WorldWideScience

Sample records for brass

  1. Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

  2. Failure analysis of brass tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S.J.; Bodnar, R.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L. Bodnar for their analysis of cracks in Admiralty brass cooling tubes, which are part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provides electricity to a manufacturing plant. A mixture of non-recirculating city and spring pit water flows through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. This award-winning entry in the ASM/IMS competition shows how the metallographers analyzed the cracks, and what the results were.

  3. Experimenting with brass musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    With the aid of microcomputer hardware and software for the introductory physics laboratory, I have developed several experiments dealing with the properties of brass musical instruments that could be used when covering sound anywhere from an introductory physics laboratory to a course in musical acoustics, or even independent studies. The results of these experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. Most introductory sources only discuss these effects qualitatively.

  4. Excess Production Capacity Squeezes Profits of Brass Strip Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Between 2003 and 2006,under the backdrop of rapid growth of domestic demand for brass strip and soaring copper price,brass strip manufacturers made a fortune.And brass strip manufacturers mushroomed in Zhejiang,Anhui and Jiangsu.Large brass strip manufacturers

  5. Regeneration in brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. J.; Bowsher, J. M.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the production of musical notes by the interaction between the lips of a player and a brass wind instrument. The mechanism of this non-linear oscillation, together with that in the voice and for woodwind instruments, is discussed and past theories reviewed. Each element in the interaction is then carefully delineated and reasonable approximations to the governing equations for the lip dynamics and flow conditions through the lip opening are deduced: the acoustic parameters of the instrument and pressure source from the lungs can be experimentally determined. In contrast to the case of woodwind instruments, for example, many of the important parameters controlling the interaction can vary over a wide range and are under the complete control of the player. The expressions describing each component of the interaction are then combined to form an overall theory of regeneration, following Helmholtz, which leads to a description of the conditions necessary for a note to be sustained, and to an expression describing the characteristic waveform of the mouthpiece pressure at low frequencies. Experimental measurements of this mouthpiece pressure are presented, together with measurements of the steady and alternating components of the pressure in the mouth, and of the velocity in the mouthpiece for blown notes on a trombone and trumpet. Good agreement was observed between the harmonics of the measured mouthpiece pressure and those deduced from theory. Measurements are presented of the intonation of a trombone, and the range and characteristics of notes "buzzed" on a mouthpiece alone are discussed. Finally the steady pressure in the mouth and the average flow down the instrument are used to calculate the average lip opening, and hence the effective mass of the moving parts of the lips for a variety of notes played on a trombone and trumpet.

  6. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  7. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  8. Structure Analysis and Properties of Unleaded Brasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzadkosz S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of brasses regarding their microstructure, mechanical properties and ecological characteristics has been presented. The influence of characteristic alloying elements contained in the brasses and the possibilities of replacing them with other elements have been assessed. The paper contains the results of studies on the influence of chosen additional elements shaping the structure and properties of unleaded alloys based on Cu-Zn system as the matrix. The research aimed at determining the mechanism and the intensity of influence of such additives as tellurium and bismuth. The microstructures were investigated with the help of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS for determining significant changes of the properties.

  9. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kharakwal, J. S.; Gurjar, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of bra...

  10. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Dirven, R.; JACOBI, I.; Brekel, van den, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can 'free' both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective assessment of voicing and music playing parameters was carried out in 2 laryngectomised patients with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis able to play brass instruments (tenor horn and sl...

  11. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of sulfidation of brass at the rubber/brass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface is investigated. ► The 2-min vulcanization reaction is enough to convert the interface composition. ► Five S-containing species are identified at the interface. ► Strong rubber–brass adhesion is related to the Cu2S/CuS ratio. ► Degradation of adhesion proceeds along with desulfidation of the interface. - Abstract: High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface to elucidate the origin of strong adhesion as well as the degradation between rubber and brass. Special attention has been given to copper sulfides formed at the interface during the vulcanization reaction at 170 °C. At least five sulfur-containing species are identified in the adhesive interlayer including crystalline CuS and amorphous CuxS (x ≃ 2). These copper sulfide species are not uniformly distributed within the layer, but there exits the concentration gradation; the concentration of CuxS is high in the region on the rubber side and is diminished in the deeper region, while vice versa for that of CuS. Degradation of the interface adhesive strength by prolonged vulcanization arises from the decrease in the CuxS/CuS ratio accompanying desulfurization of the adhesive layer.

  12. The ultrasonic copper and brass decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ultra-sounds as a decontamination technic does not bring an absolute solution. As a function of the materials it seemed necessary to find what was the optimum conditions for using the ultra-sounds and to define not only the ultra-sonic factors but also the chemical solutions which bring some appreciable decontamination factors without bringing any too important corrosion processus. This report gives the results of this study applied to copper and brass. This study allowed to select some effective treatment baths on the two types of contamination: plutonium and fission products. (authors)

  13. Lots of Brass, Lots of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Those entering the foyer ahead of the brass concert find several installations on the ground floor of the Copenhagen Opera House. Each installation explores the relationship between music and color, and there are musical instruments (trombones) available for people to play. On a large TV screen......, streams of colored particles represent the musical sounds that are picked up by a microphone when playing the trombone. People are also invited to take their own ‘particle LED light’ into the concert hall and use them to accompany the music. When seated, the link becomes obvious: Music and colors become...

  14. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.M. Hilgers; R. Dirven; I. Jacobi; M.W.M. van den Brekel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can ‘free’ both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective asses

  15. The Paramagnetism of Dissolved Mn in α and β Brasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramagnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on α and β brasses containing ∼ 1 w/o Mn. The susceptibility varied with temperature according to the Curie Weiss law and the Curie constant and thereby the Bohr magneton number per Mn atom were determined. Interpreted in terms of valency, Mn monovalent in copper has a valency in α brass which decreases progressively with zinc content attaining the value 0.58 at the limiting of composition. Mn in β brass exhibits a valency 0.8. These results are not in keeping with previous values for the valency of manganese as determined from phase boundary relationships and electron to atom ratios

  16. The effect of deformation on stress corrosion of brass

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kadłuczka; Mazur, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brass are some of the most common copper alloys, both due to its characteristics and utility technology. Corrosion fracture after stress corrosion are the most common form of destruction of brass.This is particularly dangerous because of the lack of early, visible signal of decohesion of the material. It is therefore important to know exactly this phenomenon to design and manufacture heavy loaded industrial constructions exposed to aggressive environments, as wellas minimize the danger of des...

  17. Anatomical studies of timber and EPMA analysis of brass artefacts collected from steam engine shipwreck of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    to understand the species of timber and mineralogy of brass, anatomical analysis of timber and EPMA analysis of brass carried out. This paper details the state of the shipwrecks, mineralogy of brass and anatomical analysis of timber collected from Minicoy...

  18. Study on microstructure and properties of brass containing Sb and Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel free-cutting unleaded brass containing antimony and magnesium was prepared by gravity casting and hot extrusion. Microstructure of the hot extruded Sb-Mg brass was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). Its mechanical properties were measured by tensile test, and cutting performance was investigated by lathe turning experiment. Results showed that microstructure of the hot extruded Sb-Mg brass was composed of α, β phases and Sb-Mg containing intermetallic compounds. The newly developed brass was compared with the HPb59-1 brass for its mechanical property. Its cutting performance was close to that of a German free-cutting unleaded brass. Sb-Mg brass has potential to replace HPb59-1 brass so as to reduce cost and protect environment.

  19. Development of rolling texture in copper and brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Grum-Jensen, A.

    1968-01-01

    The development of texture in copper and brass (15 pct Zn by weight) rolled at room temperature and in copper rolled at -196degC has been followed by determination of pole figures for various degrees of reduction. The concurrent development in microstructure has been investigated by transmission...... electron microscopy. For low deformations, the texture in brass, and in copper rolled at -196degC, is the same as the texture in copper rolled at room temperature. The difference in texture does not show until 50% reduction. At the same reduction at which the difference in texture appears, mechanical...... twinning starts in brass and low-temperature rolled copper. Nevertheless, Wassermann's twinning theory is found to be incompatible with the present results....

  20. Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using particle...

  1. Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using pa...

  2. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au) 9 tabs., 94 ills., 177 refs.; The thesis is also available as DCAMM-R-S80 and as an electronic document on http://www.risoe.dk/rispubl

  3. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au)

  4. Investigation on Structure and Properties of Brass Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M.Haque; A.A.Khan

    2008-01-01

    In this work, alpha (α) brass was poured in green sand mould and metallic chill mould at about 1050℃. Sand casting method and metallic chill casting method are representing the slow and fast cooling rates of the castings, respectively. The slow cooling rate in the sand mould produces larger grains, while the metallic chill mould produces smaller grains in the castings. As the grain size decreases, the strength of the cast brass increases; micro-porosity in the casting decreases and the tendency for the casting to fracture during solidification decreases. Thus, the faster cooling rate casting offers higher strength, density and hardness compared to the slow cooling rate casting.

  5. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, F J M; Dirven, R; Jacobi, I; van den Brekel, M W M

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can 'free' both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective assessment of voicing and music playing parameters was carried out in 2 laryngectomised patients with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis able to play brass instruments (tenor horn and slide trombone): sound pressure levels in dB, maximum phonation time in seconds and trachea pressures in mmHg; videofluoroscopy, stroboscopy and digital high speed endoscopy to assess neoglottis vibration and opening. The dynamic range of the voice in the patients was 29 and 20 dB, and maximum phonation time was 22 and 19 sec, respectively; intratracheal pressures during voicing varied from 7 mmHg for the softest /a/ to 49 mmHg for the loudest /a/. For brass instrument play, the intratracheal pressures varied from 14 mmHg for the softest tone to 48 mmHg for the loudest tone. Imaging confirmed earlier findings that the neoglottis is closing and vibrating during voicing and remains 'open' without vibrations during music play, indicating good neoglottis control and innervation. From these objective measurements, we can conclude that trachea pressures during brass instrument play are within physiological ranges for tracheoesophageal voicing with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis. Furthermore, it was shown that application of a stable baseplate for retaining an automatic speaking valve and an additional customisable 'neck brace' makes bimanual play possible again. PMID:26246666

  6. Corrosion fatigue behavior of high strength brass in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S.; Kassem, M.A.; Ramadan, R.M.; El-Zeky, M.A. [Suez Canal Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of British Standard high strength brass, CZ 127 has been studied in various environments, 3.5%NaC1 solution and 3.5%NaC1 containing 1000ppm ammonia by applying the reverse bending technique, strain-controlled cyclic, at 67 cycles/min. Characteristics of the produced alloy were studied using differential thermal analysis with applying its results in heat treating of the alloy; metallographic examinations; hardness measurements; X-ray; and electrochemical behavior of the unstressed alloy. CZ 127 was fatigued at three different conditions, solution treated, peak aged, and over aged at a fixed strain amplitude, 0.03 5. Solution treated alloy gave the best fatigue properties in all environments tested among the other materials. Results of the alloy studied were compared with that obtained of 70/30 {alpha}-brass. Fracture surface of the fatigued alloy was examined using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX. (author)

  7. Identification of force constants in β-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J. C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of β-brass have previously been measured by Gilat and Dolling and a fit was obtained to a Born-von Kármán model with forces extending to the fourth nearest neighbours. Although a factor of 10 was found between the second-nearest-neighbour Cu-Cu and Zn-Zn force constants......, the data did not allow an identification of these constants. By comparisons of neutron group intensities from two β-brass crystals, one with normal Cu and the other isotopically enriched with 65Cu, we are able to identify conclusively these force constants: αZn-Zn2nd similar, equals 10αCu-Cu2nd....

  8. BIOFILM FORMATION ON BRASS COUPONS EXPOSED TO COOLING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach M.T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Brass coupons were installed in a bypass in an industrial cooling water that uses seawater. The metal samples were removed at 15, 30, 45, and 60-day intervals for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the microorganisms constituting the biofilm adhering to the metal surface. After 15 days of exposure, a biofilm had already been generated which contained aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The aerobic bacteria were the most stable in relation to quantity, followed by the fungi. Anaerobic microorganisms, as well as sulfate-reducing bacteria, were present at higher concentrations. Variations in sulfide contents were observed in the biofilm. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed microalgae, bacteria, filaments, and corrosion products as constituents of the biofilm adhering to the surface of the metal. After the biofilms were scraped off the brass samples, evidence of corrosion was observed on the metal surface

  9. Antifriction and wear resistance of tin diffusion coating on brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    After brass is coated with tin, heat treatment makes the coating metal Sn and the substrate metal lic elements Cu and Zn diffuse with each other. This causes the c oating composition to be changed and the interface to be strengthened. The diffusion coating with a multiphase structure formed by this process has excellent properties of antifriction and wear resistance. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, electronic probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction, the mechanism of the properties is discussed.

  10. Custom brass instrument player mouthguard for orthodontic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Maria João Ponces; Paula Vaz; Luís Loureiro; Daniela Afonso; Jorge Dias Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Mouthguards reduce greatly the frequency and the severity of injuries on intraoral tissues (Bishop et al., 1985) absorbing and dispersing the energy of the force impact (Park et al., 1994). The brass instruments known as lip-vibrated instruments (Baines, 1993) are played by blowing air through closed lips. The pressure applied on the lips, particularly the upper lip, can cause laceration and bruising. The use of mouthguards can prevent those damages producing some relief on orthodontics patie...

  11. Particle size dependent chemistry from laser ablation of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyi; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Sam S; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E

    2005-10-15

    The proportion of zinc and copper in particles formed by laser ablation of brass was found to vary with the particle diameter. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that smaller particles were zinc enhanced while larger particles were composed mostly of copper. A model based on condensation of vapor onto large droplets ejected from a melted liquid layer is proposed to describe the change in particle composition versus size. PMID:16223257

  12. Experimental investigations of lip motion in brass instrument playing

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Samuel D. F.

    2009-01-01

    The precise nature of the motion of the lips of the musician is critically important to the sound of the brass wind instrument. The player must match the oscillation of the lips to the acoustical properties of the instrument and it can take many years of practice to master the techniques involved. Visualisation techniques for capturing the motion of the lips during performance are described and the behaviour of the lips quantitatively analysed using digital image analysis. T...

  13. Technology validation of coatings deposition onto the brass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to evaluate strategic development perspectives of manufacturing metallic-ceramic coatings in the process of physical vapor deposition (PVD on the CuZn40Pb2 brass substrate. The amount of layers applied to the substrate was adopted as the criterion for technology division, thus obtaining three technology groups for foresight researches.Design/methodology/approach: The carried out foresight-materials science researches included creating a dendrological matrix of technology value, a meteorological matrix of environment influence, a matrix of strategies for technologies, laying out strategic development tracks, carrying out materials science experiments which test the mechanical and tribological properties and the resistance to corrosion and erosion of brass covered with a varied number of layers applied using the method of reactive magnetron evaporation, as well as preparing technology roadmaps.Findings: High potential and attractiveness were shown of the analyzed technologies against the environment, as well as a promising improvement of mechanical and tribological properties and an increase of resistance to material corrosion and erosion as a result of covering with PVD coatings.Research limitations/implications: Researches pertaining to covering the brass substrate with PVD coatings is part of a bigger research project aimed at selecting, researching and characterizing priority innovative material surface engineering technologies.Practical implications: The presented results of experimental materials science researches prove the significant positive impact of covering with PVD coatings on the structure and mechanical properties, as well as the resistance to corrosion, erosion and abrasive wear of brass which leads to the justification of their including into the set of priority innovative technologies recommended for application in industrial practice, including in small and medium-size companies

  14. Playing On: John York and the Sydney Brass Musical Instrument Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The history of John York and the Sydney Brass Musical Instrument Factory contains familiar elements of a quintessential nineteenth-century Australian narrative. It features a skilled English immigrant who brought his family to a developing capital city and became a manufacturer and small business owner. It is an unusual story in that York practised the specialised skill of brass instrument making and repairing and was one of a handful of brass instrument makers known to have operated in Sydne...

  15. Microstructure and properties of α + β brass after ECAP processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dutkiewicz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP processing on the microstructure and hardness of α+β brasses. The effect of deformation temperature and number of passes was investigated particularly on the shape and size of grains of both phases.Design/methodology/approach: The specially constructed channel with 90° pressing angle, allowing heating of the tool with the sample was used for ECAP processing. The grain size was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and measurements microhardness were used to determine the effect of ECAP on the hardness of both phases.Findings: Significant grain refinement down to 300 nm from the initial 20 mm was observed after ECAP processing at 300°C. At 400°C grain refinement occurred down to 1-3 mm. Frequent microtwins were observed within a phase. The microhardness of the b phase was higher than that of a phase, 235 HV and 173 HV respectively.Research limitations/implications: The limitation is a size of the sample which makes difficult future applications. Another one is elevated temperature (minimum 300°C otherwise the samples forms crack. This limits also the grain refinement which is above the range of nanomaterials.Practical implications: Significant grain refinement allows to increase the hardness and strength of the sample preserving a good plasticity. The limitation is the size of the channel what limits the application. The material could be used in such cases when high strength of brasses is needed with sufficient plasticity and good conductivity.Originality/value: In this paper detailed TEM studies were performed for α+β brasses showing high density of microtwins and higher density of dislocations within α phase, than in the b phase. Higher hardness of the b phase results from the ordering, which hinder deformation of this phase.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of musical reed and brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. M.

    1999-06-01

    A musical wind instrument transforms a constant pressure input from the player's mouth into a fluctuating pressure output in the form of a radiating sound wave. In reed woodwind and brass instruments, this transformation is achieved through a nonlinear coupling between two vibrating systems: the flow control valve formed by the mechanical reed or the lips of the player, and the air column contained by the pipe. Although the basic physics of reed wind instruments was developed by Helmholtz in the nineteenth century, the application of ideas from the modern theory of nonlinear dynamics has led to recent advances in our understanding of some musically important features of wind instrument behaviour. As a first step, the nonlinear aspects of the musical oscillator can be considered to be concentrated in the flow control valve; the air column can be treated as a linear vibrating system, with a set of natural modes of vibration corresponding to the standing waves in the pipe. Recent models based on these assumptions have had reasonable success in predicting the threshold blowing pressure and sounding frequency of a clarinet, as well as explaining at least qualitatively the way in which the timbre of the sound varies with blowing pressure. The situation is more complicated for brass instruments, in which the player's lips provide the flow valve. Experiments using artificial lips have been important in permitting systematic studies of the coupling between lips and air column; the detailed nature of this coupling is still not fully understood. In addition, the assumption of linearity in the air column vibratory system sometimes breaks down for brass instruments. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of high amplitude sound waves can lead to the development of shock waves in trumpets and trombones, with important musical consequences.

  17. Synchrotron applications in archaeometallurgy: analysis of high zinc brass astrolabes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrolabes represent the ingenious application of mathematics and astronomy in creating a single instrument that was used for both mapping the heavens and solving everyday problems in medieval Europe and Islamic lands. Constructed as a sort of analog computer to map the heavens, astrolabes were widely used for 700 years in Europe and 1000 years in Islamic lands. In this study, 14 astrolabes (5 European and 9 Islamic) have been analyzed non-destructively utilizing a high-energy collimated x-ray beam produced at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratories. By impinging a high energy (71 KeV) beam of x-rays capable of transmitting through the brass astrolabes (up to 1 cm thick), metallurgical data can be produced from the bulk of the samples without any harm to them. Diffraction, fluorescence, and radiography experiments were performed on the astrolabes. Diffraction experiments allowed composition of the bulk samples as well as mechanical deformation and forming histories to be determined. X-ray fluorescence experiments allowed the near surface (∼ 20 μm) compositions to be determined, while radiography allowed mapping of the relative thickness. From these experiments and the forming history, it is possible to obtain information about microstructural characteristics and compositions fo the astrolabes that no other non-destructive technique could furnish. These data were used to learn more about technical and metalworking techniques used by the astrolabe manufacturers, as well as to determine if any astrolabe parts wee later (or modern) replacements. Of the Islamic astrolabes studied, a group of four from the Lahore region in current day Pakistan were found to have abnormally high (> 35%) zinc compositions. These astrolabes, signed by Diya al-Din Muhammad and dating from 1637-1662 AD, provide evidence for direct alloying of metallic zinc and copper to form brass. While metallic zinc is believed to have been produced in the region for many

  18. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfar, H.; Rupnik, Z.; Šmit, Ž.

    2015-11-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  19. Acoustical study of the playing characteristics of brass wind instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Logie, Shona Mary

    2013-01-01

    When assessing the quality of a brass instrument the player must consider a number of factors, the main consideration being the playability of the chosen instrument. The playability of an instrument is a broad term used to describe how well the instrument plays; this includes how in tune the resonant modes are, how easy it is to start and move between notes, how easy it is to bend notes and the degree of spectral enrichment during a crescendo that is able to be produced. The...

  20. Optical properties and electronic structure of the Cu–Zn brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, V.J., E-mail: vicki.keast@newcastle.edu.au [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Ewald, J. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); De Silva, K.S.B.; Cortie, M.B. [Institute for Nanoscale Technology, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Monnier, B. [School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Cuskelly, D.; Kisi, E.H. [School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2015-10-25

    The color of Cu–Zn brasses range from the red of copper through bright yellow to grey-silver as the Zn content increases. Here we examine the mechanism by which these color changes occur. The optical properties of this set of alloys has been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and compared to experimental spectroscopy measurements. The optical response of the low Zn content α-brasses is shown to have a distinctly different origin to that in the higher content β′, γ and ε-brasses. The response of β′-brass is unique in that it is strongly influenced by an overdamped plasmon excitation and this alloy will also have a strong surface plasmon response. - Highlights: • Study of the electronic structure and optical response of the Cu–Zn brasses. • Agreement between experiment and calculation of the dielectric functions. • α-brasses optical response is dominated by transitions from the top of the d-band. • In the other brasses it is transitions around the Fermi level. • β′-brass response is dominateed by an overdamped bulk plasmonic response.

  1. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse

  2. Dosimetric evaluation of hybrid brass/stainless-steel apertures for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In passive scattering proton therapy, patient specific collimators (apertures) are used to laterally shape the proton beam, and compensators are employed to distally conform proton dose to the target. Brass is a commonly used material for apertures and recently a hybrid brass/stainless-steel (BR/SST) aperture design has been introduced to reduce treatment cost without clinical flow change. We measured stopping power and leakage dose for apertures made of stainless steel and brass in the Proton Therapy system. The linear stopping power ratios for stainless steel (type 304) and brass to water were calculated to be 5.46 and 5.51, respectively. Measured stopping power ratios of SST and BR were 5.51  ±  0.04 and 5.56  ±  0.08, respectively, which agrees with the calculated values within 1%. Leakage dose on the downstream surface of two slabs of Ø18 cm stainless steel apertures (total thickness of 6.5 cm) for the maximum available proton energy (235 MeV) was 1.283% ± 0.004% of the prescription dose, and was smaller compared to the 1.358% ± 0.005% leakage dose measured for existing brass apertures of identical physical dimensions. Therefore, the existing beam range limits for brass aperture slabs used at our institution with safety margin allowances for material composition and delivered beam range uncertainties can be safely applied for the new BR/SST aperture design. Potential range differences in the brass and stainless steel interface regions of the hybrid design were further investigated using EBT3 GafChromic film. Film dosimetry revealed no discernible range variations across the brass and stainless steel interface regions. Neutron dose to the patient from brass and stainless steel apertures was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The results indicate that stainless steel produces similar patient neutron dose compared to brass. Material activation dose rates of stainless steel were measured over a period of 7 d after irradiation. The

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: ► Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. ► Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. ► Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. ► Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  4. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  5. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  6. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property

  7. Preparation of nanosized ZnO using α brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized ZnOs were synthesized on the surface of α brass coated a film of nickel catalyst at 500-700 deg. C under atmosphere of O2 and CH4 gases. The nanosized ZnOs have shapes including pillar, leaf, sheet and rod, which were determined by the synthesis temperature and the flow rates of O2 and CH4 gases. The nanosized ZnOs were characterized by electron microscopy including transmission electron microscope for crystal structure, morphology and high resolution images, both field emission scanning electron microscope and scanning electron microscope for morphology, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope equipped in electron microscope for chemical composition. A mechanism was proposed for the growth of nanosized ZnO obtained in this work

  8. Laser cleaning of varnishes and contaminants on brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of laser ablation to perform controlled cleaning of varnishes containing contaminants and paints used by restorers in artistic objects from brass samples while keeping unaltered the finish structure is demonstrated in this work. Adequate laser energy per pulse and number of laser shots required to perform a suitable cleaning by laser ablation have been optimized. The inspection of the samples before and after the cleaning process by optical microscopy and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique demonstrated that the finish structure of the surface was intact while the coatings were completely eliminated. Furthermore, a laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIBS)-based detection system was applied during the irradiation process for the analysis of the material removal and also for its monitoring

  9. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROLESS Ni–B COATED BRASS CONTACTS UNDER FRETTING CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    T.S.N. Sankara Narayanan; YOUNG WOO PARK; KANG YONG LEE

    2008-01-01

    The performance of electroless (EL) Ni–B coated brass contacts under fretting conditions was evaluated. The contact resistance of EL Ni–B coated brass contact was measured as a function of fretting cycles. The surface profile and wear depth of the fretted zone were measured using laser scanning microscope. The study reveals that EL Ni–B coated contacts exhibit better performance under fretting conditions. However, at conditions which are prone for severe oxidation such as, low frequency (3 Hz...

  11. Analysis of Transients for Brass Instruments Under Playing Conditions Using Multiple Microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Jonathan; LOGIE, Shona; Chick, John; Smith, Richard; Campbell, Murray

    2010-01-01

    National audience This work investigates the development of a novel multiple microphone technique for analysis of the acoustical behaviour of brass instruments under playing conditions. In the current work, multiple microphones are deployed within a cylindrical section of the bore of a brass instrument. The technique allows for measurement of the instrument during playing, or while excited by a loudspeaker signal, and allows for a more robust analysis of the transfer of acoustic energy bet...

  12. Film boiling on porous layered brass sphere during quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jun-young; Kim, Seol Ha; Jo, Hangjin; Lee, Gi Cheol; Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [KOREA Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fluid (liquid or gas) can afford to be permeable into porous layer on heat transfer surface and this phenomenon significantly affects phase-change heat transfer, especially boiling. The Corrosion Residual Unidentified Deposition (CRUD) which has generally micro-scaled pore geometry could have considered as porous layer and it was suggested that modification of heat transfer surface like CRUD can influence cooling rate during Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) transient. Therefore, role of porous layer will be more emphasized at core-safety analysis, because, recently strategy of nuclear-fuel operation gradually becomes higher burn-up and longer cycle. As another aspect, study about film boiling has widely concerned due to its importance at core-coolability in LOCA, however, consideration of porous layer has relatively restricted because of difficulty of fabrication, excepting for horizontal surface. In this article, we briefly introduce experimental result of film boiling on porous layered surface during quenching. Laboratory-scaled quenching facility was applied and porous layer was fabricated by Electro-Chemical Deposition (ECD) method at spherical brass test section. We observed that the existence of porous layer on heat transfer surface considerable affected the cooling rate (t{sub cool,MPS}/t{sub cool,BBS}-12) during quenching in a saturated distilled water, therefore, it is expected that porous layer like CURD may have the potential able to affect LOCA transient.

  13. Femtosecond laser ablation of brass in air and liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation of brass in air, water, and ethanol was investigated using a femtosecond laser system operating at a wavelength of 785 nm and a pulse width less than 130 fs. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were used to study the efficiency and quality of laser ablation in the three ablation media at two different ablation modes. With a liquid layer thickness of 3 mm above the target, ablation rate was found to be higher in water and ethanol than in air. Ablation under water and ethanol showed cleaner surfaces and less debris re-deposition compared to ablation in air. In addition to spherical particles that are normally formed from re-solidified molten material, micro-scale particles with varying morphologies were observed scattered in the ablated structures (craters and grooves) when ablation was conducted under water. The presence of such particles indicates the presence of a non-thermal ablation mechanism that becomes more apparent when ablation is conducted under water.

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps

  15. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia, E-mail: shaziabashir@gcu.edu.pk; Ali, Nisar; Umm-i-Kalsoom,; Yousaf, Daniel; Faizan-ul-Haq,; Naeem, Athar; Ahmad, Riaz; Khlaeeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Brass targets were exposed to carbon ions of energy 2 MeV. • The effect of ion dose has been investigated. • The surface morphology is investigated by SEM analysis. • XRD analysis is performed to reveal structural modification. • Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and microhardness testing. - Abstract: Modifications to the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass after ion irradiation have been investigated. Brass targets were bombarded by carbon ions of 2 MeV energy from a Pelletron linear accelerator for various fluences ranging from 56 × 10{sup 12} to 26 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. A scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer were utilized to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure respectively. To explore the mechanical properties e.g., yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of irradiated brass, an universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were used. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed an irregular and randomly distributed sputter morphology for a lower ion fluence. With increasing ion fluence, the incoherently shaped structures were transformed into dendritic structures. Nano/micro sized craters and voids, along with the appearance of pits, were observed at the maximum ion fluence. From X-ray diffraction results, no new phases were observed to be formed in the brass upon irradiation. However, a change in the peak intensity and higher and lower angle shifting were observed, which represents the generation of ion-induced defects and stresses. Analyses confirmed modifications in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass. The yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and hardness initially decreased and then increased with increasing ion fluence. The changes in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass are well correlated with surface and crystallographic modifications and are attributed to the generation

  16. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  17. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations CCF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations Ccertified were very close

  18. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A.; Belasri, A.

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C CF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C certified were very close.

  19. Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Yudai; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Mashimo, Tsutomu, E-mail: mashimo@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Iguchi, Yusuke [Department of Solid State Physics, Debrecen University, 4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Ono, Masao [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-03-28

    To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.

  20. A computational study of adhesion between rubber and metal sulfides at rubber–brass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An atomic level model for brass–rubber interactions has been presented. • The main adhesion force has been tracked to the rubber sulfur–brass zinc or brass copper interaction. • The model gives new understanding of the adhesion and can be used for further developments of the system. - Abstract: Computational study at level of density functional theory has been carried out in order to investigate the adhesion between rubber and brass plated steel cord, which has high importance in tire manufacturing. Adsorption of natural rubber based adsorbate models has been studied on zinc sulfide, ZnS(1 1 0), and copper sulfide, Cu2S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1), surfaces as the corresponding phases are formed in adhesive interlayer during rubber vulcanization. Saturated hydrocarbons exhibited weak interactions, whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with the metal atoms of sulfide surfaces more strongly. Sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with ZnS(1 1 0) surface stronger than unsaturated hydrocarbons, whereras both Cu2S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1) surfaces showed opposite adsorption preference as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed stronger than sulfur-containing adsorbates. The different interaction strength order can play role in rubber–brass adhesion with different relative sulfide concentrations. Moreover, Cu2S(1 1 1) surface exhibits higher adsorption energies than CuS(0 0 1) surface, possibly indicating dominant role of Cu2S in the adhesion between rubber and brass

  1. The enhancement of friction ridge detail on brass ammunition casings using cold patination fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard Michael; Altamimi, Mohamad Jamal

    2015-12-01

    Brass ammunition is commonly found at firearms related crime scenes. For this reason, many studies have focused on evidence that can be obtained from brass ammunition such as DNA, gunshot residue and fingerprints. Latent fingerprints on ammunition can provide good forensic evidence, however; fingerprint development on ammunition casings has proven to be difficult. A method using cold patination fluid is described as a potential tool to enhance friction ridge detail on brass ammunition casings. Current latent fingerprint development methods for brass ammunition have either failed to provide the necessary quality of friction ridge detail or can be very time consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, the enhancement of fingerprints on live ammunition has been achieved with a good level of detail whilst the development on spent casings has to an extent also been possible. Development with cold patination fluid has proven to be a quick, simple and cost-effective method for fingerprint development on brass ammunition that can be easily implemented for routine police work. PMID:26544632

  2. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A., E-mail: sidahmed.beldjilali@univ-usto.dz; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran Mohamed Boudiaf USTO-MB, LPPMCA (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C{sub CF-LIBS} calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C{sub certified} were very close.

  3. Textural evolution of nano-grained 70/30 brass produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process was carried out on the 70/30 brass alloy sheet up to six cycles to obtain nano-grains. Texture evolution during ARB of 70/30 brass was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that characteristic features of the rolling texture in the 70/30 brass become discernible in the first cycle with the appearance of the twinning component {2 5 5} (TC), Y {1 1 2}, Goss {1 1 0}, and Brass (0 1 1) components. During the first cycle, deformation twinning plays a major role in texture evolution, whereas after two cycles, twinning activity diminishes and shear bands dominantly lead to the formation of Goss and Brass, which remain as the major components in higher cycles. With increasing number of cycles, the overall texture intensity does not increase monotonously. After the second cycle, a drop occurs in texture intensity related to the shear strain incurred in the sheets while, after the third cycle, the overall intensity reaches its maximum value. After six cycles, texture intensity reduces slightly, which can be explained by nano-grain formation.

  4. Copper and brass aged at open circuit potential in slightly alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface oxide films were grown on 99.99% copper and brass (copper-zinc alloy, Cu77Zn21Al2) in 0.1 mol L-1 borax solution at open circuit potential and were characterized using various experimental techniques. The composition of the passive films formed in situ on the different materials was studied using differential reflectance spectroscopy. The thickness of the oxide layers on copper and brass was compared by chronopotentiometric curves and potentiodynamic reductions. The electrical properties of each oxide were analyzed by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Their influence on the oxygen reduction reaction was also investigated using voltammetry hydrodynamic tools such as the rotating disk electrode. The results show that the incorporation of Zn to Cu in brass changes the composition and the thickness of the surface film. The films grown on brass tend to be thicker but less resistive and Zn compounds incorporate to the film. This is supported by results from reflectance and impedance spectroscopy. The kinetics of oxygen reduction is strongly inhibited on oxidized electrodes, particularly in the case of brass. The global number of exchanged electrons remains close to four and seems to be independent of the presence of surface oxides.

  5. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton

    1981-01-01

    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, ..delta..t greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, ..delta..x, decreased linearly with ..delta..t. With ..delta..t less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, ..delta..x = ..delta..x* which approached a limiting value of 1 ..mu..m. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  6. Inhibition of the Cu65/Zn35 brass corrosion by natural extract of Camellia sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramde, Tambi, E-mail: t_ramde@univ-ouaga.bf [Equipe Chimie Physique et Electrochimie, Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux, Université de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rossi, Stefano; Zanella, Caterina [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the corrosion inhibition of brass was studied using natural plant extract, Camellia sinensis, in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solutions with pH 7 and pH 4. Electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the brass corrosion behavior in presence and absence of the extract. The results indicated that the extract is a very effective corrosion inhibitor for brass corrosion process in both the acidic and neutral media by virtue of adsorption. The inhibition effect increases by time as demonstrated by the EIS monitoring for 120 h. In the blank solution the corrosion process leads to the formation of a dark oxide patina at pH 7 and induces localized corrosion morphology at pH 4. The extract presence can avoid both the dark patina and the pits formation.

  7. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    deformation twins provides reasonable simulations of the brass-type texture, but the volume fraction of twins implied is far greater than that observed experimentally. There are also other deductions from this combination which are contradicted by experiments. Only Sachs-type models seem to work without a......-type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...... substantial volume fraction of deformation twins. The modified Sachs model gives simulated textures which approach quantitative agreement with the experimental brass-type texture at 50% reduction, and it gives reasonable simulated textures even at high reductions. However, experimental observations indicate a...

  8. Use of ionic liquid in leaching process of brass wastes for copper and zinc recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayfer Kilicarslan; Muhlis Nezihi Saridede; Srecko Stopic; Bernd Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Brass ash from the industrial brass manufacturer in Turkey was leached using the solutions of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl-imi-dazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO4) at ambient pressure in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone) as the oxidants. Parameters affecting leaching efficiency, such as dissolution time, IL concentration, and oxidizing agent addition, were investigated. The results show that [bmim]HSO4 is an efficient IL for the brass ash leaching, providing the dissolution efficiencies of 99%for Zn and 24.82%for Cu at a concentration of 50vol%[bmim]HSO4 in the aqueous solution without any oxidant. However, more than 99%of zinc and 82%of copper are leached by the addition of 50vol%H2O2 to the [bmim]HSO4 solution. Nevertheless, the oxone does not show the promising oxidant behavior in leaching using [bmim]HSO4.

  9. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Al-Brass in hydrofluoric Acid and Sulphuric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion rate of Al-brass in hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid were measured and examined. Mutual interaction of corrosion inhibition was appeared by addition of sulphuric acid to hydrofluoric acid. The inhibition behavior was a function of concentration and temperature. Addition of 60% sulphuric acid to hydrofluoric acid appeared an effective good inhibition of Al-brass corrosion at 30 .deg. - 50 .deg. C. The corrosion activation energy of Al-brass in 47%-HF was obtained as 12.6 Kcal/mol and in 40%-HF + 60% H2SO4 was obtained as 4.6 Kcal/mol from Arrhenius plot. From the value of the apparent activation energy it was indicated that chemical reaction was rate determination step in 47%-HF and physical diffusion was rate determination step in 40% HF + 60% H2SO4. Addition of sulphuric acid to hydrofluoric acid decreased a sensitivity of temperature to corrosion reaction

  11. [Spectral analysis of some brass coins excavsted from Ezhou of Hubei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Qing; Qin, Ying; Jin, Pu-Jun; Mao, Zheng-Wei; Dong, Ya-Wei

    2009-10-01

    XRD and XRF were used to identify several brass coins of Qing dynasty collected in the Ezhou Museum and excavated from Ezhou of Hubei province. The reality of the coins contains 36.53%-37.75% of Zn, 54.12%-59.04% of Cu and 3.51%-7.56% of Pb, and the ration of the alloy is steady and scientific, indicating that the technic of the alloy of brass was quite perfect in the mid to late of Qing dynasty. Zn3Cu2 (OH)6 (CO3)2 was found in the corrosion for the first time, and CuO, ZnO, Fe2O3 and CuCl were found too. The high content of Cl-, around the local condition (including the polluted environment), may be the main reason for those brass coins to be eroded seriously. These findings provide some reference for collecting and protecting coins. PMID:20038079

  12. Mercury removal from contaminated groundwater: Performance and limitations of amalgamation through brass shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Biester, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Brass shavings have been proposed as a cost-effective filter material to remove Hg from contaminated groundwater. This method, which is based on the reduction of reactive Hg(II) and subsequent formation of amalgams, has been shown to be fast and effective in the short term. However, the effectiveness of brass filters and their stability over the long term, especially if used in passive filter systems such as permeable reactive barriers (PRB) under high flow conditions, is unknown. To evaluate the performance and limitations of brass shavings for Hg removal from contaminated groundwater, we performed long-term pilot scale filtration tests (6 and 28 months) at two former wood impregnation sites with severe groundwater contamination (up to 870 μg L(-1) Hg). The results showed that even under high flow conditions (>60 m d(-1)), 60-80% of the Hg was removed in the first 8 mm of the brass shavings filter bed. The kinetics of filtration, Hg total removal performance (>99.95%), and loading capacity (164 g L(-1)) surpassed those of a Hg-specific synthetic resin (LEWATIT(®)MonoPlus TP-214). However, under natural pH conditions (pH 6.4 and 6.7), Zn was leached from the brass and exceeded the threshold value (0.5 mg L(-1)) in the filter outflow by up to a factor of 40. Increasing pH (>8.5) decreased the Zn concentration (filter material in PRBs is restricted to aquifers with high pH. However, brass is ideal as a low-cost, thin-bed prefilter in onsite systems to remove the main Hg load from groundwater when Zn release is managed. PMID:27176550

  13. Joining of bulk metallic glass to brass by thick-walled cylinder explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the development of a thick-walled cylinder explosion technique to weld a typical Zr-based bulk metallic glass (Vitreloy 1 (Vit 1)) to a commercial Cu-based crystalline alloy (brass). It is shown that a strong metallurgical bonding between the Vit 1 and the brass is achieved, which is due to significant atomic diffusion across the welding interface and shock wave propagation in the weldment. The dissimilar joining of the noncrystalline to crystalline alloy extends the application of bulk metallic glasses as structural and functional materials

  14. Mechanistic investigation of rubber-brass adhesion: Effect of formulation ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj Y.

    It is very customary to use adhesion-promoting resins in the belt compounds' formulation to enhance the adhesion between rubber and brass-coated steel cords. Conventionally, two-component adhesion-promoting resins, i.e., HexaMethoxy-MethylMelamine (HMMM) + Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) precondensed resin, are commonly used in the tire industry to enhance the initial and aged adhesion between rubber and brass-plated steel cord. However, one-component adhesion-promoting resins were developed in an attempt to eliminate resorcinol from the formulation of belt compound. This study was undertaken to unravel the role of these newly developed one-component resins in enhancing the initial as well as aged adhesion performance. Initial experiments were conducted using a squalene liquid rubber modeling approach in the laboratory to study the effect of resins on the chemistry of the vulcanization reaction and their effect on the adhesion interface. Based on the GPC, SEM/EDX and TOF-SIMS data, a mechanism was proposed to explain the possible role played by resins in the improvement of initial and aged adhesion performance between rubber and brass-coated steel tire cords. Actual natural rubber compounds were later cured to confirm the proposed mechanism derived from the initial squalene-based studies. The proposed mechanism based on squalene studies, which theorized the possible migration of resins towards the rubber-brass interface, was found to be unfeasible in the actual natural rubber compounds, primarily because of the substantial increase in the molecular weight of the rubber matrix. Thus, a new approach was undertaken and the effect of resins on the mechanical properties of the cured natural rubber compounds was studied. Similarly, the initial, heat and humidity aged adhesion studies were performed using these natural rubber compounds. The effect of resin incorporation on the crosslink density distribution was studied using C-13 NMR analyses of the cured rubber compounds

  15. Mathematical modeling and simulation of the interface region of a tri-layer composite material, brass-steel-brass, produced by cold rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Arabi; S.H. Seyedein; A. Mehryab; B.Tolaminejad

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to find the optimum conditions for the production of a sandwich composite from the sheets of brass-steel-brass. The experimental data obtained during the production process were used to validate the simulation program, which was written to establish the relation between the interface morphology and the thickness reduction amount of the composite. For this purpose, two surfaces of a steel sheet were first prepared by scratching brushing before inserting it between two brass sheets with smooth surfaces. Three sheets were then subjected to a cold rolling process for producing a tri-layer composite with various thick-nesses. The sheet interface after rolling was studied by different techniques, and the bonding strength for each rolling condition was determined by peeling test. Moreover, a relation between interfacial bonding strength and thickness reduction was found. The simu-lation results were compared with the experimental data and the available theoretical models to modify the original simulation pro-gram with high application efficiency used for predicting the behavior of the interface under different pressures.

  16. Influence of composition on friction-wear behavior of composite materials reinforced by brass fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xian; LING Xiaomei

    2003-01-01

    In the study, for the composite materials reinforced by brass fibers, the influence of dominant ingredients, such as organic adhesion agent, cast iron debris, brass fiber, and graphite powder, on the friction-wear characteristics was investigated. The friction-wear experiment was carried out on the block-on-ring tribometer MM200. The worn surfaces of the friction pair consisting of the composite materials and grey cast iron HT200 under dry sliding friction were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX) and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TAG). The experimental results showed that the friction coefficient and the wear loss of the composite material increase obviously with the increase of cast iron debris content, but decrease obviously with the increase of graphite powder content, and increase a little when the mass fraction of brass fiber was over 19%, and the orientation of brass fiber has obvious influence on friction-wear property. When the mass fraction of organic adhesion agent was about 10-11%, the composite materials have an excellent friction-wear performance. The friction heat can pyrolyze organic ingredient in worn surface layer.

  17. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of brass sheet and strip from Japan (53 FR 30454..., and Japan (65 FR 25304). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (71 FR 16552). The Commission is now conducting...

  18. Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω) and the...

  19. Generation of nanoparticles of bronze and brass by laser ablation in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles of brass and bronze are generated by ablation of corresponding bulk targets in liquid ethanol. The experiments were performed using three pulsed lasers with different pulse duration: ytterbium fiber laser (80 ns), a Neodymium:YAG laser (10 ps), and femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (200 fs). The generated nanoparticles (NPs) are characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Raman scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The size of generated NPs lies in the range 10–25 nm depending on the laser source. The X-ray diffractometry reveals the change of phase composition of brass NPs compared to the initial target in case of ablation with 80 ns laser source, while with 10 ps laser pulses this effect is less pronounced. Brass NPs generated with pico- and femtosecond laser radiation show the plasmon resonance in the vicinity of 560 nm and no plasmon peak for NPs generated with longer laser pulses. Raman analysis shows the presence of Cu2O in generated NPs. The stability of generated NPs of both brass and bronze to oxidation is compared to that of Cu NPs generated in similar experimental conditions.

  20. An Investigation into Zinc Diffusion and Tin Whisker Growth for Electroplated Tin Deposits on Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Mark A.; Wilcox, Geoffrey D.; Higginson, Rebecca L.; Heath, Richard J.; Liu, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    It is widely documented that whisker growth is more rapid for tin deposits on brass compared with deposits produced on other substrate materials, such as copper. As a result, studies investigating the effect of process variables on tin whisker formation are often conducted on brass substrates to take advantage of the increased whisker growth rates. Although it has been understood since the 1960s that the increased whisker growth results from zinc diffusion, to date there has not been any detailed analysis of the zinc/zinc oxide distribution at the surface of the tin deposit. Using a commercial bright tin electroplating bath, the formation of zinc oxide at the surface of tin deposits on brass has been investigated. Analyses show that zinc oxide is present on the surface of the deposit within 1 day of electroplating. During storage at room temperature, a network of zinc oxide is formed at the surface grain boundaries, the extent of which increases with time. The critical role that zinc surface diffusion plays in whisker growth for tin deposits on brass has been demonstrated by electrochemical oxidation of the tin shortly after electroplating. This develops a tin oxide film that is thicker than the native air-formed oxide and subsequently serves as a diffusion barrier to zinc surface diffusion, thereby mitigating whisker growth.

  1. Influence of rare earth elements on corrosion behavior of Al-brass in marine water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gaoyong; ZHOU Yuxiong; ZENG Juhua; ZOU Yanming; LIU Jian; SUN Liping

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Al-brass in stagnant and flowing marine water as a function of combinative rare earths (Ce and La) addition were investigated by electrochemical techniques,X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).It was demonstrated that RE elements could make the corrosion product layer more protective and strengthen the cohesion between the film and matrix in stagnant seawater.The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that a duplex layer,which was mainly composed of an inner A12O3 with trace amounts of RE compounds and an outer basic chloride of copper or zinc like (Cu,Zn)2Cl(OH)3,Cu(OH)Cl and CuCl2·3Cu(OH)2 layer was formed on RE-contained Al-brass surface and that the inner layer was responsible for the good corrosion resistance of the alloy.While only a porous and non-protective corrosion product layer was formed on the Al-brass alloy without RE addition,which made small values of the corrosion resistance.Additionally,in flowing marine water with velocity about 2 m/s,pitting corrosion occurred on the M-brass surface and RE addition could availably decrease pitting sensitivity of the alloy.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF TITANIUM ALLOY USING COPPER, BRASS AND ALUMINUM ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DHANABALAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an evaluation has been done on Material Removal Rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (SR and Electrode Wear Rate (EWR during Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM of titanium alloy using copper, brass and aluminum electrodes. Analyzing previous work in this field, it is found that electrode wear and material removal rate increases with an increase current. It is also found that the electrode wear ratio increases with an increase in current. The higher wear ratio is found during machining of titanium alloy using a brass electrode. An attempt has been made to correlate the thermal conductivity and melting point of electrode with the MRR and electrode wear. The MRR is found to be high while machining titanium alloy using brass electrode. During machining of titanium alloy using copper electrodes, a comparatively smaller quantity of heat is absorbed by the work material due to low thermal conductivity. Due to the above reason, the MRR becomes very low. Duringmachining of titanium alloy using aluminium electrodes, the material removal rate and electrode wear rate are only average value while machining of titanium alloy using brass and copper electrodes.

  3. Plasticity in Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass matrix composites containing brass fibers synthesized by warm extrusion of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformation behavior of centimeter-scale Ni-based metallic glass matrix composites reinforced by brass fibers, synthesized by warm extrusion of gas atomized powders, has been investigated under the uniaxial compression condition at room temperature. Throughout the extrusion process, all blended spherical powders are elongated along the extrusion direction. The brass fibers are well distributed in the metallic glass matrix for the metallic glass matrix composites containing the brass up to 0.4 in volume fraction and no pores are visible. With increasing the brass content, elastic modulus and strength decrease due to the softness of the brass, but enhanced macroscopic plasticity is observed due to the formation of multiple shear bands, initiated from the interface between brass fiber and metallic glass matrix, as well as their confinement between the brass fibers. These behaviors are not observed in the sample synthesized by warm extrusion of only metallic glass powders

  4. Dezincification and Brass Lead Leaching in Premise Plumbing Systems: Effects of Alloy, Physical Conditions and Water Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaofu

    2009-01-01

    Brass components are widely used in drinking water distribution systems as valves, faucets and other fixtures. They can be corroded by â dezincification,â which is the selective leaching of zinc from the alloy. Dezincification in potable water systems has important practical consequences that include clogged water lines, premature system failure and leaks, and release of contaminants such as lead. Brass failures attributed to dezincification are known to occur at least occasionally all ove...

  5. Moessbauer study of the composition and corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited and cast brass containing 1-4 m% tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer measurements on electrodeposited and cast brass containing 1-4 m% tin were carried out using conversion electron detector. It was found that the tin formed phases with copper but not with zinc. The identified phases were β, γ, epsilon and eta and their ratio depended on the tin concentration and on the preparation process of the brass. The corrosion behaviour of the samples was also studied. (author)

  6. Valoniopsis pachynema Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, R.; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy, and entropy change) and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half-life) for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, and follows first-order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor and the higher inhibition surface coverage on the brass was predicted. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface study techniques (FT-IR and SEM) were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.

  7. Hydrogen-increased dezincification layer-induced stress and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会录; 高克玮; 褚武扬; 刘亚萍; 乔利杰

    2003-01-01

    Dezincification layer formed during corrosion or stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass in an ammonia solution could induce an additive stress. The effect of hydrogen on the dezincification layer-induced stress and the susceptibility to SCC were studied. The dezincification layer-induced stress was measured using the deflection method and the flowing stress differential method, respectively. The latter measures the difference between the flowing stress of a specimen before unloading and the yield stress of the same specimen after unloading and forming a dezincification layer. The susceptibility to SCC was measured using slow strain rate test. Results show that both the dezincification layer-induced stress and the susceptibility to SCC increase with increasing hydrogen concentration in a specimen. This implies that hydrogen-enhanced dezincification layer-induced stress is consistence with the hydrogen-increased susceptibility to SCC of brass in the ammonia solution.

  8. An EBSD investigation of cryogenically-rolled Cu–30%Zn brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konkova, T. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Mironov, S., E-mail: smironov@material.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Korznikov, A. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina av., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Korznikova, G. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Russian Academy of Science, 39 Khalturin Str., Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Myshlyaev, M.M. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Russian Academy of Science, 49 Lenin-av., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Semiatin, S.L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RXCM, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7817 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Electron backscatter diffraction was used to study grain structure development in heavily cryogenically-rolled Cu–30%Zn brass. The produced microstructure was found to be very inhomogeneous. At a relatively coarse scale, it consisted of texture bands having crystallographic orientations close to the α- and γ-fibers. The texture bands contained internal structure comprising shear bands, mechanical twins, and low-angle boundaries. Such features were more pronounced within the γ-fiber, and this resulted in a heterogeneous ultrafine grain structure. The cryogenic rolling was concluded to be not straightforward for production of nanocrystalline grain structure in Cu–30%Zn brass. - Highlights: • Cryogenic rolling produced an inhomogeneous ultrafine-grained microstructure. • Grain refinement was mainly related with twinning and shear banding. • Grain refinement preferentially occurred in (111) fiber texture.

  9. Influence of tool deflection on micro channel pattern of 6:4 brass with rectangular tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Kang-Won LEE; Sang-Cheon PARK; Jae-Gu KIM; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyoung-Taik PARK; Kyung-Hyun WHANG

    2009-01-01

    Machining experiment of micro channel structure with 6:4 brass was carried out by shaping process using a single crystal diamond tool. FEM simulation using solid cantilever beam model was analyzed. In result of experiment, tool deflection is observed as machining characteristics through result of experiments such as surface roughness, cutting force and burr formations. And the influence of tool deflection is experimentally proved.

  10. Comparison of the PVD coatings deposited onto hot work tool steel and brass substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polok-Rubiniec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is the investigation of the structure and mechanical properties of monolayers CrN, TiN and multilayers TiN/TiAlN and Ti/TiAlN coatings deposited by PVD techniques onto the substrate from the X37CrMoV5-1 steel and CuZn40Pb2 brass.Design/methodology/approach: The microhardness tests were made on the dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. The wear and friction tests were performed on a standard pin-on-disc device.Findings: The monolayer PVD coatings deposited onto hot work steel and brass substrate demonstrate the high hardness, adhesion and wear resistance. The critical load LC2, which is in the range 32-60 N, depends on the coating and substrate type. The friction coefficient for the investigated coatings is within the range of 0.33-0.75.Practical implications: The investigation results will provide useful information to applying the PVD coating for the improvement of mechanical properties of the hot work tool steels and brass substrates.Originality/value: It should be stressed that the mechanical properties of the PVD coatings obtained in this work are very encouraging and therefore their application for products manufactured at mass scale is possible in all cases where reliable, very hard and abrasion resistant coatings, deposited onto tools steel and brass substrate are needed.

  11. Numerical Techniques for Acoustic Modelling and Design of Brass Wind Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Noreland, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic horns are used in musical instruments and loudspeakers in order to provide an impedance match between an acoustic source and the surrounding air. The aim of this study is to develop numerical tools for the analysis and optimisation of such horns, with respect to their input impedance spectra. Important effects such as visco-thermal damping and modal conversion are shown to be localised to different parts of a typical brass instrument. This makes it possible to construct hybrid method...

  12. Motion of the lips of brass players during extremely loud playing

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Samuel; Campbell, Murray; Bromage, Seona; Chick, John; Gilbert, Joël

    2009-01-01

    International audience When a brass instrument is played loudly the energy level of the higher harmonics increases dramatically. The generally accepted explanation for this is non-linear steepening of the wavefront and generation of shock waves within the instrument bore. However, it has also been suggested that changes in the player's lip vibration could play a role in generating this `brassy' sound. To test this hypothesis, the dependence of lip opening-area on time has been measured for...

  13. Synthesis and atomic structure determination of Al8V5 gamma-brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many structurally complex compounds like quasicrystals and their approximants are known to be stabilized at a particular electron per atom ratio e/a, regardless of constituent elements involved. This has been often referred to as the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule. We consider the understanding of the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism to be best deepened by performing both ab initio LMTO-ASA and FLAPW band calculations for the complex compound whose atomic structure is experimentally determined. Admittedly, however, a computing time increases rapidly beyond practical level with increasing the number of atoms in a unit cell. Among various candidates, we chose a series of gamma-brasses containing 52 atoms in a unit cell by taking a full advantage of the facts that it exists in as many as 24 binary alloy systems and that its unit cell is just in size to be handled even in more time-consuming FLAPW method. We have so far studied the stability mechanism of Cu5Zn8 and Cu9Al4, both being regarded as its prototype, and TM2Zn11 gamma-brasses containing late transition elements TM=Fe, Co, Ni and Pd. In the present work, we chose the gamma-brass consisting of early transition metal element V and trivalent element Al. An almost single phase Al8V5 gamma-brass was ultimately synthesized by overcoming metallurgical difficulties encountered. Its atomic structure was determined by using the Brandon model as a starting structure in the Rietveld structure analysis for powdered diffraction spectra taken at the beam line BL02B2 of 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, Japan. The atomic structure suitable for band calculations was then proposed by eliminating quenched-in chemical disorder, i.e., partial mixing of Al and V atoms at given sites with minimum sacrifice. (author)

  14. Evaluation of aluminum brass coupons in BWR condensate environment in presence of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of cobalt and cesium ions in the simulated BWR condensate environment (two phase water at 150 °C) on the oxide formed on the aluminium brass has been studied by exposing active and prepassivated coupons in respective environments. Surface changes in the exposed coupons were evaluated by SEM, EDAX and electrochemical studies. The SEM and EDAX data of the exposed coupons indicated marked difference in the surface morphology with varying water chemistry. Presence of nodular grains were seen on SEM images of the pre-passivated Al brass coupons in the Co based media while more granular oxide formation could be seen in presence of Cs. With the mixture of Co and Cs, oxides with larger particle size were seen in the SEM images. The weight change measurement also indicated that Co affects the outer oxide layer to a higher extent as compared to Cs. EDAX measurements indicated incorporation of Co in the oxide layer for the coupons exposed in the Co based media whereas higher aluminum composition was seen in the oxide layer for the coupons exposed in the Cs based media. Cathodic reduction of the oxide layer in sodium perchlorate medium indicated that the oxide grown in only water based media are primarily Cu2O with a minor amount of ZnO but there is a significant amount of Co in the oxide layer for the coupons exposed in the Co based medium. Impedance measurement of the coupons indicated similar protective nature of the passive layers formed under various conditions based on the values of charge transfer resistance obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Randles circuit. However, the higher capacitance values for oxides formed in the Co based medium indicated its porous nature. Thus, there is significant sorption of Co in the passive layer of the aluminium brass while there is no evidence of Cs sorption over aluminium brass could be obtained in the present study. (author)

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthernware water storage vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Puja; Chhibber, Sanjay; Reed, Robert H

    2005-07-01

    The detection and enumeration of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli is used to assess the extent of faecal contamination of drinking water. On the basis of this approach, the effectiveness of storing water contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria in brass or earthern vessels (mutkas) of the type used in rural India have been investigated. Suspensions of bacteria in sterile distilled water were maintained for up to 48 h in each vessel and enumerated by surface plate counts on nutrient agar (non-selective) and several selective coliform media at 37 degrees C either under standard aerobic conditions, or under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. using an anaerobic cabinet to prepare plates of pre-reduced growth medium or by inclusion of sodium pyruvate in the growth medium, with incubation of aerobically-prepared plates in an anaerobic jar. The counts obtained for E. coli decreased on short-term storage in a brass mutka; counts for selective media were lower than for equivalent counts for non-selective medium, with ROS-neutralised conditions giving consistently higher counts than aerobic incubation. However, after 48 h, no bacteria were cultivable under any conditions. Similar results were obtained using water from environmental sources in the Panjab, and from rural households where brass and earthern mutkas are used for storage of drinking water, with enumeration on selective coliform media (presumptive total coliforms). In all cases results indicated that, while storage of water in a brass mutka can inactivate E. coli and coliforms over a 48 h period, standard aerobic plate counting using selective media may not be fully effective in enumerating sub-lethally damaged bacteria. PMID:15928975

  16. Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Study of Self-assembled Monolayer of Phytic Acid on Brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qun-Jie; WAN Zong-Yue; ZHOU Guo-Ding; YIN Ren-He; CAO Wei-Min; LIN Chang-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid is an environment-friendly reagent for processing metals.The anticorrosion and inhibiting mechanism for phytic acid monolayers self-assembled on a brass (HSn70-1) electrode has been investigated by using electrochemical and photocurrent response methods.The electrochemical measurements indicate that phytic acid is liable to form surface complexes on the brass electrode,and the self-assembled monolayers (SAM) change the structure of the electric double-layer and shift the potential of zero charge positively.The photochemical measurement indicates that the brass electrode shows a p-type photoresponse owing to the formation of a Cu2O layer on its surface,and the presence of SAM weakens significantly the photoresponse,suggesting an excellent effect on anticorrosion,which is consistent with the EIS and polarization curve measurements.Adsorption of phytic acid was found to be typical of chemisorption,which can be reasonably described on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm.

  17. Tensile deformation and fracture behavior of CuZn5 brass alloy at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharififar, M., E-mail: m.sharififar@ut.ac.ir; Akbari Mousavi, S.A.A., E-mail: akbarimusavi@ut.ac.ir

    2014-01-31

    Alpha brass alloys are widely used for production of rectangular waveguides because of their low bulk resistivity. In this paper, the microstructure, tensile deformation and fracture behavior of CuZn5 brass alloy were investigated. The strain rate sensitivity and its relation to post-uniform deformation in tensile test and correlation between strain hardening exponent (n) and temperature were examined. The results show that strain hardening exponent decreases from 0.5 to 0.4 with increase in test temperature from 250 to 450 °C. Tensile fracture mechanisms of as-extruded CuZn5 brass alloy were studied over a range of temperatures from 300 to 450 °C and range of strain rates from 0.01 to 0.4 1/s by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The results show that different fracture mechanisms operate in different temperature and strain rate ranges. While transgranular dimple fracture is dominant at 300 °C and 0.4 1/s, the dominant fracture mechanism at 450 °C and 0.01 1/s is cleavage facets. Precipitations and grain boundary sliding at high temperature may be the mechanism of ductility drop. Dynamic strain ageing (DSA) did not occur since none of the manifestations of DSA are observed.

  18. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared. - Highlights: • A method for assessing the similarity of materials analyzed by LIBS is proposed. • Two very similar fragments of historical brass were analyzed. • Using a simple artificial neural network the composition of the two alloys was determined. • The composition of the two brass alloys was the same within the experimental error. • Using self-organizing maps, the probability of the alloys to have the same composition was assessed

  19. Effects of nonlinear sound propagation on the characteristic timbres of brass instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Arnold; Pyle, Robert W; Gilbert, Joël; Campbell, D Murray; Chick, John P; Logie, Shona

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a brass instrument to generate sounds with strong high-frequency components is dependent on the extent to which its bore profile supports nonlinear sound propagation. At high dynamic levels some instruments are readily sounded in a "cuivré" (brassy) manner: this phenomenon is due to the nonlinear propagation of sound in ducts of the proportions typical of labrosones (lip-reed aerophones). The effect is also evident at lower dynamic levels and contributes to the overall tonal character of the various kinds of brass instrument. This paper defines a brassiness potential parameter derived from the bore geometries of brass instruments. The correlation of the brassiness potential parameter with spectral enrichment as measured by the spectral centroid of the radiated sound is examined in playing tests using musicians, experiments using sine-wave excitation of instruments, and simulations using a computational tool. The complementary effects of absolute bore size on spectral enrichment are investigated using sine-wave excitation of cylindrical tubes and of instruments, establishing the existence of a trade-off between bore size and brassiness potential. The utility of the brassiness potential parameter in characterizing labrosones is established, and the graphical presentation of results in a 2D space defined by bore size and brassiness potential demonstrated. PMID:22280689

  20. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Lezzerini, Marco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Lorenzetti, Giulia [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Department of Civilizations and Forms of Knowledge, University of Pisa, Via L. Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared. - Highlights: • A method for assessing the similarity of materials analyzed by LIBS is proposed. • Two very similar fragments of historical brass were analyzed. • Using a simple artificial neural network the composition of the two alloys was determined. • The composition of the two brass alloys was the same within the experimental error. • Using self-organizing maps, the probability of the alloys to have the same composition was assessed.

  1. Cysteine as a green corrosion inhibitor for Cu37Zn brass in neutral and weakly alkaline sulphate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Milan B; Petrović, Marija B; Simonović, Ana T; Milić, Snežana M; Antonijević, Milan M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate electrochemical properties of brass in neutral and weakly alkaline solutions in the presence of cysteine as a nontoxic and ecological corrosion inhibitor. Potentiodynamic measurements, open circuit potential measurements, as well as chronoamperometric measurements were the methods used during investigation of the inhibitory effect of cysteine on the corrosion behaviour of brass. Potentiodynamic measurements showed that cysteine behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor in the investigated media. Based on polarization curves for brass in a weakly alkaline solution of sodium sulphate at varying cysteine concentrations, an interaction occurs between Cu(+) ions and the inhibitor, resulting in the formation of a protective complex on the electrode surface. The results of chronoamperometric measurements confirm the results obtained by potentiodynamic measurements. Optical microphotography of the brass surface also confirms the formation of a protective film in the presence of a 1 × 10(-4) mol/dm(3) cysteine. Adsorption of cysteine on the brass surface proceeds according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. PMID:22836675

  2. Sargassum Wightii Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selva Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of marine algae Sargassum wightii extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The inhibitive effect could be attributed to the phytochemical constituents present in the inhibitor containing N, S, O atoms. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy change and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half-life for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, follows first order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface study techniques (FT-IR and SEM were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.

  3. Effect of ordering on monovacancy and divacancy formation in β-brass observed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the trapping of positrons in β-brass have shown that the vacancy formation energy dramatically increases with the ordering of the alloy below the order-disorder transition temperature. Based on predictions from our trapping-model analysis of the monovacancy behavior, we have searched for, and found above 430 0C, direct evidence for the cusp-shaped rise in the trapping of positrons by divancies that is characteristic of the rapid growth in the thermal divacancy population as the order parameter goes to zero

  4. Comparison of the PVD coatings deposited onto hot work tool steel and brass substrates

    OpenAIRE

    M. Polok-Rubiniec; K. Lukaszkowicz; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Adamiak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research is the investigation of the structure and mechanical properties of monolayers CrN, TiN and multilayers TiN/TiAlN and Ti/TiAlN coatings deposited by PVD techniques onto the substrate from the X37CrMoV5-1 steel and CuZn40Pb2 brass.Design/methodology/approach: The microhardness tests were made on the dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. The wear and friction tests were perf...

  5. Influence of wall vibrations on the sound of brass wind instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Wilfried; Zietlow, Daniel W; Moore, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    The results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the influence of wall vibrations on the sound of brass wind instruments are presented. Measurements of the transmission function and input impedance of a trumpet, with the bell both heavily damped and freely vibrating, are shown to be consistent with a theory that assumes that the internal pressure causes an oscillation of the diameter of the pipe enclosing the air column. These effects are shown to be most significant in sections where there are flaring walls, which explains why damping these vibrations in cylindrical pipes normally produces no measurable effects. PMID:21110611

  6. Erosion effects evaluation of pulsating water jet on brass EN 12164

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, Jiří; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Cárach, J.

    Ostrava: Ústav geoniky AV ČR, v.v.i, 2015 - (Sitek, L.; Klichová, D.), s. 131-143 ISBN 978-80-86407-56-2. [Vodní paprsek 2015 - výzkum, vývoj, aplikace. Velké Losiny (CZ), 06.10.2015-08.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * erosion * mass material removal * brass Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  7. Optimization of Metal Removal Rateon Cylindrical Grinding For Is 319 Brass Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Upadhyay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical grinding is one of the most important metal cutting processes used extensively in the Metal finishing operations. Metal removal rate and surface finish are the important output responses in the production with respect to quantity and quality respectively. The objective of this paper is to arrive at the optimal grinding conditions that will maximize metal removal rate when grinding IS 319 brass. Empirical models were developed using design of experiments by Taguchi L9 Orthogonal Array and the adequacy of the developed model is tested with ANOVA.

  8. Erosion effects evaluation of pulsating water jet on brass EN 12164

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, Jiří; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Cárach, J.

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, v.v.i, 2015 - (Sitek, L.; Klichová, D.), s. 131-143 ISBN 978-80-86407-56-2. [Vodní paprsek 2015 - výzkum, vývoj, aplikace. Velké Losiny (CZ), 06.10.2015-08.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * erosion * mass material removal * brass Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  9. Dislocation Line Tensions in the Noble Metals, the Alkali Metals and β-Brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The line tension for a straight partial dislocation which can produce the necessary slip for a martensitic phase transformation of the bcc-fcc or bcc-hcp type has been calculated in ordered 6-brass and in Li, Na and K. Also the line tension for a Shockley partial dislocation in Cu, Ag and Au has been calculated. Negative line tension is found for certain dislocation directions, and the possible influence of this on the stability of a stacking fault bounded by these partials is discussed

  10. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  11. The inhibited effect of some tetrazolic compounds towards the corrosion of brass in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the addition of some tetrazolic type organic compounds: 1-phenyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (PMT), 1,2,3,4-tetrazole (TTZ), 5-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (AT) and 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (PT) on the corrosion of brass in nitric acid is studied by weight loss, polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The explored methods gave almost similar results. Results obtained reveal that PMT is the best inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency (E%) follows the sequence: PMT > PT > AT > TTZ. Polarization measurements also indicated that tetrazoles acted as mixed-type inhibitors without changing the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. Partial π-charge on atoms has been calculated. Correlation between the highest occupied molecular orbital energy E HOMO and inhibition efficiencies was sought. The adsorption of PMT on the brass surface followed the Langmuir isotherm. Effect of temperature is also studied in the (25-50 deg. C) range

  12. The inhibited effect of some tetrazolic compounds towards the corrosion of brass in nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihit, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); El Issami, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); Bouklah, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco); Bazzi, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); Hammouti, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco)]. E-mail: hammoutib@yahoo.fr; Ait Addi, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); Salghi, R. [Laboratoire de l' Environnement et Science de l' Eau, Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquees d' Agadir, B.P. 33/S, Agadir (Morocco); Kertit, S. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Ecole Normale Superieure-Takaddoum, Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-01-15

    The effect of the addition of some tetrazolic type organic compounds: 1-phenyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (PMT), 1,2,3,4-tetrazole (TTZ), 5-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (AT) and 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (PT) on the corrosion of brass in nitric acid is studied by weight loss, polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The explored methods gave almost similar results. Results obtained reveal that PMT is the best inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency (E%) follows the sequence: PMT > PT > AT > TTZ. Polarization measurements also indicated that tetrazoles acted as mixed-type inhibitors without changing the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. Partial {pi}-charge on atoms has been calculated. Correlation between the highest occupied molecular orbital energy E {sub HOMO} and inhibition efficiencies was sought. The adsorption of PMT on the brass surface followed the Langmuir isotherm. Effect of temperature is also studied in the (25-50 deg. C) range.

  13. Study of ultrasonically assisted turning of stainless steel and brass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonically assisted turning (UAT) is a hybrid machining technique employing high-frequency small-amplitude vibration superimposed on the tool movement during turning. It is superior to conventional turning (CT) with regard to cutting forces, surface quality and machining accuracy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different machining parameters on stainless steel and brass alloys, during both UAT and CT, and evaluate improvements of cutting forces, surface roughness, surface integrity, and machining accuracy. An experimental setup for UAT at Loughborough University was used to accomplish this investigation. This setup used a Picoscope data acquisition add-on with Kistler three-component dynamometer, Seco DNMG cutting inserts were utilized, a surface tester from Taylor Hobson was used to evaluate surface roughness, Alicona Infinite Focus microscope was used to evaluate surface roughness and surface integrity, while Metris CMM with Renishaw probe was employed to evaluate machining accuracy. Cylindrical workpieces of steel and brass alloys were turned under CT and UAT conditions; cutting forces, surface roughness, and machining accuracy produced with both techniques where compared. Significant improvements were noticed in the ultrasonically assisted machining when compared to the CT for both alloys

  14. Curcumin Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for α-Brass in Nitric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A. S.; Elattar, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    1,7- Bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-4-arylazo-3,5-dione I-V have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for α-brass in 2 M nitric acid solution using weight-loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The efficiency of the inhibitors increases with the increase in the inhibitor concentration but decreases with a rise in temperature. The conjoint effect of the curcumin derivatives and KSCN has also been studied. The apparent activation energy ( E a*) and other thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion process have also been calculated. The galvanostatic polarization data indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed-type, but the cathode is more polarized than the anode. The slopes of the cathodic and anodic Tafel lines ( b c and b a) are maintained approximately equal for various inhibitor concentrations. However, the value of the Tafel slopes increases together as inhibitor concentration increases. The adsorption of these compounds on α-brass surface has been found to obey the Frumkin's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition was discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the undertaken inhibitors.

  15. Using miniature signal processing equipment in real-time brass performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plsek, Thomas J.

    2003-04-01

    Real time signal processing for brass instrument performance has been in use for more than 20 years now. It has been fraught with many problems not the least of which is the complexity, size, and expense of the equipment as well as the acoustical output of the instrument itself. One device which addresses these issues is the new Yamaha ST5: Personal Studio for brass instruments. By combining a Yamaha Pickup Mute, which very effectively minimizes the acoustical output of the instrument, with a battery powered unit small enough to be worn on a belt (ca. 5 in.×3 in.×1 in.), this system enables the performer to use such effects as reverb, delay, chorus, equalizer, pitch shifter, etc., that can be used in a wide variety of situations such as private practice, live concert performances, and recordings. By creatively managing the acoustic instrument and the miniature electronic equipment, a reasonably large array of musical resources become available to the performer enabling him/her to enhance existing performance environments, as well as find and develop new ones.

  16. Top Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses preliminary results from the Council for Advancement and Support of Education's (CASE's) February 2000 advancement salary survey, which indicated that the greater the supervisory responsibility, the smaller the percentage of women. Explores reasons for this, including historical stereotypes, women's need to balance work and family…

  17. 48 CFR 252.216-7000 - Economic price adjustment-basic steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, or copper mill products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic price adjustment... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.216-7000 Economic price...), use the following clause: Economic Price Adjustment—Basic Steel, Aluminum, Brass, Bronze, or...

  18. Ba5Ti12Sb19+x, a polar intermetallic compound with a stuffed γ-brass structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polar intermetallic compound Ba5Ti12Sb19+x (x≤0.2) has been synthesized by reaction of the elements. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that it adopts a new structure type (Ba5Ti12Sb19.102(6), space group P43-barm, Z=2, a=12.4223(11) A, V=1916.9(3) A3). The set of Ba and Sb sites corresponds to the structure of Cu9Al4, a γ-brass type with a primitive cell. A complex three-dimensional framework of Ti atoms, in the form of linked planar Ti9 clusters, is stuffed within the γ-brass-type Ba-Sb substructure. Notwithstanding its relationship to the γ-brass structure, the compound does not appear to conform to the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rules. Band structure calculations on an idealized Ba5Ti12Sb19 model suggest that the availability of bonding states above the Fermi level is responsible for the partial occupation, but only to a limited degree, of an additional Sb site within the structure. Magnetic measurements indicated Pauli paramagnetic behaviour. - A γ-brass substructure built up of Ba-Sb clusters is stuffed with planar Ti9 clusters.

  19. The Influence of Temperature on the Frictional Behavior of Duplex-Coated Die Steel Rubbing Against Forging Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, I.; Ashrafizadeh, F.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of die life under hot forging of brass alloys is considered vital from both economical and technical points of view. One of the best methods for improving die life is duplex coatings. In this research, the influence of temperature on the tribological behavior of duplex-coated die steel rubbing against forging brass was investigated. The wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disk machine from room temperature to 700 °C; the pins were made in H13 hot work tool steel treated by plasma nitriding and by PVD coatings of TiN-TiAlN-CrAlN. The disks were machined from a two-phase brass alloy too. The results revealed that the friction coefficient of this tribosystem went through a maximum at 550 °C and decreased largely at 700 °C. Furthermore, the formation of Cr2O3 caused the reduction of friction coefficient at 700 °C. PVD coatings proved their wear resistance up to 550 °C, well above the working temperature of the brass forging dies.

  20. Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Allium Cepa for the Corrosion of -?Brass in HNO3 Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S.; Nofal, Ashraf M.; Maher, Reham

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of allium cepa has been evaluated as a green corrosion inhibitor for ?-brass in HNO3 solutions using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that this extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the extract concentration, but decreases with raising the temperature. The adsorpt...

  1. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF ALLOY COMPOSITION AND PH ON THE CORROSION OF BRASS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of brass corrosion may provide information and guidance on the use of the safest materials for the production of plumbing fixtures, and optimization of corrosion control treatments. The effect of alloy composition and pH on the metal leached from six differ...

  2. Ordering and structural vacancies in non-stoichiometric Cu-Al γ brasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-Brass structures are based on the cubic packing of 26-atom clusters which have, as concentric subunits, an inner and an outer tetrahedron (IT, OT), an octahedron (OH) and a cuboctahedron (CO). Cu9Al4 [Mr = 679.37, P43m, a = 8.7046(1) A, V = 659.5 A3, Z = 4, Dx = 6.846 Mg m-3, Rwp = 0.051, RB = 0sun017 for 238 powder reflections] is the stoichiometric γ brass of the Cu-Al system and contains two clusters (A, B) per unit cell. Al atoms occupy a 4(e) (IT) site in cluster A and a 12(i) (CO) site in cluster B. Cu atoms occupy the remaining 4(e) (OT), 6(f) (OH) and 12(i) (CO) sites of cluster A and the two 4(e) (IT, OT) and a 6(g) (OH) site of cluster B. The structure has considerable solubility for Al and this paper contains a systematic neutron powder diffraction study of the changes in the Cu9Al4 structure at 295 K (λ = 1.376 A) and 77 K(λ = 1.500 A) as Al is added. The structure was found to remain cubic for compositions Cu8.93Al4.08, Cu8.83, Al4.17, Cu8.75Al4.25 and Cu8.58Al4.42. At Cu8.30Al4.58 the structure was slightly distorted to an undetermined symmetry. For Cu8.03Al4.68 and Cu7.55Al4.80 the structure was found to be rhombohedral [Mr = 636.57, R3m, a = 8.7066(1) A, α = 89.74(1) deg, V = 660.0(1) A3, Z = , Dx = 6.406, Dm = 6.41 Mg m-3, Rwp = 0.064, RB = 0.025 for 702 reflections; and Mr = 609.31, R3m, a = 8.6884(1) A, α = 89.78(1) deg, V = 655.9(1) A3, Z = 4, Dx = 6.170, Dm = 6.18 Mg m-3, Rwp = 0.064, RB = 0.027 for 789 reflections, respectively]. The non-cubic structures contain sufficient structural vacancies to maintain a classical valence content of 88 electrons per unit cell. Refined structures are presented for all of the above compositions, except Cu8.30Al4.58, and the results discussed in terms of current γ-brass stability theories. (orig.)

  3. Failure of the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism in the Ag5Li8 gamma-brass studied by first-principles FLAPW electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first-principles FLAPW (full potential linearized augmented plane wave) electronic structure calculations were performed for the Ag5Li8 gamma-brass, which contains 52 atoms in a unit cell and has been known for many years as one of the most structurally complex alloy phases. The calculations were also made for its neighboring phase AgLi B2 compound. The main objective in the present work is to examine if the Ag5Li8 gamma-brass is stabilized at the particular electrons per atom ratio e/a = 21/13 in the same way as some other gamma-brasses like Cu5Zn8 and Cu9Al4, obeying the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule. For this purpose, the e/a value for the Ag5Li8 gamma-brass as well as the AgLi B2 compound was first determined by means of the FLAPW-Fourier method we have developed. It proved that both the gamma-brass and the B2 compound possess an e/a value equal to unity instead of 21/13. Moreover, we could demonstrate why the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism fails for the Ag5Li8 gamma-brass and proposed a new stability mechanism, in which the unique gamma-brass structure can effectively lower the band-structure energy by forming heavily populated bonding states near the bottom of the Ag-4d band

  4. Electrochemical evaluation of the influence of pseudomonas sp on aluminium brass in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a biofilm on metallic surfaces generates serious problems for the acceleration of corrosive processes. The control of the development of the biological film is important because its formation, among other effects, causes fouling of the surface where it has developed, producing differential aeration cells and aggressive metabolites. The influence of surface films was studied by applying electrochemical techniques in artificial seawater with and without bacteria, under different immersion times. Since the pitting potential (Epic) defines the metals' ability to resist pitting corrosion, a measure of susceptibility to pitting in aggressive solutions is considered. The pitting potential was studied in the systems being studied as well as the influence of seawater + ClO- ion biocides on the systems, since the biocides used was sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO). The material used was aluminum brass and a wild bacterial strain was used, which was isolated from the tubes by a heat exchanger from a thermoelectric plant (CW)

  5. Corrective measures and research of stress corrosion cracking of brass cooling coil in nitrite circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    corrosion is attracting more and more attention in nuclear power field.as stress corrosion of nuclear safety is most dangerous, it was researched most. six heat exchange coil pipe of 2DVH and 2RRM system which was supplied cooling water by 2RRI system made water one by one in ten days after running five years. This article researched flaws through analyzing component of material, observing crack macroscopically and microcosmically, hydrochemistry and SEM analysis, and discovered the cause of flaw. ammonia which was produced by nitrite caused stress corrosion cracking of tin brass cooling coil.This article analysed the fact circs of nuclear power station and presented the corretive measure. (authors)

  6. Standard specification for leak detector solutions intended for use on brasses and other copper alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for leak detector solutions suitable for use in checking the leakage of valves, pipes, fittings, joints, and so forth of a pressurized gas system fabricated from brasses and other copper alloys. 1.2 This specification deals with the stress corrosion cracking aspect of leak detector solutions. The effectiveness, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of leak detector solutions are not within the scope of this specification. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T) at...

  8. A study of professional advantages to manufacturing organizations by the way of utilization hot extrusion technique for production of brass Electrical contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Malhar Dandge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study and analysis of long term advantages gained by electromechanical product manufacturing Industries when the A class components like brass electrical contacts are manufactured by newly devised advance manufacturing technique of hot brass extrusion .After completion of the research and practical application this new advance manufacturing technique this has replaced previous traditional manufacturing technique of green sand molding and casting used for commercial production of brass contacts. The prime impact of research covers a newly devised innovative product life cycle which increases product life.

  9. Chemical decontamination studies on aluminium brass condenser tubes of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    activity levels to background values. The two BWRs of Tarapur atomic power station (TAPS) have been in operation for the past 40 years. The aluminum brass condenser tubes of these stations have been removed and replaced with new tubes of the same material. The decontamination methodologies for effective removal of activities from these used condenser tubes were evaluated. Seven aluminum brass condenser tube specimens were initially evaluated by gamma spectrometry and the dissolution efficiency in various decontamination formulations was subsequently evaluated. The predominant presence of Cs-137 and Co-60 isotopes was shown by gamma spectrometry. Two step oxidative-complexing dissolution was carried out. Oxidative pretreatment of acidic permanganate with varying concentrations was followed by treatment with formulations containing EDTA reagent. Around 75 % of Cs was removed during the pretreatment step while Co was removed to the extent of 40 %. Major amount of Co-60 came out during EDTA complexing dissolution step. The cycles were repeated to improve the decontamination factor (DF). An average cumulative DF of 190 with 95 - 99.5 % activity removal could be achieved by the decontamination. Selective leaching of Zn over Cu to the extent of 25 μm base metal thickness (assuming uniform dissolution over the surface) could be seen by the elemental analysis of the spent decontamination formulation. Spent decontamination formulation handling methodology was also studied. The possibility of single step dissolution was also explored by dissolving synthetic cuprous oxide in permanganate solutions. An oxidative acidic dissolution was observed with fast dissolution kinetics. Base metal attack in this formulation was also evaluated. The average corrosion rate in this formulation was found to be 70 mpy. There was also sign of pitting on the coupons exposed in this formulation. Elemental analysis of the solution after treatment has shown preferential dissolution of copper from

  10. ‘Pulling the Heads off Rats’: Exploring the Factors that Limit the Performance of Contemporary Music by Amateur Musicians in British Brass Bands

    OpenAIRE

    BAKER, ANDREW

    2015-01-01

    This thesis seeks to explore the reasons why amateur musicians, specifically those in British brass bands, do not commission and/or perform contemporary music. To give a meaningful answer, the text seeks first to reach a working definition of the concept of an amateur musician in the opening chapter. This chapter also provides a brief overview of the principal developments in the brass band repertoire since 1913. Chapter two presents a hypothesis relating to the discomfort that Br...

  11. Structural and phase transformations in zinc and brass wires under heating with high-density current pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervikov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The work is focused on revealing the mechanism of structure and phase transformations in the metal wires under heating with a high-density current pulse (the electric explosion of wires, EEWs). It has been demonstrated on the example of brass and zinc wires that the transition of a current pulse with the density of j ≈ 3.3 × 107 A/cm2 results in homogeneous heating of the crystalline structure of the metal/alloy. It has been determined that under heating with a pulse of high-density current pulse, the electric resistance of the liquid phases of zinc and brass decreases as the temperature increases. The results obtained allow for a conclusion that the presence of the particles of the condensed phase in the expanding products of EEW is the result of overheating instabilities in the liquid metal.

  12. Microbiologically influenced corrosion evaluation on brass (UNS C68700, UNS C443) and AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of bio films: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These bio films affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (Uns C.a.), admiralty brass (Uns C.a.) and stainless steel Asi 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay). The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Ei). The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel Asi 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration. (Author)

  13. Electrosynthesis of adherent poly(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) films on brass prepared in nonaqueous solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the electropolymerization of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on a brass substrate in alkaline solution containing methanol was investigated using cyclic polarization, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance techniques and scanning electronic microscopy. The polymeric film was prepared by successive cycles of potential of a 60Cu-Zn electrode between 0 and 1.6 V. During the second cycle, the oxidation peak of the monomer disappears indicating the formation of the insulating film. We have also shown that the monomer oxidation reaction is essentially irreversible and controlled by a diffusion process. The protective effect of the film formed on brass has been studied in a 3%NaCl and 3%NaCl + S2- solution. The results showed important inhibition efficiency, about 96% for 4 h of testing time

  14. Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications: patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goidanich, S; Brunk, J; Herting, G; Arenas, M A; Odnevall Wallinder, I

    2011-12-15

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites. PMID:22051551

  15. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis N.

    2016-01-01

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that ...

  16. Sargassum Wightii Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    R. Selva Kumar; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of marine algae Sargassum wightii extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The inhibitive effect could be attributed to the phytochemical constituents present in the inhibitor containing N, S, O atoms. The activation e...

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigations on corrosion control of 65Cu–35Zn brass in nitric acid by two thiophenol derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M.; Gholami, M.; Momeni, M. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kosari, A., E-mail: Akosari.ali@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moayed, M.H. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoodi, A. [Materials Engineering Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 391 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Two organic compounds were studied as corrosion inhibitor for brass. • Three equivalent circuits were used to fit the impedance spectra. • Langmuir isotherm was used to determine the inhibitor adsorption type. • An increase in corrosion resistance of brass in the range of 20–35 was detected. • Correlation between quantum chemical and experimental efficiencies was acquired. - Abstract: Inhibitive performance of two thiophenol derivatives namely 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) and 4-amino phenol disulfide (4-APD) on corrosion behavior of 65Cu–35Zn brass in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} was investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and also quantum chemical study were used. 4-APD showed higher efficiency at low temperatures while for higher temperatures the 4-ATP is more efficient. The inhibitors obey Langmuir isotherm and its adsorption is both chemical and physical type. Quantum chemical study reveals that the benzene ring, S and N atoms can be suitable sites for adsorption onto surface. Finally, an acceptable correlation between the theoretical and experimental inhibitor efficiency was acquired.

  18. Modifications in surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass using laser induced Ni plasma as an ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced Ni plasma has been employed as source of ion implantation for surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass. Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns, 120mJ and 30 Hz was used for the generation of Ni plasma. Thomson parabola technique was employed to estimate the energy of generated ions using CR39 as a detector. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, the ion dose varies from 60 × 1013 to 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 with constant energy of 138 KeV. SEM analysis reveals the growth of nano/micro sized cavities, pores, pits, voids and cracks for the ion dose ranging from 60 × 1013 to 70 × 1015 ions/cm2. However, at maximum ion dose of 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 the granular morphology is observed. XRD analysis reveals that new phase of CuZnNi (200 is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. However, an anomalous trend in peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation line density and induced stresses is observed in response to the implantation with various doses. The increase in ion dose causes to decrease the Yield Stress (YS, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS and hardness. However, for the maximum ion dose the highest values of these mechanical properties are achieved. The variations in the mechanical properties are correlated with surface and crystallographical changes of ion implanted brass.

  19. Effect of twin spacing, dislocation density and crystallite size on the strength of nanostructured α-brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanotwinned α-brass with varying lamellae thickness (28–170 nm), has been produced by cryorolling. • Equal thickness and uniform distribution of nanotwins increase the hardness homogeneity. • Formation of ∼10 nm subgrains within preexisting twin lamellae causes the refinement. • Flow stress has been predicted considering dislocation density, twin spacing and crystallite size. - Abstract: Nanotwinned α-brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn) with varying lamellae thickness in the range of 28–170 nm, has been produced by cryorolling (CR). The effect of CR strain (εCR = 0.2–0.95) on the evolution of homogeneity and refinement in terms of twin lamellae thickness, twin spacing, and their distribution, have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and microhardness measurements. Analysis of X-ray peak broadening has shown that the crystallite size reduces down to 20 nm at εCR = 0.95, which scales with the subgrain size in preexisting twin lamellae, as revealed under HRTEM. The effect of dislocation density and crystallite size on the strength of nanotwinned brass has been correlated using an analytical model

  20. Effect of twin spacing, dislocation density and crystallite size on the strength of nanostructured α-brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K.; Roy, B.; Das, J., E-mail: j.das@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Nanotwinned α-brass with varying lamellae thickness (28–170 nm), has been produced by cryorolling. • Equal thickness and uniform distribution of nanotwins increase the hardness homogeneity. • Formation of ∼10 nm subgrains within preexisting twin lamellae causes the refinement. • Flow stress has been predicted considering dislocation density, twin spacing and crystallite size. - Abstract: Nanotwinned α-brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn) with varying lamellae thickness in the range of 28–170 nm, has been produced by cryorolling (CR). The effect of CR strain (ε{sub CR} = 0.2–0.95) on the evolution of homogeneity and refinement in terms of twin lamellae thickness, twin spacing, and their distribution, have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and microhardness measurements. Analysis of X-ray peak broadening has shown that the crystallite size reduces down to 20 nm at ε{sub CR} = 0.95, which scales with the subgrain size in preexisting twin lamellae, as revealed under HRTEM. The effect of dislocation density and crystallite size on the strength of nanotwinned brass has been correlated using an analytical model.

  1. Critical behavior of the order-disorder phase transition in β -brass investigated by x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, A.; Als-Nielsen, J.; Hallmann, J.; Roth, T.; Lu, W.

    2016-07-01

    β -brass exhibits an archetypical example of an order-disorder transition with a critical behavior that was previously investigated by neutron scattering. The data were well described by the three-dimensional (3d) Ising model but the relatively crude experimental resolution prevented an in-depth examination of the single-length scaling hypothesis, a cornerstone in the theory of critical phenomena. With the development of synchrotron x-ray experiments, high-resolution data could be recorded and surprisingly it was found that the single-length scaling did not hold in most critical systems, possibly due to strain originating from surface defects and/or impurities. In this paper we demonstrate single-length critical behavior using high-resolution x-ray scattering in β -brass. The investigations confirm that β -brass behaves like a 3d Ising system over a wide range of length scales comprising correlated clusters of millions of atoms. To vary the surface sensitivity, experiments have been performed both in Bragg reflection and Laue transmission geometries but without any substantial differences observed in the scaling and critical behavior.

  2. Determination of the speed of corrosion of aluminum brass in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper alloys are widely used for water conduits. This work defines the speed of corrosion of aluminum brass (Cu76Zn22Al2) in potable water by comparing the results from electrochemical tests and from weight loss tests. The chosen medium is synthetic drinking water (pH 7.6) whose composition is the average for the drinking water in Mar del Plata city. Coupons were prepared for the weight loss test, which were kept in artificial potable water for 90 days. The flow of corrosion was determined based on the resulting weight loss. After the period of immersion, the coupons showed pitting. The resistance to polarization (Rp) was also determined at different immersion times with potential jumps, potentiodynamic sweeps and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Rp values obtained with the different electrochemical methods are in agreement, and they increase over time. This increase can be attributed to the growth of a layer of oxide over the metallic surface. Based on the record of polarization curves the Tafel slopes were obtained and the corrosion current was estimated after 2 hrs and 192 hrs of immersion. The corrosion current values obtained for the different electrochemical methods match the results obtained from the weight loss test (CW)

  3. Radiological survey results at the former Bridgeport Brass Company facility, Seymour, Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey of the former Bridgeport Brass Company facility, Seymour, Connecticut. The survey was performed in May 1992. The purpose of the survey was to determine if the facility had become contaminated with residuals containing radioactive materials during the work performed in the Ruffert building under government contract in the 1960s. The survey included a gamma scanning over a circumscribed area around the building, and gamma and beta-gamma scanning over all indoor surfaces as well as the collection of soil and other samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in indoor and outdoor samples, and radiation measurements over floor and wall surfaces, in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines. Elevated uranium concentrations outdoors were limited to several small, isolated spots. Radiation measurements exceeded guidelines indoors over numerous spots and areas inside the building, mainly in Rooms 1--6 that had been used in the early government work.

  4. High Temperature Formability Prediction of Dual Phase Brass Using Phenomenological and Physical Constitutive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.

  5. Radiological survey of the former Bridgeport Brass Company, Special Metals Extrusion Plant, Adrian, Michigan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological survey was made of the former Bridgeport Brass Special Metals Extrusion Plant in Adrian, Michigan, now owned by General Motors Corporation. This plant was operated to extrude uranium metal which was used in the fabrication of reactor fuel for the Hanford, Washington, and Savannah River, South Carolina, plants. Activities at the Adrian plant included preparation of material for extrusion, abrasive sawing, storing, packaging, and shipping. When the original contract was concluded, most of the equipment was dismantled and salvaged. The current property owner cleaned much of the building and conducted his own radiological survey. The results of the General Motors survey indicated that the area originally involved in the uranium handling and processing operation was within tolerances under the provision of guidelines applicable at the time the facility was decommissioned. A comprehensive survey was conducted in that area by a team of health physicists from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this survey tend to confirm the findings of the General Motors report, except that some floor areas were contaminated in excess of applicable guidelines and some off-gas ducts which had been used in the cutting area were found to be contaminated with uranium. These ducts were removed, the floor areas were cleaned, and a subsequent resurvey of the plant was made. An additional survey of a portion of the facility was conducted by ORNL health physicists after learning that service pits had existed beneath the extrusion units. Sometime after extrusion operations ceased, these pits were filled with sand and covered over at the existing floor level with concrete. Results of this survey revealed concentrations of 238U up to 21,000 pCi/g of residue, scale, and other miscellaneous materials collected from the bottom of service pits, service manholes, and holding tanks

  6. Thermovision systems used to improve a technological process for hot-rolled copper and brass strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rdzawski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper contains description made on thermovision testing with the use of Inframetrics 760B system. Measurements were executed on the surface of a heat furnace and also on the surface of material heated before and hot-rolled. The results of the investigations in a form of thermograpic pictures were taken down in working environment.Design/methodology/approach: The purpose of this research was to evaluate technological process of heating cooper and brass cakes, and hot-rolled strip in special passes assessment of the temperature modification. For basic criterion estimation of these processes, the maintenance at the demanded final rolling temperature in order to keep up adequate structure and narrow range of mechanical properties variation was accepted.Findings: The process of heating charge material is carried through in order to facilitate its machining in a rolling process. When the material does not obtain the adequate temperature or does not become uniformly heated, internal stresses which cause appearance of the rims of fracture and occurrence of other defects in structure appear in cold rolling, as the next. Because of this there is a need of temperature controlling. Research limitations/implications: If a temperature profile on heated to a hot-rolled cakes is not uniform and does not reach a given level, this can mean forming some defects, which can be revealed during a hot-rolled process, relatively during following technological operations leading to a quality decrease and in a consequence to product disqualificationOriginality/value: The use of thermovision system in processes of heating cakes evolution and also hot-rolling. These research enable a condition control of thermal furnace and hot-roll processes.

  7. Cavitation Erosion Corrosion Behaviour of Manganese-nickel -aluminum Bronze in Comparison with Manganese-brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Yugui Zheng; Zhiming Yao

    2009-01-01

    The cavitation erosion corrosion behaviour of ZQMn 12-8-3-2 manganese-nickel-aluminum bronze and ZHMn55-3-1 manganese-brass was investigated by mass loss, electrochemical measurements (polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and the cavitation damaged surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ZQMn 12-8-3-2 had better cavitation erosion resistance than ZHMn55-3-l. After the cavitation erosion for 6 h, the cumulative mass loss of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 was about 1/3 that of ZHMn55-3-l. The corrosion current density of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 was less than that of ZHMn55-3-l under both static and cavitaiton condition. The free-corrosion potentials of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 and ZHMn55-3-l were all shifted in positive direction under cavitation condition compared to static condition. In the total cu-mulative mass loss under cavitation condition, the pure erosion played a key role for the two tested materials (74% for ZHMn55-3-l and 60% for ZQMnl2-8-3-2), and the total synergism between corrosion and erosion of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 (39%) was larger than that of ZHMn55-3-l (23%). The high cavitation erosion resistance of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 was mainly attributed to its lower stacking fault energy (SFE), the higher microhardness and work-hardening ability as well as the favorable propagation of cavitation cracks for ZQMn 12-8-3-2, i.e., parallel to the surface rather than perpendicular to the surface for ZHMn55-3-l.

  8. Enhancement of mechanical properties of low stacking fault energy brass processed by cryorolling followed by short-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bulk-size ultrafine grained brass prepared by cryorolling of LFE commercial alloy. • A good combination of YS and ductility attained by cryorolling followed by annealing. • The LFE caused formation of subgrains and nanotwins to achieve the high YS and ductility. • Fractography analysis corroborated mechanical behavior of the cryorolled and annealed samples. - Abstract: The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of ultrafine grained low stacking faulty energy (SFE) brass processed by cryorolling were investigated in the present work. The commercial brass with 18 wt.% Zn was subjected to cryorolling to obtain specimens with different percentage of reduction in area (RA). Short time post-processing annealing was carried out for the specimens with maximum RA (90%) to enhance their ductility. The mechanical properties of all the specimens were assessed by tensile tests and hardness measurements. Microstructural analysis was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (EM). The maximum yield strength (YS) of 600 MPa with 2.1% ductility was obtained for the cryorolled samples with 90% RA. The YS decreased to 452 MPa with a corresponding increase in the ductility (10%) after annealing at 225 °C. The YS of the cryorolled + annealed sample is found to be 465% higher compared to that of the as-received specimens (YS = 80 MPa). Fractography analysis of the 90% rolled specimens showed a brittle fracture; while, presence of dimples marks on the fractured surface of the annealed specimens indicated a ductile failure. The low SFE of the alloy plays a vital role on the deformation mechanisms during cryorolling and simultaneous improvement of the YS and ductility. Hence, improvement in the mechanical properties has been discussed in the light of refinement of microstructure, formation of sub-grains and nano-twins driven by the low SFE

  9. Effects of ethanolamine, pH change, and increased hydrazine levels on deposit-covered alloy 600 and brass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical dissolution tests and electrochemical tests were carried out on alloy 600 (UNS N06600) specimens covered with synthetic deposit simulating the tube deposits in the steam generators at Indian Point 2 Station in Buchanan, New York. The tests showed that the introduction of ethanolamine (ETA) and a moderate increase in pH gave rise to lower corrosion rates, but enhancement of hydrazine levels caused them to rise. In the case of brass, both types of tests showed that raising the pH caused the corrosion rates to increase, but the introduction of ETA led to a mild decrease in these rates

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the Cu–Sn–Zn system for compositions close to brass alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarinho, Cândida; Soares, Delfim; Castro, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of tin content in the equilibrium phases of the Cu–Zn-based alloys, within the range of chemical compositions with interest to brass producers is described. For this purpose, ternary alloys with copper contents between 55.4 and 67.5 wt.% and tin contents up to 5.30 wt.% have been studied. The chemical composition of each alloy has been determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Isothermal homogenization, followed by rapid cooling, has been employed to determine the ...

  11. Low-cycle fatigue behaviour and microstructure of copper and alpha-brass under biaxial load paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, S; Fischer, J; Biermann, H [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute for Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Strasse 5, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Balogh, L; Ungar, T, E-mail: henkel@ww.tu-freiberg.d [Eoetvoes University, Department of General Physics, PO Box 32, 1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-07-01

    The low-cycle fatigue behaviour of copper and a-brass CuZn30 was investigated in uniaxial and biaxial tests. Planar biaxial fatigue tests were carried out using cruciform samples with proportional stain paths with and without phase shift between the two axes. Microcharacterisation was performed by electron microscopy as well as by high-resolution X-ray line profile analysis. The biaxial cyclic stress-strain curves show good agreement with the uniaxial ones using the von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis. The dislocation densities and microhardness values of the biaxial case, however, show significantly lower values compared to the uniaxial case at equivalent von Mises stresses.

  12. Production and Characterization of Brass-matrix Composites Reinforced with Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 Glassy Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bum Sung Kim; Jürgen Eckert; Min Ha Lee; Sergio Scudino; Uta Kühn; Jin Young Kim

    2012-01-01

    Brass-matrix composites reinforced with 40 and 60 vol.% of Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 glassy particles were produced by powder metallurgy. The crystallization behavior and the temperature dependence of the viscosity of the glass reinforcement were studied in detail to select the proper sintering parameters in order to avoid crystallization of the glassy phase during consolidation. The brass-glass powder mixtures were prepared through manual blending as well as by ball milling to analyze the effect of...

  13. On the possible importance of mechanical twinning for the development of the brass-type rolling texture and final comment on the above remarks by T. Leffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben

    1970-01-01

    The author presents his final comments on the discussion between himself and Heye and Wasserman (see abstrs. A11834 and A11835 of 1970) which arose from the latter authors' paper on mechanical twinning (see abstr. A19815 of 1969). The validity of the twinning theory for the brass-type rolling...... texture is questioned for two reasons: There is no convincing crystallographic model explaining how the formation of the brass-type texture by combined twinning and slip should work in theory, and there are experimental results indicating that it should not work in practice...

  14. Comparison of secondary neutron dose in proton therapy resulting from the use of a tungsten alloy MLC or a brass collimator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To apply the dual ionization chamber method for mixed radiation fields to an accurate comparison of the secondary neutron dose arising from the use of a tungsten alloy multileaf collimator (MLC) as opposed to a brass collimator system for defining the shape of a therapeutic proton field. Methods: Hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous ionization chambers were constructed with large volumes to enable measurements of absorbed doses below 10-4 Gy in mixed radiation fields using the dual ionization chamber method for mixed-field dosimetry. Neutron dose measurements were made with a nominal 230 MeV proton beam incident on a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a solid brass block. The chambers were cross-calibrated against a 60Co-calibrated Farmer chamber in water using a 6 MV x-ray beam and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for variations in ionization chamber response due to differences in secondary neutron energy spectra. Results: The neutron and combined proton plus γ-ray absorbed doses are shown to be nearly equivalent downstream from either a closed tungsten alloy MLC or a solid brass block. At 10 cm downstream from the distal edge of the collimating material the neutron dose from the closed MLC was (5.3 ± 0.4) x 10-5 Gy/Gy. The neutron dose with brass was (6.4 ± 0.7) x 10-5 Gy/Gy. Further from the secondary neutron source, at 50 cm, the neutron doses remain close for both the MLC and brass block at (6.9 ± 0.6) x 10-6 Gy/Gy and (6.3 ± 0.7) x 10-6 Gy/Gy, respectively. Conclusions: The dual ionization chamber method is suitable for measuring secondary neutron doses resulting from proton irradiation. The results of measurements downstream from a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a brass block indicate that, even in an overly pessimistic worst-case scenario, secondary neutron production in a tungsten alloy MLC leads to absorbed doses that are nearly equivalent to those seen from brass collimators. Therefore, the choice of tungsten alloy in constructing the

  15. Effect of Zn and Pb contents on the electrochemical behavior of brass alloys in chloride-free neutral sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.M.; El-Sherif, R.M.; Badawy, W.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Different electrochemical methods such as open-circuit potential measurements, polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of brass alloys with various Zn contents (5.5-38.0 mass%) and Cu-38.0Zn-Pb alloy with different Pb contents (1.0-3.4 mass%) in neutral sodium sulfate solutions. The influence of working conditions, e.g., immersion time, sulfate ions concentration and temperature on the electrochemical behavior of the different alloys was also studied. It was found that the initial corrosion rate is relatively high for alloys with the higher zinc content due to dezincification. The dezincification process initiates by selective dissolution of zinc and continues by a simultaneous dissolution of copper and zinc followed by re-deposition of copper. An increase in the lead content and immersion time in the sodium sulfate solution increases the corrosion resistance of the alloy and improves its stability. The stability of the leaded brass was considered to be due to the formation of an insoluble film of lead sulfate on its surface. The impedance data were fitted to theoretical data obtained according to an equivalent circuit model describing the electrode/electrolyte interface. The mechanism of the alloy dissolution was discussed in view of the obtained results. (Author)

  16. Anti frictional materials iron-pig iron-brass manufacture using shaving waste products of pig-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parts based on iron and steel powders are widely used in the manufacture of automobile and domestic equipment. This work was done to study the anti-friction properties of iron-pig iron-brass compositions of materials which were obtained by pressing and sintering from a mix of iron powders and industrial by products of cast-iron turnings, brass, talc and technical sulphur. Experiments were performed using cold pressure technology in the flowing matrix of the powder composite without solid lubricants. The subsequent sintering was carried out at 1200 degree centigree under isothermal conditions in a nitrogen atmosphere in the sintering zone during 1 h. The physical-mechanical and anti-friction properties were almost double by the active drainage of the gases from the compression mould. The study of the microstructure of the sintered materials showed that free cementite existed between the particle limits and around the pores. large agglomerations of dark inclusions could be observed, consisting of graphite, zinc and iron oxides, which were points of tension in the materials that reduce its durability and, therefore, its wear resistance to dry friction. (Author) 34 refs

  17. Study on the Formation and Precipitation Mechanism of Mn5Si3 Phase in the MBA-2 Brass Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jie, Jinchuan; Zhang, Pengchao; Jia, Chunxu; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2016-06-01

    Mn5Si3 is an attractive dispersion in the special brass, owing to its high hardness and high wear resistance. In the present study, synchrotron X-ray radiography and rapid cooling were applied to investigate the formation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase in the MBA-2 brass alloy. The primary Mn5Si3 phase is proved to exist stably in the alloy melt and nucleate from the melt at temperatures above 1373 K (1100 °C). In addition, the precipitation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase is addressed systematically by the isothermal heat treatment. The Mn5Si3 particles are observed to precipitate from the matrix at temperatures above 1023 K (750 °C), and a crystallographic orientation relationship is found between the precipitated Mn5Si3 particle and β phase: (110)_{β } //(1overline{1} 00)_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} and [overline{1} 11]_{β } //[11overline{2} overline{2} ]_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} . However, the precipitation of Mn5Si3 phase is thermodynamically inhibited at lower temperatures, which can be ascribed to the increase in the Gibbs free energy of formation of Mn5Si3 with decreasing the temperature.

  18. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  19. An Investigation into the Effect of Alloying Elements on the Recrystallization Behavior of 70/30 Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei M, A.; Roshanghias, A.; Abbaszadeh, H.; Akbari, G. H.

    2010-06-01

    An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model has been designed for predicting the effects of alloying elements (Fe, Si, Al, Mn) on the recrystallization behavior and microstructural changes of 70/30 brass. The model introduced here considers the content of alloying elements, temperature, and time of recrystallization as inputs while percent of recrystallization is presented as output. It is shown that the designed model is able to predict the effect of alloying elements well. It is also shown that all alloying elements strongly affect the recrytallization kinetics, and all slow down the recrystallization process. The effect of alloying elements on the activation energy for recrystallization has also been investigated. The results show that Si is the element which increases the activation energy.

  20. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase (α + β) brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase (α + β) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both α (fcc) and β (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the α phase during subsequent deformation.

  1. Determination of electric field-dependent effective secondary emission coefficients for He/Xe ions on brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective secondary emission coefficients, γeff, for He+ and Xe+ ions are determined from the experimental Paschen curves of Postel and Cappelli [Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 544 (2000)] through Townsend's condition for a self-sustained discharge. The γeff dependence on the reduced electric field E/p, where p is the gas pressure, is obtained using the calculated dependence of the reduced Townsend's ionization coefficient α(E/p)/p on the reduced electric field. Average values of the secondary emission coefficients are also estimated for brass and atomic and molecular ions as well as excited atoms and molecules of He and Xe, through a best fit of the simulated Paschen curves to the experimental ones. The found average values of the secondary emission coefficients are 0.1 for He and 0.0016 for Xe. Comparison is made with the limited available experimental results

  2. Analysis and Solution to the Crucial Problems during Brass Instrument Playing%铜管演奏把握性问题的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 史育松

    2015-01-01

    本文列举了以往铜管演奏者在演奏中出现的把握性问题,并对其进行了分析研究,认为至少有3个方面的原因:演奏技术的问题,演奏心理的问题,体力与体能的原因。针对这3个方面的原因文章提出了具体的解决办法。%The paper lists and analyzes the crucial problems during brass instruments playing. And it also sums up three factors during brass instruments which can cause the problems:playing skill ,playing psychology and physical capacity as well, and offers specific solutions to the problems.

  3. Addressing and Assessing Lead Threats in Drinking Water: Non-Leaded Brass, Product Testing, Particulate Lead Occurrence and Effects of the Chloride to Sulfate Mass Ratio on Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over adverse health effects from low level lead exposure motivated reassessment of lead occurrence in drinking water, from the perspective of 1) possibly eliminating lead from new brass materials, and 2) performance testing of existing products. During the course of this thesis work, it was discovered that several cases of childhood lead poisoning in North Carolina, South Carolina and Washington D.C. occurred from contaminated potable water. That disconcerting finding prompt...

  4. Investigation of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR) on Tool Steel Using Brass and Copper Electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG) Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hafiz Helmi; M. Azuddin; W. Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR) of tool steel machined with brass and copper electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG) process. The machining parameter include pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, peak current and capacitance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Taguchi method is used to investigate the significant effect on the performance characteristic and the optimal cutting parameters of EDG. The result shows that, the surface ro...

  5. Synergistic inhibition effect of benzotriazole (BTA) and oxalate ions on the corrosion of copper, zinc and brass in NaCl and HCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of corrosion is of high technological importance and progress made in this field has been phenomenal in recent years. Zinc is more active compared to copper. Copper is a valuable material, especially in electronics, solar cell fittings, household products, structural engineering, art and decoration, coinage and biomedical application. Even though copper is corrosion resistant due to its natural oxide film, it is prone to corrode in solutions that contain oxygen and high concentration of chloride, sulphate, sulphide and nitrate ions. A variety of potentially damaging environments require versatile inhibition actions. Although an inhibitor is sometimes added to avoid tarnishing, in the majority of cases the inhibitor's purpose is to prevent or postpone corrosion attack. The corrosion inhibition of copper, zinc and brass in 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M HCl solutions in the presence of BTA and sodium oxalate have been investigated using polarization, AC-impedance and current-potential methods. Inhibition effect depends to the pretreatment of electrode. For this reason, the electrodes were pretreated in 0.15 M HCl solution for 20 seconds in order to obtain better surface prone to form coatings on the electrode surface before immersing into the studied solutions. Results showed BTA and oxalate to have synergistic inhibition effect on the corrosion of copper and brass. All the methods employed showed good correlation between each other revealing a mean efficiency of 99% in neutral medium and 88% in acidic medium for brass. (authors)

  6. Investigation of corrosion and stability of lead-brass alloy in acid and neutral solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, W.A.; El-Egamy, S.S.; Azab, A.S. [Univ. of Cairo, Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of a lead-brass alloy (58% Cu, 1.8% Pb, and 42.2% Zn) was investigated in naturally aerated acid and neutral chloride and sulfate solutions under open-circuit and potentiostatic control conditions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion under open-circuit conditions was caused mainly by the dissolved oxygen depolarizer, copper (I) chloride (CuCl) or copper (I) sulfate (Cu{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), together with some surface oxides, which were assumed to be corrosion products, leading to electrode passivation. Impedance spectra in the form of Nyquist plots consisted of depressed semicircles with different degrees of depression. These depressions increased with dilution of the electrolyte rather than with immersion time. This behavior was attributed partially to inhomogeneities and surface roughness. Data were analyzed in terms of the constant phase element model, which reduced to infinite Warburg diffusion in neutral solutions. At high cathodic overpotentials, reduction of hydrogen (H{sup +}) in acid media and of oxygen in neutral media seemed to be rate controlling. Potentiostatic polarization at potentials > {minus}0.5 V led to selective dissolution of zinc and accumulation of corrosion products. At potentials > {minus}0.2 V, pitting occurred.

  7. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  8. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelicarslan, A.; Saridede, M. N.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO{sub 4}), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (EmimHSO{sub 4}) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO{sub 4} and HmimHSO{sub 4}, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO{sub 4} system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 degree centigrade leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO{sub 4} concentration at 60 degree centigrade and 80 degree centigrade in the following order; 40%>20%>60%>80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc. (Author)

  9. Optimization in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass with multiple surface roughnesses characteristics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Chandra Routara; Saumya Darsan Mohanty; Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

    2010-10-01

    The present study highlights a multi-objective optimization problem by applying utility concept coupled with Taguchi method through a case study in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass. The study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy multiple requirements of surface quality. In view of the fact, the traditional Taguchi method cannot solve a multi-objective optimization problem; to overcome this limitation, utility theory has been coupled with Taguchi method. Depending on Taguchi’s Lower-the-Better (LB) response criteria; individual surface quality characteristics has been transformed into corresponding utility values. Individual utility values have been aggregated finally to compute overall utility degree which serves as representative objective function for optimizing using Taguchi method. Utility theory has been adopted to convert a multi-response optimization problem into a single response optimization problem; in which overall utility degree serves as the representative single objective function for optimization. The study of combined utility theory and Taguchi method for predicting optimal setting. Based on Taguchi’s Signal-to-Noise ratio (S/N), analysis has been made on the overall utility degree and optimal process environment has been selected finally which corresponds to highest S/N Ratio. Optimal result has been verified through confirmatory test. The case study indicates application feasibility of the aforesaid methodology proposed for multiresponse optimization and off-line control of multiple surface quality characteristics in CNC end milling.

  10. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former Bridgeport Brass Company Facility, Seymour, Connecticut (SSC001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the USDOE, a team from ORNL conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former Bridgeport Brass Company Facility, Seymour, Connecticut, from September 1992 to March 1993. Purpose of the survey was to determine whether residual levels of radioactivity inside the Ruffert Building and selected adjacent areas were rmediated to levels below DOE guidelines for FUSRAP sites. The property was contaminated with radioactive residues of 238U from uranium processing experiments conducted by Reactive Metals, Inc., from 1962 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission. A previous radiological survey did not characterize the entire floor space because equipment which could not be moved at the time made it inaccessible for radiological surveys. During the remediation process, additional areas of elevated radioactivity were discovered under stationary equipment, which required additional remediation and further verification. Results of the independent radiological verification survey confirm that, with the exception of the drain system inside the building, residual uranium contamination has been remediated to levels below DOE guidelines for unrestricted release of property at FUSRAP sites inside and outside the Ruffert Building. However, certain sections of the drain system retain uranium contamination above DOE surface guideline levels. These sections of pipe are addressed in separate, referenced documentation

  11. Time-domain numerical modeling of brass instruments including nonlinear wave propagation, viscothermal losses, and lips vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Berjamin, Harold; Vergez, Christophe; Cottanceau, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain numerical modeling of brass instruments is proposed. On one hand, outgoing and incoming waves in the resonator are described by the Menguy-Gilbert model, which incorporates three key issues: nonlinear wave propagation, viscothermal losses, and a variable section. The non-linear propagation is simulated by a TVD scheme well-suited to non-smooth waves. The fractional derivatives induced by the viscothermal losses are replaced by a set of local-in-time memory variables. A splitting strategy is followed to couple optimally these dedicated methods. On the other hand, the exciter is described by a one-mass model for the lips. The Newmark method is used to integrate the nonlinear ordinary differential equation so-obtained. At each time step, a coupling is performed between the pressure in the tube and the displacement of the lips. Finally, an extensive set of validation tests is successfully completed. In particular, self-sustained oscillations of the lips are simulated by taking into account the nonli...

  12. Electrochemical anticorrosion performance evaluation of Al2O3 coatings deposited by MOCVD on an industrial brass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumina (Al2O3) coatings of different thickness were deposited on OT59 brass substrate (BS) using the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) technique to evaluate the corrosion performance by EIS measurements. The used precursor was dimethyl-aluminium-isopropoxide. Electrochemical characterizations of the deposited films were performed in a standard very aggressive acidic solution (aerated 1N H2SO4 at 25 deg. C up to 168 h of immersion time) by means of direct current method (Tafel curves) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) indicated that the films are very pure with the correct Al2O3 stoichiometry, while the IR absorption spectra showed that the films did not contain any -O-H groups. The surface film morphology was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and displayed a globular texture. The films were very smooth, with a maximum root mean square roughness, for example, of 14 nm for a 0.96 μm thick coating. The EIS data confirmed, as expected, that a 2.40 μm Al2O3 layer ensures the best corrosion protection after 168 h of immersion in the very acidic environment used

  13. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (EmimHSO4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO4 and HmimHSO4, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO4 system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 degree centigrade leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO4 concentration at 60 degree centigrade and 80 degree centigrade in the following order; 40%>20%>60%>80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc. (Author)

  14. Calibration-free analysis of immersed brass alloys using long-ns-duration pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with and without correction for nonstoichiometric ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-ns-duration, single pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is known to be an effective method to observe well resolved spectra from samples immersed in water at high hydrostatic pressures. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the signals obtained using this method are suitable for quantitative analysis of chemical composition. Six certified brass alloys consisting of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were measured underwater using a laser pulse of duration 250 ns, and their compositions were determined using calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) and corrected CF-LIBS (CCF-LIBS) methods. The mass fractions of Cu and Zn calculated using CF-LIBS showed better agreement with the certified values than those determined using CCF-LIBS, with relative errors of Cu 4.2 ± 3.3 % and Zn 7.2 ± 6.4 %. From the results, it can be said that the difference of preferential evaporation and ablation among elements does not need to be considered for underwater measurements with the long-pulse LIBS setup used in this work. While the results indicate that the CF-LIBS method can be applied for in situ quantitative analysis of major elements with concentrations > ~ 10 %, the mass fractions determined for Pb, with concentrations < 5 % had large relative errors, suggesting that an alternative method is required to quantify minor elements. - Highlights: • The spectra of submerged metal alloys obtained using a long pulse is suitable for CF-LIBS. • CF-LIBS determines the mass fractions of major elements of submerged brass targets in water. • The compositions of Cu and Zn are determined within 10 % relative error. • The preferential evaporation and ablation among elements do not have a significant influence on the quantitative analysis of brass samples submerged in water using a long-ns-duration laser pulse

  15. Calibration-free analysis of immersed brass alloys using long-ns-duration pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with and without correction for nonstoichiometric ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tomoko, E-mail: takahas@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Thornton, Blair [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ohki, Koichi [OK Lab. Co., Ltd. 8-7-3 Shimorenjyaku, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0013 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Long-ns-duration, single pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is known to be an effective method to observe well resolved spectra from samples immersed in water at high hydrostatic pressures. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the signals obtained using this method are suitable for quantitative analysis of chemical composition. Six certified brass alloys consisting of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were measured underwater using a laser pulse of duration 250 ns, and their compositions were determined using calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) and corrected CF-LIBS (CCF-LIBS) methods. The mass fractions of Cu and Zn calculated using CF-LIBS showed better agreement with the certified values than those determined using CCF-LIBS, with relative errors of Cu 4.2 ± 3.3 % and Zn 7.2 ± 6.4 %. From the results, it can be said that the difference of preferential evaporation and ablation among elements does not need to be considered for underwater measurements with the long-pulse LIBS setup used in this work. While the results indicate that the CF-LIBS method can be applied for in situ quantitative analysis of major elements with concentrations > ~ 10 %, the mass fractions determined for Pb, with concentrations < 5 % had large relative errors, suggesting that an alternative method is required to quantify minor elements. - Highlights: • The spectra of submerged metal alloys obtained using a long pulse is suitable for CF-LIBS. • CF-LIBS determines the mass fractions of major elements of submerged brass targets in water. • The compositions of Cu and Zn are determined within 10 % relative error. • The preferential evaporation and ablation among elements do not have a significant influence on the quantitative analysis of brass samples submerged in water using a long-ns-duration laser pulse.

  16. Synthesis of Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn brass alloy nanoparticles from metal amidinate precursors in ionic liquids or propylene carbonate with relevance to methanol synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schütte, K.; H. Meyer; Gemel, Chr.; Barthel, Juri; Fischer, R.A.; Janiak,Chr.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(NiPr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(NiPr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursor...

  17. Enhanced Photoluminescence and Raman Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Prepared Using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methanol Assisted with Heated Brass

    OpenAIRE

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K.; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md. Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as ...

  18. Hot working analysis of a CuZn40Pb2 brass on the monophasic (beta) and intercritical (alpha plus beta) regions

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suarez; Rodríguez Calvillo, Pablo; Cabrera Marrero, José M.; Martinez Romay, A; Majuelos Mallorquin, D

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature deformation behavior of a Cu4OZn2Pb brass was studied by means of compression and tensile tests in the beta monophasic and alpha/beta biphasic regions. The ductility evaluated in terms of elongation and area reduction allowed to distinguish three regions: one 13 monophasic region (above 720 degrees C), and two alpha/beta biphasic regions, between 720 degrees C and 600 degrees C, and below 600 degrees C. The fracture appearance was evolving from a ductile type, with dimple...

  19. Tribological studies of composite material based on CuZn38Al2Mn1Fe brass strengthened with δ-alumina fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaczmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of tribological studies (friction coefficient, wear resistance of the frictional couple of composite material based on CuZn38Al2Mn1Fe brass strengthened with δ-alumina fibres (Saffil and cast iron are shown in this paper. The wear investigations were conducted applying the tribological pin-on-disc tester and the friction forces between composite materials containing 10 and 20 vol. % of δ-alumina fibres (Saffil and cast iron were registered. Wear was determined on the base of the specimen mass loss after 1, 3,5 and 8.5 km of friction distance.

  20. Evaluation of Chromate as Dezincification Inhibitor for α-brass (Cu/Zn : 64/36) in 3% Chloride Buffer Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    H. H. Rehan; N.A. Al-Moubarak; H.A. Al-Rafai

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition behavior of chromate ions towards corrosion and dezincification of α-brass (Cu/Zn: 64/36) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 2.4, 7.0 and 8.5) containing 3% sodium chloride was studied. Weight loss and solution analysis were used for a long period (four weeks) and electrochemical polarization for a short period (one hour). Chromate accelerated corrosion and dezincification at pH 2.4 by acting as depolarizer but chromate suppressed efficiently the corrosion and dezincification...

  1. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    possible biofilm composition and understand the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration process. Using these methodologies, the box was correctly identified as being made of cellulose acetate plastic with brass decorations and the white film was identified as being composed mainly of polymer exudates, namely sulphonamides and triphenyl phosphate. PMID:26767634

  2. Study of the influence of short-range order, clustering and crystal lattice defects on positron annihilation in α and α + β brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model is porposed allowing the consideration of the influence of local neighbourhood of an atom on the positron density enhancement at one or another type of atom in a binary alloy. With the help of this model the direction of the change of angular correlation peak height caused by appearance of short range order or clustering can be predicted. Cu-Zn-alloys containing 5.4, 15, and 37 wt%. Zn are investigated. The peak height of samples quenched from 3000C show a weak minimum at 900C. This seems not to be caused by the increase of short-range order but rather by a process of clustering, probably by segregation of Zn atoms at stacking faults and dislocations. The observed recovery of plastically deformed brass can be well explained by annealing out of vacancies and following recrystallization, where the α + β brass shows characteristic deformation induced properties. Peak height measurements of recovery of crystal lattice defects in binary alloys seems to be only weakly influenced by effects such as short-range order or tendency of clustering. The formation energy of monovacancies in Cu-37wt%Zn is determined to be (0.81 +- O.02) eV. (author)

  3. Study on Welding Technology of Brass Heat Exchanger Tube and Shell%黄铜换热器管头焊接工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦娅妮; 高磊; 张莹莹; 纪强

    2014-01-01

    针对黄铜换热器管头焊接工艺进行研究,采用宏观检验、金相组织观察、硬度测试等方法来表征焊接接头的质量。探讨黄铜换热管头的焊接工艺,并通过对焊缝、母材、管材及热影响区组织的金相分析,找出比较合理的黄铜换热器管头焊接工艺方案。%The welding process of brass heat exchanger tube and shell was studied;the welding quality was tested by macroscopic examination, microstructure observation and hardness test. Through metallographic analysis of welding seam, base metal, pipe material and organization at heat-affected zone, reasonable welding process scheme of the brass heat exchanger tube and shell was determined.

  4. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  5. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  6. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of ionic liquids (ILs, 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO4 and HmimHSO4, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO4 system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 °C leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO4 concentration at 60 °C and 80 °C in the following order; 40% > 20% > 60% > 80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc.Este trabajo investiga el uso de líquidos iónicos (LIs, hidrogenosulfato de 1-metillimidazolio (HmimHSO4, hidrogenosulfato de 1-etil-3- metilimidazolio (EmimHSO4 y cloruro de 1-butil-1-metilimidazolio (BmimCl, como agentes de lixiviación de cobre y zinc a partir de residuos de latón en presencia de un oxidante, peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2. Se estudiaron distintos factores que afectan a la velocidad de disolución del cobre y el zinc, como la concentración del líquido iónico, el tiempo y la temperatura. Los resultados indican que el zinc se disuelve completamente en las disoluciones que contienen EmimHSO4 y HmimHSO4. La temperatura no tiene un efecto significativo en la velocidad de disolución del cobre, mientras que dicha velocidad aumenta al disminuir la concentración del líquido iónico. En los sistemas que contienen EmimHSO4, los mejores

  7. Investigation of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR on Tool Steel Using Brass and Copper Electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hafiz Helmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR of tool steel machined with brass and copper electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG process. The machining parameter include pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, peak current and capacitance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Taguchi method is used to investigate the significant effect on the performance characteristic and the optimal cutting parameters of EDG. The result shows that, the surface roughness value when using of both tool materials are mostly influenced by pulse ON time and peak current. The capacitance parameter in both experiments was not giving any significant effect. The significant factors for the material removal rate due to the machining parameter are peak current parameter and ON time parameter but it also can increase the machining time

  8. Determination of Cu and Zn elements in lead brass using fundamental parameter method by X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to fundamental parameter method theory, gained the key parameters such as mass-absorption coefficients and excitation factors and wrote the calculation procedure. In experiment, a series of lead brass alloy standard samples were analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and calculated the contents of Cu, Zn of the samples via the fundamental parameter calculation procedure. The result shows the fundamental parameter method can overcome the absorption-enhancement effect between Cu and Zn elements well. The measured contents of Cu and Zn is respectively 54%-64% and 33%-45%, the precision of the method is 0.10% and 0.15% respectively for Cu and Zn. (authors)

  9. Microbiologically influenced corrosion evaluation on brass (UNS C68700, UNS C443) and AISI 316 stainless steel; Estudio de la influencia microbiologica en la corrosion de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443) y acero inoxidable AISI 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Russi, P.; Pianzzola, M. J.; Menes, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of bio films: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These bio films affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (Uns C.a.), admiralty brass (Uns C.a.) and stainless steel Asi 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay). The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Ei). The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel Asi 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration. (Author)

  10. Synthesis of Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn brass alloy nanoparticles from metal amidinate precursors in ionic liquids or propylene carbonate with relevance to methanol synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kai; Meyer, Hajo; Gemel, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Fischer, Roland A.; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(NiPr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(NiPr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursors. Nanoparticles were characterized by high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure characterizations were complemented by STEM with spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synthesis in ILs yields significantly smaller nanoparticles than in PC. β-CuZn alloy nanoparticles are precursors to catalysts for methanol synthesis from the synthesis gas H2/CO/CO2 with a productivity of 10.7 mol(MeOH) (kg(Cu) h)-1.Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(NiPr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(NiPr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursors. Nanoparticles were characterized by high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure characterizations were complemented by STEM with spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synthesis in ILs yields significantly smaller nanoparticles than in PC.

  11. SU-E-T-554: Monte Carlo Calculation of Source Terms and Attenuation Lengths for Neutrons Produced by 50–200 MeV Protons On Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used TOPAS (TOPAS wraps and extends Geant4 for medical physicists) to compare Geant4 physics models with published data for neutron shielding calculations. Subsequently, we calculated the source terms and attenuation lengths (shielding data) of the total ambient dose equivalent (TADE) in concrete for neutrons produced by protons in brass. Methods: Stage1: The Bertini and Binary nuclear models available in Geant4 were compared with published attenuation at depth of the TADE in concrete and iron. Stage2: Shielding data of the TADE in concrete was calculated for 50– 200 MeV proton beams on brass. Stage3: Shielding data from Stage2 was extrapolated for 235 MeV proton beams. This data was used in a point-line-source analytical model to calculate the ambient dose per unit therapeutic dose at two locations inside one treatment room at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center. Finally, we compared these results with experimental data and full TOPAS simulations. Results: At larger angles (∼130o) the TADE in concrete calculated with the Bertini model was about 9 times larger than that calculated with the Binary model. The attenuation length in concrete calculated with the Binary model agreed with published data within 7%±0.4% (statistical uncertainty) for the deepest regions and 5%±0.1% for shallower regions. For iron the agreement was within 3%±0.1%. The ambient dose per therapeutic dose calculated with the Binary model, relative to the experimental data, was a ratio of 0.93±0.16 and 1.23±0.24 for two locations. The analytical model overestimated the dose by four orders of magnitude. These differences are attributed to the complexity of the geometry. Conclusion: The Binary and Bertini models gave comparable results, with the Binary model giving the best agreement with published data at large angle. Shielding data we calculated using the Binary model is useful for fast shielding calculations with other analytical models. This work was supported by

  12. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface.

  13. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface. PMID:26856760

  14. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  15. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs. PMID:25756598

  16. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved

  17. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cryorolling (CR strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α−brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10−3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10−3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10−5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  18. Comparison of characteristics parameters in the evaluation of wall thickness diminishing in admiralty brass tubes of the steam condenser, tested by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed to appraise the measure of the wall thickness diminishing in the signals evaluation obtained in the inspection of steam condenser by eddy currents. In the analysis of the obtained signals were observed in the brass tubes a great quantity of internal defects whose signal indicates that there were diminishing of the wall thickness between 80% and 100%. With all this information and analyzing the data acquired, the tubes with more important indications were selected to make a more exhaustive study of the found defectology. As first test, it was measured the thickness of the worn tubes, comparing them with the original ones that are in stock. It was verified that the tubes separated for this study presented a 30% less thickness in comparison with the new tubes. A semiquantitative chemical test (EDAX) was made to verify if it was the same material. One of the extracted tubes (066 Y1) was reinspected in order to isolate the area with indications. Once this was performed, it was decided to cut the tube to make a visual inspection and to evaluate to what type of defect corresponds to the signals obtained. In the metallography it was confirm that it was a horseshoe type defect. When performing a dimensional control test of the found real defect, it was checked that the information obtained by eddy currents regarding the diminishing of the wall thickness diminishing was valid. At a last stage of the test, it was proceed to make an study and verification of the used parameters, probes, standards and finally determine which shall be the convenient modifications to minimize errors. (author)

  19. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards.Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p<0.01, while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p<0.01. Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p<0.05. There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p<0.01.This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance.

  20. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  1. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  2. 黄铜表面富植酸钝化工艺研究%Passivation Technology Research of Rich-Phytic Acid for Brass-Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡薇; 刘仁辉; 魏仕勇; 刘羽飞

    2012-01-01

    The effect of passivation conditions (temperature, passivation time and pH value of passivation solution) on the corrosion resistance of passivation film treated by passivator of rich-phytic acid (50% , mass fraction) 8 ml·L-1, hydrogen peroxide (30%, mass fraction) 30 ml·L-1, boric acid 5 g·L-1, polyethylene glycol 15 ml·L-1, additive 4 g·L-1 was investigated. Samples were made of cold-rolled strip of HA172-2.5-1 alloy. The corrosion resistance of passivation film was detected by nitric acid dripping. The results showed that the optimum condition of passivation by rich-phytic acid passivation solution was at the range of 35 ~ 40 ℃, pH 2.5 dipping for about 60 s. Photos of SEM showed that the passivation film was uniform and compact. The weight loss test showed that the average corrosion rate of samples treated by rich-phytic acid passivator was 0. 0054 g·m-2·h-1, that was equal to the rate (0.0040 g·m-2·h-1) of dichromate treated samples, and much lower than the corrosion rate (0.0376 g·m-2·h-1) of samples without passivation treatment. It meant that rich-phytic acid passivator protected brass strip well. 12 h of salt spray test showed that the dichromate treated samples changed brown with a lot of corrosion spots, and rich phytic acid treated samples turned to golden yellow with only a few spots. It showed that brass strip processed by rich phytic acid had better anti-color capability than those dichromate treated samples. The rich phytic acid passivator was environment protection without chromium ions.%采用植酸(50%,质量分数)8 ml·L-1,双氧水(30%,质量分数)30 ml·L-1,硼酸5 g·L-1,聚乙二醇15 ml·L-1,添加剂4 g·L-1钝化液对冷轧HA172-2.5-1黄铜带材进行钝化处理,探讨工艺条件(钝化温度、钝化时间和钝化液pH值)对富植酸钝化膜耐蚀性的影响.通过硝酸溶液点滴腐蚀试验对黄铜表面富植酸钝化膜的耐腐蚀性能进行研究.结果表明,富植酸钝化膜的最佳工艺条

  3. Brass plating on steel wire by thermal diffusion method as an alternative to cyanide plating%取代氰化物的热扩散法镀黄铜线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程沪生

    2013-01-01

    Currently the plating of brass on the surface of steel wire is usually carried out in a cyanide bath. However, the cyanide brass plating is limited by environment protection law and regulation. In the paper, a process for forming brass on steel wire surface by thermal diffusion method as an alternative to cyanide plating was introduced: (a) chemical pickling and electrolytic pickling of steel wire treated at high temperature; (b) pyrophosphate copper plating, acidic copper plating, and sulfate zinc plating successively, making the content ratio of copper to zinc in deposit equal to 73∶27; and (c) interdiffusion of Cu and Zn atoms to opposite crystal lattice by heating at 420-450 ℃ on thermal diffusion wheel to form Cu-Zn alloy coating. The process is simple and easy, and convenient for management and wastewater treatment, thus achieving the goal of environmentally-friendly electroplating.%目前,黄铜线电镀通常是在氰化物镀液中完成.受环保法规的限制,氰化物黄铜线电镀已受到严格控制.介绍了可取代氰化物电镀的热扩散法镀黄铜线工艺:钢丝经高温处理后进行化学酸洗和电解酸洗,然后依次进行焦磷酸镀铜和酸性镀铜,再进行硫酸盐镀锌,使镀层中铜、锌含量比为73:27;最后在420~450℃的热扩散轮子上进行热扩散,使铜、锌原子互相扩散到对方晶格中,形成铜-锌合金镀层.该工艺简单易行,便于管理,污水处理方便,实现了环保电镀.

  4. 米诺六辊UC轧机轧制黄铜板材板形问题分析%Flatness analysis of brass plate cast by Minoxidil six UC mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建波; 郭丽丽; 赵峰; 孙庆安; 李学帅; 刘维民; 刘耀

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the serious shape problem of brass plate by Mino six roll UC mill. The factors for poor shape, high roll bending force and high work hardening of C2680 sheet with width of 650 mm are analyzed. The results show that the shape of wide brass sheet can be dramatically improved by controlling rollers precision, in-termediate rolls position and rolling process. Controlling the rollers precision is applied to guarantee the eccen-tricity ratio to be lower than 0.01mm. The value of intermediate rolls position is about two times as processing rate, which ensure the hardness of raw materials to be lower than 70 HV. The deformation resistance can be de-creased by improving the quality of shape of brass sheet and eliminating work hardening imprints.%针对中色奥博特铜铝业有限公司意大利米诺六辊UC轧机轧制黄铜板带出现的严重板形问题,探讨了造成宽度为650 mm的C2680黄铜板形差、弯辊力大、加工硬化严重等问题的原因.结果表明,通过控制辊系精度、中间辊抽动位置及轧制工艺调整可以显著改善宽幅黄铜轧制的板形,控制辊系精度保证偏心率不超过0.01 mm,中间辊的位置约为带卷加工率的2倍,保证来料的软硬性能(硬度低于70 HV),即可降低合金的变形抗力,提高合金的板形质量,并彻底消除加工硬化印.

  5. Caracterización Experimental de un Empaque Estructurado de Gasa de Latón de Alta Eficiencia Experimental Characterization of a High Efficiency Brass Gauge Structured Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H Chávez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra la operación de un empaque estructurado construido en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ, del tipo gasa de alambre y fabricado en latón. Los resultados experimentales son las caídas de presión generadas por el paso de los flujos gaseoso y líquido que cruzan el empaque, las retenciones volumétricas del líquido, los coeficientes volumétricos de transferencia de masa por el lado líquido y las alturas de unidades de transferencia de masa del líquido. Los resultados son comparados con los de el empaque estructurado comercial Sulzer BX, igualmente del tipo de gasa de alambre y construido en acero inoxidable,. Los resultados experimentales muestran que el empaque ININ es más eficiente en la transferencia de masa, pero con mayor caída de presión, en comparación con el empaque Sulzer BX, debido a las características geométricas y al tipo de material de construcción.This paper shows the performance of a structured packing of the gauze type and made out of brass, developed at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, Mexico (ININ. The experimental results are the pressure drop of the gas and liquid through the packing, the liquid volumetric holdups, the liquid-side volumetric mass transfer coefficients and the heights of liquid-side mass transfer unit. The results are compared with the commercial structured packing Sulzer BX, also of the gauze type and made out of stainless steel. The experimental results show that the ININ packing offers higher mass transfer efficiency but higher pressure drop than the Sulzer BX packing due to their geometric characteristics and the type of construction material.

  6. Propagation speed of gamma radiation in brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose T.P.D.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovich, Henrique

    2009-07-01

    The propagation speed (PS) of visible light -represented by a short frequency range in the large frame of electromagnetic radiations (ER) frequencies- in air was measured during the last century, using a great deal of different methods, with high precision results being achieved. Presently, a well accepted value, with very small uncertainty, is c= 299,792.458 Km/s) (c reporting to the Latin word celeritas: 'speed swiftness'). When propagating in denser material media (MM), such value is always lower when compared to the air value, with the propagating MM density playing an important role. Until present, such studies focusing propagation speeds, refractive indexes, dispersions were specially related to visible light, or to ER in wavelengths ranges dose to it, and with a transparent MM. A first incursion in this subject dealing with {gamma}-rays was performed using an electronic coincidence counting system, when the value of it's PS was measured in air, C{sub {gamma}}{sub (air)}298,300.15 Km/s; a method that went on with later electronic improvements. always in air. To perform such measurements the availability of a {gamma}-radiation source in which two {gamma}-rays are emitted simultaneously in opposite directions -as already used as well as applied in the present case- turns out to be essential to the feasibility of the experiment, as far as no reflection techniques could be used. Such a suitable source was the positron emitter {sup 22}Na placed in a thin wall metal container in which the positrons are stopped and annihilated when reacting with the medium electrons, in such way originating -as it is very well established from momentum/energy conservation laws - two gamma-rays, energy 511 KeV each, both emitted simultaneously in opposite directions. In all the previous experiments were used photomultiplier detectors coupled to NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators, which have a good energy resolution but a deficient time resolution for such purposes. Presently, as an innovative improvement, were used BaF{sub 2} and Cs F crystal scintillators which display a much better time resolution. Incidentally, the use of {gamma}-rays would a 110 W a determination of ER propagation values in non-transparent MM, non transparent for visible light; and in such a way better sketching their structural -or of other nature- properties that may interfere with this propagation. (author)

  7. R-damage cassette (incorporated brass sleeve)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-07

    The R-Damage series of ten experiments is part of a long-term collaboration with RFNC/VNIIEF in pulsed power technology. These experiments use a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage, which allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions and post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis. Dynamic in-situ experimental velocimetry diagnostics are also employed. LANL is responsible for the design of the experimental load and velocimetry system. VNIIEF is responsible for the design and construction of the driving explosive magnetic generator. Eight of the experiments in the planned series have been completed. Thus far, data has been collected about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry, the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime, and the behavior of material recollected after complete failure. The final two experiments will continue the study of material recollected after complete failure. The load assembly shown is similar to that employed in the previous two experiments, with some modiflications for easier assembly.

  8. Eletrodissolução de ligas de latão empregando sistemas de análise em fluxo para a determinação de cobre, zinco e chumbo por ICP-AES Electrodissolution of brasses alloys employing flow systems for determination of copper, zinc and lead by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. Gervasio

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available An on-line electrodissolution procedure implemented in a flow injection system for determination of copper, zinc and lead in brasses alloys by ICP-AES is described. Sample dissolution procedure was carried out by using a PTFE chamber and a DC power supply with constant current. Solid sample was attached to chamber as anode and a gold tubing coupled in the chamber was used as cathode. An electrolytic solution flowing through the gold tubing closed the electric circuit with sample, in order to provide condition for electric dissolution when the DC power supply was switched on. The best results were achieved by using a 1.5 mol l-1 nitric acid solution as electrolyte and a 2.5 A current intensity. The procedure presented a good performance characterized by a relative standard deviation better than < 5% (n=5 and a sample throughput of 180 determinations per hour for Cu, Zn and Pb. Results were in agreement with those obtained by conventional acid dissolution (99% confidence level.

  9. Anti-Unionism's Gear: Not Brass Knuckles, But Attache Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Frank J.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of union-busting in five New York health care institutions showed a pattern of tactics and practices common to all facilities. The union-busting industry is expanding rapidly, and its profit margin is impressive. Labor and management must tackle the reconstructed attitude of anti-unionism before it destroys both their houses. (SR)

  10. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina

  11. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, C., E-mail: carla.martini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Chiavari, C., E-mail: cristina.chiavari@unibo.it [C.I.R.I. M.A.M (Advanced Applications in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Technology Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Ospitali, F., E-mail: francesca.ospitali@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Grazzi, F., E-mail: francesco.grazzi@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Scherillo, A., E-mail: antonella.scherillo@stfc.ac.uk [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Neutron Source, OX0QJ Didcot (United Kingdom); Soffritti, C., E-mail: chiara.soffritti@unife.it [TekneHub, Department of Architecture, University of Ferrara, Via Quartieri 8, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Garagnani, G.L., E-mail: gian.luca.garagnani@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina.

  12. The relation between microstructure and crystallographic orientation in rolled copper and brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, H.; Leffers, Torben

    2002-01-01

    type tend to cluster in certain regions of orientation space. However, the clustering is not very pronounced (there is a lot of overlap), and it cannot be related to any model. There is also a certain grain-sizeeffect: the average grain with high wall density structure is larger than the average grain...... with low wall density structure. For a third type of microstructure (to be described) there is a very clear relation to the crystallographic orientation. For brassthe distinction is between grains with and grains without deformation twins. There is a clear trend for the grains with twins to cluster in...

  13. Structural changes in brass-type intermetallic compounds by neutron action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, A.A.; Kofanov, B.A.; Pyatiletova, N.A. (AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1992-05-01

    Using X-ray diffraction, we have studied stoichiometric [gamma]-phase alloys of the Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Ni-Zn, and Mn-Zn systems that had been neutron-irradiated to fluences of 8.8 x 10[sup 18] - 6.3 x 10[sup 23] neutron m[sup -2] (E > 2.35 MeV, 80[sup o]C) and then subjected to isochronal annealings up to submelting temperatures. We found that under irradiation all these isostructural intermetallic compounds change over into a heterogeneous state and that the stability of the latter depends on the structural details of the elements in the compound. The dependence on the fluence of the lattice parameters of the matrices and irradiation-induced phases in the alloys was determined. (author).

  14. On the Development of the Brass-Type Texture in Austenitic Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been clarified and demonstrated that the conclusions drawn by Singh, Ramaswamy and Suryanarayana (1992) in an investigation of development of rolling textures in an austenitic stainless steel are correct. The observations and reinterpretations drawn by Leffers (1993) are without any proper scientific basis and do not hold good at least in austenitic stainless steel.

  15. Pair-correlation function in disordered β-brass as studied by neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.

    1967-01-01

    Critical neutron scattering around a superlattice reflection above Tc yields information on the pair correlation function for occupation of lattice sites. The Ornstein-Zernike correlation function e-k 1 r/r is proved to fit the data excellently, and at 8.9deg K above Tc the inverse correlation...... range k 1 is found to be 0.0615 Aring-1 with an estimated uncertainty of plusmn2%. Correction for instrumental resolution is an essential part of the interpretation of the data and is described in detail....

  16. Friction and wear studies on the temperature dependence of brake-pad materials containing brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brake pad materials for automobile applications are basically polymer matrix composites. Various reinforcing constituents used in brake pads are organic, metallic and ceramic fillers which play among others an important role on the mechanical and thermal properties, and the wear resistance at high temperature. Friction and wear depend on various parameters such as the micro-chemical structure of the pad and of the metallic counter-face, the rotation speed, the pressure, and the contact surface temperature (M.G. Jacko 1983. This latter parameter can be locally as high as 600 up to 1.500 ∘C depending on the brake type (M.G. Jacko 1983; Blau 2001. Thermal models have been developed to study interface effects at contacting surfaces (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Frictional energy can be dissipated through different mechanisms such as oxidation, rise in temperature, formation of wear particles, entropy changes associated to viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation, and noise generation (Eddoumy, Addiego et al. 2011. Studies of friction brake show that more than 95% of the dissipated energy is transformed into heat (Kasem, Thevenet et al.; Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Thermal analysis is therefore a primordial step in the study of brake systems since it provides thermo-mechanical properties (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. The influence of the addition of metallic fibers on the performance of organic friction composites has been investigated using friction tests (Qu, Zhang et al. 2004. Benefits or limitations of the different fibers have been reported, however the issues of thermo-mechanical properties or effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior were not yet investigated (Bijwe, Kumar et al. 2008. No effort was done to correlate the thermo-mechanical and thermal properties with the friction and wear behavior. An important prerequisite is to get a good understanding on how brake materials behave. However, a link between thermal transitions and tribological behavior occurring at different temperatures is still missing.

  17. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... reviews on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11509) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 35910, June 20, 2011). Notice of the scheduling of the Commission's reviews and of a public... the Federal Register on September 12, 2011 (76 FR 58299). The hearing was held in Washington, DC,...

  18. Popcom brass report on China: simplicity, IEC methods impress no. 2 official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, B D

    1978-08-01

    In the People's Republic of China, the national family planning goals of deferred marriage, increased birth intervals, and smaller family size are communicated to the citizens of the country primarily through small group activities, and conformity to these goals is achieved by bringing peer and community pressure to bear on the individual. The State Council and the Office of Family Planning formulate national population policy which is then implemented by the Ministry of Health. Ministry officials organize local family planning committees in schools, factories, villages, and other institutions. These local committees are charged with the responsibility of motivating their co-workers, neighbors, and colleagues toward compliance with national goals. Women are expected to discuss their own family planning goals with their assigned committee and each committee must submit a plan for their group designating the number of births that will occur in the future, who will give birth, and when these births will occur. In the schools, sex education is not given until the secondary level and at that time a member from each class is selected and made responsible for the family planning education of his fellow classmates. This grass-roots approach to family planning is unique and may have applicability in other developing countries. PMID:12309195

  19. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in woodwind, brass and percussion players: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Soriano, Pedro; Llana Belloch, Salvador; Cebria i Iranzo, Maria Dels Angels; Igual Camacho, Celedonia; Cortell Tormo, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Performing Arts Medicine is a broad field that includes the study of medical conditions and injuries incurred by dancers, instrument musicians and vocalists. Musicians' playing-related health problems have focused more and more the interest of scientists, researchers, physicians, physiotherapists and, in generally, of health care professionals during the last decades. The most relevant Performing Arts Medicine's literature of approximately the past twenty years has been summari...

  20. 77 FR 49780 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 12559 (March 1... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 25401 (April 30, 2012). On... Metals, Inc., Aurubis Bufalo, Inc., PMX Industries, Inc., and Revere Copper Products, Inc....

  1. A Practice Indexes for Improving Facial Movements of Brass Instrument Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Hirano, Takeshi; Noto, Kazufumi; Nishida, Shogo; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    Two experimental studies have been conducted in order to propose practice indexes for the improvement of the embouchure of French horn players, two experimental studies have been conducted. In both studies, the same task was performed by advanced and amateur French horn players. The first study investigated the activity, while performing the above-mentioned task, of the 5 facial muscles (levator labii superioris, zygomaticus major, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and risorius muscles) on the right side of the face by surface electromyography, and the facial movement on the left side of the face by attaching two markers above each muscle and using two high-speed cameras simultaneously. The results of the study showed that it is possible for the four markers around the lower lip to practice indexes. The second study evaluated whether the above-mentioned markers are appropriate as practice indexes using a 3-D tracking system and questionnaires. The results showed that both the advanced and the amateur players assessed that the markers were suitable as practice indexes for improving the embouchure. This set of approaches could be useful for selecting practice indexes and developing scientific practice methods not only for the French horn but also for other instruments and other fields.

  2. Decontamination of discharged aluminum brass condenser tubes of a BWR. Evolving the chemical formulation for copper oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical formulations for copper oxide dissolution have been evaluated primarily for the minimum ionic load resulting in the spent formulation along with other desirable qualities. Peroxydisulfuric acid prepared freshly through ion exchange route has shown almost stoichiometric dissolution of the copper oxide as per the acidic oxidative action with efficient kinetics. Stability of the prepared formulation for its application and its effective oxidizing behaviour and aqueous cupric ion stabilizing by its redox product has been established experimentally. (author)

  3. Relation Between Corrosion Rate of Brass and Concentration of Chloride Ion%黄铜腐蚀速度与Cl-浓度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志武; 原素芳

    2004-01-01

    为了定量确定黄铜腐蚀与Cl浓度的关系,对HSn70-1A、HAl77-2A两种黄铜进行静态挂片浸泡试验,并根据试验数据拟合了关系曲线.试验结果表明,在含Cl-的水溶液中HSn70-1A较HAl77-2A腐蚀严重;HSn70-1A、HAl77-2A的腐蚀速度随Cl-浓度的变化均呈三次方关系,区别在于HAl77-2A的腐蚀速度随Cl-浓度的变化较为平缓,而HSn70-1A的腐蚀速度随Cl-浓度的变化较为显著,HSn70-1A的腐蚀对Cl-较HAl77-2A更为敏感.

  4. Quantified In Situ Analysis of Initial Atmospheric Corrosion : Surface heterogeneity, galvanic effects and corrosion product distribution on zinc, brass and Galvalume

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the surface of a pure metal or an alloy with the surrounding atmosphere occurs in a highly complex interfacial regime. During atmospheric corrosion this interfacial regime involves the metal surface, often covered by a naturally formed oxide layer of a few nanometers thickness; an aqueous adlayer, typically with a thickness of a few to a few tens of nanometers, and the atmosphere from which airborne particles, oxygen, and gaseous pollutants dissolve into the adlayer and inf...

  5. Improvisation and entrepreneurial bricolage versus rationalisation: A case-based analysis of contrasting responses to economic instability in the UK brass musical instruments industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David J.; Blundel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In periods of economic crisis and instability, the response of many business organisations is to try and adapt to prevailing market conditions. This typically results in a pattern of retrenchment and rationalisation designed to cut costs. Responses of this kind may be justifiable and, to varying degrees, effective at a firm-level. However, their wider repercussions can include the worsening of a pre-existing economic downturn (e.g. large- scale redundancies affecting local communities and can...

  6. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires via Hotwire Thermal Evaporation of Brass (CuZn Assisted by Vapor Phase Transport of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K. Thandavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires (NWs were synthesized using vapor phase transport (VPT and thermal evaporation of Zn from CuZn. Time dependence of ZnO NWs growth was investigated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. Significant changes were observed from the field electron scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images as well as from the X-ray diffraction (XRD profile. The photoluminescence (PL profile was attributed to the contribution of oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitials, and hydrogen defects in the ZnO NWs. Raman scattering results show a significant peak at 143 cm−1 and possible functionalization on the wall of ZnO NWs. Growth of ZnO NWs in (0002 with an estimated distance between adjacent lattice planes 0.26 nm was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis.

  7. Variations saisonnières de l'absorption de l'azote dans un système brassé peu profond (Manche occidentale)

    OpenAIRE

    Maguer, Jf; Lecorre, P; Madec, C.

    1996-01-01

    Seasonal changes in inorganic (NH4+; NO3-; NO2-) and organic (urea) nitrogen uptake were studied with N-15 as a tracer at a shallow station (depth: 22 m) in permanently well-mixed waters of the Western English Channel. Uptake of all the four nutrients was maximum in spring. Nitrate uptake accounted for a third of the total during spring phytoplankton growth, but decrease in summer. This decrease was related to the low ambient nitrate concentrations in early summer and to an inhibition of upta...

  8. Welding Brass Tits on the Armor: An Examination of the Quest Metaphor in Robin McKinley's "The Hero and the Crown."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Anna E.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the notion of woman as hero along with the basic quest imagery used by Robin McKinley in her novel "The Hero and the Crown." Compares this story with other quest stories involving women searching for selfhood. (HB)

  9. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  10. PELATIHAN TEKNIK ELEKTROPLATING NIKEL BAGI INDUSTRI KERAJINAN KUNINGAN DI DESA KAMASAN KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    OpenAIRE

    T. G. Tirta Nindhia; I W. Surata; I K. Adi Atmika; D.N.K. Putra Negara; A.A.I.A. Sri Komaladewi; I M. Sucipta

    2013-01-01

    The Village of Kamasan at Klungkung in the Province of Bali is recognized as a centre of metal handicrafts,especially the handicraft made from brass. Many home industries for the brass handicraft are established in thisvillage. Recently due to Rapid progress of Tourism in Bali, The brass handicraft in Kamasan are growing wellbecause the demand for the souvenir. However some problem arise such as limited of variation, and surface qualityof the brass handicraft that tend to become blurred or du...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 3280.705(b) (1) through (4). (1) Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI Standard B36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be used. Threaded brass pipe shall comply with ASTM B43-91, Standard Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe,...

  12. Numerical modelling of coupled phenomena within molten glass heated by induction and mechanically stirred; Modelisation numerique de phenomenes couples dans des bains de verre brasses mecaniquement et elabores en creuset froid inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoutot, L

    2006-11-15

    This study reports on a new vitrification process developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, Marcoule). This process is used for the treatment of high activity nuclear waste. It is characterized by the cooling of all the metal walls and by currents directly induced inside the molten glass. In addition, a mechanical stirring device is used to homogenize the molten glass. The goal of this study is to develop numerical tools to understand phenomena which take place within the bath and which involve thermal, hydrodynamic and electromagnetic aspects. The numerical studies are validated using experimental results obtained from pilot vitrification facilities. (author)

  13. Study on Coating Monitor System of Ferrous Sulphate Coating for Brass Tubes in Condenser%凝汽器铜管FeSO4镀膜监测系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雷; 李长鸣

    2002-01-01

    为了减缓凝汽器铜管的腐蚀,通常采用FeSO4造膜保护,而FeSO4膜质量很难控制.作者通过对凝汽器黄铜管FeSO4镀膜成膜工艺、影响因素的深入研究,建立了以电化学响应为特征的镀膜控制系统,选择了相应的传感器,形成以计算机处理为核心的监测系统.应用表明,该系统方便、可靠.

  14. May Johnny or Janie play the clarinet? The Eastman Study: a report on the orthodontic evaluations of college-level and professional musicians who play brass and woodwind instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, P A

    1979-09-01

    It is apparent from the findings in this study that although there are some significant differences in the incidence of certain pertinent oral and facial entities between some wind-instrument musicians and their counterpart controls, among mature persons, there is no reason to categorically prohibit all persons with potential malocclusions from studying music. On the other hand, it could be folly to permit any or all instrument pursuits without an extensive, complete, thorough orthodontic analysis. Each case must be counseled on its own merits. In addition, each orthodontically treated patient must be observed closely in the posttreatment retention phase, which should probably be much longer than usual, with particular attention devoted to prevention of lingual collapse or retroclination of the mandibular anterior teeth. PMID:290272

  15. Corrosion behaviour of copper alloys in the WWER-440 secondary coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass did not prove useful as the tubing material in low-pressure preheaters. Tubing lifetime is ≤ 16 years for the higher stages of heating. Another drawback is release of copper into the feedwater. Consequently, brass tube low-pressure preheaters are an essential source of steam generator fouling. Moreover, the dissolved copper supports local corrosion of the generator tubes. Brass is proposed to be substituted by austenitic CrNi steel as the tubing material of low-pressure preheaters. (author)

  16. 76 FR 43263 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... metals (steel, aluminum, brass copper), ceramics, and polymers (polyethylene, epoxies) under different... nanoindentation. Application accepted by Commissioner of Customs: June 28, 2011. Docket Number: 11-040....

  17. 77 FR 49455 - Proclaiming Certain Lands as an Addition to and Becoming a Part of the Laguna Reservation for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Street NW., Washington, DC 20240, telephone (202) 208-7737. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice is...'' brass cap stamped Elder Company Property Corner mounted on a 1'' iron pipe found in place); Thence, S 75 19'09'' W, 374.11 feet to a point (a 3-1/2'' brass cap stamped Elder Company Property Corner...

  18. 46 CFR 161.006-4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements. (a) Corrosion-resisting materials. Silver, corrosion-resisting steel, copper, brass, bronze and copper-nickel alloys are considered satisfactory corrosion-resistant materials within the intent of this... brass, Federal Specification QQ-B-611, Composition E, copper alloy, or other suitable...

  19. APPLICATION OF THE X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCES- SES OF WIRE PRODUCTION AT BMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diffraction methods of qualitative and quantative analysis of phase composition of the brass coating, scale on the surface of brass wire, rod, patented wire, methods of determining the characteristics of the microstrains the lattice ferritic matrix pearlitic high-carbon steel, are explored.

  20. Evaluation and characterization of mechanisms controlling fate and effects of Army smokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McKinley, J.P.; Mi, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1990-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to characterize the fate and response of soil and biotic components of the terrestrial environment to aerosols, deposited brass, and brass in combination with fog oil. Important physical, chemical, and biotic aspects were investigated using an environmental wind tunnel. Air/surface deposition rates were determined for foliar and soil surfaces, both in the absence and presence of fog oil. Deposition velocities for foliage ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 cm/s at wind speeds of 2 to 10 mph, respectively. Foliar contact toxicity was assessed using five different types of terrestrial vegetation representative of Army training sites and surrounding environments. No significant foliar contact toxicity was observed for brass. The weathering and chemistry of brass aerosols deposited and amended to soils was assessed, along with the impacts of acid precipitation and moisture regimes on weathering rates. Rates of brass weathering and the fate of solubilized Cu and Zn are discussed. The influence of soil weathering processes and brass solubilization on seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects were noted after seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects were noted after 160 days of soil incubation. The effects were proportional to soil-loading levels. Influence of soil weathering processes and contaminant solubilization on soil microbiological activities indicated that soil dehydrogenase activity was more susceptible to impacts than was phosphatase activity or microbial biomass. Nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were not significantly affected by brass. Invertebrates (earthworms) associated with soil contaminated with brass were only slightly impacted, and only at loading rates >445 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}.

  1. 4-吡啶甲酰肼与十二烷基苯磺酸钠对盐水中黄铜的协同缓蚀效应研究%Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition of Brass in Brine by Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide and Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulphonate(SDBS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小红; 张胜涛; 胡莲跃

    2011-01-01

    本文采用失重法、极化曲线法、交流阻抗法研究环境友好型缓蚀剂4-吡啶甲酰肼与十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)对黄铜在3.0%NaCl介质中的缓蚀作用.结果表明:当4-吡啶甲酰肼浓度为0.50g/L,十二烷基苯磺酸钠浓度为0.35g/L时,其复配缓蚀效率达到99.65%.本文还对4-吡啶甲酰肼和十二烷基苯磺酸钠对黄铜的缓蚀机理进行了分析,表明4-吡啶甲酰肼在铜合金表面通过化学吸附形成保护膜,SDBS可在保护膜外形成疏水层,阻碍C1对铜的侵蚀,两者通过协同缓蚀作用达到对铜的高效保护.

  2. Sample (S): SE25_S07 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S07 Brassica oleracea var. capitata T-767 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brass...ica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  3. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  4. Woher kommt die Blasmusik? Historische Erforschung der Blasmusik

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyllner, Lubomír

    Oberwart: Tuba-Musikverlag, 2015 - (Čepelka, M.), s. 62-71 ISBN 978-3-200-04001-4 Keywords : brass band music * master * composer * Ladislav Kubeš Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Kerr electro-optic field mapping study of the effect of charge injection on the impulse breakdown strength of transformer oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

    2013-10-01

    The smart use of charge injection to improve breakdown strength in transformer oil is demonstrated in this paper. Hypothetically, bipolar homo-charge injection with reduced electric field at both electrodes may allow higher voltage operation without insulation failure, since electrical breakdown usually initiates at the electrode-dielectric interfaces. To find experimental evidence, the applicability and limitation of the hypothesis is first analyzed. Impulse breakdown tests and Kerr electro-optic field mapping measurements are then conducted with different combinations of parallel-plate aluminum and brass electrodes stressed by millisecond duration impulse. It is found that the breakdown voltage of brass anode and aluminum cathode is ˜50% higher than that of aluminum anode and brass cathode. This can be explained by charge injection patterns from Kerr measurements under a lower voltage, where aluminum and brass electrodes inject negative and positive charges, respectively. This work provides a feasible approach to investigating the effect of electrode material on breakdown strength.

  6. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule

  7. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 2 SBIR proposal describes the design, fabrication and calibration of a brass-board Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM). The SVHM...

  8. 77 FR 29454 - Application for Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ..., LLC ), 175.501(e)(3). commerce of brass-lined Riverside, CA. filament wound cylinders identified as..., Texarkana, TX. 173.242. sale and use of multiple non-DOT specification containers, manifolded...

  9. Friction stir welding of copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuhua; Liu Meng; Wang Deqing; Xu Zhenyue

    2007-01-01

    Copper plates,brass plates and copper/brass plates were friction stir welded with various parameters. Experimental results show that the microstructure of the weld is characterized by its much finer grains as contrasted with the coarse grains of parent materials and the heat-affected zones are very narrow. The microhardness of the copper weld is a little higher than that of parent plate. The microhardness of brass weld is about 25% higher than that of parent material. The tensile strength of copper joints increases with increasing welding speed in the test range. The range of parameters to obtain good welds for copper is much wider than that for brass. When different materials were welded, the position of copper plate before welding affected the quality of FSW joints. If the copper plate was put on the advancing side of weld, the good quality of weld could be got under proper parameters.

  10. Ühis- ning erijooni Soome ja Eesti Kaitseliitude puhkpillimuusikas aastatel 1925-1934.

    OpenAIRE

    Amon-Merilain, Maris

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the similarities and differences between the Estonian Defence League and the Finnish Civil Guard brass bands during the period 1925-1934. By 1934 this paramilitary volunteer state defence organisation had reached stability in its development, such that social, cultural and patriotic education of the people - with the help of brass band music among other means- had acquired a significant role, in addition to prioritised military and sports activities. The study begin...

  11. Determination of Ni2+ Impurities Using Cadmium-Selective Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma, Viorica

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account the use of Nickel brasses in industry a great number of methods for the determination of Ni2+ have been reported. More, theoretical predictions of free Cd2+ increasing with decreasing salinity have been confirmed using cadmium selective electrodes. The method under proposal, for the determination of nickel ions in brass alloys consists of the following steps: Cu2+ masking with sodium thiosulfate; Ni2+ precipitation as nickel-dimethylglyoximate at pH = 5.6 with subsequent ...

  12. Initial evidence of dolphin takes in the Niger Delta region and a review of Nigerian cetaceans. Scientific Committee document SC/62/SM1, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Uwagbae, M.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    An interview survey among artisanal fishermen from Brass Island, Niger Delta, in 2008-2009 revealed, for the first time, regular takes of delphinids in Nigerian coastal waters. Three fishermen at Imbikiri, Brass Island, were identified as dedicated 'dolphin hunters'. Evidence is difficult to obtain but one video footage authenticated the landing of a live common bottlenose dolphin. Fraser's dolphin is suggested to occur offshore (probable sighting) but no other documented sightings of odontoc...

  13. Open areas of vibrating lips in trombone playing

    OpenAIRE

    Bromage, Seona; Campbell, Murray; Gilbert, Joël

    2010-01-01

    In brass instruments the player's lips are used as a control valve that allows an oscillating flow of air into the instrument. The behaviour of this valve, the lip-reed, is determined by both the pressure difference across the lips and the open area between the lips. Computer simulations of brass instrument playing frequently represent the lips as an oscillating system with one degree of freedom, representing the height of the lip opening. This study aims to provide experimental evidence to d...

  14. Pinning it Down: Drawing as Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsiewicz, Kristin; Lewis, Chara; Pettican, Anneke

    2011-01-01

    Title of Output: Pinning it Down: Drawing as CaptureAuthor(s): Brass ArtName of conference/ publication proceedings: Technologies of DrawingOpening date/ closing date: 26/08/11Location: University of Huddersfield, UKVenue or Publisher: University of Huddersfield & the European Sculpture NetworkURL: http://www.sculpture-network.org/index.php?id=432Other Details: 4 invited speakers: Prof Deanna Petherbridge, Brass Art, Prof David Dernie, Teresa Carneiro

  15. PELATIHAN TEKNIK ELEKTROPLATING NIKEL BAGI INDUSTRI KERAJINAN KUNINGAN DI DESA KAMASAN KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Tirta Nindhia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Village of Kamasan at Klungkung in the Province of Bali is recognized as a centre of metal handicrafts,especially the handicraft made from brass. Many home industries for the brass handicraft are established in thisvillage. Recently due to Rapid progress of Tourism in Bali, The brass handicraft in Kamasan are growing wellbecause the demand for the souvenir. However some problem arise such as limited of variation, and surface qualityof the brass handicraft that tend to become blurred or dull due to the process of oxidation. This condition makethe brass handicrafts become not so interest as silver handicrafts that can shine for quite long time. To overcomethis problem it is needed to coating the surface of the brass handicrafts so that there will be no contact withoxygen. The coating will be more benefit if able to exhibit more interesting appearance, as what nickel coatingcan affect the appearance of the surface to become like silver but more clear. Equipment for nickel elektroplatingwas designed for this purpose and donated for this purpose. The unique of the equipment that was donated weresmall in size therefore only low electric power is needed, only 1 liter electrolyte was used and can be use manytime. The positive result is obtained for this activity where all participants able to operate the elektroplatingprocess with excellent result.

  16. Standard Practice for Use of Mattsson's Solution of pH 7.2 to Evaluate the Stress- Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Copper-Zinc Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of Mattsson's solution of pH 7.2 as an accelerated stress-corrosion cracking test environment for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The variables (to the extent that these are known at present) that require control are described together with possible means for controlling and standardizing these variables. 1.2 This practice is recommended only for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The use of this test environment is not recommended for other copper alloys since the results may be erroneous, providing completely misleading rankings. This is particularly true of alloys containing aluminum or nickel as deliberate alloying additions. 1.3 This practice is intended primarily where the test objective is to determine the relative stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of different brasses under the same or different stress conditions or to determine the absolute degree of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, if any, of a particular brass or brass component ...

  17. Automatic rotor diaphragm for a microphotometer 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotor diaphragm with electronic control is developed for automating microphotometering process. The diaphragm design is described and the flowsheet of the electronic control device is shown. The diaphragm incorporates one micarta and two brass disks at diameter 107 mm. All the disks have six axially coincident holes along a circumference whose radius is 37 mm and angular interval is 60 deg. In the first micarta disk 3 mm thick, the hole diameter is equal to 10 mm, and the middle brass disk 0.6 mm thick has square holes 15 x 15 mm for compensation filters. The second thin brass disk 0.2 mm thick has calibrated openings, the diameters of which correspond to microphotometered areas with diameter 800, 580, 280, 168, 96 and 48 μm. The automatic diaphragm has been successfully operated during three years and permitted to considerably enhance the experimental data processing rate

  18. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  19. Note: Development of target changeable palm-top pyroelectric x-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    A target changeable palm-top size x-ray tube was realized using pyroelectric crystal and detachable vacuum flanges. The target metals can be exchanged easily by attaching them on the brass stage with carbon tape. When silver and titanium palates (area: 10 mm{sup 2}) were used as targets, silver L{alpha} and titanium K lines were clearly observed by bombarding electrons on the targets for 90 s. The intensities were the same or higher than those of previously reported pyroelectric x-ray tubes. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc K lines in the x-ray tube (stainless steel and brass) disappeared by replacing the brass stage and the stainless steel vacuum flange with a carbon stage and a glass tube, respectively.

  20. The effect of electrostatic fingerprint visualization on integrated ballistic identification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Serge; Bond, John W

    2011-09-01

    Visualization of fingerprint corrosion on spent brass cartridge cases by the application of a high electrical potential and conducting carbon powder is becoming an accepted method of fingerprint enhancement. However, to date, no examination has been made of any effect this technique has on ballistic identification. To resolve this, images of the breech face and firing pin marks were captured on six plated nickel and six brass primer cup spent cartridge cases. Three nickel and three brass cases were then subjected to the application of a potential of +2500 V for a period of 1 min. The remaining cases were additionally subjected to the application of carbon powder. These latter cases were then washed to remove all traces of powder. Each case was recaptured with the same ballistic identification apparatus and imaging procedure. None of the twelve cases showed any visual difference after the application of the potential or conducting powder. PMID:21595699

  1. Effect of stacking fault energy on nanostructure formation under accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of stacking fault energy on the formation of nanostructure in aluminum, copper, and brass fabricated via the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process was investigated. Evolution of microstructure of the samples was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Occurrence of the recrystallization (both continuous and discontinuous) in the copper and brass led to the formation of nano grains with mean sizes of 80, and 40 nm, respectively; while, the mean grain size of aluminum was 250 nm. Differences in microstructural evolution during processing of aluminum, copper, and brass was related to their stacking fault energies. In order to facilitate nanostructure formation in the commercial purity aluminum, the second phase particles (alumina) were added to aluminum matrix. In this case, the mean grain size of the aluminum changed down to 90 nm

  2. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Konstantin; Orlova, Evgeniya; Feoktistov, Dmitry

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass). A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  3. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass. A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  4. Effect of the mode of plastic deformation on the formation of the alloy-type texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, F.; Bochniak, W. [Akademy of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Structure and Mechanics of Solids

    1995-06-15

    The aim of this work was to explore the role of heterogeneous deformation in the formation of the alloy-type texture. Recent works on the role of the deformation mode in evolution of the deformation texture seem to shed new light on the problem of texture formation. In particular it has been shown, that the texture typical for pure fcc metals (copper type texture), may be easily converted into the B-component of the alloy type texture (brass texture) due to shear banding induced during cross-rolling. It was proved that deformation in shear bands is a simple transgranular shear (micro-shearband) which makes the polycrystalline metal behave like a single crystal oriented for the single system slip. In view of these results, it seems necessary to re-examine the problem of the formation of the brass type texture during monotonic rolling. In particular, there is no experimental information about the spatial orientation of shear bands in the test piece of brass, except that they occurs on average on lateral face of sample, at 35{degree} with respect to the rolling direction. This does not suffice yet to conclude whether the position of shear in brass is the same as in copper. It may as well be expected, that if the deformation in shear bands in brass is not a plane strain deformation with respect to the sample reference system or, in other words, the sample transverse direction does not lie in the plane of shear, the formation of shear bands may systematically lead to splitting of the metal type texture (resulting from homogeneous deformation) according to the geometry of shear bands. The problem of the spatial orientation of shear bands in monotonically rolled brass and of the evolution of the texture pattern is discussed in this work.

  5. Study of Cu5Zn8 compound stability under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Γ-brass behaviour under neutron irradiation is investigated by x-ray diffraction method. It is ascertained that under irradiation with ≤8.8x1017 nxcm-2 fluences a phase, enriched with copper (β-brass), is precipitated in γ-matrix which is dissolved under irradiation with fluences exceeding 3.25x1018 nxcm-2. Non-additivity in the change of degree of the order in the atom location in different sublattices of complex-ordered intermetallide Cu5Zn8 depending on irradiation fluence is detected

  6. Spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: Setting up of high-performance laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; Kamlesh Alti; Rajesh Nayak; Rodney Bernard; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G P Gupta; B M Suri

    2010-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged as one of the best analytical techniques for multi-elemental compositional analysis of samples. We report assembling and optimization of LIBS set up using high resolution and broad-range echelle spectrograph coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) to detect and quantify trace elements in environmental and clinical samples. Effects of variations of experimental parameters on spectroscopy signals of copper and brass are reported. Preliminary results of some plasma diagnostic calculations using recorded time-resolved optical emission signals are also reported for brass samples.

  7. Fabrication of laminated carbon-carbon materials and investigating their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of obtaining laminated composite materials is developed and their physical-mechanical properties are investigated. The essence of the method consists in the fact that using a special tool the carbon felt surface is bristled up forming ''a brass''. In the process of preform making the ''brass'' fibers penetrate between the carbon cloth fibers (of another layer) and reinforce heavily the interlaminar composite strength. As a result, the laminated composite obtained has, in fact, a 3D reinforcement structure. The experimental data on the physical-mechanical properties of the material confirm its isotropy

  8. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Senguttuvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were analyzed separately and aluminum is found the best material among the steel, brass and ABS material for common rail injection tube. Keywords: Common Rail Injection System, Alternate Material.

  9. An active mute for the trombone

    OpenAIRE

    Meurisse, Thibaut; MAMOU-MANI, Adrien; Causse, Rene; Sluchin, Benny; Sharp, David

    2016-01-01

    A mute is a device that is placed in the bell of a brass instrument to alter its sound. However, when a straight mute is used with a brass instrument, the frequencies of its first impedance peaks are slightly modified, and a mistuned, extra impedance peak appears. This peak affects the instrument’s playability, making some lower notes difficult or impossible to produce when playing at low dynamic levels. To understand and suppress this effect, an active mute with embedded microphone and speak...

  10. A simulation tool for brassiness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joël; Menguy, Ludovic; Campbell, Murray

    2008-04-01

    A frequency-domain numerical model of brass instrument sound production is proposed as a tool to predict their brassiness, defined as the rate of spectral enrichment with increasing dynamic level. It is based on generalized Burger's equations dedicated to weakly nonlinear wave propagation in nonuniform ducts, and is an extension of previous work by Menguy and Gilbert [Acta Acustica 86, 798-810 (2000)], initially limited to short cylindrical tubes. The relevance of the present tool is evaluated by carrying out simulations over distances longer than typical shock formation distances, and by doing preliminary simulations of periodic regimes in a typical brass trombone bore geometry. PMID:18396993

  11. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  12. Development of a strong Goss texture during annealing of a heavily rolled Al–0.3% Cu alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeel, Aneela; Huang, T.L.; Wu, G.L.;

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during isochronal annealing of a heavily cold rolled Al–0.3% Cu alloy has been characterized using electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that the rolling texture of this alloy is dominated by the Brass component and that recrystallization during...... annealing leads to the formation of a pronounced Goss texture. It is suggested that the development of the strong Goss texture in Al–0.3% Cu is caused by preferred growth of Goss-oriented grains into the Brass-oriented matrix....

  13. Failure analysis of Cirus FFD system sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few copper tubes used in Cirus fuel failure detection (FFD) system sample lines showed leakages 3-4 mm away from the brass cap of the swage lock assemblies, resulting from fracture of some tubes after about 30 years of service. Visual and microscopic examination of the failed samples has shown over 50% wall thickness reduction due to formation of thick corrosion product film on ID side and the final fracture had occurred by fatigue. No corrosion damage occurred on brass components. (author). 4 figs

  14. 46 CFR 28.835 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section, fuel piping shall be steel pipe, annealed seamless copper, brass, nickel copper, or.../fire pumps. (b) Each integral fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point... mating spud, pipe, or hose fitting. (k) Supply piping that conveys fuel oil or lubricating oil...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... described in § 3280.706(b) (1) through (4). (1) Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be... the Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with ASTM...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.607 - Plumbing fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... locations shall be not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharpe gage seamless drawn-brass tubing or other approved pipe or tubing materials. Inaccessible fixture connections shall be constructed according to the... tanks shall be fitted with an overflow pipe large enough to prevent flooding at the maximum flow rate...

  17. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  18. Low-Cost Timer to Measure the Terminal Velocity of a Magnet Falling through a Conducting Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish R.; Huli, Saurabhee; Lahane, Rohan; Sawant, Sumedh

    2014-01-01

    Dropping a magnet into a conductive pipe (made up of copper or brass or aluminum) is a very popular demonstration in many physics classrooms and laboratories. In this paper we present an inexpensive timer that can be used to measure the terminal velocity of the magnet falling through a conducting pipe. The timer assembly consists of Hall effect…

  19. Annotated phyto-taxonomical and phyto-geographical publications on the Malaysian Flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1947-01-01

    Blake, S.T.: The Cyperaceae collected in New Guinea by L.J. Brass II (Journ. Arn. Arbor. 28 (1947) 207-229, 1 fig. 2 pl.). Deals with the genera Hypolytrum, Thoracostachyum, Paramapania, Mapania, Lepironia, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Bulbostylis, Fuirena, Lipocarpha. Two new species of Cyperus, 1 of Mapan

  20. Kontserdipeegel / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2000-01-01

    Kontsertidest Estonia kontserdisaalis ئ 17. veebr. ERSO A. Tshistjakovi juhatusel, solist S. Kuulmann; 28. veebr. Eesti-Soome SO A. Tali juhatusel kontserdiga "Armastus"; 2. märtsil ERSO A. Manzano juhatusel, solistid M. Mikalai, M. Männi ja P. Tarvas; 3. märtsil The Brass Brothers

  1. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion inhibition efficiency of N-(4-(Morpholinomethyl Carbamoyl Phenyl Furan-2-Carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulfareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mannich base namely N-(4-(Morpholinomethyl Carbamoyl Phenyl Furan-2-Carboxamide (MFC was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The molecular weight of MFC was confirmed by LC-MS. The inhibition effect of MFC on brass in 1 M HCl medium has been investigated by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltametry (CV. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, entropy and enthalpy were calculated to describe the mechanism of corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency of MFC increases with increase in concentration and temperature ranges from 30 °C to 60 °C. Polarization measurements indicated that MFC acts as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor. AC impedance indicates that Rct value increases with increase in the concentration of inhibitor. CV reveals that the oxidation of the copper is controlled by the addition of inhibitor on the brass metal. Surface analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM shows a significant morphological improvement on the brass surface with the addition of the inhibitor. The adsorption of MFC on brass obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The molecular structure of MFC was distorted to quantum chemical indices using density functional theory (DFT which indicates that the inhibition efficiency of MFC is closely related to quantum parameters.

  2. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  3. Formation of deformation textures in face-centered-cubic materials studied by in-situ high-energy x-ray diffraction and self-consistent model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, N.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Peng, R. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Zhao, X.; X-Ray Science Division; Northeastern Univ.; Linkoping Univ.; Beijing Inst. of Tech.

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of deformation textures in copper and a brass that are representative of fcc metals with different stacking fault energies (SFEs) during cold rolling is predicted using a self-consistent (SC) model. The material parameters used for describing the micromechanical behavior of each metal are determined from the high-energy X-ray (HEXRD) diffraction data. At small reductions, a reliable prediction of the evolution of the grain orientation distribution that is represented as the continuous increase of the copper and brass components is achieved for both metals when compared with the experimental textures. With increasing deformation, the model could characterize the textures of copper, i.e., the strengthening of the copper component, when dislocation slip is still the dominant mechanism. For a brass at moderate and large reductions, a reliable prediction of its unique feature of texture evolution, i.e., the weakening of the copper component and the strengthening of the brass component, could only be achieved when proper boundary conditions together with some specified slip/twin systems are considered in the continuum micromechanics mainly containing twinning and shear banding. The present investigation suggests that for fcc metals with a low SFE, the mechanism of shear banding is the dominant contribution to the texture development at large deformations.

  4. 77 FR 10451 - Fishing Tackle Containing Lead; Disposition of Petition Filed Pursuant to TSCA Section 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... visitor log. All visitor bags are processed through an X-ray machine and subject to search. Visitors will...). Several state fish and game agencies submitted comments, all supporting denial of the petition (Ref. 2..., including those made of brass (59 FR 11122, March 9, 1994). EPA received ] comments from many states...

  5. MM97.48 Influence of multidirectional deformation mode on flow stress behaviour during cold forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Maria; Pavel, Huml; Mendoza, Camus Luis

    1997-01-01

    In the present experimental investigation the influence of strain path on behaviour and final properties has been simulated in uni-, two- and three-directional deformation regimes. Pure iron and a low carbon steel have been investigated considering stress strain behaviour. Brass and copper...

  6. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, D.; Brunell, G.; Lindh, U.

    1982-06-01

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25×25×25)μm 3. The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively.

  7. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy CuZn30 after recrystallizion annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the investigations is to determine the influence of the recrystallization temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the brass CuZn30 subjected to cold deformation in the process of rolling at various degrees of strain.Design/methodology/approach: The brass CuZn30 was recrystallization annealed within the temperature range of 300-650°C after cold rolling with the strain of 15.8-70.2%. The tensile test was carried out by the use of universal testing machine. Metallographic observations were performed on an optical microscope and fractographic tests on a scanning electron microscope. The hardness was also measured.Findings: The analysis of the results of investigations concerning the mechanical properties permitted to determine the effect of the temperature of recrystallization annealing on the strength and plastic properties of the investigated brass, subjected to cold deformation with a varying strain in the course of rolling. The character of fracture after decohesion in the tension test was determined basing on fractographic investigations.Practical implications: An increase of the recrystallization temperature within the range of 400-650°C results in a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the brass CuZn30 and an increase of its plastic properties.Originality/value: The results of the investigation revealed the occurrence of the phenomenon of heterogeneous plastic deformation in the recrystallized alloy.

  8. Copper and Copper Alloys Disintegration Using Pulsating Water Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, J. (Jiří); Foldyna, J.; S. Hloch; M. Zeleňák; Cárach, J.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the surface topography of copper and coppeer alloys - brass and bronze is the object of investigation. The material was disintegrated using multiple transition of pulsating water jet with changing speed of feed. It is assumed that this ew way of metal eroding can be used in the automotive and engineering industries in the future.

  9. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING INSOLUBLE STARCH XANTHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northern Regional Research Center developed an effective process to remove heavy metals from wastewaters of two nonferrous metal industries and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX). The study included bench-scale evaluation of wastewaters from two lead battery and one brass mill w...

  10. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25 x 25 x 25)μm3. The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Pro Forma Registration of Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the view taken by Community law on companies' pro forma registration in another EU or EEA country. Community law recognises pro forma registration under company law, i.e. a brass plate is sufficient, whereas it does not recognise pro forma registration under tax law, i.e. a...

  12. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  13. The Effects of Orchestration on Musicians' and Nonmusicians' Perception of Musical Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of orchestration on musicians' and nonmusicians' (N = 40) perception of musical tension. Participants were asked to register their perceptions of tension using the Continuous Response Digital Interface dial while listening to three orchestrations (full orchestra, brass quintet, and solo piano)…

  14. Plaadid / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Neil Siamond "12 Songs", The Bamboos "Step It Up", Van Morrison "Pay The Devil", Mystery Jets "Making Dens", In Extremo "Raue Spree 2005", "Bossa n' Marley", Liv Kristine "Enter My Religion", Ugly Ducling "Bang The Buck", "Big Boi Presents", Youngblood Brass Band "Is That A Riott", Tosca "Souvenirs", Azymuth "Pure", Eels "With Strings", "Metal For The Masses"

  15. In situ chemical state analysis of buried polymer/metal adhesive interface by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical state analysis of the buried rubber/brass interface is conducted by HAXPES. • Ultrathin rubber films are prepared on the brass surface by two methods. • A high density of Cu2S is found on the rubber side of the buried adhesive layer. • The chemical states of the buried and exposed interfaces are compared. - Abstract: Chemical state analysis of adhesive interfaces is important to understand an adhesion mechanism between two different materials. Although photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an ideal tool for such an analysis, the adhesive interfaces must be exposed to the surface because PES is essentially a surface sensitive technique. However, an in situ observation is possible by hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) owing to its large probing depth. In the present study, HAXPES is applied to investigate the adhesive interface between rubber and brass without exposing the interface. It is demonstrated that copper sulfides formed at the buried rubber/brass interface are distinguished from S-containing species in the rubber overlayer. The chemical state of the buried interface is compared with that of the “exposed” interface prepared by so-called a filter-paper method

  16. Determination of elemental composition in industrial products by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1994-95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental composition in industrial products such as spoons, tiffin box, tea-kettle made by steel, brass and aluminium were analysed by using source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Few amounts of trace elements were found in the measured samples in addition to major elements composed. (author)

  17. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... cranial morphology. Based on craniometrics, burial location, artifacts, and hair styles, officials of the..., 6 dentalim shell beads, 3 brass buttons, 2 metal loops (earrings?), 1 metal bracelet, 3 shell hair..., determined that the human remains are Native American based on the presence of platymeric femoral...

  18. ADHESION OF PSEUDOMONAS-FLUORESCENS TO METALLIC SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VIEIRA, MJ; OLIVEIRA, R; MELO, L; PINHEIRO, M; VANDERMEI, HC

    1992-01-01

    Deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens on aluminium, brass and copper plates was studied in a flow system. The number of bacteria deposited on aluminium was greater than on the other two types of metals. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms (transport and/or adhesion) that may control

  19. 27 CFR 478.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium; or full jacketed... established pursuant to 25 CFR part 11.); (2) Has, as an element, the use or attempted use of physical force.... 1226)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 478.11, see the List of CFR...

  20. Numerical simulation of self-sustained oscillation of a voice-producing element based on Navier-Stokes equations and the finite element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Martinus P. de; Hamburg, Marc C.; Schutte, Harm K.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical removal of the larynx results in radically reduced production of voice and speech. To improve voice quality a voice-producing element (VPE) is developed, based on the lip principle, called after the lips of a musician while playing a brass instrument. To optimize the VPE, a numerical model

  1. The fluence threshold of femtosecond laser blackening of metals: The effect of laser-induced ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhigui; Huang, Min; Zhao, Fuli

    2016-05-01

    With the primary controlling factor of the laser fluence, we have investigated femtosecond laser blackening of stainless steel, brass, and aluminum in visible light range. In general, low reflectance about 5% can be achieved in appropriate ranges of laser fluences for all the treated metal surfaces. Significantly, towards stainless steel and brass a fluence threshold of blackening emerges unusually: a dramatic reflectance decline occurs in a specific, narrow fluence range. In contrast, towards aluminum the reflectance declines steadily over a wide fluence range instead of the threshold-like behavior from steel and brass. The morphological characteristics and corresponding reflectance spectra of the treated surfaces indicates that the blackening threshold of stainless steel and brass corresponds to the fluence threshold of laser-induced subwavelength ripples. Such periodic ripples growing rapidly near ablation threshold absorb visible light efficiently through grating coupling and cavity trapping promoted by surface plasmon polaritons. Whereas, for aluminum, with fluence increasing the looming ripples are greatly suppressed by re-deposited nanoparticle aggregates that present intrinsic colors other than black, and until the formation of large scale "ravines" provided with strong light-trapping, sufficient blackening is achieved. In short, there are different fluence dependencies for femtosecond laser blackening of metals, and the specific blackening fluence threshold for certain metals in the visible range originates in the definite fluence threshold of femtosecond laser-induced ripples.

  2. Mineralogy of Galvanic Corrosion By-products in Domestic Drinking Water Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the results of a visual and mineralogical characterization of scales developed over long time periods at galvanically coupled lead-brass and lead-copper pipe joints from several different drinking water distribution systems. The long-term exposure aspect of t...

  3. THE MINERALOGY OF PB SCALES IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AS REVEALED BY COMBINED XRD AND MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolving Pb from lead service lines and Pb-containing brasses and solders has become a major health issue for many water distribution systems. Knowledge of the mineralogy of scales in these pipes is key to modeling this dissolution. The traditional method of determining their ...

  4. Catalogue of Wind and Percussion Solos and Ensembles and Recordings. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 26th Annual Convention, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, William; Berndt, Arnold

    This catalogue lists over 350 phonograph records which feature solo and ensemble music by wind and percussion instruments. Instruments heard on the records include oboe/English horn, flute, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet/cornet, French horn, trombone, baritone, tuba, saxophone, percussion, woodwind ensembles, and brass ensembles. The catalogue is…

  5. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel;

    2009-01-01

    one example. The new platform can also be used to evaluate the parameters of the compass in all possible variations in azimuth, pitch, and roll. The system is based on piezoelectric motors, which are placed on a platform made of aluminum, brass, plastic, and glass. Position sensing is accomplished...

  6. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he…

  7. Finding the Muse: Teaching Musical Expression to Adolescents in the One-to-One Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Eleanor A.

    2011-01-01

    One-to-one music lessons are a common and effective way of learning a musical instrument. This investigation into one-to-one music teaching at the secondary school level explores the teaching of musical expression by two instrumental music teachers of brass and strings. The lessons of the two teachers with two students each were video recorded…

  8. Photographic Gelatin and the World Market%照明相胶和世界市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction   1.1 Life cycle of photographic gelatin   During the conference in Cambridge, Septmber 1997,I reminded of an early publication of a scientist, we all highly respect, Prof.Dr.Ammann-Brass,who honoured the centenary(100 years)of photographic in 1971[1].……

  9. Idea Bank: Does Your Health Depend on a Clean Instrument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutoff, Olivia W.

    2011-01-01

    Music teachers have a responsibility to give detailed instruction on the regular cleaning of brass and wind instruments because of new, compelling research. Recent findings reinforce the importance of teaching proper instrument cleaning. Serious health consequences can be avoided by making instrument care an integral part of the educative process.…

  10. PERSPECTIVES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PRODUCTION OF METAL CORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gordienko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on investigations on the problems of metal cord production are given. The matters connected with generation of single-phase corrosion-resistant brass covering, breakages at laying and plasticity after low-temperature processing are considered.

  11. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Mineral oil - RM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RM. The methods were developed to be applicable in...

  12. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  13. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  14. Evolution of deformation and annealing textures in Incoloy 800H/HT via different rolling paths and strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we characterize the deformation and annealing textures of Incoloy 800H/HT, following different rolling conditions that produced different textures in this material. Incoloy 800H/HT is an austenitic Fe–Ni super alloy and is considered to be a candidate material for Gen IV nuclear reactors. Fossil fuel plants have used this alloy for decades; however, as grain structure and texture parameters can strongly affect its physical and mechanical properties in-service, engineers should consider some structural modifications before using this alloy in nuclear reactors. In this study, we used Thermo-Mechanical Processing (TMP) to alter the texture of Incoloy 800H/HT. We applied various thickness reductions (10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%) to this alloy using two different rolling paths, followed by annealing. Our detailed study of the deformation and annealing texture evolution shows that upon different rolling paths, the final deformation texture and the annealing texture were different. Brass texture was the dominant component for the uni-directional rolled (UDR) samples, while a combination of brass (B) and ND-rotated brass (BT) were the dominant components in the cross-rolled (CR) samples. Annealing textures of UDR samples were mainly Goss, copper, S, recrystallized brass ({236}〈385〉) and minor copper twin {552}〈115〉 components. At lower deformations (<50%), the annealed CR samples showed tilted cube, S, recrystallized brass ({236}〈385〉) and minor Goss twin (113)〈33¯2〉. However, at higher rolling reductions, the B+BT deformation texture was retained for the CR samples

  15. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  16. A Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Copper and Its Alloy in Pongamia pinnata Oil at Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi H. N. Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are promising substitutes for petrodiesel as they can be produced from numerous oil seed crops that can be cultivated anywhere and have high energy contents, exhibiting clean combustion behavior with zero CO2 emission and negligible SO2 generation. The impact of biofuel on the corrosion of various industrial metals is a challenge for using biofuel as automotive fuel. Fuel comes in contact with a wide variety of metallic materials under different temperatures, velocities, and loads thereby causing corrosion during storage and flow of fuel. Hence, the present investigation compares the corrosion rates of copper and brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (O100, 3% NaCl, and oil blend with NaCl (O99 obtained by static immersion test and using rotating cage. The corrosivity and conductivity of the test media are positively correlated. This study suggested that the corrosivity of copper is higher than brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (PO.

  17. Simultaneous determination of trace-levels of alloying zinc and copper by semi-mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis with chemometric data treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Assays of copper and zinc in brass samples were performed by Semi-Mercury Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (S-MF PSA) using a thin-film mercury covered glassy-carbon working electrode and dissolved oxygen as oxidizing agent during the stripping step. The stripping peak transients were...... resolved by chemometrics which enabled simultaneous determination of both the copper and the zinc concentrations, thereby eliminating the conventional necessary pretreatment of the sample solution, such as initial addition of Ga(III) or solvent extraction of copper. The brass samples were diluted by...... factors in the range 2.104 - 5.105 which resulted in quantification of the copper and of zinc contents comparable to the specified values within 10%. On the basis of the chemometric treatment, an empirical expression is deduced relating the stripping time to the recorded potential....

  18. Media effects on nanobrass arc fabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass rods (3 mm x 30 mm) are directly converted into brass nanoparticles through a modified arc method, at 100 A, and in five different media. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data show strong dependence of nanoparticle sizes and their compositions on the media employed. In distilled water, both nanobrass (30 nm) and nano-Cu/ZnO (18 nm) are produced in comparable quantities. In gaseous nitrogen merely nanobrass (49 nm) is observed, in a high yield. In contrast, a very low yield of nanoproduct(s) is encountered in liquid nitrogen. In the open air, nanobrass (75 nm) is formed along with traces of ZnO. In ethylene glycol, nanobrass (108 nm) is formed as the major product along with a nanoalloy of CuZn5 (25 nm). Among these, distilled water proved to be the medium of choice for the arc synthesis of nanobrass

  19. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXPERIMENTO DIDÁTICO DE ELETROGRAVIMETRIA DE BAIXO CUSTO UTILIZANDO PRINCÍPIOS DA QUÍMICA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Antonio Finazzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the development of low-cost teaching experiments of electrogravimetry for undergraduate students using principles of green chemistry. Copper was electrochemically deposited on brass under an electrical current density of 50 mA cm−2 from acidic solutions containing nitrate anions. Color changes at the brass electrode and of the solution were observed, indicating that the reduction of copper ions had occurred. The deposition efficiency values were between 92.8% and 93.8%, and the electrochemical efficiency values were between 85.6% and 86.5%. There was no significant contribution from parallel reactions. These experimental conditions facilitated the didactic exploration of gravimetric and electrochemical concepts. Following the principles of green chemistry, the experiments produced no toxic substances, all the materials could be recycled, and the energy consumption was the lowest. For this reason, this experiment was considered to be very interesting for didactical purposes.

  20. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  1. Validation of environmental TLD's used in Indian nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have been employed on a large scale for environmental radiation monitoring around all the nuclear facilities situated in India and operated by the Department of Atomic Energy. The environmental TLD consists of a pair of brass capsules each containing a metered quantity of 50 mg of natural CaF2 TL phosphor powder sealed inside a PVC bag bearing a code number and user details. A pair of readings are obtained for each dosimeter packet exposed in a location and procedures have been standardised for continuous monitoring in quarterly exposure cycles. Because of the brass encapsulation which is 1.5 mm thick on all sides, the high Z CaF2 phosphor yields nearly energy independent response for typical natural background radiation spectrum. The performance quality of these environmental TLD's have been validated in four different ways and the results are presented here. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Study on Grain Boundary Structure and Corrosion Behavior of Copper Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grain boundary structure of Cu alloy was observed and the characteristic of the boundaries was studied,including 70∶30 cupronickel and 7 0∶30 brass. The results show that in the case of the 70∶30 cupronickel thin platelets with nickel and iron e nrichment in it precipitate intergranular so that the alloy was sensitive to sea water corrosion. In the case of 70∶30 brass the situation of grain boundary seg regation of different inclusions made the corrosion resistance of the alloy even worse. All of those were discovered through the corrosion behavior of the two d iff erent copper alloys served in various environments. The experimental methods use d here were, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(T EM) and energy dispersive of X ray(EDX). The intergranular corrosion morphologie s of those copper alloys served in engineering or exposed to seaw ater for a long term were given.

  3. Using reverberation techniques to study the properties of shock loaded soda-lime glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of plate impact experiments on soda-lime glass specimens was performed in order to probe the properties of the glass behind the failure wave front. Shock stresses in the range of 2-6 GPa were induced in the glass specimens by impacting them with thick brass impactors. Stress histories, at the back of the specimens, were recorded using commercial manganin gauges, which were backed by thick plexiglass disks. The gauges followed the shock and release reverberations in the glass resulting from the mismatch of brass and plexiglass on each side of the glass specimen. By analyzing the height and duration of these reverberations we can determine several important features of the glass behind the fracture wave front

  4. Pitfalls of tungsten multileaf collimator in proton beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States) and Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center (Formerly Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute), Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Particle beam therapy is associated with significant startup and operational cost. Multileaf collimator (MLC) provides an attractive option to improve the efficiency and reduce the treatment cost. A direct transfer of the MLC technology from external beam radiation therapy is intuitively straightforward to proton therapy. However, activation, neutron production, and the associated secondary cancer risk in proton beam should be an important consideration which is evaluated. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation with FLUKA particle transport code was applied in this study for a number of treatment models. The authors have performed a detailed study of the neutron generation, ambient dose equivalent [H*(10)], and activation of a typical tungsten MLC and compared with those obtained from a brass aperture used in a typical proton therapy system. Brass aperture and tungsten MLC were modeled by absorber blocks in this study, representing worst-case scenario of a fully closed collimator. Results: With a tungsten MLC, the secondary neutron dose to the patient is at least 1.5 times higher than that from a brass aperture. The H*(10) from a tungsten MLC at 10 cm downstream is about 22.3 mSv/Gy delivered to water phantom by noncollimated 200 MeV beam of 20 cm diameter compared to 14 mSv/Gy for the brass aperture. For a 30-fraction treatment course, the activity per unit volume in brass aperture reaches 5.3 x 10{sup 4} Bq cm{sup -3} at the end of the last treatment. The activity in brass decreases by a factor of 380 after 24 h, additional 6.2 times after 40 days of cooling, and is reduced to background level after 1 yr. Initial activity in tungsten after 30 days of treating 30 patients per day is about 3.4 times higher than in brass that decreases only by a factor of 2 after 40 days and accumulates to 1.2 x 10{sup 6} Bq cm{sup -3} after a full year of operation. The daily utilization of the MLC leads to buildup of activity with time. The overall activity continues to increase

  5. Bioinspired Low-Frequency Material Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. O'Leary; J. G. Rees; Jackson, P.D.; Gunn, D.A.; P. B. Wilkinson; Assous, S.; Hopper, C.; Lovell, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    New-coded signals, transmitted by high-sensitivity broadband transducers in the 40–200 kHz range, allow subwavelength material discrimination and thickness determination of polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, and brass samples. Frequency domain spectra enable simultaneous measurement of material properties including longitudinal sound velocity and the attenuation constant as well as thickness measurements. Laboratory test measurements agree well with model results, with sound velocity predictio...

  6. Corrosion properties of bio-oil and its emulsions with diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHANG Jian; ZHU XiFeng

    2008-01-01

    Bio-oil is a new liquid fuel but very acidic. In this study, bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk and two bio-oil/diesel emulsions with bio-oil concentrations of 10 wt% and 30 wt% were prepared. Tests were carried out to determine their corrosion properties to four metals of aluminum, brass, mild steel and stainless steel at different temperatures. Weight loss of the metals immersed in the oil samples was recorded. The chemical states of the elements on metal surface were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that mild steel was the least resistant to corrosion, followed by aluminum, while brass exhibited slight weight loss. The weight loss rates would be greatly enhanced at elevated temperatures. Stainless steel was not affected under any conditions. After corrosion, increased organic deposits were formed on aluminum and brass, but not on stainless steel. Mild steel was covered with many loosely attached corrosion materials which were easy to be removed by washing and wiping. Significant metal loss was detected on surface of aluminum and mild steel. Zinc was etched away from brass surface, while metallic copper was oxidized to Cu2O. Increased Cr2O3 and NiO were presented on surface of stainless steel to form a compact passive protection film. The two emulsions were less corrosive than the bio-oil. This was due to the protection effect of diesel. Diesel was the continuous phase in the emulsions and thus could limit the contact area between bio-oil and metals.

  7. Functional innovations of three chronological mesohexaploid Brassica rapa genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungeun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Choi, Jae-Pil; Park, Inkyu; Yang, Kyungbong; Kim, Min Keun; Lee, Young Han; Nou, Ill-Sup; Kim, Dae-Soo; Min, Sung Ran; Park, Sang Un; Kim, HyeRan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brassicaceae family is an exemplary model for studying plant polyploidy. The Brassicaceae knowledge-base includes the well-annotated Arabidopsis thaliana reference sequence; well-established evidence for three rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD); and the conservation of genomic structure, with 24 conserved genomic blocks (GBs). The recently released Brassica rapa draft genome provides an ideal opportunity to update our knowledge of the conserved genomic structures in Brass...

  8. Evaluation of the Spectral Finite Element Method With the Theory of Phononic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Guarín-Zapata, Nicolás; Gomez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the classical and spectral finite element method in the simulation of elastodynamic problems. We used as a quality measure their ability to capture the actual dispersive behavior of the material. Four different materials are studied: a homogeneous non-dispersive material, a bilayer material, and composite materials consisting of an aluminum matrix and brass inclusions or voids. To obtain the dispersion properties, spatial periodicity is assumed so the analysis ...

  9. Religious Affiliation, Ethnicity, and Child Mortality in Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Eunice D. Vargas; Potter, Joseph E.; Fernández, Leticia

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether there is a relationship between religious affiliation and child mortality among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Chiapas, México. Our analysis relies on Brass-type estimates of child mortality by ethnicity and religious affiliation and multivariate analyses that adjust for various socioeconomic and demographic factors. The data are from the 2000 Mexican Census 10 percent sample. Among indigenous people, Presbyterians have lower rates of child mortality than Cathol...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF THE NEW STEEL 75‘/25ГМФС FOR THE INSTRUMENT OF COLD FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Fedulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of improving tool life of cold deformation. Composition designed and studied mechanical properties of the new tool steel 75H5GMFS, by allowing the application of different types of heat treatment, including high-temperature tempering after casting, the use for the manufacture of cold-forming tool, for example, upon receipt of the housings of watches brass billets.

  11. Comparative analysis of wear mechanism of different types of forging dies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mazurkiewicz; Smolik, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Hot working dies are influenced by three main factors causing their destruction: the cyclically changeable mechanical loads, intensive thermal shocks, as well as intensive friction, and erosion. The great variety of the shapes of forgings, the material they are made of (carbon steel, alloy steel, brass) and the precision of their production – whether they are supposed to undergo further treatment or are considered to be the final products – result in a variety of problems encountered...

  12. Time for Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pettican, Anneké; Mojsiewicz, Kristin; Lewis, Chara

    2013-01-01

    Bury Art Museum surveys international contemporary artists working with light and time. “The poetic beauty of Grazia Toderi’s enchanting cityscales, heavenly visions of human nights; a new installation of ‘The Air That Held Them’, giant inflating heads created by UK collective Brass Art, reflecting the precise measurements of the artists’ heads taken from biomedical facial scans and a new neon commission by leading British poet and text artist, Tony Lopez, questions who we are and how we ...

  13. Tape underlayment rotary-node (TURN) valves for simple on-chip microfluidic flow control

    OpenAIRE

    Markov, Dmitry A.; Manuel, Steven; Shor, Leslie M.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Wikswo, John P.; Samson, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a simple and reliable fabrication method for producing multiple, manually activated microfluidic control valves in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. These screwdriver-actuated valves reside directly on the microfluidic chip and can provide both simple on/off operation as well as graded control of fluid flow. The fabrication procedure can be easily implemented in any soft lithography lab and requires only two specialized tools – a hot-glue gun and a machined brass mold. To facil...

  14. Properties Evaluation of Thin Microhardened Surface Layer of Tool Steel after Wire EDM

    OpenAIRE

    Ľuboslav Straka; Ivan Čorný; Ján Piteľ

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes results of experimental research on the thin microhardened surface layer of a machined surface that occurs in materials using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) with brass wire electrode. The direct influence of microhardened surface layer on resulting machined surface quality of tool steel EN X210Cr12 (W.-Nr. 1.2080) was examined. The aim of the experiment was to contribute to the knowledge of mutual interactions between main WEDM technological parameters, the in...

  15. Chemical Compatibility of High-Performance Engineering Thermoplastics in Compressor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pai-Paranjape, Vandita

    2014-01-01

    The compressor industry faces a difficult design environment for achieving performance improvement, reduced cost, and lower environmental footprint. In order to address some of these challenges, thermoplastics can be considered as a replacement for metal in some compressor parts. Thermoplastics have been found to be suitable for steel replacement in structural parts for automotive and brass replacement in water-handling applications such as meters. As such, we believe certain high-performance...

  16. Problems with cryogenic operation of piezoelectric bending elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, C. L.; Moreland, John; Fickett, F. R.

    1986-05-01

    Piezoelectric bimorphs constructed from lead titanate-zirconate (PZT) ceramic bonded to a brass sheet have been tested at cryogenic temperatures to determine their suitability for use in a low-temperature micropositioner. Experimental data are presented on bimorph sensitivity (displacement per volt) as a function of the number of temperature cycles. Results indicate that bimorphs of this type cannot be calibrated because of irreversible changes in the bending characteristics that occur while cycling from room temperature to 4 K.

  17. Stochastic sampling for mantle conductivity models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pek, Josef; Pěčová, Jana; Červ, Václav; Menvielle, M.

    Potsdam: Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft, 2008 - (Ritter, O.; Brasse, H.), s. 105-114 ISSN 0946-7467. [Kolloquium Elektromagnetische Tiefenforschung /22./. Děčín (CZ), 01.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0557; GA AV ČR IAA200120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : mantle conductivity * inverse problems * MCMC sampling approach Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  18. 镦锻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Observations of barrelling in aluminium solid cylinders during cold upsetting using different lubricants; Observations on fracture in axi-symmetric and three-dimensional cold upsetting of brass; Parallel processing of 3D rigid-viscoplastic finite element analysis using domain decomposition and modified block Jacobi preconditioning technique; Parameter study into the friction welding of the intermetallic TiAI and the alloy Ti6AI4V

  19. Description of the manufacture of a Geiger-Muller counter with window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total details about the manufacture elements in counter fabrication and the way of obtention are described as well as total indications useful in the installation process and filling of the counter. The appropriate materials and precautions that might be adopted in order to obtain counters with uniform operation and good characteristics, are described. Counters are of brass, with thin mica or aluminium windows and operate at 1100 V approximately with a slope lower than 5 % 1100 V. (Author)

  20. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandan Ramkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Materials and Methods: Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns. The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and Newman-Keul′s test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. Conclusion: This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization.

  1. Iron(II) titration of some metal ions, with oxazine dyes as redox indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K V; Gautam, G M

    1988-06-01

    The use of oxazine dyes as redox indicators in the determination of uranium(VI), copper(II), osmium(VIII), iridium(IV) and thallium(III) with iron(II) as reductimetric titrant in phosphoric acid medium has been investigated. The determination of copper in brass and the analysis of the binary mixtures of U(VI) and U(IV), and of Tl(III) and Tl(I) with this reductant and these indicators have been studied. PMID:18964558

  2. Blackberries and Barnyards: Patent Trolls and the Perils of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Magliocca, Gerard N

    2007-01-01

    This Essay provides some perspective on the troll issue by pointing out a historical parallel that has received no attention. It turns out that these opportunistic licensors were also active in the nineteenth century. Called “patent sharks,” they bought dormant agricultural patents and then sued farmers who were unknowingly using protected technology. This brass knuckles tactic outraged rural activists and led to the same calls for sweeping patent reform that we hear now. At that time,...

  3. Role of mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity of the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola

    OpenAIRE

    Calmes, Benoit; Guillemette, Thomas; Teyssier, Lény; Siegler, Benjamin; Pigné, Sandrine; Landreau, Anne; Iacomi, Béatrice; Lemoine, Rémi; Richomme, Pascal; Simoneau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the physiological functions of fungal mannitol metabolism in the pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic fungus Alternada brassicicola. Mannitol metabolism was examined during infection of Brass/ca oleracea leaves by sequential HPLC quantification of the major soluble carbohydrates and expression analysis of genes encoding two proteins of mannitol metabolism, i.e., a mannitol dehydrogenase (AbMdh), and a mannito1-1-phosp...

  4. Personality, Intelligence And Music Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlovski, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study examining differences in personality traits and general intellectual ability of academic musicians was conducted on Macedonian sample of musicians, consisted of four different groups of instrumentalists, taken from four instrumental sections, respectively: a) piano (55); strings: violin, viola, cello, double bass (103); woodwind: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon (72); brass: trumpet, trombone, French horn, saxophone (58). Sample includes three age-based groups of musicians: m...

  5. Protection of copper and its alloys using corrosion inhibitor-literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Milorad V.; Pavlović, Miomir; Jotanović, Milovan; Fuchs-Godec, Regina

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the electrochemical corrosion of copper and its alloys with purpose to find the most suitable inhibitor for its protection has been done. According to their chemical composition of corrosion inhibitors are divided into inorganic and organic inhibitors. Inhibition of alloying metals are possible (such as the addition of arsenic alloy components in brass, preventing its unzincanization). The paper reviews the theoretical basis of application of inhibitors...

  6. Electrochemical Depositions in Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    De Vreese, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, several aspects of the electrodeposition of metals and alloys in ionic liquids were investigated. First, the deposition of brass from choline acetate was studied. Secondly, the electrodeposition of pure molybdenum from ionic liquids based on phosphonium chloride and zinc chloride was treated. In each case, the influence of water, either as a main constituent of the electrolyte or an impurity, was investigated. When comparing electrochemical processes such as electrodeposit...

  7. An external validation study reporting poor correlation between the claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity and the disease activity score

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rishi J; Solomon, Daniel H; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy; Kim, Seoyoung C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We conducted an external validation study to examine the correlation of a previously published claims-based index for rheumatoid arthritis severity (CIRAS) with disease activity score in 28 joints calculated by using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and the multi-dimensional health assessment questionnaire (MD-HAQ) physical function score. Methods: Patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS) and Medicare were identified and t...

  8. Corrosion of copper alloys in natural seawater – Effects of hydrodynamics and pH

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was carried out in the frame of the BIOCOR ITN European project, in close collaboration with the industrial partner RSE S.p.A. (Italy). Copper alloys commonly used in cooling systems of power plants may be affected by biocorrosion induced by biofilm formation. The main objective of this work was to study the corrosion behavior of 70Cu-30Ni alloy and aluminum brass in seawater environments, under real industrial conditions (field experiments) and in laboratory. The influence of dif...

  9. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    OpenAIRE

    Senguttuvan, N.; Raja, S; R. Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were anal...

  10. Operation experience of the condensers of the NPP power steam turbines in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to describe operation pattern of the condensers of NPP power steam turbines in France. In 900 and 1300 MW power units one uses basement, transverse, single-pass condensers with integral low-pressure heaters. Paper describes design peculiarities of these condensers. One studies, as well as, principles to update condensers and to substitute stainless steel or titanium tube systems for brass tube systems of condensers

  11. How far can the resonance frequencies give informations about the playing frequencies? The trumpet example

    OpenAIRE

    Eveno, Pauline; Kieffer, Benoît; Gilbert, Joël; Petiot, Jean-François; Caussé, René

    2012-01-01

    International audience Measurements and calculations of the input impedance of wind musical instruments are now well mastered. The purpose of this work is to study experimentally how far the resonance frequencies of brass instruments, taken from their input impedance, are able to give informations about the playing frequencies. Three different trumpets, obtained by changing only the leadpipe of the same instrument, were considered for the experiment. After a measurement of the input impeda...

  12. Texture evolution of cold rolled and annealed Fe-24Mn-3Al-2Si-1Ni-0.06C TWIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Slip and micro-shear banding contribute to the development of Brass orientation. → Annealing twins evolve since the early nucleation stage. → F orientation forms upon recrystallisation due to relatively random nucleation. → Second order twinning and favoured growth relation lead to Rotated Copper component. → The modified Hall-Petch equation adequately predicts the 0.2% proof stress. - Abstract: The microstructure and texture evolution of 42% cold-rolled Fe-24Mn-3Al-2Si-1Ni-0.06C TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel is investigated during isochronal annealing at temperatures between 600 and 850 deg. C. In the cold rolled condition, bulk texture returned the distinctive α-fibre for low stacking fault energy materials, with higher intensities for Goss ({1 1 2}) compared to Brass ({1 1 1}). A comparison between bulk and micro-textures, showed a significant slip contribution to the development of the Brass orientation, along with a possible role for micro-shear banding. Annealing twins contribute to recrystallisation from the early stages of nucleation and participate in generating new orientations thereafter. Unlike texture studies on other austenitic steels, the F ({1 1 1}) and Rotated Copper ({1 1 2}) orientations were detected in this work. The former is due to a more homogeneous distribution of nucleation sites, while the latter can be ascribed to second order twinning and the preferred-growth 30o relation with the Brass rolling component. Based on the microstructural parameters from Electron Back-Scattering Diffraction (EBSD), the modified Hall-Petch (H-P) relation was successfully applied to the 0.2% proof stress.

  13. An Investigation into the Effect of a Post-electroplating Electrochemical Oxidation Treatment on Tin Whisker Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, M. A.; Haspel, D.; Wu, L.; Wilcox, G. D.; Mortimer, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the `cracked oxide theory' was proposed by Tu in 1994,1 there has only been a limited number of studies that have sought to investigate the effect of the Sn oxide on whisker growth. The current study has used electrochemical oxidation to produce oxide films, which has enabled the effect of the surface oxide thickness on whisker growth to be established. The effect of oxide thickness on whisker growth has been investigated for tin electrodeposits on both Cu and brass substrates. The influence of applied oxidation potential on the thickness of the Sn oxide film has been investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for potassium bicarbonate-carbonate and borate buffer electrolyte solutions. Whisker growth from electrochemically oxidised Sn-Cu deposits on Cu and Sn deposits on brass has been investigated and compared with samples left to develop a native air-formed oxide. XPS studies show that the thickness of the electrochemically formed Sn oxide film is dependent on the applied oxidation potential and the total charge passed. Subsequent whisker growth studies demonstrate that electrochemically oxidised Sn-Cu deposits on Cu and Sn deposits on brass are significantly less susceptible to whisker growth than those having a native oxide film. For Sn deposits on brass, the electrochemically formed Sn oxide greatly reduces Zn oxide formation at the surface of the tin deposit, which results in whisker mitigation. For Sn-Cu deposits on Cu, the reduction in whisker growth must simply derive from the increased thickness of the Sn oxide, i.e. the Sn oxide film has an important role in stemming the development of whiskers.

  14. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of ...

  15. Self-other control: a candidate mechanism for social cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Sowden

    2014-01-01

    Despite ever-growing interest in the “social brain” and the search for the neural underpinnings of social cognition, we are yet to fully understand the basic neurocognitive mechanisms underlying complex social behaviors. One such candidate mechanism is the control of neural representations of the self and of other people (Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009a), and it is likely that “common” disorders of social cognition such as autism and schizophrenia involve atypical modulation of sel...

  16. MERCURY TOXICITY AND ITS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Rimjhim; Singh Santosh Kumar; Advani Uma; Kohli Saurabh; Sharma Neha

    2013-01-01

    Mercury is an element that has been known for at least 4000 years (Chang 1985). It is a metal that is liquid at room temperatures and is widely used in our modern society. Today, the unique chemical and physical properties of mercury are widely used in industry, agriculture, medicine, mining, dentistry and other areas of everyday life. Some of these are used in the manufacture or processing of felt, fireworks, batteries, blackening brass, photography pigments for rubber and plastics, wine col...

  17. Nick Clegg’s performance at the Liberal Democrat party conference proves that he has won the match for now, but for this ‘government of two halves’, the season is a long one

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Following a torrid year in government, Nick Clegg has faced down his party’s conference without any embarrassing policy reversals. Disaffected Lib Dems might be placated by the string of promises laid out by the party’s big brass, which will be unpalatable to their partners in government, but if a week is a long time in politics, Nick Clegg has a painfully long fight against the threat of end of season relegation yet to come, argues Matt Cole.

  18. Identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weizhen; Yi, Fajun; Zhu, Yanwei; Meng, Songhe

    2016-07-01

    A modified Levenberg–Marquardt method (LMM) for the identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is proposed; the experiment and structure of the specimen for identification are also designed. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of copper C10200 and brass C28000 are identified to verify the effectiveness of the proposed identification method. The comparison between identified results and the measured data of laser flash diffusivity apparatus indicates the fine consistency and potential usage of the proposed method.

  19. Character Strengths Profiles of Musicians and Non-Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Güsewell; Willibald Ruch

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s a series of studies investigated musicians’ personalities using Cattell’s 16 personality factors, Eysenck’s PEN super factors, and Costa and McCrae’s Big Five. The findings hinted at some traits most musicians seemed to share, and highlighted differences between the personality traits of brass and string players. However, results were inconclusive and sometimes contradictory. The main aim of this study was to further investigate the topic using novel theoretical framewo...

  20. FUZZY CONTROLLER AND NEURAL ESTIMATOR APPLIED TO CONTROL A SYSTEM POWERED BY THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Élida Fernanda Xavier Júlio; Simplício Arnaud da Silva; Cícero da Rocha Souto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a control strategy is presented to control the position and the feed rate of a table of a milling machine powered by three-phase induction motor, when machining pieces constituted by different types of materials: steel, brass and nylon. For development of the control strategy, the vector control technique was applied to drive the three-phase induction machines. The estimation of the electromagnetic torque of the motor was used to determine the machining feed rate fo...

  1. WEDM process variables investigation for HSLA by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sharma; Rajesh Khanna; Rahul Dev Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a thermo-electric spark erosion non-traditional type manufacturing process. The applications of WEDM have been found in aerospace and die manufacturing industries, where precise dimensions were the prime objective. This process is applied in case of processing difficult to machine material. Brass wire is used as an electrode and High strength low alloy (HSLA) steel as a work-piece during experimentation. The present research deals with the effect of...

  2. Kingston Soundpainting Ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Minors, Helen Julia

    2012-01-01

    This performance is designed to introduce teachers and school musicians to this live multidisciplinary live composing sign language. Led by Dr. Helen Julia Minors (soundpainter, trumpet, voice), the Kingston Soundpainting Ensemble, led by Dr. Minors at Kington University, is representated by a section a varied set of performers, using woodwind, brass, voice and percussion, spanning popular, classical and world styles. This performance consists of: Philip Warda (electronic instruments,...

  3. 刀具角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Amplification analysis for zig-zag slab lascr system, An implicit FE analysis of power transmitting mechanisms of CVT using a dry hybrid V-belt,Autonomous tool adjustment in robotic grinding,Autonomous tool path generation in robotic polishing of an aluminum alloy,Burr minimizing scheme in drilling,Evaluation of cutter orientations in high-speed ball end milling of cantilever-shaped thin plate, Machinability of Oxygen-Free Pure Copper and Brass with Various Coated Tools.

  4. Low-Wear Ball-Bearing Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Elden L.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed ball-bearing separator for use in cryogenic pump stronger and more resistant to wear. Consists of molded plastic-and-metal composite ring imbued with solid lubricant and containing embedded metal ring. Obtains combination of strength and lubricity. Before molding and machining, ring includes tooling portion for handling and indexing. Molded composite blend of PTFE and fluorinated ethylene/propylene (FEP) filled with brass and bronze powder and molybdenum disulfide powder.

  5. Copper and Copper Alloys Disintegration Using Pulsating Water Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, Jiří; Foldyna, Josef; Hloch, Sergej; Zeleňák, Michal; Cárach, J.

    Zagreb: Croatian Association of Production Engineering, 2015 - (Abele, E.; Udiljak, T.; Ciglar, D.), s. 175-180 ISBN 978-953-7689-03-2. [CIM 2015 - International Scientific Conference on Production Engineering. Vodice (HR), 10.06.2015-13.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pulsating water jet * copper * brass * bronze Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  6. Sound / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Uriah Heep "Sonic Origami", Amanda Lear "Follow Me Back In My Arms", No Mercy "More", Dr.Bombay "Rice & Curry", Vanilla Ice"Hard To Swallow", Orgy "Cancỳass", Bee Gees "One Night Only", PJ Harvey "Is This Desire", Mudhoney "Tomorrow Hit Today", Frank Sinatra "Sinatra And Swingin Brass", Kurupt "Kuruption!", Mike Scott & The Waterboys "The Whole Of The Moon", Dodgy "Ace As & Killer Bs"

  7. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  8. Degradation and Failure of Stored Radiological Material Containers and Packages, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 3 December 2003, at the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, in the United States of America, a canister containing an irradiated non-fuel test specimen failed catastrophically while stored in a water pool. The failure made a large noise, dislodged the stainless steel canister made from 10 cm diameter schedule 40 pipe 45 cm long, ruptured its brass cap, and projected part of the cap 3 m away underwater. No injuries or other damage occurred and there was no measurable release of radioactivity to the environment. The brass cap screwed onto the canister, with two nitrile rubber O-rings providing a watertight seal. Investigators found evidence of water leakage inside the canister. Their preliminary conclusion is that during the 14 years the canister was stored in the water pool, the nitrile rubber seals degraded from exposure to high flux gamma radiation emitted from the test specimen. Water leaked into the canister and the canister subsequently resealed tightly as a result of the brass cap’s corrosion. Radiolysis caused the captured water to break down into hydrogen and oxygen gas, pressurizing the canister. (Decomposition of the nitrile rubber could also generate flammable gases.) The investigators concluded that the hydrogen detonated and caused the failure. Although the ignition source is still not clear, it could have been thermal energy from the specimen, reactions from radicals produced by the radiolysis, sparking from interaction of metallic components, or static electricity discharge

  9. Effect of Wire Material on Productivity and Surface Integrity of WEDM-Processed Inconel 706 for Aircraft Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyaranjan; Chakradhar, D.; Narendranath, S.

    2016-07-01

    Inconel 706 is a recently developed superalloy for aircraft application, particularly in turbine disk which is among the most critical components in the gas turbine engines. Recently, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) attained success in machining of gas turbine components which require complex shape profiles with high precision. To achieve the feasibility in machining of these components, the research work has been conducted on Inconel 706 superalloy using WEDM process. And, the effect of different wire materials (i.e., hard brass wire, diffused wire, and zinc-coated wire) on WEDM performance characteristics such as cutting speed, surface topography, surface roughness, recast layer formation, residual stresses, and microstructural and metallurgical alterations have been investigated. Even though, zinc-coated wire exhibits improved productivity, hard brass wire was found to be beneficial in terms of improved surface quality of the machined parts. Additionally, lower tensile residual stresses were obtained with hard brass wire. However, diffused wire has a moderate effect on productivity and surface quality. Under high discharge energy, higher elemental changes were observed and also the white layer was detected.

  10. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for quantitative elemental analysis of materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; K Mridul; R Nayak; K Alti; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G Gupta; B M Suri

    2012-08-01

    The application of calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) for quantitative analysis of materials, illustrated by CF-LIBS applied to a brass sample of known composition, is presented in this paper. The LIBS plasma is produced by a 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 6 ns focussed onto a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. The time-resolved atomic and ionic emission lines of Cu and Zn from the LIBS spectra recorded by an Echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector are used for the plasma characterization and the quantitative analysis of the sample. The time delay where the plasma is optically thin and is also in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), necessary for the elemental analysis of samples from the LIBS spectra, is deduced. An algorithm relating the experimentally measured spectral intensity values with the basic physics of the plasma is developed. Using the algorithm, the Zn and Cu concentratioins in the brass sample are determined. The analytical result obtained from the CF-LIBS technique agree well with the certified valued of the elements in the sample, with an accuracy error < 1%

  11. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound

  12. Generation of DNA profiles from fingerprints developed with columnar thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazibat, Stephanie L; Roy, Reena; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-12-01

    Partial-bloody fingerprints and partial fingerprints with saliva are often encountered at crime scenes, potentially enabling the combination of fingerprint and DNA analyses for absolute identification, provided that the development technique for fingerprint analysis does not inhibit DNA analysis. 36 partial-bloody fingerprints and 30 fingerprints wetted with saliva, all deposited on brass, were first developed using the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique and then subjected to short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis. Equal numbers of samples were subjected to the same DNA analysis without development. Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum, or Alq3, was evaporated to deposit CTFs for development of the prints. DNA was extracted from all 132 samples, quantified, and amplified with AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler Plus Amplification Kit. Additionally, DNA analyses were conducted on four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had been subjected to CTF deposition and four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had not been subjected to CTF deposition. Complete and concordant autosomal STR profiles of the same quality were obtained from both undeveloped and CTF-developed fingerprints, indicating that CTF development of fingerprints preserves DNA and does not inhibit subsequent DNA analysis. Even when there were no fingerprints, CTF deposition did not lead to inhibition of DNA analysis. PMID:26600166

  13. Self-consistent modeling of rolling textures in an austenitic-ferritic duplex steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The selection of slip systems is linked to the grain-boundary-mediated activities. → In the duplex steel interactions between phases play a big role on the texture. → For austenite, a reliable prediction of texture is achieved at small deformations. → A model incorporating micro-scale shear banding in f.c.c. phases was developed. - Abstract: Rolling textures of the constituent phases in an austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel are measured by X-ray diffraction experiments, showing that the brass-type texture, typical of f.c.c. materials with low SFE, is developed in the austenitic phase, and the rotated-cube and brass-R textures are developed in the ferritic phase. On the basis of the experimental texture components and fibers at different reductions, rolling textures of the respective phases in the duplex steel are simulated using a self-consistent model. After considering various micromechanical interactions within the steel, a reliable prediction of the evolution of grain orientation distributions for the phases at small reductions is achieved. An attempt in modeling the brass-type texture for the f.c.c. metallic phase is also performed by incorporating the shear banding mechanism into the presented model.

  14. Estudio de corrosión galvánica en pares latón/acero inoxidable y latón/fundición de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multigalvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass –UNS C268– and Admiralty brass –UNS C443– compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 °C in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na2SO4 solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals.

    El ataque por corrosión en los sistemas intercambiadores de calor constituye un problema para el mantenimiento de cualquier planta industrial. Se trata de sistemas multigalvánicos con particular complejidad geométrica y fluidodinámica. Las patologías corrosivas incluyen el fenómeno de dealeación selectiva de cinc en las aleaciones de cobre. A fin de explicar un caso particular de ataque por decinficación (deterioro en placa de intercambiador de calor de tubos de inoxidable, el presente trabajo aborda en ensayos a escala de laboratorio, la caracterización e interacciones entre dos aleaciones de cobre y cinc, (Yellow brass –UNS C268– y Admiralty brass –UNS C443–, respecto a acero inoxidable AISI 316 y fundición gris de hierro. Los ensayos se realizan a 20 °C en disoluciones de NaCl 1,5 % y Na2SO4 1,5 % y pH 8. Se caracterizan electroquímicamente las aleaciones y materiales involucrados mediante barridos potenciodinámicos. Los pares galvánicos formados se analizan mediante el

  15. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

  16. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  17. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of vacuum thermal evaporated CuxS counter electrode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) is used to fabricate CuxS counter electrode (CE). • QDSCs with VTE-CuxS CEs show a high efficiency of 3.16 ± 0.05% under one sun. • The electrocatalytic activity of VTE-CuxS CE is higher than Pt and Brass-Cu2S CEs. • VTE-CuxS CE exhibits good stability in polysulfide electrolyte. - Abstract: Vacuum thermal evaporated CuxS (VTE-CuxS) film on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate has been investigated as counter electrode (CE) for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) with polysulfide electrolyte. The photovoltaic parameters of QDSCs show an obvious dependence on the annealing time of CuxS film, and the maximum power conversion efficiency of 3.16 ± 0.05% under one sun illumination (100 mW cm−2, AM 1.5 G) was obtained when the VTE-CuxS CE was annealed at 270 °C for 300 s (VTE-CuxS-300s CE). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Tafel polarization, and cyclic voltammetry measurements have been employed to investigate the electrocatalytic activity of VTE-CuxS-300s CE. The electrocatalytic activity of the VTE-CuxS-300s CE is much higher than that of Pt CE, and is slightly higher than that of Cu2S CE in situ prepared on brass sheet. In particular, VTE-CuxS-300s CE holds high diffusion velocity of S2−/Sn2− in polysulfide electrolyte, and the stability of its electrocatalytic activity in polysulfide electrolyte is better than that of Pt and Brass-Cu2S CEs obviously

  18. Ifluence of outer electrode material on ozone production in coaxial negative corona discharge fed by oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszagh, J.; Skalny, J. D.; Mason, N. J.

    2008-07-01

    The "electric odour", observed by Van Marum when oxygen was passing trough electric spark in 1785, has been later (1839), identified by Ch. F. Schonbeim as a new chemical compound named ozone (Stolarski 1999). Almost from those times ozone is widely used chemical compound. The effect of outer electrode material on the ozone production in negative corona discharge have been studied. Two electrodes with the same dimensions were used in the experiment. One was made of stainless steel other one of brass. First the outer electrode was mechanically cleaned to remove the layer of oxides. The reactor have been filled by pure oxygen and closed. Then the measurement (1 hour measurement of discharge current at the constant voltage and time dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor) was repeated 5 times without cleaning the surface to see the ageing effects. Especially the influence of electrode oxidation on ozone concentration was studied. The experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The ozone concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy method directly in the discharge reactor. As one can expect the brass surface was oxidizing faster. After five measurements the electrode surface was covered by layer of greenish oxides. On the other hand the steel electrode surface had no visible oxides layer. The oxidation of the outer electrode had little systematic effect on the ozone concentration but in case of brass electrode the results were scattered in the range from 8000 ppm to 15000 ppm of ozone. It seems that the more oxides are created on the surface the less ozone is produced or the faster the ozone decomposition processes are (see Fig. 1). On the other hand in case of stainless steel electrode the ozone concentrations were comparable in all 5 measurements. Overall ozone concentration was higher in steel electrode. Figure 1: Time dependence of ozone concentration.

  19. Implementation of 'solid IMRT' : modulator design, fabrication, dose delivery, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Solid modulators have long been theoretically accepted as a valid IMRT delivery technique. The challenges of clinically implementing 'solid IMRT' include: choosing an appropriate modulator material, ensuring high-resolution and accurate milling, accurate dose calculation through a complex and patient-dependent solid device, and thorough dose verification (QA). To ensure smooth and mill-able modulators, optimized fluence maps were convolved with a smoothing kernel with dimensions mimicking those of the known fine-tip milling bore. Fluence maps were then transformed into modulator thickness arrays and read by a computer-controlled milling machine (high speed - NURB surface machining, Southeastern Radiation Products, Inc., FL, USA), and subsequently milled directly from 5.1 cm thick brass blanks with 0.01 cm accuracy. The solid modulators were then tray-mounted and inserted into the wedge position on a Varian 2100EX accelerator. Dosimetric verification was done using radiographic film in a flat solid-water phantom. Absolute dose measurements were compared directly with absolute dose calculated by a convolution algorithm incorporating the effects of beam hardening through the brass. When used with 6 MV beams, 5 cm brass modulators provide an adequate dynamic range (approximately 18% to 100% fluence) and superior resolution. Absolute dose analysis of a complex head/neck modulator yielded 99% of calculated dose points within 3%/3mm of measurement, with the majority of points within 1%. Figures A and B illustrate measured (A) and calculated (B) QA films. With an integrated process of computer-controlled milling, solid IMRT is not only feasible clinically, but also provides high spatial- and intensity-resolution. It is a familiar technology that allows clinics not equipped with MLC, or those more comfortable with a static, solid modulator, to provide quality IMRT treatment at relatively low cost, in addition, total linear accelerator monitor units are kept to a

  20. Use of conventional electrochemical techniques to produce crystalline FeRh alloys induced by Ag seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Production of FeRh alloys by electrodeposition. •Use of Ag seed layer causes crystallization in electrodeposited Fe20Rh80 alloy. •Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates that the FeRh/Ag alloy has a long range atomic order structure. -- Abstract: By combining galvanic displacement and electrodeposition techniques, an ordered Fe20Rh80 structure deposited onto brass was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction analyses suggest that the Fe–Rh alloy directly electrodeposited onto brass displays a nanocrystalline state while a similar alloy deposited onto Ag/brass shows a faced centered cubic-like structure, with dendrites-like features. These results directly indicate that the presence of Ag seed layer is responsible for the Fe–Rh alloy crystallization process. In addition, room temperature Mössbauer data indicate firstly paramagnetic states for two Fe-species. In the dominant Fe-species (major fraction of the Mössbauer spectra), Fe atoms are situated at a cubic environment and it can be attributed to the γ-Fe20Rh80 alloy based on their hyperfine parameters. In the second species, Fe atoms are placed in a non-local symmetry, which can be related to Fe atoms at the grain boundaries or/and Fe small clusters. These Fe-clusters are in superparamagnetic state at room temperature, but they may be ordered below 45 K, as suggested by magnetization data

  1. Mechanical properties of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lukaszkowicz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to investigate the mechanical properties of monolayer coatings (Ti/CrN, Ti/TiAlN, Ti/ZrN, CrN, TiAl/TiAlN, Zr/ZrN, TiN deposited by PVD technique (reactive magnetron sputtering method onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass. A thin metallic layer was deposited prior to deposition of ceramic monolithic coatings to improve adhesion.Design/methodology/approach: The microstructure of the coatings was cross section examined using scanning electron microscope. The residual stress was obtained from the parabolic deflection of the samples, after the coating deposition applying Stoney’s equation. The microhardness and Young’s modulus tests were made on the dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test.Findings: Obtained results show that all the coatings are in a state of compressive residual stress. The stiffness of the examined coatings is between 224-330 mN/!m, while Young’s modulus is between 258-348 GPa. Concerning the adhesion of the coatings measured by scratch test, it has been stated that the critical load LC2 for coatings, deposited onto the brass ranges from 41 to 57 N.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying these coatings in tools, further investigations should be concentrated on the determination of the tribological properties of the coatings.Originality/value: The paper contributes to better understanding and recognition the structure of thin coatings deposited by PVD techniques. It should be stressed that the mechanical properties of the PVD coatings obtained in this work are very encouraging and therefore their application for products manufactured at mass scale is possible in all cases where reliable, very hard and abrasion resistant coatings, deposited onto brass substrate are needed.

  2. Mechanical properties of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to investigate the mechanical properties of monolayer coatings (Ti/CrN,Ti/TiAlN, Ti/ZrN, CrN, TiAl/TiAlN, Zr/ZrN, TiN deposited by PVD technique (reactive magnetron sputteringmethod onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass. A thin metallic layer was deposited prior to depositionof ceramic monolithic coatings to improve adhesion.Design/methodology/approach: The microstructure of the coatings was cross section examined using scanningelectron microscope. The residual stress was obtained from the parabolic deflection of the samples, after the coatingdeposition applying Stoney’s equation. The microhardness and Young’s modulus tests were made on the dynamicultra-microhardness tester. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test.Findings: Obtained results show that all the coatings are in a state of compressive residual stress. The stiffnessof the examined coatings is between 224 ÷ 330 mN/μm, while Young’s modulus is between 258 ÷ 348 GPa.Concerning the adhesion of the coatings measured by scratch test, it has been stated that the critical load LC2for coatings, deposited onto the brass ranges from 41 to 57 N.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying thesecoatings in products used in the building and power industries, further investigations should be concentrated onthe determination of the tribological properties of the coatings.Originality/value: The paper contributes to better understanding and recognition the structure of thin coatingsdeposited by PVD techniques. It should be stressed that the mechanical properties of the PVD coatings obtained inthis work are very encouraging and therefore their application for products manufactured at mass scale is possiblein all cases where reliable, very hard and abrasion resistant coatings, deposited onto brass substrate are needed.

  3. Use of conventional electrochemical techniques to produce crystalline FeRh alloys induced by Ag seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noce, R.D., E-mail: rodrnoce@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Benedetti, A.V. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Kumar, H.; Cornejo, D.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Magnani, M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-05

    Highlights: •Production of FeRh alloys by electrodeposition. •Use of Ag seed layer causes crystallization in electrodeposited Fe{sub 20}Rh{sub 80} alloy. •Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates that the FeRh/Ag alloy has a long range atomic order structure. -- Abstract: By combining galvanic displacement and electrodeposition techniques, an ordered Fe{sub 20}Rh{sub 80} structure deposited onto brass was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction analyses suggest that the Fe–Rh alloy directly electrodeposited onto brass displays a nanocrystalline state while a similar alloy deposited onto Ag/brass shows a faced centered cubic-like structure, with dendrites-like features. These results directly indicate that the presence of Ag seed layer is responsible for the Fe–Rh alloy crystallization process. In addition, room temperature Mössbauer data indicate firstly paramagnetic states for two Fe-species. In the dominant Fe-species (major fraction of the Mössbauer spectra), Fe atoms are situated at a cubic environment and it can be attributed to the γ-Fe{sub 20}Rh{sub 80} alloy based on their hyperfine parameters. In the second species, Fe atoms are placed in a non-local symmetry, which can be related to Fe atoms at the grain boundaries or/and Fe small clusters. These Fe-clusters are in superparamagnetic state at room temperature, but they may be ordered below 45 K, as suggested by magnetization data.

  4. Hot rolling textures of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aeronautical alloys: Experiments and simulations to high strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Systematic hot plane strain compression tests have been made under controlled conditions of temperature and strain to compare texture evolution in Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Li-Cu. → The hot rolling textures in Al-Cu-Li are the same as those of standard Al-Zn-Mg alloys, when deformed under the same conditions. → The stronger textures, particularly the Brass {110} component, of industrially rolled Al-Cu-Li are due to the higher rolling temperatures. → The experimental results are consistent with the model of non-octahedral slip at high temperaturesz. - Abstract: The development of hot rolling textures, and particularly the Brass {1 1 0} component, of two typical aeronautical alloys: Al-Cu-Li AA2050 and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu AA7050, has been investigated by EBSD and X-ray diffraction measurements after plane strain compression tests and industrial hot rolling. Systematic hot channel-die compression tests were performed to strains of 2.7 at 420-450 deg. C, on both as-homogenized alloys. Under the same processing conditions, the two alloys develop the same rolling textures showing that the presence of Li is not intrinsically responsible for the development of strong Brass components. However, it is shown, by further channel-die compression tests between 350 and 500 deg. C and up to strains of 3.9, that the deformation temperature can have a major influence: with increasing temperature {1 1 0} orientations are strongly favoured at the expense of the Copper {1 1 2} component. Numerical simulations demonstrate that previous and current experimental observations of the influence of temperature on texture development can be explained by increasing slip on non-octahedral slip systems.

  5. Influence of playing wind instruments on activity of masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotouda, A; Yamaguchi, T; Okada, K; Matsuki, T; Gotouda, S; Inoue, N

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of change in sound tone of playing wind instruments on activity of jaw-closing muscles and the effect of sustained playing for a long time on fatigue of jaw-closing muscles. Electromyograms (EMG) of 19 brass instrument players and 14 woodwind instrument players were measured while playing instruments in tuning tone and high tone and under other conditions. Nine brass instrument players and nine woodwind instrument players played instruments for 90 min. Before and after the exercise, power spectral analyses of EMG from masseter muscles at 50% of maximum voluntary clenching level were performed and mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated. Root mean square (RMS) of EMG in masseter and temporal muscles while playing were slightly larger than those at rest but extremely small in comparison with those during maximum clenching. Root mean square in orbicularis oris and digastric muscles were relatively large when playing instruments. In the brass instrument group, RMS in high tone was significantly higher than that in tuning tone in all muscles examined. In the woodwind instrument group, RMS in high tone was not significantly higher than that in tuning tone in those muscles. Mean power frequency was not decreased after sustained playing in both instrument groups. These findings indicate that contractive load to jaw-closing muscles when playing a wind instrument in both medium and high tone is very small and playing an instrument for a long time does not obviously induce fatigue of jaw-closing muscles. PMID:17716263

  6. Hot rolling textures of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aeronautical alloys: Experiments and simulations to high strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contrepois, Q.; Maurice, C. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France); Driver, J.H., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France)

    2010-10-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Systematic hot plane strain compression tests have been made under controlled conditions of temperature and strain to compare texture evolution in Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Li-Cu. {yields} The hot rolling textures in Al-Cu-Li are the same as those of standard Al-Zn-Mg alloys, when deformed under the same conditions. {yields} The stronger textures, particularly the Brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> component, of industrially rolled Al-Cu-Li are due to the higher rolling temperatures. {yields} The experimental results are consistent with the model of non-octahedral slip at high temperaturesz. - Abstract: The development of hot rolling textures, and particularly the Brass {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> component, of two typical aeronautical alloys: Al-Cu-Li AA2050 and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu AA7050, has been investigated by EBSD and X-ray diffraction measurements after plane strain compression tests and industrial hot rolling. Systematic hot channel-die compression tests were performed to strains of 2.7 at 420-450 deg. C, on both as-homogenized alloys. Under the same processing conditions, the two alloys develop the same rolling textures showing that the presence of Li is not intrinsically responsible for the development of strong Brass components. However, it is shown, by further channel-die compression tests between 350 and 500 deg. C and up to strains of 3.9, that the deformation temperature can have a major influence: with increasing temperature {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> orientations are strongly favoured at the expense of the Copper {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace} <1 1 1> component. Numerical simulations demonstrate that previous and current experimental observations of the influence of temperature on texture development can be explained by increasing slip on non-octahedral slip systems.

  7. A measure of the broad substrate specificity of enzymes based on 'duplicate' catalytic residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability of an enzyme to select and act upon a specific class of compounds with unerring precision and efficiency is an essential feature of life. Simultaneously, these enzymes often catalyze the reaction of a range of similar substrates of the same class, and also have promiscuous activities on unrelated substrates. Previously, we have established a methodology to quantify promiscuous activities in a wide range of proteins. In the current work, we quantitatively characterize the active site for the ability to catalyze distinct, yet related, substrates (BRASS. A protein with known structure and active site residues provides the framework for computing 'duplicate' residues, each of which results in slightly modified replicas of the active site scaffold. Such spatial congruence is supplemented by Finite difference Poisson Boltzmann analysis which filters out electrostatically unfavorable configurations. The congruent configurations are used to compute an index (BrassIndex, which reflects the broad substrate profile of the active site. We identify an acetylhydrolase and a methyltransferase as having the lowest and highest BrassIndex, respectively, from a set of non-homologous proteins extracted from the Catalytic Site Atlas. The acetylhydrolase, a regulatory enzyme, is known to be highly specific for platelet-activating factor. In the methyltransferase (PDB: 1QAM, various combinations of glycine (Gly38/40/42, asparagine (Asn101/11 and glutamic acid (Glu59/36 residues having similar spatial and electrostatic profiles with the specified scaffold (Gly38, Asn101 and Glu59 exemplifies the broad substrate profile such an active site may provide. 'Duplicate' residues identified by relaxing the spatial and/or electrostatic constraints can be the target of directed evolution methodologies, like saturation mutagenesis, for modulating the substrate specificity of proteins.

  8. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  9. An all-digital Manchester symbol synchronizer for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, B. H.; Vang, H.; Cellier, A.; Lindsey, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Shuttle S-Band relay communications links via TDRS are coded and may operate at symbol signal-to-noise ratios (Es/No) as low as -5dB. A brass-board all-digital bit synchronizer with very low (0.05dB) degradation relative to an idealized analog model has been designed to process the 216 KBPS Manchester data symbols. This all-digital bit synchronizer, which provides soft decision detected outputs to a convolutional decoder, may be operated at any rate below 216 KBPS by merely changing the master clock frequency.

  10. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  11. Failure analysis of a helicopter's main rotor bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented results report some of the findings of a detailed failure analysis carried out on a main rotor hub assembly, which had symptoms of burning and mechanical damage. The analysis suggests environmental degradation of the grease which causes pitting on bearing-balls. The consequent inefficient lubrication raises the temperature which leads to the smearing of cage material (brass) on the bearing-balls and ultimately causes the failure. The analysis has been supported by the microstructural studies, thermal analysis and micro-hardness testing performed on the affected main rotor bearing parts. (author)

  12. Crystal structure of Au9In4(h) and Au7In3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase Au9In4(h) crystallizes in the Cu9Al4-type structure and Au7In3 has a hexagonal crystal structure with 60 atoms in the elementary cell. The structure is related to the γ-brass structure but with a different distribution of vacancies and another system of displacements. A spatial correlation of the core electrons with a very simple commensurability may be traced in the structure, together with a valence electron correlation which is geometrically related to the core electron correlation by a factor of 2. This energetically favourable binding relationship provides an argument in favour of the stability of Au7In3. (Auth.)

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSI671 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .58 1 ( EV186139 ) 0200346 Brassica napus Undamaged cotyledons Brass... 44 0.58 1 ( CU914143 ) Zebra...VS (Link to library) VSI671 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VSI671F (Link to Original s...ite) VSI671F 66 - - - - - - Show VSI671 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSI671 (Link to dictyBase) Atl...nslated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ase*ink*kkkkkkklkflkk--- Fram...e B: rpnk*inkkkkkkkn*nf*kk--- Frame C: vrink*IKKKKKKKIKIFKKK--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Sco

  14. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: a possible high precision analytical tool for quantifying material transfer rates between machine components in contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford backscattering (RBS) is an ion beam-based analytical technique commonly used for materials analysis. It offers several possibilities of which we mention elemental identification, thickness measurements of layered structures and stoichiometric determinations. The principle and the specific features of the method are presented in this paper. The main aim of our experiments was to test the possibilities of RBS in material transfer determinations. As an illustration, experimental spectra obtained on both Falex (steel-brass) and Timken (steel-aluminium) sample are presented. Advantages as well as limitations of RBS for this particular purpose are discussed. (author) 4 Figs., 7 Refs

  15. Stochastic cooling equipment at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The photo shows (centre) an experimental set-up for stochastic cooling of vertical betatron oscillations, used at the ISR in the years before the ICE ring was built. Cooling times of about 30 min were obtained in the low intensity range (~0.3 A). To be noted the four 50 Ohm brass input/output connections with cooling fins, and the baking-out sheet around the cylinder. On the left one sees a clearing electrode box allowing the electrode current to be measured, and the pressure seen by the beam to be evaluated.

  16. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  17. Extractants to assess zinc phytoavailability in mineral fertilizer and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analytical methods for the quantification of plant-available Zn contained in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products are fundamental for the control and marketing of these inputs. In this sense, there are some doubts on the part of the scientific community as well as of the fertilizer production sector, whether the extractor requested by the government (Normative Instruction No. 28, called 2nd extractor, which is citric acid 2 % (2 % CA (Brasil, 2007b, is effective in predicting the plant availability of Zn via mineral fertilizers and about the agronomic significance of the required minimal solubility of 60 % compared to the total content (HCl (Brasil, 2007a. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alternative extractors DTPA, EDTA, neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, buffer solution pH 6.0, 10 % HCl, 10 % sulfuric acid, 1 % acetic acid, water, and hot water to quantify the contents of Zn available for maize and compare them with indices of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers and industrial by-products when applied to dystrophic Clayey Red Latosol and Dystrophic Alic Red Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The rate of Zn applied to the soil was 5 mg kg-1, using the sources zinc sulfate, commercial granular zinc, ash and galvanic sludge, ash and two brass slags. Most Zn was extracted from the sources by DTPA, 10 % HCl, NAC, 1% acetic acid, and 10 % sulfuric acid. Recovery by the extractors 2 % CA, EDTA, water, and hot water was low. The agronomic efficiency index was found to be high when using galvanic sludge (238 % and commercial granular zinc (142 % and lower with brass slag I and II (67 and 27 %, respectively. The sources galvanizing ash and brass ash showed solubility lower than 60 % in 2 % CA, despite agronomic efficiency indices of 78 and 125 %, respectively. The low agronomic efficiency index of industrial by-products such as brass slag I and galvanizing ash can be compensated by higher doses, provided there is no

  18. A new gas counter for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled cell cultures used in studies of lymphocyte proliferation at the Clinical Research Centre are blotted in arrays of 10x6 spots spaced at 6 mm. A new detector has been designed to count the beta particles emitted from high energy radiolabels such as 14C using point anodes working within the cells of a brass collimator to count all 60 samples simultaneously. The cells are identified by a resistive readout technique applied independently to each of the six rows of ten anodes, and a compact data capture system provides economical readout into a personal computer. ((orig.))

  19. Effect of Flow and Dissolved Oxygen on the Compatibility of Pongamia pinnata Biodiesel with Common Construction Materials Used in Storage and Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel (PBD and its NaCl blends on aluminium, brass, copper, carbon steel, and mild steel has been studied by static mass loss and rotating cage methods. The effects of dissolved oxygen and flow on the metal corrosion in PBD were also observed. This study confirmed that the copper strip test alone is not enough to determine the fuel property since the corrosion of ferrous metal was found to be high in PBD compared to other metals. The least corrosion rate of aluminium was confirmed by surface morphology and elemental analysis.

  20. Trine Messenger

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Chara; Mojsiewicz, Kristin; Pettican, Anneké

    2012-01-01

    A seven metre-long balloon draws inspiration from classical images of Hypnos, the god of sleep, and the Surrealists, Brass Art’s work was made using a mean average of the artists’ faces taken from biomedical facial scans. The process converted living three-dimensional subjects into digital data, then into a two-dimensional pattern and finally into a single, three-dimensional inflatable sculpture. Conjuring journeys of the imagination in conjunction with real spaces is central to the three art...

  1. Mechanical properties of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; K. Lukaszkowicz; A. Zarychta

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This research was done to investigate the mechanical properties of monolayer coatings (Ti/CrN,Ti/TiAlN, Ti/ZrN, CrN, TiAl/TiAlN, Zr/ZrN, TiN) deposited by PVD technique (reactive magnetron sputteringmethod) onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass. A thin metallic layer was deposited prior to depositionof ceramic monolithic coatings to improve adhesion.Design/methodology/approach: The microstructure of the coatings was cross section examined using scanningelectron microscope. The ...

  2. Mechanical properties of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lukaszkowicz; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This research was done to investigate the mechanical properties of monolayer coatings (Ti/CrN, Ti/TiAlN, Ti/ZrN, CrN, TiAl/TiAlN, Zr/ZrN, TiN) deposited by PVD technique (reactive magnetron sputtering method) onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass. A thin metallic layer was deposited prior to deposition of ceramic monolithic coatings to improve adhesion.Design/methodology/approach: The microstructure of the coatings was cross section examined using scanning electron microscope. ...

  3. Inversion of the geomagnetic induction data from EMTESZ experiments in NW Poland by stochastic MCMC and linearized thin sheet inversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červ, Václav; Kováčiková, Světlana; Menvielle, M.; Pek, Josef

    Potsdam: Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft, 2008 - (Ritter, O.; Brasse, H.), s. 126-131 ISSN 0946-7467. [Kolloquium Elektromagnetische Tiefenforschung /22./. Děčín (CZ), 01.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0740; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0557; GA ČR GA205/07/0292; GA AV ČR IAA300120703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : geomagnetic induction data * inverse problems * MCMC sampling approach * EMTESZ experiments Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  4. A support of restoration intervention of the bust of St. Gregory the Armenian: Compositional investigations by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, S.; De Giorgi, M. L.; Marini, C.; Poso, R.

    2005-07-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed in the restoration process of the bust of St. Gregory the Armenian. It was applied to carry out elemental chemical analyses of different details of the bust. The analyses showed that all the investigated pieces are covered by polluted layers, rich mainly in calcium which can be removed by laser ablation. The investigations performed on the cleaned surfaces confirm that the hair is composed essentially of silver and the stole of copper and that no foils were added during the stages of artwork realization. The interesting finding is that the decorative coating of the stole was realized in gold, instead of the supposed brass.

  5. Development of a 300-kV Marx generator and its application to drive a relativistic electron beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Choyal; Lalit Gupta; Preeti Vyas; Prasad Deshpande; Anamika Chaturvedi; K C Mittal; K P Maheshwari

    2005-12-01

    We have indigenously developed a twenty-stage vertical structure type Marx generator. At a matched load of $90-100 \\Omega$, for 25 kV DC charging, an output voltage pulse of 230 kV, and duration 150 ns is obtained. This voltage pulse is applied to a relativistic electron beam (REB) planar diode. For a cathode-anode gap of 7·5 mm, an REB having beam voltage 160 kV and duration 150 ns is obtained. Brass as well as aluminum explosive electron emission-type cathodes have been used.

  6. Improvement in operating reliability of oil field compressor engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, G.M.; Pashayev, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experience is presented of using combined start-up winding developed by the department of electric drive and the APU of the AzINneftekhim as applied to synchronous engine of oil field compressor. The results of the experimental study indicated that using the combined start-up winding, the electromagnetic momentum of the engine (in the area of small slippings) increases 1.4-fold, while the start-up time of the drive diminishes by 15% as compared to the engine with plant brass start-up winding.

  7. A 3 to 6 GHz microwave/photonic transceiver for phased-array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Edward; Wanuga, Stephen; Candela, Karen; Scotti, Ronald E.; MacDonald, V. W.; Gates, John V.

    1992-04-01

    The general design and operation of a microwave/photonic transceiver operating in the range 3-6 GHz are presented. The transceiver consists of drop-in submodules with optical fiber pigtails mounted on a brass carrier measuring less than 1 x 1 x 0.1 inch along with MMIC amplifiers and an alumina motherboard. Minimum 3 to 6 GHz return losses of 6 dB have been measured for both the microwave input and the microwave output of the module; the insertion loss is between 19 and 20 dB at most frequencies in the 3-6 GHz band.

  8. Queering gender in contemporary female Bildung narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Soňa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores, in the context of feminist discussions about the Bildungsroman, a contemporary British novel that offers shocking images of female coming of age at the turn of the millennium. Queering gender and introducing male elements into the heroine’s process of maturation, the analysed novel appears to raise questions about the continuous relevance of the feminist distinction between male and female version of the genre. The paper however argues that although significantly rewriting both female Bildung and pornographic narratives, Helen Walsh’s Brass can still be read as a variation of the female Bildungsroman and an example of its contemporary developments.

  9. Sistema limpo em linha para extração em fase sólida de contaminantes emergentes em águas naturais An in-line clean system for the solid-phase extraction of emerging contaminants in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Sodré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase in-line extraction system for water samples containing low levels of emerging contaminants is described. The system was specially developed for large volume samples (up to 4 L using commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges. Four sets containing PTFE-made connectors, brass adapters and ball valves were used to fit SPE cartridges and sample bottles to a 4-port manifold attached to a 20 L carboy. A lab-made vacuum device was connected to the manifold cap. The apparatus is robust and less expensive than the typical available system. Its also provides less experimental handling, avoiding cross contamination and sample losses.

  10. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Yu, Yanguang; Xi, Jiangtao; Li, Huijun; Guo, Qinghua; Tong, Jun; Su, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD) for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases. PMID:27338413

  11. Evaluation of fracture toughness of ceramic thin plates through modified single edge-precracked plate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate fracture toughness of thin plates of aluminum nitrides and silicon nitrides, a small, thin single edge notched plate with the thickness of 0.32 or 0.64 mm was glued on one side of a brass beam and the assembly was deformed in three-point bending to introduce the precrack. The flexural strength of the precracked specimen was measured using a special 3pt-bending fixture. The resultant fracture toughness was almost identical to those obtained for the standard-sized specimens

  12. Prevention of thermal bending of multilayered beams and plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. C. S.

    1975-01-01

    By adding an extra layer to multilayer beams or plates of different isotropic materials, it is possible to prevent the thermal bending of these materials. With the proper selection of thermoelastic properties the curvature produced prior to this addition would be eliminated. Several numerical examples are presented for various temperature distributions. A simple experiment was conducted, involving the addition of a brass strip to a bimetallic strip made of aluminum and steel at room temperature. The trimetal strip was placed in a furnace and remained straight for varying temperatures.

  13. Local texture of microstructural inhomogeneities in rolled microalloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotorevsky, N.; Panpurin, S.; Kazakov, A.; Pakhomova, O.; Petrov, S.

    2015-04-01

    Specific inhomogeneities consisting of coarse-grained bainite are observed in the microstructure of low carbon microalloyed steels after hot rolling. Earlier a special etching method has been developed allowing to reveal that these inhomogeneities markedly affect a fracture toughness of steels. In the present work their crystal geometry was studied using EBSD technique, and orientations of former austenite grains were reconstructed. The austenite, from which the coarse-grained bainite regions have been produced, is shown to have orientations concentrated predominantly within the brass component of austenite rolling texture. The inhomogeneities of steel microstructure are promoted by orientation dependency of the deformation substructure of heavily deformed austenite grains.

  14. Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-01-21

    We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

  15. The determination of nanogram amounts of Chromium in urine by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, K.; Rose, H.J., Jr.; Christian, R.P.

    1969-01-01

    Nanogram amounts of chromium can be extracted as oxinate into chloform. By treatment of the chloroform layer 3 M hydrochloric acid, oxinates of other elements and excess of reagent are removed, leaving a chloroform solution of the chromium chelate only. This solution is concentrated and transferred to the top of a small brass rod acting as sample holder. The intensity of the X-ray fluorescence of the Cr K?? line is measured with curved crystal optics. Chromium amounts greater than 5 ng can be detected. The application of the procedure to the analysis of the chromium content of urine is demonstrated. ?? 1969.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-metal electrode couples in corrosion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization diagrams, obtained for carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic(cathode)-metallic material(anode) contact couples are analyzed to predict the corrosion behaviour of some technical metals and alloys (carbon steel, stainless steels, brass, aluminium, titanium) in contact with carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic in differen agressive media (H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, NaOH solutions in wide temperature and concentration range, synthetic seawater at 30 and 50 deg C). The predicted behaviour was supported by direct investigation into carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-titanium and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic-aluminium contact couples at different square ratios. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  17. Thermal plasma of electric arc discharge in air between composite Cu-C electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex technique of plasma property studies is suggested. As the first step the radial profiles of temperature and electron density in plasma of free burning electric arc discharge in air between Cu-C composite and brass electrodes, as well as copper electrodes in air flow, were measured by optical emission spectroscopy techniques. As the next step the radial profiles of electric conductivity of plasma mixture were calculated by solution of energy balance equation. The electron density is obtained from electric conductivity by calculation in assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium in plasma.

  18. Creep behaviour of Cu-30 percent Zn at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present, intermediate-temperature (573-823 K) range investigation of creep properties for single-phase Cu-30 percent Zn alpha-brass observed inverse, linear, and sigmoidal primary-creep transients above 573 K under stresses that yield minimum creep rates in the 10 to the -7th to 2 x 10 to the -4th range; normal primary creep occurred in all other conditions. In conjunction with a review of the pertinent literature, a detailed analysis of these data suggests that no clearly defined, classes M-to-A-to-M transition exists in this alloy notwithstanding the presence of both classes' characteristics under nominally similar stresses and temperatures.

  19. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The authors briefly summarize semiconductor bridge operation and review their ignition studies of Al/CuO thermite as a function of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) firing set capacitance, charge holder material and morphology of the CuO. Ignition thresholds were obtained using a brass charge holder and a non-conducting fiber-glass-epoxy composite material, G10. At - 18 C and a charge voltage of 50V, the capacitance thresholds were 30.1 {mu}F and 2.0 {mu}F respectively. They also present new data on electrostatic discharge (ESD) and radio frequency (RF) vulnerability tests.

  20. Interaktion och kunskapsutveckling : en studie av frivillig musikundervisning

    OpenAIRE

    West, Tore; Rostvall, Anna-Lena

    2001-01-01

    In a joint dissertation project, 11 brass instrument and guitar lessons, with 4 teachers and 21 students aged 9-35 years, were videotaped, transcribed and ana­lyzed. Two were group lessons and 9 were private lessons. The object of the pro­ject was to study how music teaching and learning can be under­stood from an institutional perspective by describing, analyzing and in­terpreting musical in­strument lessons. The lessons were viewed as social encounters in which the action of participants cr...

  1. Design and modelling of a 5 MeV radio frequency electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a linac-laser complex for research into laser acceleration and for the generation of coherent radiation from electron beams. In order to achieve the design 50 MeV output emittance (γσ/sub x/σ/sub x/') of less than 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ m rad a high brightness electron gun is required. This paper describes computations and measurements made on a full scale brass model of a 1-1/2 cell, π-mode, resonant, disc loaded, radiofrequency gun structure which has been designed for this purpose. 7 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  2. PIXE analysis of prehistoric and protohistoric Caborn-Welborn phase copper artifacts from the lower Ohio River Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry is being used to nondestructively determine the elemental composition of copper-based artifacts excavated from prehistoric/protohistoric sites in the Ohio River Valley. Copper objects from Caborn-Welborn (C-W) and contemporary Fort Ancient sites are being studied so as to differentiate between native American and European copper. The trace element analysis of metal artifacts enables archaeologists to more accurately assess the material culture and chronological development of C-W society (A.D. 1400-1700) with particular reference to geological sources of copper and brass. (author)

  3. Subjective impression of differences in realism, source width, and orientation between auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    realism and source width. Auralizations were made using three different types of musical instruments: woodwinds (flute), brass (trombone) and strings (violin). Subjects were asked to rate each musical track on a seven-point scale for the degree of realism and source width. An analysis of variance (ANOVA......) was carried out to determine the differences between the number of channels and the effect of instrument. A second test was conducted to assess the degree of difficulty in detecting source orientation (facing the audience or facing the stage wall) depending on the number of channels (one, four or...

  4. Zen diamond-anvil low-pressure cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, N. W. A.; Dunstan, D. J.

    2000-11-01

    A diamond-anvil cell can be operated with only one anvil in order to generate modest pressures in relatively large volumes. We demonstrate it to pressures up to 2.5 GPa with gaskets of steel, brass, and other metals, with a sample chamber 0.25 mm in diameter by 0.25-0.9 mm depth, and with various pressure media. In this form the cell is very simple to operate and is useful for much work on biological systems and soft solids which requires pressures in the 1 GPa range.

  5. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  6. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66Zn/63Cu, 208Pb/238U, 232Th/238U, 66Zn/232Th and 66Zn/208Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass. • Formation

  7. Alpha-particle emission from contaminants in counter materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of surface activities from thorium and uranium contaminants have been investigated for typical counter materials. Soft-tempered stainless steel with a rate of 1.2±0.1 α-particles emitted per 100 cm2 in one hour was found better than other stainless steel and far better than brass and aluminum. Energy spectra provide information about the contaminating activity and about its depth profile. Thorium, uranium and 210Pb contamination was also observed for thin sources of other materials including isotopically enriched materials. (orig.)

  8. Festival Branding – Case Study: The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stamenković; Tatjana Pivac; Ivana Blešić; Snežana Besermenji

    2013-01-01

    The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (The Republic of Serbia) is a unique competition of folk brass bands in the world and one of the most important events of the overall national creativity and cultural amateurism in Serbia. Therefore, Guča represents an event which is used for branding of tourist offer and musical culture of Serbia at regional and international level. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 50th anniversary of The Drag...

  9. Bagatellid : maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld, Ivo Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2011-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: 14. Tšaikovski nimelisest konkursist. Daniel Barenboim tõstetakse rüütliseisusesse. Orkestrist I, Culture Orchestra. Charles Dutoit plaanib luua Lõuna- ja Põhja-Koread ühendava orkestri. Lahkus Josef Suk. Seiji Ozawa pälvis Praemium Imperiale auhinna. Cardiffi lauljate konkursi võitis Valentina Nafornita. Lahkus Nikolai Petrov. Venetsueelas lööb laineid noor dirigent Jose Omar Davila. "Jazzkaare" täht Brass Jaw sai Suurbritannias suure tunnustuse osaliseks. Põhjamaade Nõukogu muusikaauhinna teenis Mats Gustafsson. Black Eyed Peas paneb pillid kotti. Kuuba kitarrist Manuel Galban surnud. Eesti on Tšehhi jazziraadio fookuses

  10. The 'Stolpersteine' and the Commemoration of Life, Death, and Government:A Philosophical Archaeology in light of Giorgio Agamben

    OpenAIRE

    Östman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The subject for this PhD-dissertation is the Stolpersteine: monuments that since the 1990s commemorate victims of the Third Reich. The Stolpersteine are small artistic cobblestones made by the German artist Gunter Demnig, and disregard religious and racial, political and sexual background of the victims. The Stolpersteine are made out of cement and with a ‘HIER WOHNTE’ engraved on the brass plate on top of the stone they indicate where the individual victim lived; name, day of birth and death...

  11. Studies of some alloys using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project an attempt has been made for the study of alloys commonly used using x-ray fluorescence ( XRF ) technique. The alloys selected for the study included gold jewellery, steels, brasses and coins. The XRF method proved to be simple, fast, non-destructive and reliable as compared to chemical methods. The results showed that most of the gold jewellery used in this country have carat value of 18 and 21. Also most coins used in different countries are alloys of Cu and Ni. A simple spark method was used for the determination of C in steels, since C is not possible to analyze by XRF. ( Author )

  12. Počátky hry na trubku

    OpenAIRE

    JUŘÍČEK, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of the instrument from prehistory to the present and introduces the basic types of today used trumpets. It also describes the methodology, which is mainly based on the Textbook of playing the trumpet written by Michal Krčma and Antonín Vaigl and The Art of Brass Playing by Philip Farkas. The thesis mainly handles individual chapters on the methodology of playing the trumpet such as breathing in general, proper breathing when playing the trumpet, embouchure fu...

  13. Stress velopharyngeal incompetence: Two case reports and options for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raol, Nikhila; Diercks, Gillian; Hersh, Cheryl; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Stress velopharyngeal incompetence (SVPI) commonly affects brass and wind musicians. We present a series of two patients who presented with nasal air emission following prolonged woodwind instrument practice. Neither patient demonstrated audible nasal air emission during speech, but endoscopy revealed localized air escape/bubbling from different sites for each patient with instrument playing only. Both underwent tailored surgical treatment with resolution of symptoms during performance. Diagnosis of SVPI requires examination during the action that induces VPI to allow for directed management. Treatment should be targeted based on nasopharyngoscopy findings. PMID:26531005

  14. Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment for the analysis of cultural heritage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roberto Cesareo

    2011-02-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) especially in its portable version, generally characterized by a small X-ray tube and a Si-PIN or Si-drift detector is particularly useful to analyse works of art. EDXRF technique is nondestructive, noninvasive and multielemental. A variety of works, such as paintings of all types (including frescos and illuminated manuscripts), bronzes and brasses, gold alloys, silver alloys, ceramics, porcelains and faiences, papers, ink, stones of all types (marbles, obsidians etc.), stamps, etc. can be studied using a portable EDXRF equipment. In this paper, examples are given for analysis of the works of art with a portable EDXRF equipment.

  15. Understanding the performance of CMS calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seema Sharma; on behalf of the CMS Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The performance of the CMS hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam facilities at CERN. Two wedges of brass-scintillator calorimeter are exposed to negative and positive beams with momenta between 3 and 300 GeV/c. Light produced in the scintillators are collected using wavelength shifting fibres and read out using hybrid photo-diodes. Each of the wedges has 17 layers of scintillators. In one of these wedges signal from all 17 layers are grouped together while in the other each layer is read out separately. The response, energy resolution, longitudinal and lateral shower profiles are measured.

  16. Electron Microscopy Study of Tin Whisker Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Murray G.(Washington State University); Lebret, Joel (8392)

    2003-03-30

    The growth of tin whiskers formed on sputtered tin layers deposited on brass was studied using electron microscopy. The occurrence of whiskers appeared to be largely independent of the macroscopic stress state in the film; rather it was microscopic compressive stresses arising from the formation of an intermetallic phase that appeared to be the necessary precursor. Whisker morphology was a result of whether nucleation had occurred on single grains or on multiple grains. In the latter case, the whiskers had a fluted or striated surface. The formation of whiskers on electron transparent samples was demonstrated. These samples showed the whiskers were monocrystalline and defect free, and that the growth direction could be determined.

  17. Methodology for fabrication of hydraulics mini turbines with composite materials; Metodologia para a fabricacao de mini turbinas hidraulicas com materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, M.T.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEMEC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: mtcdf@uol.com.br; Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (EHR-UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@bol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the description of methodological procedure specially developed for manufacturing mini turbines. This procedure is used in the design of a Francis type mini turbine with 12.5 kW. The housing volute and the suction tube of this equipment are manufactured with using composed material based on glass fiber and its distributor system is manufactured with stainless steel and brass. At the end it is presented an estimate cost of design / manufacturing of such equipment and a comparison with other equipment in the market.

  18. Design and construction of two phases flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)

  19. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Institute of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilek, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-10-15

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  20. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc

  1. MoSx films deposited on different matrices by ion beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MoSx(x = 1.79∼2.34) films of 200 nm thickness are deposited onto brass and C20 steel substrates by the ion beam assisted technique, respectively. Structures and compositions of these films, and changes in valence states of the Mo element are examined by XRD and XPS before and after wear. The lubrication properties and wear resistances for two kinds of samples are evaluated using a pin-on-disk installation in atmosphere at the room temperature. Tribo-wear behaviours and the microstructures between two kinds of samples exhibit obvious differences

  2. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture...... best simulated with {111} slip combined with PR/PSA lattice rotation and weak interaction between the grains. The possible volume effect of deformation twins on the formation of the brass-type texture is a controversial question which we discuss on the basis of our simulations as seen together with...

  3. Recrystallization texture evolution in Ni{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, C.; Neves, S.; Gottstein, G. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik

    1998-01-05

    The recrystallization texture development during annealing of cold rolled Ni{sub 3}Al polycrystals and single crystals was investigated. The recrystallization texture in single crystals, regardless whether boron-free or boron-doped, comprised all eight 35{degree} <111> rotations of the single component deformation texture (close to the brass orientation). No annealing twins were observed in single crystals, in contrast to polycrystals. The recrystallization textures of polycrystals were very weak, but reproducible. Their components can be interpreted as a compromise between {+-} 35{degree} <111> rotations and second order twinning to the deformed matrix.

  4. Recrystallization textures and microstructures of Al-0.3%Cu alloy after deformation to high strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.R.; Wakeel, A.; Huang, T.L.;

    2015-01-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy was deformed to high strains by cold rolling. The as-deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures until complete recrystallization. The cold rolling textures were determined by X-ray diffraction while the recrystallization textures and microstructures were...... characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the rolling texture was characterized by a strong Brass component. After complete recrystallization Goss and Cube textures were developed. The effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the recrystallization textures are...

  5. Recrystallization textures and microstructures of Al-0.3%Cu alloy after deformation to high strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. R.; Wakeel, A.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, G. L.; Huang, X.

    2015-08-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy was deformed to high strains by cold rolling. The as-deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures until complete recrystallization. The cold rolling textures were determined by X-ray diffraction while the recrystallization textures and microstructures were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the rolling texture was characterized by a strong Brass component. After complete recrystallization Goss and Cube textures were developed. The effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the recrystallization textures are discussed.

  6. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua;

    2011-01-01

    seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods to...... transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests of the...

  7. W-band waveguide bandpass filter with E-plane cut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    on Tchebyscheff’s synthesis in order to provide an initial guess for the geometrical parameters of the filter such as cavity lengths and coupling widths. The filter is manufactured from brass in two halves in the E-plane cut topology. The S-parameters of the filter are measured and compared with the...... simulations. The measured passband insertion loss is approximately 0.4 dB worse than in the simulation, and the measured passband width is approximately 3.4% narrower. The measured filter attenuation roll-off corresponds well to the simulation. We also compare our S-parameter measurements of the E...

  8. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases.

  9. La méthanisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées : comparaison des performances de 3 technologies différentes

    OpenAIRE

    Reverdy, A.L.; Baudez, J.C.; Dieudé-Fauvel, E.

    2011-01-01

    / La valorisation du biogaz est une technologie en développement et qui présente un fort potentiel en France. Ce biogaz peut avoir diverses origines telles que la méthanisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées. Cependant, en France, ces installations sont peu nombreuses (seulement 68 stations de plus de 30 000EH). Ces technologies de méthanisation sont la plupart du temps identiques : un grand réacteur dans lequel des boues chauffées à 37°C sont introduites et sont brassées...

  10. Microstructure of planar glass substrates modified by Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometrically controlled, channel-like structures were prepared on commercial, soda-lime glass substrates, by a Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) process using a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser fitted with a beam steering galvanometer mirror unit. 70Cu30Zn Brass alloy, Ag and Al metal targets were evaporated onto glass substrates by simple irradiation through the same glass substrates. The resultant structures were characterized by SEM, TEM, and UV-vis-nIR spectroscopy. These revealed the presence of metal nanostructures in the case of brass and Ag targets, with their typical local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands. In contrast, Al was not found in its elemental form, but rather integrated into the glass substrate. These results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) studies, performed with TEM and SEM observation on representative, polished cross section samples. Preliminary light guiding studies demonstrated the potential to develop burried waveguides just below the surface of the glass substrates in all cases, suggesting that LAB may be a convenient method to prepare stable waveguides by modifying inexpensive, commercial window glass.

  11. Evaluation of 3 radio transmitters and collar designs for Amazona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    I evaluated 3 radio transmitter attachments and designs for adult parrots. Two of the transmitters and attachments were similar to those used previously in the study on fledgling and adult parrots. I designed, in collaboration with the manufacturer, a third transmitter and attachment that provided protection of key areas from chewing and eventual destruction of the attachment or transmitter. This design was used successfully to radio-track parrots an average of 43.4 weeks (range = 35.9-51.6 weeks). It was the only transmitter of the 3 tested to operate without failure (>36 weeks) caused by chewing damage to the transmitter, antenna, collar, or attachment mechanism (Fisher's exact test, 3 df, P = 0.0003). Its adjustable collar, made from 59 kg-test stainless steel wire covered with plastic heat-shrink tubing, was sturdy and easy to apply. Transmitters for parrots should be enclosed in a protective metal case (brass) and have metal crimped tubes (brass or copper) protecting key areas, such as the base of the antenna and mechanism for attachment of the collar.

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of Cu, Zn, and Cu-Zn alloys protected by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Saman; Forslund, Mattias; Johnson, C. Magnus; Pan, Jinshan; Leygraf, Christofer

    2016-06-01

    In this article results from earlier studies have been compiled in order to compare the protection efficiency of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkanethiols for copper, zinc, and copper-zinc alloys exposed to accelerated indoor atmospheric corrosion conditions. The results are based on a combination of surface spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The protection efficiency of investigated SAMs increases with chain length which is attributed to transport hindrance of the corrosion stimulators in the atmospheric environment, water, oxygen and formic acid, towards the copper surface. The transport hindrance is selective and results in different corrosion products on bare and on protected copper. Initially the molecular structure of SAMs on copper is well ordered, but the ordering is reduced with exposure time. Octadecanethiol (ODT), the longest alkanethiol investigated, protects copper significantly better than zinc, which may be attributed to the higher bond strength of Cu-S than of Zn-S. Despite these differences, the corrosion protection efficiency of ODT for the single phase Cu20Zn brass alloy is equally efficient as for copper, but significantly less for the heterogeneous double phase Cu40Zn brass alloy.

  13. Microstructural and Texture Development in Two Austenitic Steels with High-Manganese Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Basudev; Ray, Ranjit Kumar; Leffers, Torben

    2015-11-01

    Two austenitic steels, Fe-21.3Mn-3.44Si-3.74Al-0.5C and Fe-29.8Mn-2.96Si-2.73Al-0.52C, were subjected to cold rolling with 30 to 80 pct reduction with an increment of 10 pct and subsequently the development of their microstructures and textures were studied. The overall texture after 80 pct cold reduction was Brass type. A weak Copper component {112} was present at the early stage of deformation, which disappeared completely after 60 pct cold reduction. Extensive shear banding took place in both the steels, right from rather low cold rolling levels, which became more prominent at higher amounts of cold rolling. Formation of twin bands, along with cellular dislocation network, was observed in Steel A after 30 pct cold rolling. In case of Steel B, denser twin bands and dislocation cellular network were observed in early stage of deformation. After 80 pct cold reduction, the development of a strong brass-type texture in both the steels could be attributed predominantly to the formation of shear banding, possibly with some partial contribution coming from micro twinning.

  14. Development of tecniques for constructing Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of several construction techniques of Geiger-Mueller counters was carried out in order to establish the most suitable technology for such purpose. The results obtained with counters for alpha, beta and gamma rays, which were designed and built in the laboratory of Sao Paulo University (USP) are described. Most of the counters were built inside Pyrex-glass envelope and their cathodes were made of electrolytic copper or brass foils of still a silver layer deposited by chemical process. Some counters were made with cilyndrical brass tube. Anode wires of different materials and diameters and severals quenching vapors were used and the results obtained are described. All the procedures used in preparation of surfaces, cleaning of materials, purification of filling mixtures, the procedures for operating evacuation and filling of counters are described. The results obtained with self quenching counters using soda glass and an external colloidas graphite cathode are presented and the influence of filling mixtures is analysed. A technology to produce reliable counters from materials and gases easily available in the country was established. It is shown that counters with an external cathode can be used when recovery time on order of 2 μs are required. The plateus obtained for such counters were on order of 1000V with slope of about 0.5%. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of Lead Release in a Simulated Lead-Free Premise Plumbing System Using a Sequential Sampling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2016-01-01

    In this pilot study, a modified sampling protocol was evaluated for the detection of lead contamination and locating the source of lead release in a simulated premise plumbing system with one-, three- and seven-day stagnation for a total period of 475 days. Copper pipes, stainless steel taps and brass fittings were used to assemble the "lead-free" system. Sequential sampling using 100 mL was used to detect lead contamination while that using 50 mL was used to locate the lead source. Elevated lead levels, far exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10 µg·L(-1), persisted for as long as five months in the system. "Lead-free" brass fittings were identified as the source of lead contamination. Physical disturbances, such as renovation works, could cause short-term spikes in lead release. Orthophosphate was able to suppress total lead levels below 10 µg·L(-1), but caused "blue water" problems. When orthophosphate addition was ceased, total lead levels began to spike within one week, implying that a continuous supply of orthophosphate was required to control total lead levels. Occasional total lead spikes were observed in one-day stagnation samples throughout the course of the experiments. PMID:26927154

  16. Evaluation of Lead Release in a Simulated Lead-Free Premise Plumbing System Using a Sequential Sampling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

    2016-01-01

    In this pilot study, a modified sampling protocol was evaluated for the detection of lead contamination and locating the source of lead release in a simulated premise plumbing system with one-, three- and seven-day stagnation for a total period of 475 days. Copper pipes, stainless steel taps and brass fittings were used to assemble the “lead-free” system. Sequential sampling using 100 mL was used to detect lead contamination while that using 50 mL was used to locate the lead source. Elevated lead levels, far exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10 µg·L−1, persisted for as long as five months in the system. “Lead-free” brass fittings were identified as the source of lead contamination. Physical disturbances, such as renovation works, could cause short-term spikes in lead release. Orthophosphate was able to suppress total lead levels below 10 µg·L−1, but caused “blue water” problems. When orthophosphate addition was ceased, total lead levels began to spike within one week, implying that a continuous supply of orthophosphate was required to control total lead levels. Occasional total lead spikes were observed in one-day stagnation samples throughout the course of the experiments. PMID:26927154

  17. Causes of temporal variability of lead in domestic plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, M R

    1990-07-01

    Sources of lead in drinking water are primarily lead pipe, lead/tin solder, and brass fixture materials.Lead levels in the water depend upon many solubility factors, such as pH, concentrations of substances such as inorganic carbonate, orthophosphate, chlorine, and silicate, the temperature, the nature of the pipe surface, etc. Physical factors, time, and chemical mass transfer are significant in governing lead levels in nonequilibrium systems. The diameter and length of lead pipe is extremely important, as well as the age and chemical history of the solder and brass fixtures. Analytical variability is not particularly significant relative to between-site and within-site variability. Knowledge of temporal variability at each site is necessary to define a statistically valid monitoring program. An analysis of published data covering repetitive measurements at a given site show that the variability of lead concentration at each site tends to be characterized by the frequent occurrence of 'spikes'. Variability expressed as approximate relative standard deviations tends to be of about 50 to 75% in untreated water, regardless of the mean lead concentration. The distributions are frequently nonnormal for small numbers of samples. Monitoring programs must incorporate controls for the causes of the within-site and between-site variability into their sampling design. The determination of necessary sampling frequency, sample number, and sample volume must be made with consideration of the system variability, or the results will be unrepresentative and irreproducible. PMID:24243429

  18. Stability of a 100-kV self-firing spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of the self breakdown voltage of a sulfur hexafluoride insulated spark gap with graphite, elkonite, aluminum, and brass electrodes has been examined for samples of several thousand pulses at repetition rates ranging from a fraction of a Hertz to 2 Hz. The switch was resistively charged with a time constant of approximately 0.3 s. The breakdown voltage for each shot was recorded with an on-line data acquisition system. Histograms of the data show that the switching voltage can be sufficiently stable that the bulk of the firings occur in a 3 to 6 kV range at a 90 kV mean breakdown voltage, yet some firings inevitably occur down to 60% of the mean breakdown voltage level. This stable operation is typical of graphite and elkonite from the initial firings but was only obtained after aging (conditioning) with brass and aluminum electrodes. It is speculated that the aging process which can be reversed by a few minutes without pulsing may be a surface chemistry effect although other options are mentioned

  19. Discharge-diffusion chamber with the operating volume of 60x45x18 cm3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a large discharge-diffusion chamber for detecting charged particles is described. The chamber frame made of plexiglass has an operating volume of 60x45x18 cm. The chamber bottom made of brass, being under earth potential, is cooled uniformly by liquid nitrogen vapour to temperatures from -100 to -80 deg C. The high-voltage brass electrode is devided into three sections, each of which is cooled independenly along the perimeter. The gutter with the alcohol is placed in the top part of the auxiliary volume. The temperature in the auxiliary volume varies from 50 to 65 deg C, depending upon the operating gas and the condensate. The operating condition is reached at the temperature of 60 deg C in the case of neon filling and at the temperature of 50 deg C for helium filling. The suggested design provides for the optimum temperature distribution and the optimum over saturation in the operating volume that permits to obtain a sensitive volume nearly equal to the operating volume of the chamber

  20. Phase relation studies and thermo analytical analysis of melt quenched bscco glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bi-2223 samples having nominal composition Bi/sub 1.6/ Pb/0.4/ Sr/sub 2/Ca/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/ O/sub 10/ were quenched from 1200 degree C, 1250 degree C and 1300 degree C to room temperature on brass, stainless steel, copper and bronze blocks. The samples were thermo analytically analyzed by differential thermal analyses (DTA) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Activation energy, reaction rate constant and frequency factor for crystallization were evaluated employing different models. The precursors decomposed peritectically during melting, forming liquid and solid phases. Kinetic studies revealed that the thermal stability increases for the sample quenched from 1250 degree C. Resistivity measurement reveled that sample quenched on brass from 1250 degree C has highest value of critical temperature. X-ray diffraction results showed that major phase is high-Tc 2223 phase while low-Tc 2212 phase is also present in the samples. The change in structural and kinetic parameters could be ascribed to the oxygen diffusion behavior, resulting in hole carrier concentration. PACS Codes: 74.72 Hs; 67.80 Gb; 61.10 Nz. (author)

  1. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  2. Media effects on nanobrass arc fabrications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassaee, M.Z. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: kassaeem@modares.ac.ir; Motamedi, E.; Majdi, M.; Cheshmehkani, A.; Soleimani-Amiri, S. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buazar, F. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Marine Chemistry, Khorramshahr University of Nautical Sciences and Technologies, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-04-03

    Brass rods (3 mm x 30 mm) are directly converted into brass nanoparticles through a modified arc method, at 100 A, and in five different media. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data show strong dependence of nanoparticle sizes and their compositions on the media employed. In distilled water, both nanobrass (30 nm) and nano-Cu/ZnO (18 nm) are produced in comparable quantities. In gaseous nitrogen merely nanobrass (49 nm) is observed, in a high yield. In contrast, a very low yield of nanoproduct(s) is encountered in liquid nitrogen. In the open air, nanobrass (75 nm) is formed along with traces of ZnO. In ethylene glycol, nanobrass (108 nm) is formed as the major product along with a nanoalloy of CuZn{sub 5} (25 nm). Among these, distilled water proved to be the medium of choice for the arc synthesis of nanobrass.

  3. Designing, Building and Testing of an Electropolishing Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajlouni, M.; Al-Hamdan, A.

    During the work of this research, designing, building and testing of an electropolishing cell has been carried out. Various tests have been performed for three different materials namely, steel, aluminum and brass at different environment conditions in order to a better evaluation of electropolishing. These conditions include the effect of concentration of electrolytes, electrolytes temperature, power supplied and machining time. The results of these tests have been analyzed and performance curves have been drawn. The optimum temperatures and the optimum time have been obtained at which the maximum metal removal and the best surface quality is achieved. These temperature and time for Aluminum, Brass and Steel are T = 60, 50 and 75°C, t = 20, 40 and 50 min, respectively. Surface roughnesses of the specimens have been measured before and after electropolishing. The results showed a significant improvement that effect positively on strength, fatigue resistance and corrosion resistance. Many important conclusions have been extracted from these performance curves and some recommendations have been noted to help in future works.

  4. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  5. Waste Heat Recovery by Heat Pipe Air-Preheater to Energy Thrift from the Furnace in a Hot Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerchai Yodrak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently, the heat pipe air-preheater has become importance equipment for energy recovery from industrial waste heat because of its low investment cost and high thermal conductivity. Approach: This purpose of the study was to design, construct and test the waste heat recovery by heat pipe air-preheater from the furnace in a hot brass forging process. The mathematical model was developed to predict heat transfer rate and applied to compute the heat pipe air-preheater in a hot brass forging process. The heat pipe air-preheater was designed, constructed and tested under medium temperature operating conditions with inlet hot gas ranging between 370-420°C using water as the working fluid with 50% filling by volume of evaporator length. Results: The experiment findings indicated that when the hot gas temperature increased, the heat transfer rate also increased. If the internal diameter increased, the heat transfer rate increased and when the tube arrangement changed from inline to staggered arrangement, the heat transfer rate increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: The heat pipe air-preheater can reduced the quantity of using gas in the furnace and achieve energy thrift effectively.

  6. Music and its Impact on Musicians in Broadcasting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Milani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound is an inseparable part of human life and provides us with lovely experiences such as listening to music. Musicians from classical orchestras to rock groups are exposed to high decibel of sounds. Musicians playing percussion musical instruments are exposed to high level of impact noise and players of Brass musical instruments are highly exposed to noise peaks higher than 100dB. Woodwind players are enduring the risk of posing directly in front of Brass players. Based on the above-mentioned risks for hearing loss clinical consideration of noise induced hearing loss in musicians is highly required. In the current study we were aimed at examining hearing stratus of classic and traditional musicians by means of pure tone audiometry in Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. 33 subjects were evaluated aged between 22 to 59 years old. Their musical experience was variable between 6 to 45 years. The study demonstrated that most of the musicians in this study suffered bilateral high frequency hearing loss with a notch in the frequency range of 4-8 KHz.

  7. An active mute for the trombone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurisse, Thibaut; Mamou-Mani, Adrien; Caussé, René; Sluchin, Benny; Sharp, David B

    2015-12-01

    A mute is a device that is placed in the bell of a brass instrument to alter its sound. However, when a straight mute is used with a brass instrument, the frequencies of its first impedance peaks are slightly modified, and a mistuned, extra impedance peak appears. This peak affects the instrument's playability, making some lower notes difficult or impossible to produce when playing at low dynamic levels. To understand and suppress this effect, an active mute with embedded microphone and speaker has been developed. A control loop with gain and phase shifting is used to control the damping and frequency of the extra impedance peak. The stability of the controlled system is studied and then the effect of the control on the input impedance and radiated sound of the trombone is investigated. It is shown that the playability problem results from a decrease in the input impedance magnitude at the playing frequency, caused by a trough located on the low frequency side of the extra impedance peak. When the extra impedance peak is suppressed, the playability of the note is restored. Meanwhile, when the extra impedance peak is moved in frequency, the playability problem position is shifted as well. PMID:26723311

  8. PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER IN INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative copper (Cu sources could be used in fertilizer production, although the bioavailability of copper in these materials is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extractants neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, 2 % citric acid, 1 % acetic acid, 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, buffer solution pH 6.0, DTPA, EDTA, water, and hot water in the quantification of available Cu content in several sources, relating them to the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE of wheat grown in a clayey Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (Oxisol and Neossolo Quartzarênico (Typic Quartzipsamment. Copper was applied at the rate of 1.5 mg kg-1 as scrap slag, brass slag, Cu ore, granulated copper, and copper sulfate. The extractants 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, and NAC extracted higher Cu concentrations. The RAE values of brass slag and Cu ore were similar to or higher than those of Cu sulfate and granulated Cu. Solubility in the 2nd NAC extractant, officially required for mineral fertilizers with Cu, was lower than 60 % for the scrap slag, Cu ore, and granulated copper sources. This fact indicates that adoption of the NAC extractant may be ineffective for industrial by-products, although no extractant was more efficient in predicting Cu availability for wheat fertilized with the Cu sources tested.

  9. New insights into the development of microstructure and deformation texture in nickel–60 wt.% cobalt alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the critical role of deformation twinning and Bs-type shear bands in the evolution of deformation texture in a low stacking fault energy Ni–60Co alloy up to very large rolling strain (εt ≈ 4). The alloy develops a strong brass-type rolling texture, and its formation is initiated at the early stages of deformation. Extensive twinning is observed at the intermediate stages of deformation, which causes significant texture reorientation towards α-fiber. A pseudo-in-situ electron back-scattered diffraction technique adopted to capture orientation changes within individual grains during the early stages suggests that twinning should be subsequently aided by crystallographic slip to attain α-fiber (〈1 1 0〉||ND) orientations. Beyond 40% reduction, deformation is dominated by Bs-type shear bands, and the banding coincides with the evolution of 〈1 1 1〉||ND components. The volume fraction of shear bands is significant at higher strains, and crystallites within the bands preferentially show 〈1 1 0〉||ND components. The absence of the Cu {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉 component in the initial texture, and subsequently during rolling, indicates that, for the evolution of a brass-type texture, the presence of the Cu component is not a necessary condition. The final rolling texture is a synergistic effect of deformation twinning and shear banding

  10. Influence of wall vibrations on the behavior of a simplified wind instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nief, Guillaume; Gautier, François; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Joël

    2008-08-01

    The issue of the influence of wall vibrations on the behavior of wind instruments is still under debate. The mechanisms of vibroacoustic couplings involved in these vibrations are difficult to investigate, as fluid-structure interactions are weak. Among these vibroacoustic interactions, the present study is focused on the coupling between the internal acoustic field and the mechanical behavior of the duct. For this purpose, a simplified single reed instrument consisting of a brass tube connected to a clarinet mouthpiece has been studied. A theoretical model of coupling between the plane inner acoustic wave and mechanical modes is developed and suggests that in order to obtain measurable effects of wall vibrations, the geometrical parameters of the studied tube have to be unusual compared to that of real instruments. For a slightly oval-shaped and very thin brass tube, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that a coupling between the inner plane acoustic wave and ovalling mechanical modes occurs and results in disturbances of the input impedance, which can slightly affect the tone color of the sound produced. It is concluded that the reported effects are unlikely to occur in real instruments except for some organ pipes. PMID:18681617

  11. Van kind tot jong volwassene: Die ontwikkeling van die hoofkarakter in De koperen tuin van Simon Vestdijk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van der Westhuizen

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available From child to young adult: The development of the main character in De koperen tuin (The garden where the brass band played by Simon Vestdijk From an intertextual study it emerges that the postulated view of reality in the psychological-philosophical text De toekomst der religie (The future of religion (1947 is transposed in narrative form in the text-internal vision of reality in the novel De koperen tuin (The garden where the brass band played (1950. In both these texts the religious point of departure of the meaning of existence is reflected upon. Existential aspects especially highlighted, include the following: the I, the relationship with others, being involved in the situation, freedom, responsibility, guilt, angst, death, that which is “too-late”. Furthermore the extension of the moment, the directedness at a personal passion, and the individual’s courage to be and to keep “becoming” are also highlighted. All these aspects emphasizing existentialism are portrayed in the development of the main character, Nol Rieske, from little boy to young adult.

  12. CrZn{sub 17+δ} (−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00): A partly disordered complex intermetallic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Partha Pratim, E-mail: Partha.Jana@chem.lu.se

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of the partly disordered γ-related CrZn{sub 17+δ} (−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00) in the chromium–zinc binary system. - Highlights: • γ-brass related phases CrZn{sub 17+δ} (−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00) have been synthesized. • The structures have been described by conventional cluster concept. • The disordered clusters have been focused and explained. • Electronic structure calculation displays a pseudogap at the Fermi level in the DOS curve. - Abstract: The γ-brass related phase CrZn{sub 17+δ}(−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00) in the Cr–Zn binary system has been synthesized and the structure has been analyzed by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the cubic space group F4{sup ¯}3m (216). The unit cell contains 400–403 atoms. The phase width arises due to a disorder phenomenon. The structure can be described as an arrangement of nested polyhedral units, centered at sites of high symmetry points. The phase melts incongruently at ∼744 K. Electronic structure calculations, using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital atomic spheres approximation (TB-LMTOASA) method on the model of ordered “Cr{sub 5}Zn{sub 96}” shows the presence of a pseudogap at the Fermi level in the electronic density of states curves.

  13. A medium volume pressure vessel to study gas counters up to 500 ATM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the possibility of running time projection chambers at very high gas densities, a general purpose vessel has been designed to operate up to 500 atm. It consists of a 72 inch long cast steel cylindrical chase with sealing flanges at each end. The authors investigated the operation of proportional counters. They used a 6 in. long cell consisting of a cylindrical brass conduit of 1 in. diameter with dwo delrin endplugs and a 20 μm gold plated tungsten wire strung along the axis. The brass tube is connected to negative high voltage, the signal wire is close to ground and readout is via capacitive coupling. They used mostly a 92% Ar 8% CH/sub 4/ gas mix. Impurities in the clean volume are < 1 ppm O/sub 2//H/sub 2/O. Their studies using Cd/sup 109/ X-ray source have yielded encouraging results for the high pressure time projection chamber idea. They were able to establish for the first time that electron avalanche development occurs up to 430 atm., densities about 0.8 rho(H/sub 2/O)

  14. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm2) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  15. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for enamels

  16. CrZn17+δ (−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00): A partly disordered complex intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of the partly disordered γ-related CrZn17+δ (−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00) in the chromium–zinc binary system. - Highlights: • γ-brass related phases CrZn17+δ (−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00) have been synthesized. • The structures have been described by conventional cluster concept. • The disordered clusters have been focused and explained. • Electronic structure calculation displays a pseudogap at the Fermi level in the DOS curve. - Abstract: The γ-brass related phase CrZn17+δ(−0.75 ⩽ δ ⩽ 2.00) in the Cr–Zn binary system has been synthesized and the structure has been analyzed by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the cubic space group F4¯3m (216). The unit cell contains 400–403 atoms. The phase width arises due to a disorder phenomenon. The structure can be described as an arrangement of nested polyhedral units, centered at sites of high symmetry points. The phase melts incongruently at ∼744 K. Electronic structure calculations, using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital atomic spheres approximation (TB-LMTOASA) method on the model of ordered “Cr5Zn96” shows the presence of a pseudogap at the Fermi level in the electronic density of states curves

  17. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie - I.P.N.A.S., Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 10 Bat-15, Sart Tilman, 4000-Liege 1 (Belgium)], E-mail: hcalvo@ulg.ac.be; Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Salinas Nolasco, M.F. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Mejia, L.M. [Direccion de Arqueologia Subacuatica, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Perdigon, K. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for ename0008.

  18. Quality harvesting in the basement cut of sugarcane soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Naves dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanized harvesting of sugarcane has relevance across the crop production process and can be influence the cutting quality base for soil management systems. This study aimed to assess the damage caused to the mechanical harvesting of ratoon sugarcane raw relative wear of the base shear knives and soil management. The experimental design was completely randomized, factorial divided into two schemes which are: 2 different soil tillage (moldboard plow + average grade and heavy harrow + average grade x 4 times of use of knives (0-2, 2-4 , 4-6 , 2-6(1 and 10 repetitions , and 2 soil tillage (moldboard plow + harrow heavy, and heavy harrow + average grade x 2 cutting discs (left and right x 20 repetitions, forming meshes regularly spaced 27 x 23 m, amounting to 100 repeats, or 50 replicates for each treatment in order to standardize the location of the samples taken. The variables evaluated were the mass loss of the knives of the base shear mechanism and the degree of damage to brass knuckles. The quality of mechanized harvesting of cane sugar is influenced by the soil management systems. Soil management with heavy grade + average grade has the highest quality of the harvesting operation in relation to the degree of damage to brass knuckles.

  19. The effect of pouring time on the dimensional accuracy of casts made from different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supneet Singh Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the time dependent accuracy of casts made from three different irreversible hydrocolloids. Materials and Methods: The effect of delayed pouring on the accuracy of three different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials - Regular set CA 37(Cavex, The Netherlands, regular set chromatic (Jeltrate, Dentsply, and fast set (Hydrogum soft, Zhermack Clinical was investigated. A brass master die that contained two identical posts simulating two complete crown-tapered abutment preparations with reference grooves served as a standardized master model. A total of 120 impressions were made using specially prepared stock-perforated brass tray with 40 impressions of each material. The impressions were further sub-grouped according to four different storage time intervals: 0 min (immediately, 12 min, 30 min, and 1 h. The impressions were stored at room temperature in a zip-lock plastic bag. Interabutment and intraabutment distances were measured in the recovered stone dies (Type IV, Kalrock using a profile projector with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The data so obtained was analyzed statistically. Results: Results of this study showed no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of casts obtained at different time intervals. Conclusion: Because it is not always possible to pour the impression immediately in routine clinical practice, all irreversible hydrocolloid materials studied could be stored in a zip-lock plastic bag for upto 1 h without any significant distortion.

  20. The effect of Cu-rich sub-layer on the increased corrosion resistance of Cu-xZn alloys in chloride containing borate buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behaviour of Cu-xZn alloys, as well as their constituent metals, in a borate buffer containing chloride ions in the molar range from 0.01 to 1 M are studied. Characteristics of these materials under anodic polarization are compared and the composition and morphology of the corrosion products formed in the course of polarization experiment are analysed by SEM and EDS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance measurements are used for characterization of the surface layers formed on Cu, Zn and Cu-40Zn alloy during 2-h immersion at E oc in a borate buffer containing two different concentrations of chloride ions. New aspects of the behaviour of brass under E oc condition are revealed. The improved corrosion resistance of brass in chloride media, if compared to zinc metal, is attributed to a Cu-rich layer formed by the selective dissolution of zinc. Based on the results, a structural model describing the improved corrosion resistance of Cu-40Zn alloy with respect to Zn metal is proposed

  1. Three decades of experience with cooling water system of a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling water system constitutes the terminal heat exchange system for the fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) which is a sodium cooled fast reactor of 40 MWt capacity. It transfers the residual heat to atmosphere through a cooling tower. Cooling water system of FBTR comprises two sub-systems namely condenser cooling water system and service water system. Condenser cooling water is circulated through main condenser, dump condenser, condensate cooler, generator air cooler and turbine oil cooler. Service water system removes heat from several heat exchangers of auxiliary systems like air compressor, cold trap cooling, nitrogen plant, Biological Shield Cooling (BSC), Diesel Generator (DG) and steam-water system sample coolers. The cooling water system consists of an open recirculating type with an induced draft cooling tower as the ultimate heat sink. Initially, Palar river water was used as the cooling medium. At present, due to scarcity of river water, sub soil water and output from Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Plant (NDDP) are also used as cooling water. The material of construction of pipe line is carbon steel and the heat exchanger tube and other equipment materials are copper, admiralty brass, aluminium brass, bronze, Cu-Ni and carbon steel. The construction of the cooling water system of FBTR was completed in 1980. Since then the sub-systems were commissioned one by one. Whenever a sub system was commissioned, it generated a lot of impurities which affected the existing treatment programme. Sodium hexa meta phosphate treatment, Langelier Index monitoring, chlorination, global and target dispersant addition at high heat flux heat exchanger, chemical cleaning of corroded pipelines, corrosion monitoring, side stream filtration, addition of phosphonate-based corrosion inhibitor, broad spectrum biocide and specific biocide for iron oxidising bacteria are some of the phases of the cooling water treatment programme. At present, corrosion rates are generally

  2. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  3. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  4. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem A. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Even though [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with

  5. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though [123I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [123I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [123I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with previously

  6. Electron backscatter diffraction study of deformation and recrystallization textures of individual phases in a cross-rolled duplex steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, Md; Bhattacharjee, P.P., E-mail: pinakib@iith.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during cross-rolling and annealing was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction in a ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel. For this purpose an alloy with nearly equal volume fraction of the two phases was deformed by multi-pass cross-rolling process up to 90% reduction in thickness. The rolling and transverse directions were mutually interchanged in each pass by rotating the sample by 90° around the normal direction. In order to avoid deformation induced phase transformation and dynamic strain aging, the rolling was carried out at an optimized temperature of 898 K (625 °C) at the warm-deformation range. The microstructure after cross warm-rolling revealed a lamellar structure with alternate arrangement of the bands of two phases. Strong brass and rotated brass components were observed in austenite in the steel after processing by cross warm-rolling. The ferrite in the cross warm-rolling processed steel showed remarkably strong RD-fiber (RD//< 011 >) component (001)< 011 >. The development of texture in the two phases after processing by cross warm-rolling could be explained by the stability of the texture components. During isothermal annealing of the 90% cross warm-rolling processed material the lamellar morphology was retained before collapse of the lamellar structure to the mutual interpenetration of the phase bands. Ferrite showed recovery resulting in annealing texture similar to the deformation texture. In contrast, the austenite showed primary recrystallization without preferential orientation selection leading to the retention of deformation texture. The evolution of deformation and annealing texture in the two phases of the steel was independent of one another. - Highlights: • Effect of cross warm-rolling on texture formation is studied in duplex steel. • Brass texture in austenite and (001)<110 > in ferrite are developed. • Ferrite shows recovery during annealing retaining the (001

  7. Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marking, G.A.

    1994-01-04

    Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf{sub 10}Ta{sub 3}S{sub 3} was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the known gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported {open_quotes}stuffed{close_quotes} gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo K{alpha} X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co{sub 2}Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.

  8. Electron backscatter diffraction study of deformation and recrystallization textures of individual phases in a cross-rolled duplex steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during cross-rolling and annealing was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction in a ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel. For this purpose an alloy with nearly equal volume fraction of the two phases was deformed by multi-pass cross-rolling process up to 90% reduction in thickness. The rolling and transverse directions were mutually interchanged in each pass by rotating the sample by 90° around the normal direction. In order to avoid deformation induced phase transformation and dynamic strain aging, the rolling was carried out at an optimized temperature of 898 K (625 °C) at the warm-deformation range. The microstructure after cross warm-rolling revealed a lamellar structure with alternate arrangement of the bands of two phases. Strong brass and rotated brass components were observed in austenite in the steel after processing by cross warm-rolling. The ferrite in the cross warm-rolling processed steel showed remarkably strong RD-fiber (RD//< 011 >) component (001)< 011 >. The development of texture in the two phases after processing by cross warm-rolling could be explained by the stability of the texture components. During isothermal annealing of the 90% cross warm-rolling processed material the lamellar morphology was retained before collapse of the lamellar structure to the mutual interpenetration of the phase bands. Ferrite showed recovery resulting in annealing texture similar to the deformation texture. In contrast, the austenite showed primary recrystallization without preferential orientation selection leading to the retention of deformation texture. The evolution of deformation and annealing texture in the two phases of the steel was independent of one another. - Highlights: • Effect of cross warm-rolling on texture formation is studied in duplex steel. • Brass texture in austenite and (001)<110 > in ferrite are developed. • Ferrite shows recovery during annealing retaining the (001

  9. Public health assessment for Rodale Manufacturing Company, Inc. , Emmaus, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis no. PAD981033285. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-16

    The Rodale Manufacturing site, a National Priorities List (NPL) site, is at the corner of Sixth and Minor Street in the Borough of Emmaus, south of Allentown in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. In 1961, approximately 3,000 gallons per day of rinse water from zinc and copper plating and acid brass dipping operations were disposed in a borehole (injection well), 431 feet deep. Emmaus production well No. 5, approximately 0.7 miles northwest of the site, was taken out of service in 1981 because it contained elevated levels of trichloroethene (TCE). High levels of the volatile organic compounds were detected in the injection wells and monitoring wells. The site represents a public health hazard because of risk to human health from the past exposures to contaminants that may cause adverse health effects. Current exposures are below levels of public health concern, but future exposures may occur if further groundwater remediation plans are not implemented.

  10. The study on nondestructive evaluation for a tubular structure by the lamb-type guided wave wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the cylindrical guided wave was carried out to investigate its feasibility for nondestructive evaluation of tubular structures such as heat exchanger tubings of power industries and various pipings of chemical plants. The concept of wedge design and incident angle selection to optimize guided wave generation is presented based on the dispersion theory and the snell's law for the cylindrical guided wave. The brass tubes with artificial defects in the circumferential or axial direction were used for detect defection experiments. It was found that guided wave sensitivity for detecting an axial defect can be remarkably improved by using non-axisymmetrically launched guided waves. Through this study, it is expected that the guided wave can be successfully applied to tubular structure inspections as an more advanced and efficient NDE technique than a conventional point-by-point technique.

  11. AcEST: DK953371 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLERIYFYG 247 >tr|Q8W451|Q8W451_BRAOL Reverse transcriptase (Fragment) OS=Brassica oleracea var. ramos...ent) OS=Brass... 36 1.7 tr|Q590K5|Q590K5_9ROSI Maturase K OS=Phragmotheca ecu... 464 S+F + HGD Sbjct: 67 SLFVYLHGD 75 >tr|Q590K5|Q590K5_9ROSI Maturase K OS=Phragmo...ACTAACCGAGGCAGCTTCTTTGGAGG ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : ...Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q9UT43 Definition sp|Q9UT43|YFRD_SCHPO Putative phospholipid-transporting ATPase C821.13c OS=Schizos

  12. Resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow fluid channel clad between two metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Nagaraj; Krokhin, Arkadii; Sánchez-Dehesa, José.; Garcia-Chocano, Victor M.

    2012-02-01

    We study extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two unidentical metal plates with Brass plate on one side of the channel and Aluminium plate on the other. The extraordinary absorption is observed at discrete resonant frequencies. From the elastic properties of the metal plates we derive a dispersion equation for coupled Rayleigh waves. Two different types of resonances, corresponding to different polarizations of the coupled waves, are studied for different channel widths and are experimentally confirmed. We also present the experimental confirmation of coupling through measurements of change in transmission minima with channel aperture. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical results are in a good agreement.

  13. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  14. Structure of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is the investigation of the structure of coatings deposited by PVD technique(reactive magnetron sputtering method onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass.Design/methodology/approach: Microstructure was characterised using optical metallography, scanning andtransmission electron microscopy.Findings: The hard PVD coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method demonstrate structurecomposed of fine crystallites. In case of the monolayer coatings the columnar structure occurs. Examinations of thePVD coating textures reveal that in most cases they have the binary textures {111} and {100} or {110} and {311}.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying thesecoatings in tools, further investigations should be concentrated on the determination of the mechanical andtribological properties of the coatings.Originality/value: The paper contributes to better understanding and recognition the structure of thin coatingsdeposited by PVD techniques.

  15. Combined use of some cyclotron - based techniques for material loss and tribological phenomena investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The custom-designed experiments based on the Thin Layer Activation technique (TLA) providing information on the wear level of some engine components are now completed with additional data on transfer and adhesion of material between metallic friction couples using the RBS method. RBS experimental results concerning material transfer for a steel-brass friction couple are presented and discussed in the paper. Also the types and concentrations of the wear products in used lubricating oils have been determined by in-air PIXE. A sequential lubricating fittering-based procedure for determining the size distribution of the resulting radioactive wear particles by low level γ-spectrometry is presented. Experimental XRF spectra showing the non-homogenous distribution of the retained waste particles on the fittering paper are shown. (author)

  16. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Its President is Hubert Curien - former French Minister of Research and Space Research, and President of the CERN Council from 1994 to 1996. Photo 01: (left to right) Konrade Von Bremen, Claude-Olivier Rochat, T. Virdee and Guillaume Pictet in front of one of the two end-caps of the CMS detector at the assembly site. The brass structure in the top right-hand corner is part of the hadronic calorimeter that will measure the energy of strongly interacting particles produced in collisions at the LHC.

  17. A high transmission broadband gradient index lens using elastic shell acoustic metamaterial elements

    CERN Document Server

    Titovich, Alexey S; Norris, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The use of cylindrical elastic shells as elements in acoustic metamaterial devices is demonstrated through simulations and underwater measurements of a cylindrical-to-plane wave lens. Transformation acoustics (TA) of a circular region to a square dictates that the effective density in the lens remain constant and equal to that of water. Piecewise approximation to the desired effective compressibility is achieved using a square array with elements based on the elastic shell metamaterial concept developed in [30]. The size of the elements are chosen based on availability of shells, minimizing fabrication difficulties. The tested device is neutrally buoyant comprising 48 elements of nine different types of commercial shells made from aluminum, brass, copper, and polymers. Simulations indicate a broadband range in which the device acts as a cylindrical to plane wave lens. The experimental findings confirm the broadband quadropolar response from approximately 20 to 40 kHz, with positive gain of the radiation patte...

  18. Microwave Loss Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of microwave attenuation at room temperature and 4.2 K have been performed on some conductors commonly used in receiver input circuits. The reduction in loss on cooling is substantial, particularly for copper and plated gold, both of which showed a factor of 3 loss reduction. Copper passivated with benzotriazole shows the same loss as without passivation. The residual resistivity ratio between room temperature and 4.2 K, deduced from the measurements using the classical skin effect formula, was smaller than the measured DC value to a degree consistent with conduction in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime at cryogenic temperatures. The measurements were made in the 5-10 GHz range. The materials tested were: aluminum alloys 1100-T6 and 6061-O, C101 copper, benzotriazole treated C101 copper, and brass plated with electroformed copper, Pur-A-Gold 125-Au soft gold, and BDT200 bright gold.

  19. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... the work piece materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The...... present report presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and...

  20. Wave Propagation in Pipe-like Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsbøl, Jonas

    Pipe-like shell structures are found in a wide range of practical applications such as: Wind turbine towers, jet engines, brass instruments, and piping systems. For many of these applications, structural vibrations play an important role for their performance. This thesis will in particular focus...... on how the curvature on a thin-walled pipe, as well as a changing radius along a straight thin-walled pipe, affects the waveguide properties. It shows that the waveguide properties of curved pipes roughly can be divided into three regimes: The curved beam regime, the cylinder regime, and the torus...... regime. In the curved beam regime the waveguide properties of the pipe can be approximated by classical curved beam theory while in the cylinder regime they can be approximated by cylindrical shell theory. In the torus regime none of the two other regimes apply, and a full-blown shell model is needed...