duty factor, flushing pressure and electrode material. From the experimental analysis, it is observed that electrode material, discharge current and pulse-on-time are the important parameters for all the performance measures. Utility concept has been implemented to transform a multiple performance characteristics into an equivalent performance characteristic. Non-linear regression analysis is carried out to develop a model relating process parameters and overall utility index. Finally, the quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms have been used to compare the optimal level of cutting parameters. Results demonstrate the elegance of QPSO in terms of convergence and computational effort. The optimal parametric setting obtained through both the approaches is validated by conducting confirmation experiments.

  16. Inactivation of murine norovirus on a range of copper alloy surfaces is accompanied by loss of capsid integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Summersgill, Emma N; Keevil, C William

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is one of the most common causes of acute viral gastroenteritis. The virus is spread via the fecal-oral route, most commonly from infected food and water, but several outbreaks have originated from contamination of surfaces with infectious virus. In this study, a close surrogate of human norovirus causing gastrointestinal disease in mice, murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1), retained infectivity for more than 2 weeks following contact with a range of surface materials, including Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE]), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ceramic tiles, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. Persistence was slightly prolonged on ceramic surfaces. A previous study in our laboratory observed that dry copper and copper alloy surfaces rapidly inactivated MNV-1 and destroyed the viral genome. In this new study, we have observed that a relatively small change in the percentage of copper, between 70 and 80% in copper nickels and 60 and 70% in brasses, had a significant influence on the ability of the alloy to inactivate norovirus. Nickel alone did not affect virus, but zinc did have some antiviral effect, which was synergistic with copper and resulted in an increased efficacy of brasses with lower percentages of copper. Electron microscopy of purified MNV-1 that had been exposed to copper and stainless steel surfaces suggested that a massive breakdown of the viral capsid had occurred on copper. In addition, MNV-1 that had been exposed to copper and treated with RNase demonstrated a reduction in viral gene copy number. This suggests that capsid integrity is compromised upon contact with copper, allowing copper ion access to the viral genome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Keevil, C William

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) determined that Cu(II) and especially Cu(I) ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked), which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  18. Qualidade das informações sobre fecundidade no Censo Demográfico de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana M. Cavenaghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta nota de pesquisa é examinar a qualidade da informação sobre fecundidade no Censo Demográfico 2010, visando inferir sobre a acurácia das estimativas da taxa de fecundidade total (TFT e das específicas por idade provenientes dessa fonte de dados. São utilizados os microdados do Censo Demográfico 2010 e os dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascimentos (Sinasc de 2009 e 2010. Empregam-se indicadores demográficos básicos e o método indireto da razão P/F de Brass para a estimação da TFT utilizando as duas fontes de dados. Os resultados iniciais mostram que os dados censitários são bastante consistentes, mas apresentam alguns problemas de subnumeração diferencial por idade, como amplamente conhecido na demografia, que devem ser levados em conta na estimação do nível de fecundidade no país. As mudanças na estrutura da fecundidade afetam a TFT por ser taxa de período, mas o método P/F de Brass ainda se mostra com bons resultados. Ao final, são feitas recomendações para possíveis melhorias em novas coletas de dados, principalmente nos censos e pesquisas por amostra de domicílios, que constituem fontes essenciais para a estimação da fecundidade e acompanhamento de tendências para atualização das projeções desse indicador a médio e longo prazos.

  19. Comparative study of electrical breakdown properties of deionized water and heavy water under pulsed power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda Prakash, G.; Kumar, R.; Saurabh, K.; Nasir, Anitha, V. P.; Chowdhuri, M. B.; Shyam, A.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of electrical breakdown properties of deionized water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) is presented with two different electrode materials (stainless steel (SS) and brass) and polarity (positive and negative) combinations. The pulsed (˜a few tens of nanoseconds) discharges are conducted by applying high voltage (˜a few hundred kV) pulse between two hemisphere electrodes of the same material, spaced 3 mm apart, at room temperature (˜26-28 °C) with the help of Tesla based pulse generator. It is observed that breakdown occurred in heavy water at lesser voltage and in short duration compared to deionized water irrespective of the electrode material and applied voltage polarity chosen. SS electrodes are seen to perform better in terms of the voltage withstanding capacity of the liquid dielectric as compared to brass electrodes. Further, discharges with negative polarity are found to give slightly enhanced discharge breakdown voltage when compared with those with positive polarity. The observations corroborate well with conductivity measurements carried out on original and post-treated liquid samples. An interpretation of the observations is attempted using Fourier transform infrared measurements on original and post-treated liquids as well as in situ emission spectra studies. A yet another important observation from the emission spectra has been that even short (nanosecond) duration discharges result in the formation of a considerable amount of ions injected into the liquid from the electrodes in a similar manner as reported for long (microseconds) discharges. The experimental observations show that deionised water is better suited for high voltage applications and also offer a comparison of the discharge behaviour with different electrodes and polarities.

  20. Comparative study of electrical breakdown properties of deionized water and heavy water under pulsed power conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda Prakash, G; Kumar, R; Saurabh, K; Nasir; Anitha, V P; Chowdhuri, M B; Shyam, A

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of electrical breakdown properties of deionized water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) is presented with two different electrode materials (stainless steel (SS) and brass) and polarity (positive and negative) combinations. The pulsed (∼a few tens of nanoseconds) discharges are conducted by applying high voltage (∼a few hundred kV) pulse between two hemisphere electrodes of the same material, spaced 3 mm apart, at room temperature (∼26-28 °C) with the help of Tesla based pulse generator. It is observed that breakdown occurred in heavy water at lesser voltage and in short duration compared to deionized water irrespective of the electrode material and applied voltage polarity chosen. SS electrodes are seen to perform better in terms of the voltage withstanding capacity of the liquid dielectric as compared to brass electrodes. Further, discharges with negative polarity are found to give slightly enhanced discharge breakdown voltage when compared with those with positive polarity. The observations corroborate well with conductivity measurements carried out on original and post-treated liquid samples. An interpretation of the observations is attempted using Fourier transform infrared measurements on original and post-treated liquids as well as in situ emission spectra studies. A yet another important observation from the emission spectra has been that even short (nanosecond) duration discharges result in the formation of a considerable amount of ions injected into the liquid from the electrodes in a similar manner as reported for long (microseconds) discharges. The experimental observations show that deionised water is better suited for high voltage applications and also offer a comparison of the discharge behaviour with different electrodes and polarities.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in River Niger, Nigeria: Occurrence, distribution and composition profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unyimadu, J P; Osibanjo, O; Babayemi, J O

    2018-01-01

    Contamination of rivers with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is an issue of current global concern. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are POPs with origin from commercial, incineration and industrial sources. Hence, there is a need for monitoring their occurrence and distribution in the environment. This study assessed the occurrence, distribution and composition profiles of PCBs in River Niger, Nigeria. Surface and bottom water samples were collected in consecutive quarters for a period of 2 years, covering the beginning and end of the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, from five locations (Gurara, Lokoja, Onitsha, Brass and Nicolas) along River Niger. A total of 240 water samples were collected using a Van Dorn water sampler. EPA method 3510c was used with slight modifications for sample preparation and analysis. The PCBs were analysed using a Hewlett Packard GC 5890 Series 11 with electron capture detection, and confirmation was made using a Shimadzu GCMS QP2010. The higher molecular weight marker PCBs (∑CB 138, 153 and 180) were more dominant than the lighter homologues (∑CB 28, 52 and 101), while commercial sources Co-PCBs (80.8 ± 61.7 to 288.3 ± 102.0 ng L-1) were more dominant than the incineration sources (34.9 ± 3.82 to 75.5 ± 65.2 ng L-1). The POPs load in River Niger water varied in both time and space. In surface water of the River Niger, ∑PCBs were higher during the rainy season, as a result of storm run-off from land-based sources. In the Brass and Nicolas Rivers during the dry season, the ∑PCBs were higher during low tide. There was no noticeable pattern during the rainy season. It may be concluded from this study that the water of River Niger is not good for human consumption or abstraction of water from the river for drinking water treatment.

  2. Pengembangan Desain Produk Seni Kerajinan Kerang Simping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Susilaning Sri Hastuti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKerajinan kerang simping atau dalam bahasa latinnya Amusium pleuronectes banyak diminati oleh konsumen. Umumnya produknya berupa kap lampu yang dibuat dengan sistem bingkai menggunakan kuningan. Pada beberapa daerah kuningan sulit diperoleh, sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian produk kerang dengan sistem bingkai menggunakan rotan antik lebar ± 4mm. Produk yang dibuat berupa kap lampu dan sketsel. Produk dipasang di ruang pamer BBKB dan dilakukan wawancara dengan 30 responden, 10 butir instrumen untuk mengumpulkan data. Sistem penilaian dilakukan dengan skala Likert dan diperoleh nilai kualitas dari produk adalah 71 ( untuk skor tertinggi 100 atau 71% dari kualitas yang diharapkan. Ini artinya produk yang dibuat kualitasnya baik. Saran yang dapat diberikan adalah desain produk kerajinan kerang agar dapat dikembangkan karena banyak peminatnya dan dapat dipasarkan dengan harga yang cukup baik sesuai dengan desain produk dan tingkat kesulitan dalam pembuatannya.Kata kunci : kerang simping, sistem bingkai, rotan.ABSTRACTCraft capiz shells (Amusium pleuronectes has great demand. Generally, products in the form of lamp shades is made with a system using a brass frame. In some regions, the brass is difficult to obtain, so we need research products using a frame systems shells with antique rattan ± 4mm wide. Products are made in the form of lampshade and partition. Products are installed in the showroom BBKB and interviews were conducted with 30 respondents, using 10 items of instruments. Assessment system with Likert scale and value of quality product is 71 (for the highest score 100 or 71% of the expected quality. It means products have good quality. Design of shells for craft products can be developed caused by great demand and can be marketed with a good price according with the design of products and level of difficulty in the making.Key words : capiz shells (Amusium pleuronectes , frame system, rattan.

  3. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

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    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  4. Feedback model of secondary electron emission in DC gas discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, ARUMUGAM; Prince, ALEX; Suraj, Kumar SINHA

    2018-01-01

    Feedback is said to exist in any amplifier when the fraction of output power in fed back as an input. Similarly, in gaseous discharge ions that incident on the cathode act as a natural feedback element to stabilize and self sustain the discharge. The present investigation is intended to emphasize the feedback nature of ions that emits secondary electrons (SEs) from the cathode surface in DC gas discharges. The average number of SEs emitted per incident ion and non ionic species (energetic neutrals, metastables and photons) which results from ion is defined as effective secondary electron emission coefficient (ESEEC,{γ }{{E}}). In this study, we derive an analytic expression that corroborates the relation between {γ }{{E}} and power influx by ion to the cathode based on the feedback theory of an amplifier. In addition, experimentally, we confirmed the typical positive feedback nature of SEE from the cathode in argon DC glow discharges. The experiment is done for three different cathode material of same dimension (tungsten (W), copper (Cu) and brass) under identical discharge conditions (pressure: 0.45 mbar, cathode bias: ‑600 V, discharge gab: 15 cm and operating gas: argon). Further, we found that the {γ }{{E}} value of these cathode material controls the amount of feedback power given by ions. The difference in feedback leads different final output i.e the power carried by ion at cathode ({P}{{i}}{\\prime }{| }{{C}}). The experimentally obtained value of {P}{{i}}{\\prime }{| }{{C}} is 4.28 W, 6.87 W and 9.26 W respectively for W, Cu and brass. In addition, the present investigation reveals that the amount of feedback power in a DC gas discharges not only affect the fraction of power fed back to the cathode but also the entire characteristics of the discharge.

  5. Correlation of Microstructure and Texture in a Two-Phase High-Mn Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel During Cold Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Mohammad; Dhekne, Pushkar; Hamada, Atef Saad; Sahu, Puspendu; Mahato, B.; Minz, R. K.; Ghosh Chowdhury, Sandip; Pentti Karjalainen, L.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture of a two-phase austenite-ferrite twinning-induced plasticity steel during cold rolling was investigated and different deformation mechanisms were found to become active with increasing thickness reductions. Optical microscopy showed the formation of brass-type shear bands across several austenite grains at reductions greater than 50 pct. TEM observations reveal the presence of deformation twinning in austenite. The austenite phase initially shows the Cu-type texture, i.e., Cu {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉, Goss {0 1 1}〈1 0 0〉 with a spread toward Brass {1 1 0}〈1 1 2〉. With continued cold rolling, the Cu {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉 component moves toward CuT component {552}〈115〉 and the other two components increase in intensity. There is also emergence of {111} fiber after 90 pct cold rolling. The ferrite phase exhibits the evolution of ND-rotated Cube component {001}〈110〉 along with 〈110〉 fiber at lower as well as at higher rolling reductions. An exception is at 75 pct reduction, when the ferrite texture contains {111} fiber in place of 〈110〉 fiber with a weak rotated-Cube component. Phase fraction analysis by X-ray diffraction indicates a decrease in the austenite fraction up to 75 pct reduction followed by an increase at 90 pct reduction. After 90 pct cold rolling, the phase fraction is similar to that of the "as-received" state. Elongated grains of ferrite phase in finer dimensions after 90 pct cold rolling indicate softening within that phase; at similar stage, there are finer scale austenite grains mostly at the grain boundaries. The above has been suggested to be related with the adiabatic heating during cold rolling due to the high strain hardening of the austenite phase.

  6. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Warnes

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS determined that Cu(II and especially Cu(I ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked, which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  7. Evaluation of biocidal efficacy of copper alloy coatings in comparison with solid metal surfaces: generation of organic copper phosphate nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, H; Portman, T; Pershin, V; Ringuette, M

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the biocidal efficacy of thermal sprayed copper surfaces. Copper alloy sheet metals containing >60% copper have been shown to exhibit potent biocidal activity. Surface biocidal activity was assessed by epifluorescence microscopy. After 2-h exposure at 20 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), contact killing of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis by brass sheet metal and phosphor bronze was 3-4-times higher than that by stainless steel. SEM observations revealed that the surface membranes of both bacterial strains were slightly more irregular when exposed to brass sheet metal than stainless steel. However, when exposed to phosphor bronze coating, E. coli were 3-4 times larger with irregular membrane morphology. In addition, the majority of the cells were associated with spherical carbon-copper-phosphate crystalline nanostructures characteristic of nanoflowers. The membranes of many of the S. epidermidis exhibited blebbing, and a small subset was also associated with nanoflowers. Our data indicate that increasing the surface roughness of copper alloys had a pronounced impact on the membrane integrity of Gram-positive and, to a lesser degree, Gram-negative bacteria. In the presence of PBS, carbon-copper-phosphate-containing nanoflowers were formed, likely nucleated by components derived from killed bacteria. The intimate association of the bacteria with the nanoflowers and phosphor bronze coating likely contributed to their nonreversible adhesion. Thermal spraying of copper alloys provides a strategy for the rapid coating of three-dimensional organic and inorganic surfaces with biocidal copper alloys. Our study demonstrates that the macroscale surface roughness generated by the thermal spray process enhances the biocidal activity of copper alloys compared with the nanoscale surface roughness of copper sheet metals. Moreover, the coating surface topography provides conditions for the rapid formation of organic copper

  8. A Brassica exon array for whole-transcript gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Love

    Full Text Available Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3' exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E(-5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18, and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html.

  9. Effect of electrode materials on the space charge distribution of an Al2O3 nano-modified transformer oil under impulse voltage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Liu, Mengna; Sima, Wenxia; Jin, Yang

    2017-11-01

    The combined effect mechanism of electrode materials and Al2O3 nanoparticles on the insulating characteristics of transformer oil was investigated. Impulse breakdown tests of pure transformer oil and Al2O3 nano-modified transformer oil of varying concentrations with different electrode materials (brass, aluminum and stainless steel) showed that the breakdown voltage of Al2O3 nano-modified transformer oil is higher than that of pure transformer oil and there is a there is an optimum concentration for Al2O3 nanoparticles when the breakdown voltage reaches the maximum. In addition, the breakdown voltage was highest with the brass electrode, followed by that with stainless steel and then aluminum, irrespective of the concentration of nanoparticles in the transformer oil. This is explained by the charge injection patterns from different electrode materials according to the results of space charge measurements in pure and nano-modified transformer oil using the Kerr electro-optic system. The test results indicate that there are electrode-dependent differences in the charge injection patterns and quantities and then the electric field distortion, which leads to the difference breakdown strength in result. As for the nano-modified transformer oil, due to the Al2O3 nanoparticle’s ability of shielding space charges of different polarities and the charge injection patterns of different electrodes, these two factors have different effects on the electric field distribution and breakdown process of transformer oil between different electrode materials. This paper provides a feasible approach to exploring the mechanism of the effect of the electrode material and nanoparticles on the breakdown strength of liquid dielectrics and analyzing the breakdown process using the space charge distribution.

  10. Air-leak effects on ear-canal acoustic absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groon, Katherine A; Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Kopun, Judy G; Gorga, Michael P; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1-0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables exhibited consistent dependence on

  11. Geoscientists as Politicians; it is a necessity, not a luxury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarey, Mosab

    2016-04-01

    Conventionally speaking, geoscientists are not thought of as the proper material to become politicians. Rather, lawyers and businessmen are the premium candidates, all along with retired brass. This is highly eccentric when we execute a disciplined thought process based on the Measure of Rightness and Wrongness (MRW). As with any scientific research geoscientists are delighted to present to the world, any argument that lacks the underpinning MRW is useless; without the MRW one might hear 10 different opinions and consider each of them right because the presenter of each opinion has done his homework brilliantly. Facts are facts because of their own selves not because of people's perceptions of them. Perceptions might differ, but facts remain facts. Every two different points are a distance apart from each other; one straight distance. When there are 10 different opinions about that distance: bring a tape and measure it; the tape would constitute the MRW here, and the measurement might fit one out of the 10 opinions, and might fit none; there is absolutely no other probability. The same argument holds for all topics: regardless of the numerous opinions, only one is right or none is; two different opinions cannot be right at the same time. So, what is the material of Geoscientists? They are individuals with analytical capabilities, with skills to recognize problems, with skills to structure ways to deal with those problems, and with abilities to make the best usage of available resources. They are individuals who have made the conscious choice to dedicate their whole lives to study, understand, and sustain earth; hence all its inhabitants. It's not a mere profession for them; it's an obsession and way of life. By definition; they are scientists of Earth, they care about Earth as if they have fallen in love with it. It wasn't just a feeling that rushed through their veins for an hour then dissipated; they decided to pursue their own lives for the sake of maintaining

  12. Cluster Formation in the Superconducting Complex Intermetallic Compound Be21Pt5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Alfred; Ormeci, Alim; Bobnar, Matej; Akselrud, Lev G; Avdeev, Maxim; Gumeniuk, Roman; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Prots, Yurii; Hennig, Christoph; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Grin, Yuri

    2018-01-09

    Materials with the crystal structure of γ-brass type (Cu5Zn8 type) are typical representatives of intermetallic compounds. From the electronic point of view, they are often interpreted using the valence electron concentration approach of Hume-Rothery, developed previously for transition metals. The γ-brass-type phases of the main-group elements are rather rare. The intermetallic compound Be21Pt5, a new member of this family, was synthesized, and its crystal structure, chemical bonding, and physical properties were characterized. Be21Pt5 crystallizes in the cubic space group F4̅3m with lattice parameter a = 15.90417(3) Å and 416 atoms per unit cell. From the crystallographic point of view, the binary substance represents a special family of intermetallic compounds called complex metallic alloys (CMA). The crystal structure was solved by a combination of synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data. Besides the large difference in the scattering power of the components, the structure solution was hampered by the systematic presence of very weak reflections mimicking wrong symmetry. The structural motif of Be21Pt5 is described as a 2 × 2 × 2 superstructure of the γ-brass structure (Cu5Zn8 type) or 6 × 6 × 6 superstructure of the simple bcc structural pattern with distinct distribution of defects. The main building elements of the crystal structure are four types of nested polyhedral units (clusters) with the compositions Be22Pt4 and Be20Pt6. Each cluster contains four shells (4 + 4 + 6 + 12 atoms). Clusters with different compositions reveal various occupation of the shells by platinum and beryllium. Polyhedral nested units with the same composition differ by the distance of the shell atoms to the cluster center. Analysis of chemical bonding was made applying the electron localizability approach, a quantum chemical technique operating in real space that is proven to be especially efficient for intermetallic compounds. Evaluations of the calculated electron

  13. Ocorrência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em músicos Occurrence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Stechman Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em grupos de músicos profissionais, intérpretes de instrumentos de sopro e de cordas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 92 músicos, com idades entre 18 e 58 anos. Foram entrevistados 70 músicos intérpretes de instrumentos de sopro (76,08% e 22 músicos intérpretes de instrumentos de cordas (23,91% pertencentes à Orquestra Sinfônica do Paraná, à Banda da Polícia Militar do Paraná ou à Banda do Exército. Foi realizada entrevista que constou de questões referentes à identificação, tempo de prática do instrumento e presença de sinais, sintomas e hábitos relacionados às disfunções temporomandibulares. Comparou-se as respostas dos músicos por meio do teste de diferença de proporções. RESULTADOS: Trinta e nove músicos (42,3% percebem que rangem e/ou apertam os dentes, 23 (25% reportaram sentir dor na articulação temporomandibular, 39 músicos (42% relataram escutar ruídos na articulação temporomandibular, 37 (40% sensação de plenitude auricular e 33 (35% presença de zumbido. Não houve diferença significativa entre os instrumentistas de sopro e de corda no que se refere à presença de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular. CONCLUSÃO: A somatória dos fatores apresentados coloca os praticantes de determinados instrumentos musicais como um grupo suscetível a apresentar sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular, incluindo sintomas auditivos, podendo tal prática ser considerada tanto um fator desencadeante, quanto um fator agravante ou perpetuador de um problema já existente.PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in groups of professional musicians, interpreters of brass and string instruments. METHODS: Ninety two musicians, with ages varying from 18 to 58 years, participated on the study. Seventy musicians who played brass instruments (76.08% and 22 musicians who

  14. Influence of full-contour zirconia surface roughness on wear of glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangruangrong, Palika; Cook, N Blaine; Sabrah, Alaa H; Hara, Anderson T; Bottino, Marco C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of full-contour (Y-TZP) zirconia surface roughness (glazed vs. as-machined) on the wear behavior of glass-ceramics. Thirty-two full contour Y-TZP (Diazir®) specimens (hereafter referred to as zirconia sliders) (ϕ = 2 mm, 1.5 mm in height) were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Zirconia sliders were embedded in brass holders using acrylic resin and then randomly assigned (n = 16) according to the surface treatment received, that is, as-machined or glazed. Glass-ceramic antagonists, Empress/EMP and e.max/EX, were cut into tabs (13 × 13 × 2 mm(3) ), wet-finished, and similarly embedded in brass holders. Two-body pin-on-disk wear testing was performed at 1.2 Hz for 25,000 cycles under a 3 kg load. Noncontact profilometry was used to measure antagonist height (μm) and volume loss (mm(3) ). Qualitative data of the zirconia testing surfaces and wear tracks were obtained using SEM. Statistics were performed using ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05. As-machined yielded significantly higher mean roughness values (Ra = 0.83 μm, Rq = 1.09 μm) than glazed zirconia (Ra = 0.53 μm, Rq = 0.78 μm). Regarding glass-ceramic antagonist loss, as-machined zirconia caused significantly less mean height and volume loss (68.4 μm, 7.6 mm(3) ) for EMP than the glazed group (84.9 μm, 9.9 mm(3) ), while no significant differences were found for EX. Moreover, EMP showed significantly lower mean height and volume loss than EX (p glass-ceramics tested. e.max wear was not affected by zirconia surface roughness; however, Empress wear was greater when opposing glazed zirconia. Overall, surface glazing on full-contour zirconia did not minimize glass-ceramic wear when compared with as-machined zirconia. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Material factors influencing metallic whisker growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodekohr, Chad L.

    Sn on brass, the atom feedstock for whiskers lies within the film exclusively; the brass substrate does not contribute to whisker production. (9) The volume of film consumed by a metallic whisker is a simple volumetric calculation. (10) There are likely to be multiple mechanisms of whisker growth depending on the substrate - thin film system. (11) In general, the thickness of a metallic film does not have an effect on whisker growth qualities.

  16. ON THE EFFECT OF PRIOR AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE ON NEAR-THRESHOLD FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.F.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the fatigue or endurance strength of planar slip materials, such as steel and brass, is increased by refining the grain size, whereas in wavy slip materials, such as pure copper and pure aluminum, the fatigue strength is unaffected. However, there is little similar evidence of an effect of grain size on fatigue crack propagation. In both wavy and planar slip metals, growth rates appear independent of grain size. For example, variations in grain size from 10 to 200{micro}m in 70/30 brass (6), and from 45 to 480{micro}m in austenitic stainless steel produce no measurable change in fatigue crack propagation rates over a range of growth rates from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -2} mm/cycle. Recently, however, there have been indications in the literature that grain size may indeed influence crack propagation behavior at growth rates less than 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} mm/cycle approaching the threshold for crack propagation, {Delta}K{sub 0}. Robinson and Beevers report an order of magnitude decrease in near-threshold growth rates in {alpha}-titanium after coarsening the grain size from 20 to 200{micro}m. Similar effects have been seen in Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, Masounave and BaIlon have observed a marked increase in threshold {Delta}K{sub 0} values in a range of low strength steels by increasing ferrite grain size. In all the above studies however, no attempt was made to control strength; and the effect of coarsening the grain size may well have been caused by a concurrent decrease in material strength, particularly since it is known that, in steels at least, near-threshold fatigue crack growth is markedly decreased by reducing the yield strength. A comparison at constant yield strength between coarse and fine-grained materials has been made in ultra-high strength steel (300-M) where it was found that, on enlarging the (prior austenite) grain size from 20 to l60{micro}m, a small reduction in near-threshold propagation rates below 10{sup -4} to 10

  17. Instrumen Musik Barat dan Gamelan Jawa dalam Iringan Tari Keraton Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Surtihadi

    2014-04-01

    orchestra musical instrumentsin accompanying the female dance performances, which are the kapang-kapang partof Bedhaya and Srimpi, and the male one i.e. Lawung Ageng. Some Western musicalinstruments like, drums (percussion sections, strings instruments (string sections,woodwind instruments (woodwind sections and brass (brass sections are used in thosedances shows. The data are analyzed utilizing the qualitative method. The problem willalso be approached socio-politically. It can be concluded that the political intrigue in thepalace has brought about some impacts on the art living in it. Waltz dance is performed toenliven the dance parties and complements the protocol ceremonies as the routine events.

  18. Estudio de la influencia microbiológica en la corrosión de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443 y acero inoxidable AISI 316;

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of biofilms: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These biofilms affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (UNS C68700, admiralty brass (UNS C443 and stainless steel AISI 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay. The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel AISI 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration.Los microorganismos influyen de manera significativa en el proceso corrosivo y generan condiciones que afectan la velocidad y/o el mecanismo de deterioro. Su presencia se manifiesta por la formación de bio-películas: conglomerados de bacterias y polímeros extracelulares. Dichas bio-películas afectan la durabilidad del material, la velocidad de flujo y la transferencia de calor. En el presente trabajo se evalúa el crecimiento de microorganismos heterótrofos aerobios, heterótrofos anaerobios y bacterias sulfato-reductoras sobre latón aluminio (UNS C68700, latón almirantazgo (UNS C443 y acero inoxidable AISI 316. Asimismo, se estudia la influencia del crecimiento de la bio-película sobre el comportamiento corrosivo mediante técnicas electroquímicas: curvas de polarización y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica. Las exposiciones se realizan en la Bahía de Montevideo, estuario del Río de la Plata

  19. Investigation of Sol-Gel coatings exposed in the condenser at Fynsvaerket. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, M. [DTU Management Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Vilhelmsen, T. [Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The Danish Technological Institute (DTI) has developed a coatings technique using Hybrid Sol-gel nanotechnology to produce coatings which can change the surface characteristics of various components. It is the purpose of this project to investigate where such coatings can be utilised in the power generating industry with respect to fouling and corrosion resistance. Four different sol-gel coatings have been applied to brass condenser tubes about 10 cm in length. The coatings are termed 23, 35, 38, 46. The exact composition of these different coatings was not given. These sections were mounted in the water chamber inlet before the tubes into the condenser and another set were placed on the condenser plate at the outlet. The condenser tube has a composition 76 wt.% Cu, 22 wt.% Zn and 2 wt.% Al corresponding to an aluminium brass. Based on the visual appearance of the four coatings it is clear that Sol-gel 38 does not reduced biological fouling and rust spots can be clearly seen on Sol-gel 46. Thus based on visual appearance, sol-gel 23 and sol-gel 35 are most promising. Due to the presence of corrosion products on the inner side of the unexposed tubes which influences the adherence and protectiveness of coatings applied, the inner side cannot be used to assess the coatings performance. In the next exposure test, better initial cleaning of the tubes is required. Based on visual assessment, Sol-gel 38 has not solved the problems with biological fouling compared to the other coatings. With respect to corrosion, it is observed that in all cases there are corrosion products, either chlorides or oxides/hydroxides/carbonates, present in the interface between the tube and the coating. Coating 38 also experienced lack of adhesion. This could be triggered by a build up of corrosion products under the coating which would eventually lead to delaminating of the coating. Whether the corrosion rate has been decreased compared to the uncoated tubes is not known, however in the next

  20. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Marcus

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists, woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists, and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters, include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods and irritant (physical-chemical noxae skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin". Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads" more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological