WorldWideScience

Sample records for brass

  1. Studies on Some Properties of Silicon Brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Banerjee

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals that mechanical properties of silicon brass are superior and sea salt corrosion is of the same order as Naval and Admiralty brasses but inferior to aluminium brass. In condenser tube condition, silicon brass has only half the thermal conductivity of Naval or aluminium brass but corrosion resistance is of the same order. The stress corrosion resistance of silicon brass is much superior

  2. Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

  3. Failure analysis of brass tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S.J.; Bodnar, R.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L. Bodnar for their analysis of cracks in Admiralty brass cooling tubes, which are part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provides electricity to a manufacturing plant. A mixture of non-recirculating city and spring pit water flows through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. This award-winning entry in the ASM/IMS competition shows how the metallographers analyzed the cracks, and what the results were.

  4. Experimenting with brass musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    With the aid of microcomputer hardware and software for the introductory physics laboratory, I have developed several experiments dealing with the properties of brass musical instruments that could be used when covering sound anywhere from an introductory physics laboratory to a course in musical acoustics, or even independent studies. The results of these experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of the sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. Most introductory sources only discuss these effects qualitatively.

  5. Excess Production Capacity Squeezes Profits of Brass Strip Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Between 2003 and 2006,under the backdrop of rapid growth of domestic demand for brass strip and soaring copper price,brass strip manufacturers made a fortune.And brass strip manufacturers mushroomed in Zhejiang,Anhui and Jiangsu.Large brass strip manufacturers

  6. Regeneration in brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. J.; Bowsher, J. M.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the production of musical notes by the interaction between the lips of a player and a brass wind instrument. The mechanism of this non-linear oscillation, together with that in the voice and for woodwind instruments, is discussed and past theories reviewed. Each element in the interaction is then carefully delineated and reasonable approximations to the governing equations for the lip dynamics and flow conditions through the lip opening are deduced: the acoustic parameters of the instrument and pressure source from the lungs can be experimentally determined. In contrast to the case of woodwind instruments, for example, many of the important parameters controlling the interaction can vary over a wide range and are under the complete control of the player. The expressions describing each component of the interaction are then combined to form an overall theory of regeneration, following Helmholtz, which leads to a description of the conditions necessary for a note to be sustained, and to an expression describing the characteristic waveform of the mouthpiece pressure at low frequencies. Experimental measurements of this mouthpiece pressure are presented, together with measurements of the steady and alternating components of the pressure in the mouth, and of the velocity in the mouthpiece for blown notes on a trombone and trumpet. Good agreement was observed between the harmonics of the measured mouthpiece pressure and those deduced from theory. Measurements are presented of the intonation of a trombone, and the range and characteristics of notes "buzzed" on a mouthpiece alone are discussed. Finally the steady pressure in the mouth and the average flow down the instrument are used to calculate the average lip opening, and hence the effective mass of the moving parts of the lips for a variety of notes played on a trombone and trumpet.

  7. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  8. Lots of Brass, Lots of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Those entering the foyer ahead of the brass concert find several installations on the ground floor of the Copenhagen Opera House. Each installation explores the relationship between music and color, and there are musical instruments (trombones) available for people to play. On a large TV screen, ...

  9. Long-Range Order in β Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J.C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1970-01-01

    The long-range order parameter M of β brass has been determined from measurements of the intensity of superlattice reflections of Bragg-scattered neutrons. Over the whole temperature range T=300 °K to T=Tc=736 °K, the data are in remarkable agreement with the prediction for the compressible Ising...... bcc lattice with only nearest-neighbor interactions. © 1970 The American Physical Society...

  10. Zinc contamination from brass upon heat treating a superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.W.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1994-07-01

    Theoretical calculations predicted that zinc outgassing from brass spacers during a planned heat treatment would likely damage a lab-scale superconducting magnet. This specter was reinforced by a simulated heat treatment, the samples of which were analyzed by gravimetry, metallography, and microprobe chemical analysis. It was found that zinc escaping from the brass could diffuse 80 {mu}m into copper electrical conductors and degrade their conductivity. To avoid this, steel was temporarily substituted for the brass during the heat treatment process.

  11. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Dirven, R.; JACOBI, I.; Brekel, van den, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can 'free' both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective assessment of voicing and music playing parameters was carried out in 2 laryngectomised patients with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis able to play brass instruments (tenor horn and sl...

  12. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.M. Hilgers; R. Dirven; I. Jacobi; M.W.M. van den Brekel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can ‘free’ both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective asses

  13. The Physics of Brass Musical Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Brian (San Jose State University)

    2004-10-06

    It is easy to think of a trumpet as a device for transmitting sound into a room. Actually, very little of the sound in a trumpet escapes to the outside. Most of the sound in a trumpet stays inside, where it forms standing waves that draw energy from the player's lips. I will show why sound traveling in a tube tends to reflect from an open end. Brass musical instruments consist of a mouthpiece, a conical lead pipe, a cylindrical section, and a flared bell. I build a trumpet to show the acoustical significance of these parts. Brass instruments rely on valves (or, in the case of the trombone, a slide) to extend the length of the tubing. In this they are unlike the woodwinds, which rely on side holes. In the era before valves, horn players learned to augment their meager supply of open notes by partially or completely blocking the air column with their right hands. Even through the modern horn relies on valves (rather than on this hand technique), horn players still keep their hands in the bell. I demonstrate the acoustical and musical significance of the right hand in horn playing.

  14. Growth of brass nanofilms sputtered on organic substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen-xing; WANG Ling-sen; HUANG Bai-yun

    2005-01-01

    The growth of brass nanofilms sputtered on acrylics substrate was studied through experimental investigation of the effect of sputtering voltage, target-to-substrate distance, chamber pressure and sputtering time on the content, growth rate and surface morphology of brass nanofilms. The results show that compared with original brass target, Cu content in brass nanofilms changes by no more than 6.23% (mass fraction). High sputtering voltage and short target-to-substrate distance help to improve brass nanofilm deposition rate. There exists an optimal chamber pressure where deposition rate of nanofilm reaches the maximum. The key factor affecting surface morphology is the kinetic energy of sputtering particles. Low sputtering voltage, large target-to-substrate distance and low chamber pressure are very important for the formation of the high-quality brass nanofilms. The brass films prepared under the conditions of sputtering voltage 1.6 kV, target-to-substrate distance 2.5 cm, chamber pressure 10 Pa and sputtering time 20 min, possess following characteristics: smooth and uniform surface, thickness of 41 nm and Cu content of 71.0% (mass fraction).

  15. The effect of deformation on stress corrosion of brass

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kadłuczka; Mazur, M.

    2010-01-01

    Brass are some of the most common copper alloys, both due to its characteristics and utility technology. Corrosion fracture after stress corrosion are the most common form of destruction of brass.This is particularly dangerous because of the lack of early, visible signal of decohesion of the material. It is therefore important to know exactly this phenomenon to design and manufacture heavy loaded industrial constructions exposed to aggressive environments, as wellas minimize the danger of des...

  16. Study on microstructure and properties of brass containing Sb and Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel free-cutting unleaded brass containing antimony and magnesium was prepared by gravity casting and hot extrusion. Microstructure of the hot extruded Sb-Mg brass was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). Its mechanical properties were measured by tensile test, and cutting performance was investigated by lathe turning experiment. Results showed that microstructure of the hot extruded Sb-Mg brass was composed of α, β phases and Sb-Mg containing intermetallic compounds. The newly developed brass was compared with the HPb59-1 brass for its mechanical property. Its cutting performance was close to that of a German free-cutting unleaded brass. Sb-Mg brass has potential to replace HPb59-1 brass so as to reduce cost and protect environment.

  17. Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using particle...

  18. Characterization of Physical and Structural Properties of Brass Powder After Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Brass, a copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) alloy has gained extensive attention in industries due to its high corrosion resistance, machinability and strength to weight ratio. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural and physical properties of brass powder. The brass powder sample was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr.Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated brass powder were characterized using pa...

  19. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au) 9 tabs., 94 ills., 177 refs.; The thesis is also available as DCAMM-R-S80 and as an electronic document on http://www.risoe.dk/rispubl

  20. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au)

  1. Investigation on Structure and Properties of Brass Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M.Haque; A.A.Khan

    2008-01-01

    In this work, alpha (α) brass was poured in green sand mould and metallic chill mould at about 1050℃. Sand casting method and metallic chill casting method are representing the slow and fast cooling rates of the castings, respectively. The slow cooling rate in the sand mould produces larger grains, while the metallic chill mould produces smaller grains in the castings. As the grain size decreases, the strength of the cast brass increases; micro-porosity in the casting decreases and the tendency for the casting to fracture during solidification decreases. Thus, the faster cooling rate casting offers higher strength, density and hardness compared to the slow cooling rate casting.

  2. Physiology and prospects of bimanual tracheoesophageal brass instrument play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, F J M; Dirven, R; Jacobi, I; van den Brekel, M W M

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether trachea pressures during brass instrument play of laryngectomised patients are within the range of those measured during tracheoesophageal voicing, and whether application of an automatic speaking valve can 'free' both hands to play a brass instrument. Objective assessment of voicing and music playing parameters was carried out in 2 laryngectomised patients with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis able to play brass instruments (tenor horn and slide trombone): sound pressure levels in dB, maximum phonation time in seconds and trachea pressures in mmHg; videofluoroscopy, stroboscopy and digital high speed endoscopy to assess neoglottis vibration and opening. The dynamic range of the voice in the patients was 29 and 20 dB, and maximum phonation time was 22 and 19 sec, respectively; intratracheal pressures during voicing varied from 7 mmHg for the softest /a/ to 49 mmHg for the loudest /a/. For brass instrument play, the intratracheal pressures varied from 14 mmHg for the softest tone to 48 mmHg for the loudest tone. Imaging confirmed earlier findings that the neoglottis is closing and vibrating during voicing and remains 'open' without vibrations during music play, indicating good neoglottis control and innervation. From these objective measurements, we can conclude that trachea pressures during brass instrument play are within physiological ranges for tracheoesophageal voicing with a low-pressure indwelling voice-prosthesis. Furthermore, it was shown that application of a stable baseplate for retaining an automatic speaking valve and an additional customisable 'neck brace' makes bimanual play possible again. PMID:26246666

  3. BIOFILM FORMATION ON BRASS COUPONS EXPOSED TO COOLING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach M.T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Brass coupons were installed in a bypass in an industrial cooling water that uses seawater. The metal samples were removed at 15, 30, 45, and 60-day intervals for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the microorganisms constituting the biofilm adhering to the metal surface. After 15 days of exposure, a biofilm had already been generated which contained aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The aerobic bacteria were the most stable in relation to quantity, followed by the fungi. Anaerobic microorganisms, as well as sulfate-reducing bacteria, were present at higher concentrations. Variations in sulfide contents were observed in the biofilm. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed microalgae, bacteria, filaments, and corrosion products as constituents of the biofilm adhering to the surface of the metal. After the biofilms were scraped off the brass samples, evidence of corrosion was observed on the metal surface

  4. Corrosion fatigue behavior of high strength brass in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S.; Kassem, M.A.; Ramadan, R.M.; El-Zeky, M.A. [Suez Canal Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    Corrosion fatigue behavior of British Standard high strength brass, CZ 127 has been studied in various environments, 3.5%NaC1 solution and 3.5%NaC1 containing 1000ppm ammonia by applying the reverse bending technique, strain-controlled cyclic, at 67 cycles/min. Characteristics of the produced alloy were studied using differential thermal analysis with applying its results in heat treating of the alloy; metallographic examinations; hardness measurements; X-ray; and electrochemical behavior of the unstressed alloy. CZ 127 was fatigued at three different conditions, solution treated, peak aged, and over aged at a fixed strain amplitude, 0.03 5. Solution treated alloy gave the best fatigue properties in all environments tested among the other materials. Results of the alloy studied were compared with that obtained of 70/30 {alpha}-brass. Fracture surface of the fatigued alloy was examined using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX. (author)

  5. Identification of force constants in β-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norvell, J. C.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of β-brass have previously been measured by Gilat and Dolling and a fit was obtained to a Born-von Kármán model with forces extending to the fourth nearest neighbours. Although a factor of 10 was found between the second-nearest-neighbour Cu-Cu and Zn-Zn force constants......, the data did not allow an identification of these constants. By comparisons of neutron group intensities from two β-brass crystals, one with normal Cu and the other isotopically enriched with 65Cu, we are able to identify conclusively these force constants: αZn-Zn2nd similar, equals 10αCu-Cu2nd....

  6. Structural Evolution and Mechanisms of Fatigue in Polycrystalline Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejlø

    planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This empha-sizes brass as being a convenient model...... system for the industrially important austenitic steels. A quantitative fatigue damage characterization has been carried out using a classification of sur-face cracks based on their length and growth behaviour. This has provided the basis for using a numerical Monte Carlo type model, which has been...... further developed to account for the ob-served intergranular damage evolution on Cu-30%Zn. With these modifications the model pre-dicts the fatigue life curve of Cu-30%Zn and 316L....

  7. Antifriction and wear resistance of tin diffusion coating on brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    After brass is coated with tin, heat treatment makes the coating metal Sn and the substrate metal lic elements Cu and Zn diffuse with each other. This causes the c oating composition to be changed and the interface to be strengthened. The diffusion coating with a multiphase structure formed by this process has excellent properties of antifriction and wear resistance. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, electronic probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction, the mechanism of the properties is discussed.

  8. Custom brass instrument player mouthguard for orthodontic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Maria João Ponces; Paula Vaz; Luís Loureiro; Daniela Afonso; Jorge Dias Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Mouthguards reduce greatly the frequency and the severity of injuries on intraoral tissues (Bishop et al., 1985) absorbing and dispersing the energy of the force impact (Park et al., 1994). The brass instruments known as lip-vibrated instruments (Baines, 1993) are played by blowing air through closed lips. The pressure applied on the lips, particularly the upper lip, can cause laceration and bruising. The use of mouthguards can prevent those damages producing some relief on orthodontics patie...

  9. Particle size dependent chemistry from laser ablation of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyi; Mao, Xianglei; Mao, Sam S; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E

    2005-10-15

    The proportion of zinc and copper in particles formed by laser ablation of brass was found to vary with the particle diameter. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that smaller particles were zinc enhanced while larger particles were composed mostly of copper. A model based on condensation of vapor onto large droplets ejected from a melted liquid layer is proposed to describe the change in particle composition versus size. PMID:16223257

  10. Experimental investigations of lip motion in brass instrument playing

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Samuel D. F.

    2009-01-01

    The precise nature of the motion of the lips of the musician is critically important to the sound of the brass wind instrument. The player must match the oscillation of the lips to the acoustical properties of the instrument and it can take many years of practice to master the techniques involved. Visualisation techniques for capturing the motion of the lips during performance are described and the behaviour of the lips quantitatively analysed using digital image analysis. T...

  11. Playing On: John York and the Sydney Brass Musical Instrument Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The history of John York and the Sydney Brass Musical Instrument Factory contains familiar elements of a quintessential nineteenth-century Australian narrative. It features a skilled English immigrant who brought his family to a developing capital city and became a manufacturer and small business owner. It is an unusual story in that York practised the specialised skill of brass instrument making and repairing and was one of a handful of brass instrument makers known to have operated in Sydne...

  12. Microstructure and properties of α + β brass after ECAP processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dutkiewicz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP processing on the microstructure and hardness of α+β brasses. The effect of deformation temperature and number of passes was investigated particularly on the shape and size of grains of both phases.Design/methodology/approach: The specially constructed channel with 90° pressing angle, allowing heating of the tool with the sample was used for ECAP processing. The grain size was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and measurements microhardness were used to determine the effect of ECAP on the hardness of both phases.Findings: Significant grain refinement down to 300 nm from the initial 20 mm was observed after ECAP processing at 300°C. At 400°C grain refinement occurred down to 1-3 mm. Frequent microtwins were observed within a phase. The microhardness of the b phase was higher than that of a phase, 235 HV and 173 HV respectively.Research limitations/implications: The limitation is a size of the sample which makes difficult future applications. Another one is elevated temperature (minimum 300°C otherwise the samples forms crack. This limits also the grain refinement which is above the range of nanomaterials.Practical implications: Significant grain refinement allows to increase the hardness and strength of the sample preserving a good plasticity. The limitation is the size of the channel what limits the application. The material could be used in such cases when high strength of brasses is needed with sufficient plasticity and good conductivity.Originality/value: In this paper detailed TEM studies were performed for α+β brasses showing high density of microtwins and higher density of dislocations within α phase, than in the b phase. Higher hardness of the b phase results from the ordering, which hinder deformation of this phase.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of musical reed and brass wind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. M.

    1999-06-01

    A musical wind instrument transforms a constant pressure input from the player's mouth into a fluctuating pressure output in the form of a radiating sound wave. In reed woodwind and brass instruments, this transformation is achieved through a nonlinear coupling between two vibrating systems: the flow control valve formed by the mechanical reed or the lips of the player, and the air column contained by the pipe. Although the basic physics of reed wind instruments was developed by Helmholtz in the nineteenth century, the application of ideas from the modern theory of nonlinear dynamics has led to recent advances in our understanding of some musically important features of wind instrument behaviour. As a first step, the nonlinear aspects of the musical oscillator can be considered to be concentrated in the flow control valve; the air column can be treated as a linear vibrating system, with a set of natural modes of vibration corresponding to the standing waves in the pipe. Recent models based on these assumptions have had reasonable success in predicting the threshold blowing pressure and sounding frequency of a clarinet, as well as explaining at least qualitatively the way in which the timbre of the sound varies with blowing pressure. The situation is more complicated for brass instruments, in which the player's lips provide the flow valve. Experiments using artificial lips have been important in permitting systematic studies of the coupling between lips and air column; the detailed nature of this coupling is still not fully understood. In addition, the assumption of linearity in the air column vibratory system sometimes breaks down for brass instruments. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of high amplitude sound waves can lead to the development of shock waves in trumpets and trombones, with important musical consequences.

  14. Acoustical study of the playing characteristics of brass wind instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Logie, Shona Mary

    2013-01-01

    When assessing the quality of a brass instrument the player must consider a number of factors, the main consideration being the playability of the chosen instrument. The playability of an instrument is a broad term used to describe how well the instrument plays; this includes how in tune the resonant modes are, how easy it is to start and move between notes, how easy it is to bend notes and the degree of spectral enrichment during a crescendo that is able to be produced. The...

  15. Optical properties and electronic structure of the Cu–Zn brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, V.J., E-mail: vicki.keast@newcastle.edu.au [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Ewald, J. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); De Silva, K.S.B.; Cortie, M.B. [Institute for Nanoscale Technology, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Monnier, B. [School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Cuskelly, D.; Kisi, E.H. [School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2015-10-25

    The color of Cu–Zn brasses range from the red of copper through bright yellow to grey-silver as the Zn content increases. Here we examine the mechanism by which these color changes occur. The optical properties of this set of alloys has been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and compared to experimental spectroscopy measurements. The optical response of the low Zn content α-brasses is shown to have a distinctly different origin to that in the higher content β′, γ and ε-brasses. The response of β′-brass is unique in that it is strongly influenced by an overdamped plasmon excitation and this alloy will also have a strong surface plasmon response. - Highlights: • Study of the electronic structure and optical response of the Cu–Zn brasses. • Agreement between experiment and calculation of the dielectric functions. • α-brasses optical response is dominated by transitions from the top of the d-band. • In the other brasses it is transitions around the Fermi level. • β′-brass response is dominateed by an overdamped bulk plasmonic response.

  16. Diffusion mechanism of dezincification in double-phase brass exposed to seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Zinc diffusion kinetics of double-phase brass as they were corroded in seawater was investigated by means of metallography microscope and mathematics regression analysis. The results showed that, the dezinci fication corrosion of β-phase continuous HMn58-2 brass is characterized by β-phase volume diffusion, while that of α-phase continuous HSn62-1 brass is controlled by α-phase grain boundary diffusion. Apparent diffusion coefficients of zinc in both types alloys were calculated out by founding diffusion equation and boundary conditions. It was found that the value of theoretical calculation is close to that of experimentally measured,and it confirmed that Sn element inhibits dezincification of brass. The relativity between the dezincification depth and corrosion rate of different double-phase brasses immersed in seawater was revealed.

  17. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse

  18. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: ► Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. ► Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. ► Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. ► Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  20. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  1. Preparation of nanosized ZnO using α brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized ZnOs were synthesized on the surface of α brass coated a film of nickel catalyst at 500-700 deg. C under atmosphere of O2 and CH4 gases. The nanosized ZnOs have shapes including pillar, leaf, sheet and rod, which were determined by the synthesis temperature and the flow rates of O2 and CH4 gases. The nanosized ZnOs were characterized by electron microscopy including transmission electron microscope for crystal structure, morphology and high resolution images, both field emission scanning electron microscope and scanning electron microscope for morphology, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope equipped in electron microscope for chemical composition. A mechanism was proposed for the growth of nanosized ZnO obtained in this work

  2. Experimental study on laser shock processing of brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) is a new surface treatment technique for improving hardness, wear resistance, and fatigue.In this paper, basic theories were introduced and the influence of laser pulse intensity on the laser shock processing of brass specimens was investigated by experiments. Microhardness, roughness, microstructure, wear resistance, friction coefficient evolution, and residual stress were examined with different laser pulse intensities of LSP. The results show that the microhardness increases after LSP treatment, and the higher the pulse intensity, the higher the microhardness. Though the microstructure shows no remarkable change, the roughness and wear resistance increase with the increase in pulse density. Laser shock processing has great potential as a means to improve the mechanical properties of components.

  3. Corrosion electrochemical behavior of brass tubes in circulating cooling seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yu-zhuo; SONG Shi-zhe; YIN Li-hui

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) were used to study the corrosion electrochemical behavior of brass tubes in circulating cooling seawater using the developed sensor. EIS study shows that the inhibitor can lead to the formation of corrosion products on metal surface, which will then inhibit the corrosion process. When the flow rate of the seawater increases, the diffusion of oxygen speeds up and the action of filming on HAl77-2 tube accelerates, resulting in decrease of corrosion rate. EN analysis shows that the flow rate of the seawater has little effect on pitting susceptivity of HSn70-1 tube; however the pitting susceptivity of HAl77-2 tube increases with increasing flow rate. Good agreement is observed between the spectral noise resistance Rsn (f) calculated from EN data and the modulus of impedance. It is shown that the electrochemical noise technique can be used in corrosion monitoring.

  4. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROLESS Ni–B COATED BRASS CONTACTS UNDER FRETTING CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    T.S.N. Sankara Narayanan; YOUNG WOO PARK; KANG YONG LEE

    2008-01-01

    The performance of electroless (EL) Ni–B coated brass contacts under fretting conditions was evaluated. The contact resistance of EL Ni–B coated brass contact was measured as a function of fretting cycles. The surface profile and wear depth of the fretted zone were measured using laser scanning microscope. The study reveals that EL Ni–B coated contacts exhibit better performance under fretting conditions. However, at conditions which are prone for severe oxidation such as, low frequency (3 Hz...

  6. Mercury removal from contaminated groundwater: Performance and limitations of amalgamation through brass shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Biester, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Brass shavings have been proposed as a cost-effective filter material to remove Hg from contaminated groundwater. This method, which is based on the reduction of reactive Hg(II) and subsequent formation of amalgams, has been shown to be fast and effective in the short term. However, the effectiveness of brass filters and their stability over the long term, especially if used in passive filter systems such as permeable reactive barriers (PRB) under high flow conditions, is unknown. To evaluate the performance and limitations of brass shavings for Hg removal from contaminated groundwater, we performed long-term pilot scale filtration tests (6 and 28 months) at two former wood impregnation sites with severe groundwater contamination (up to 870 μg L(-1) Hg). The results showed that even under high flow conditions (>60 m d(-1)), 60-80% of the Hg was removed in the first 8 mm of the brass shavings filter bed. The kinetics of filtration, Hg total removal performance (>99.95%), and loading capacity (164 g L(-1)) surpassed those of a Hg-specific synthetic resin (LEWATIT(®)MonoPlus TP-214). However, under natural pH conditions (pH 6.4 and 6.7), Zn was leached from the brass and exceeded the threshold value (0.5 mg L(-1)) in the filter outflow by up to a factor of 40. Increasing pH (>8.5) decreased the Zn concentration (removal due to the formation of Zn-hydroxide/carbonate coatings on the brass (up to 15% performance reduction). Thus, the use of brass shavings as an exclusive filter material in PRBs is restricted to aquifers with high pH. However, brass is ideal as a low-cost, thin-bed prefilter in onsite systems to remove the main Hg load from groundwater when Zn release is managed. PMID:27176550

  7. Analysis of Transients for Brass Instruments Under Playing Conditions Using Multiple Microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Jonathan; LOGIE, Shona; Chick, John; Smith, Richard; Campbell, Murray

    2010-01-01

    National audience This work investigates the development of a novel multiple microphone technique for analysis of the acoustical behaviour of brass instruments under playing conditions. In the current work, multiple microphones are deployed within a cylindrical section of the bore of a brass instrument. The technique allows for measurement of the instrument during playing, or while excited by a loudspeaker signal, and allows for a more robust analysis of the transfer of acoustic energy bet...

  8. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia, E-mail: shaziabashir@gcu.edu.pk; Ali, Nisar; Umm-i-Kalsoom,; Yousaf, Daniel; Faizan-ul-Haq,; Naeem, Athar; Ahmad, Riaz; Khlaeeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Brass targets were exposed to carbon ions of energy 2 MeV. • The effect of ion dose has been investigated. • The surface morphology is investigated by SEM analysis. • XRD analysis is performed to reveal structural modification. • Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile testing and microhardness testing. - Abstract: Modifications to the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass after ion irradiation have been investigated. Brass targets were bombarded by carbon ions of 2 MeV energy from a Pelletron linear accelerator for various fluences ranging from 56 × 10{sup 12} to 26 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. A scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer were utilized to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure respectively. To explore the mechanical properties e.g., yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of irradiated brass, an universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were used. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed an irregular and randomly distributed sputter morphology for a lower ion fluence. With increasing ion fluence, the incoherently shaped structures were transformed into dendritic structures. Nano/micro sized craters and voids, along with the appearance of pits, were observed at the maximum ion fluence. From X-ray diffraction results, no new phases were observed to be formed in the brass upon irradiation. However, a change in the peak intensity and higher and lower angle shifting were observed, which represents the generation of ion-induced defects and stresses. Analyses confirmed modifications in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass. The yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and hardness initially decreased and then increased with increasing ion fluence. The changes in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass are well correlated with surface and crystallographic modifications and are attributed to the generation

  9. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  10. Potential of Brass to Remove Inorganic Hg(II) from Aqueous Solution through Amalgamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Axel; Bollen, Anne; Richard, Jan-Helge; Biester, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Brass shavings (CuZn45) were tested for their efficiency to remove Hg(II) from contaminated groundwater through amalgamation. The study was focused on long-term retention efficiency, the understanding of the amalgamation process and kinetics, and influences of filter surface alteration. Column tests were performed with brass filters (thickness 3 to 9 cm) flushed with 1000 μg/L Hg solution for 8 hours under different flow rates (300 to 600 mL/h). Brass filters consistently removed >98% of Hg from solution independent of filter thickness and flow rate. In a long-term experiment (filter thickness 2 cm), Hg retention decreased from 96 to 92% within 2000 hours. Batch and column experiments for studying kinetics of Hg removal indicate ~100% Hg removal from solution within only 2 hours. Solid-phase mercury thermo-desorption analysis revealed that Hg(0) diffusion into the brass surface controls kinetics of mercury retention. Brass surface alteration could be observed, but did not influence Hg retention. PMID:27225782

  11. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A., E-mail: sidahmed.beldjilali@univ-usto.dz; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran Mohamed Boudiaf USTO-MB, LPPMCA (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C{sub CF-LIBS} calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C{sub certified} were very close.

  12. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations CCF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations Ccertified were very close

  13. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A.; Belasri, A.

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C CF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C certified were very close.

  14. Copper and brass aged at open circuit potential in slightly alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface oxide films were grown on 99.99% copper and brass (copper-zinc alloy, Cu77Zn21Al2) in 0.1 mol L-1 borax solution at open circuit potential and were characterized using various experimental techniques. The composition of the passive films formed in situ on the different materials was studied using differential reflectance spectroscopy. The thickness of the oxide layers on copper and brass was compared by chronopotentiometric curves and potentiodynamic reductions. The electrical properties of each oxide were analyzed by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Their influence on the oxygen reduction reaction was also investigated using voltammetry hydrodynamic tools such as the rotating disk electrode. The results show that the incorporation of Zn to Cu in brass changes the composition and the thickness of the surface film. The films grown on brass tend to be thicker but less resistive and Zn compounds incorporate to the film. This is supported by results from reflectance and impedance spectroscopy. The kinetics of oxygen reduction is strongly inhibited on oxidized electrodes, particularly in the case of brass. The global number of exchanged electrons remains close to four and seems to be independent of the presence of surface oxides.

  15. A computational study of adhesion between rubber and metal sulfides at rubber–brass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An atomic level model for brass–rubber interactions has been presented. • The main adhesion force has been tracked to the rubber sulfur–brass zinc or brass copper interaction. • The model gives new understanding of the adhesion and can be used for further developments of the system. - Abstract: Computational study at level of density functional theory has been carried out in order to investigate the adhesion between rubber and brass plated steel cord, which has high importance in tire manufacturing. Adsorption of natural rubber based adsorbate models has been studied on zinc sulfide, ZnS(1 1 0), and copper sulfide, Cu2S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1), surfaces as the corresponding phases are formed in adhesive interlayer during rubber vulcanization. Saturated hydrocarbons exhibited weak interactions, whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with the metal atoms of sulfide surfaces more strongly. Sulfur-containing adsorbates interacted with ZnS(1 1 0) surface stronger than unsaturated hydrocarbons, whereras both Cu2S(1 1 1) and CuS(0 0 1) surfaces showed opposite adsorption preference as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed stronger than sulfur-containing adsorbates. The different interaction strength order can play role in rubber–brass adhesion with different relative sulfide concentrations. Moreover, Cu2S(1 1 1) surface exhibits higher adsorption energies than CuS(0 0 1) surface, possibly indicating dominant role of Cu2S in the adhesion between rubber and brass

  16. Diffusion phenomenon at the interface of Cu-brass under a strong gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Yudai; Tokuda, Makoto; Januszko, Kamila; Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Mashimo, Tsutomu, E-mail: mashimo@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Iguchi, Yusuke [Department of Solid State Physics, Debrecen University, 4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Ono, Masao [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-03-28

    To investigate diffusion phenomenon at the interface between Cu and brass under a strong gravitational field generated by ultracentrifuge apparatus, we performed gravity experiments on samples prepared by electroplating with interfaces normal and parallel to the direction of gravity. For the parallel-mode sample, for which sedimentation cannot occur thorough the interface, the concentration change was significant within the lower gravity region; many pores were observed in this region. Many vacancies arising from crystal strain due to the strong gravitational field moved into the lower gravity region, and enhanced the atoms mobilities. For the two normal-mode samples, which have interface normal to the direction of gravity, the composition gradient of the brass-on-Cu sample was steeper than that for Cu-on-brass. This showed that the atoms of denser Cu diffuse in the direction of gravity, whereas Zn atoms diffuse in the opposite direction by sedimentation. The interdiffusion coefficients became higher in the Cu-on-brass sample, and became lower in the brass-on-Cu sample. This rise may be related to the behavior of the vacancies.

  17. Textural evolution of nano-grained 70/30 brass produced by accumulative roll-bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) process was carried out on the 70/30 brass alloy sheet up to six cycles to obtain nano-grains. Texture evolution during ARB of 70/30 brass was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that characteristic features of the rolling texture in the 70/30 brass become discernible in the first cycle with the appearance of the twinning component {2 5 5} (TC), Y {1 1 2}, Goss {1 1 0}, and Brass (0 1 1) components. During the first cycle, deformation twinning plays a major role in texture evolution, whereas after two cycles, twinning activity diminishes and shear bands dominantly lead to the formation of Goss and Brass, which remain as the major components in higher cycles. With increasing number of cycles, the overall texture intensity does not increase monotonously. After the second cycle, a drop occurs in texture intensity related to the shear strain incurred in the sheets while, after the third cycle, the overall intensity reaches its maximum value. After six cycles, texture intensity reduces slightly, which can be explained by nano-grain formation.

  18. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton

    1981-01-01

    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, ..delta..t greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, ..delta..x, decreased linearly with ..delta..t. With ..delta..t less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, ..delta..x = ..delta..x* which approached a limiting value of 1 ..mu..m. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  19. Inhibition of the Cu65/Zn35 brass corrosion by natural extract of Camellia sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramde, Tambi, E-mail: t_ramde@univ-ouaga.bf [Equipe Chimie Physique et Electrochimie, Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux, Université de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rossi, Stefano; Zanella, Caterina [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the corrosion inhibition of brass was studied using natural plant extract, Camellia sinensis, in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solutions with pH 7 and pH 4. Electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the brass corrosion behavior in presence and absence of the extract. The results indicated that the extract is a very effective corrosion inhibitor for brass corrosion process in both the acidic and neutral media by virtue of adsorption. The inhibition effect increases by time as demonstrated by the EIS monitoring for 120 h. In the blank solution the corrosion process leads to the formation of a dark oxide patina at pH 7 and induces localized corrosion morphology at pH 4. The extract presence can avoid both the dark patina and the pits formation.

  20. Use of ionic liquid in leaching process of brass wastes for copper and zinc recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayfer Kilicarslan; Muhlis Nezihi Saridede; Srecko Stopic; Bernd Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Brass ash from the industrial brass manufacturer in Turkey was leached using the solutions of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl-imi-dazolium hydrogen sulfate ([bmim]HSO4) at ambient pressure in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone) as the oxidants. Parameters affecting leaching efficiency, such as dissolution time, IL concentration, and oxidizing agent addition, were investigated. The results show that [bmim]HSO4 is an efficient IL for the brass ash leaching, providing the dissolution efficiencies of 99%for Zn and 24.82%for Cu at a concentration of 50vol%[bmim]HSO4 in the aqueous solution without any oxidant. However, more than 99%of zinc and 82%of copper are leached by the addition of 50vol%H2O2 to the [bmim]HSO4 solution. Nevertheless, the oxone does not show the promising oxidant behavior in leaching using [bmim]HSO4.

  1. A comparison of cleaning regimes for the effective removal of fingerprint deposits from brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Emma; Bond, John W; Hillman, A Robert

    2010-01-01

    Effective removal of fingerprint deposits is crucial for experimentation related to the corrosion of metals by fingerprint deposits. Such removal is also necessary prior to deposition of test fingerprints. The effectiveness of four regimes in removing fingerprint deposits from brass is considered. Sustained wiping of the deposit with a tissue at applied pressures of up to c. 1430 Pa or rubbing while the brass was immersed in acetone both failed to remove completely all traces of fingerprint deposits. Heating the brass to 600 degrees C was an effective remover; however, this also oxidized the surface of the metal except where inhibited by fingerprint deposits. The most effective regime, and the only one of the four that removed all traces of deposit without affecting the properties of the metal surface, was immersion in warm soapy water while rubbing with a tissue. We propose this as the preferred method for fingerprint removal.

  2. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    deformation twins provides reasonable simulations of the brass-type texture, but the volume fraction of twins implied is far greater than that observed experimentally. There are also other deductions from this combination which are contradicted by experiments. Only Sachs-type models seem to work without a......-type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...... substantial volume fraction of deformation twins. The modified Sachs model gives simulated textures which approach quantitative agreement with the experimental brass-type texture at 50% reduction, and it gives reasonable simulated textures even at high reductions. However, experimental observations indicate a...

  3. Cavitation Erosion of Copper, Brass, Aluminum and Titanium Alloys in Mineral Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The variations of the mean depth of penetration, the mean depth rate of penetration, MDRP, the pit diameter 2a and depth h due to cavitation attack on Al 6061-T6, Cu, brass of composition Cu-35Zn-3Pb and Ti-5A1-2.5Sn are presented. The experiments are conducted in a mineral oil of viscosity 110 CS using a magnetostrictive oscillator of 20 kHz frequency. Based on MDRP on the materials, it is found that Ti-5Al-2.5Sn exhibits cavitation erosion resistance which is two orders of magnitude higher than the other three materials. The values of h/a are the largest for copper and decreased with brass, titanium, and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope studies show that extensive slip and cross slip occurred on the surface prior to pitting and erosion. Twinning is also observed on copper and brass.

  4. [Spectral analysis of some brass coins excavsted from Ezhou of Hubei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Qing; Qin, Ying; Jin, Pu-Jun; Mao, Zheng-Wei; Dong, Ya-Wei

    2009-10-01

    XRD and XRF were used to identify several brass coins of Qing dynasty collected in the Ezhou Museum and excavated from Ezhou of Hubei province. The reality of the coins contains 36.53%-37.75% of Zn, 54.12%-59.04% of Cu and 3.51%-7.56% of Pb, and the ration of the alloy is steady and scientific, indicating that the technic of the alloy of brass was quite perfect in the mid to late of Qing dynasty. Zn3Cu2 (OH)6 (CO3)2 was found in the corrosion for the first time, and CuO, ZnO, Fe2O3 and CuCl were found too. The high content of Cl-, around the local condition (including the polluted environment), may be the main reason for those brass coins to be eroded seriously. These findings provide some reference for collecting and protecting coins. PMID:20038079

  5. 78 FR 9669 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 59168 (September 26, 2012). The review covers 22 companies... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Japan for the period August 1,...

  6. Study of Brass Obturator Design for Combustible Cartridge Case for 105mm Tank Gun Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Syal

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Brass cartridge case provides rearward obturation in the tank gun ammunition where the gun systedt has a sliding breech mechanism. In the case of semi-combustible cartridge case (SCCC ammunition, obturation is provided by a smal1 metal stub. The mechanism of obturation and obturator design for kinetic energy and high explosive squash heat (HESH, SCCC ammunition of 105mm tank gun have been studied. The dynamic firing results for SCCC ammunition for 105 mm tank gun reveal height 115 mm provides perfect obturation. The ballistic performance of SCCC ammunition is comparable with that of the brass-cartridged round in the pressure range 150-450 MPa.

  7. Mathematical modeling and simulation of the interface region of a tri-layer composite material, brass-steel-brass, produced by cold rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Arabi; S.H. Seyedein; A. Mehryab; B.Tolaminejad

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to find the optimum conditions for the production of a sandwich composite from the sheets of brass-steel-brass. The experimental data obtained during the production process were used to validate the simulation program, which was written to establish the relation between the interface morphology and the thickness reduction amount of the composite. For this purpose, two surfaces of a steel sheet were first prepared by scratching brushing before inserting it between two brass sheets with smooth surfaces. Three sheets were then subjected to a cold rolling process for producing a tri-layer composite with various thick-nesses. The sheet interface after rolling was studied by different techniques, and the bonding strength for each rolling condition was determined by peeling test. Moreover, a relation between interfacial bonding strength and thickness reduction was found. The simu-lation results were compared with the experimental data and the available theoretical models to modify the original simulation pro-gram with high application efficiency used for predicting the behavior of the interface under different pressures.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF TITANIUM ALLOY USING COPPER, BRASS AND ALUMINUM ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DHANABALAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an evaluation has been done on Material Removal Rate (MRR, Surface Roughness (SR and Electrode Wear Rate (EWR during Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM of titanium alloy using copper, brass and aluminum electrodes. Analyzing previous work in this field, it is found that electrode wear and material removal rate increases with an increase current. It is also found that the electrode wear ratio increases with an increase in current. The higher wear ratio is found during machining of titanium alloy using a brass electrode. An attempt has been made to correlate the thermal conductivity and melting point of electrode with the MRR and electrode wear. The MRR is found to be high while machining titanium alloy using brass electrode. During machining of titanium alloy using copper electrodes, a comparatively smaller quantity of heat is absorbed by the work material due to low thermal conductivity. Due to the above reason, the MRR becomes very low. Duringmachining of titanium alloy using aluminium electrodes, the material removal rate and electrode wear rate are only average value while machining of titanium alloy using brass and copper electrodes.

  9. Temperature Dependence of Short-Range Order in β-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O.W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    Critical scattering of neutrons around the superlattice reflections (1, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) from a single crystal of beta-brass has been measured at temperatures from 2 to 25deg C above the transition temperature. The temperature dependence of the critical peak intensity, proportional to the susc...

  10. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of brass sheet and strip from Japan (53 FR 30454..., and Japan (65 FR 25304). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (71 FR 16552). The Commission is now conducting...

  11. Influence of composition on friction-wear behavior of composite materials reinforced by brass fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xian; LING Xiaomei

    2003-01-01

    In the study, for the composite materials reinforced by brass fibers, the influence of dominant ingredients, such as organic adhesion agent, cast iron debris, brass fiber, and graphite powder, on the friction-wear characteristics was investigated. The friction-wear experiment was carried out on the block-on-ring tribometer MM200. The worn surfaces of the friction pair consisting of the composite materials and grey cast iron HT200 under dry sliding friction were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX) and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TAG). The experimental results showed that the friction coefficient and the wear loss of the composite material increase obviously with the increase of cast iron debris content, but decrease obviously with the increase of graphite powder content, and increase a little when the mass fraction of brass fiber was over 19%, and the orientation of brass fiber has obvious influence on friction-wear property. When the mass fraction of organic adhesion agent was about 10-11%, the composite materials have an excellent friction-wear performance. The friction heat can pyrolyze organic ingredient in worn surface layer.

  12. Band Structure and Fermi-Surface Properties of Ordered beta-Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Christensen, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    The band structure of ordered β-brass (β′-CuZn) has been calculated throughout the Brillouin zone by the augmented-plane-wave method. The present band model differs from previous calculations with respect to the position and width of the Cu 3d band. The derived dielectric function ε2(ω) and the p...

  13. Influence of rare earth elements on corrosion behavior of Al-brass in marine water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gaoyong; ZHOU Yuxiong; ZENG Juhua; ZOU Yanming; LIU Jian; SUN Liping

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Al-brass in stagnant and flowing marine water as a function of combinative rare earths (Ce and La) addition were investigated by electrochemical techniques,X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).It was demonstrated that RE elements could make the corrosion product layer more protective and strengthen the cohesion between the film and matrix in stagnant seawater.The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that a duplex layer,which was mainly composed of an inner A12O3 with trace amounts of RE compounds and an outer basic chloride of copper or zinc like (Cu,Zn)2Cl(OH)3,Cu(OH)Cl and CuCl2·3Cu(OH)2 layer was formed on RE-contained Al-brass surface and that the inner layer was responsible for the good corrosion resistance of the alloy.While only a porous and non-protective corrosion product layer was formed on the Al-brass alloy without RE addition,which made small values of the corrosion resistance.Additionally,in flowing marine water with velocity about 2 m/s,pitting corrosion occurred on the M-brass surface and RE addition could availably decrease pitting sensitivity of the alloy.

  14. On the effect of β phase on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded commercial brass alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Akbar; Saeid, Tohid

    2015-12-01

    Conventional fusion welding of brass (Cu-Zn) alloys has some difficulties such as evaporation of Zn, toxic behavior of Zn vapor, solidification cracking, distortion, and oxidation [1], [2], [3]. Fortunately, friction stir welding (FSW) has been proved to be a good candidate for joining the brass alloys, which can overcome the fusion welding short comes [4], [5], [6], [7]. The data presented here relates to FSW of the single and double phase brass alloys. The data is the microstructure and mechanical properties of the base metals and joints.

  15. Dezincification and Brass Lead Leaching in Premise Plumbing Systems: Effects of Alloy, Physical Conditions and Water Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaofu

    2009-01-01

    Brass components are widely used in drinking water distribution systems as valves, faucets and other fixtures. They can be corroded by â dezincification,â which is the selective leaching of zinc from the alloy. Dezincification in potable water systems has important practical consequences that include clogged water lines, premature system failure and leaks, and release of contaminants such as lead. Brass failures attributed to dezincification are known to occur at least occasionally all ove...

  16. Valoniopsis pachynema Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, R.; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of marine alga Valoniopsis pachynema extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy, and entropy change) and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half-life) for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, and follows first-order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor and the higher inhibition surface coverage on the brass was predicted. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface study techniques (FT-IR and SEM) were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.

  17. SAFETY ALERT - Failure of brass non-return valves in gas point installations

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2016-01-01

    There have been three recent failures in brass non-return valves in separate high pressure gas point installations across CERN. Whilst each was in a different gas service, the visual nature of the failure has been similar.   In all three cases, these components were connected to stainless steel flexible connections and stainless steel pipework. From the metallurgical investigation of the failed component, it appears that the failure is linked to uncontrolled tightening, leading to a localised weakening resulting in premature failure when subjected to pressure. Lead levels in the examined components appear to be a contributing factor to the reduction in ductility but are not identified as the root cause. It has also not been possible to attribute failure to a particular batch of material. The Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit prescribes the following actions to be taken, aligned with the CERN Safety Rules: Verification of all brass non-return valves (prioritising...

  18. Hydrogen-increased dezincification layer-induced stress and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会录; 高克玮; 褚武扬; 刘亚萍; 乔利杰

    2003-01-01

    Dezincification layer formed during corrosion or stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass in an ammonia solution could induce an additive stress. The effect of hydrogen on the dezincification layer-induced stress and the susceptibility to SCC were studied. The dezincification layer-induced stress was measured using the deflection method and the flowing stress differential method, respectively. The latter measures the difference between the flowing stress of a specimen before unloading and the yield stress of the same specimen after unloading and forming a dezincification layer. The susceptibility to SCC was measured using slow strain rate test. Results show that both the dezincification layer-induced stress and the susceptibility to SCC increase with increasing hydrogen concentration in a specimen. This implies that hydrogen-enhanced dezincification layer-induced stress is consistence with the hydrogen-increased susceptibility to SCC of brass in the ammonia solution.

  19. Effects on Microstructure and Properties of Brass Treated by Laser Shock Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; YAO Zhen-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a new surface treatment for improving hardness,wear resistance and fatigue. In this paper, the effect of LSP on brass is investigated with experiment. Micro-hardness, roughness, microstructure, wear resistance and friction coefficient evolution are investigated for different parameters of LSP. The result shows that the roughness increases after LSP; no ablation is observed; the microstructure has no remarkable change; hardness and the wear resistance increase as the pulse density increases.

  20. Comparison of the PVD coatings deposited onto hot work tool steel and brass substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polok-Rubiniec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is the investigation of the structure and mechanical properties of monolayers CrN, TiN and multilayers TiN/TiAlN and Ti/TiAlN coatings deposited by PVD techniques onto the substrate from the X37CrMoV5-1 steel and CuZn40Pb2 brass.Design/methodology/approach: The microhardness tests were made on the dynamic ultra-microhardness tester. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. The wear and friction tests were performed on a standard pin-on-disc device.Findings: The monolayer PVD coatings deposited onto hot work steel and brass substrate demonstrate the high hardness, adhesion and wear resistance. The critical load LC2, which is in the range 32-60 N, depends on the coating and substrate type. The friction coefficient for the investigated coatings is within the range of 0.33-0.75.Practical implications: The investigation results will provide useful information to applying the PVD coating for the improvement of mechanical properties of the hot work tool steels and brass substrates.Originality/value: It should be stressed that the mechanical properties of the PVD coatings obtained in this work are very encouraging and therefore their application for products manufactured at mass scale is possible in all cases where reliable, very hard and abrasion resistant coatings, deposited onto tools steel and brass substrate are needed.

  1. Evaluation of aluminum brass coupons in BWR condensate environment in presence of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of cobalt and cesium ions in the simulated BWR condensate environment (two phase water at 150 °C) on the oxide formed on the aluminium brass has been studied by exposing active and prepassivated coupons in respective environments. Surface changes in the exposed coupons were evaluated by SEM, EDAX and electrochemical studies. The SEM and EDAX data of the exposed coupons indicated marked difference in the surface morphology with varying water chemistry. Presence of nodular grains were seen on SEM images of the pre-passivated Al brass coupons in the Co based media while more granular oxide formation could be seen in presence of Cs. With the mixture of Co and Cs, oxides with larger particle size were seen in the SEM images. The weight change measurement also indicated that Co affects the outer oxide layer to a higher extent as compared to Cs. EDAX measurements indicated incorporation of Co in the oxide layer for the coupons exposed in the Co based media whereas higher aluminum composition was seen in the oxide layer for the coupons exposed in the Cs based media. Cathodic reduction of the oxide layer in sodium perchlorate medium indicated that the oxide grown in only water based media are primarily Cu2O with a minor amount of ZnO but there is a significant amount of Co in the oxide layer for the coupons exposed in the Co based medium. Impedance measurement of the coupons indicated similar protective nature of the passive layers formed under various conditions based on the values of charge transfer resistance obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Randles circuit. However, the higher capacitance values for oxides formed in the Co based medium indicated its porous nature. Thus, there is significant sorption of Co in the passive layer of the aluminium brass while there is no evidence of Cs sorption over aluminium brass could be obtained in the present study. (author)

  2. Motion of the lips of brass players during extremely loud playing

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Samuel; Campbell, Murray; Bromage, Seona; Chick, John; Gilbert, Joël

    2009-01-01

    International audience When a brass instrument is played loudly the energy level of the higher harmonics increases dramatically. The generally accepted explanation for this is non-linear steepening of the wavefront and generation of shock waves within the instrument bore. However, it has also been suggested that changes in the player's lip vibration could play a role in generating this `brassy' sound. To test this hypothesis, the dependence of lip opening-area on time has been measured for...

  3. Numerical Techniques for Acoustic Modelling and Design of Brass Wind Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Noreland, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic horns are used in musical instruments and loudspeakers in order to provide an impedance match between an acoustic source and the surrounding air. The aim of this study is to develop numerical tools for the analysis and optimisation of such horns, with respect to their input impedance spectra. Important effects such as visco-thermal damping and modal conversion are shown to be localised to different parts of a typical brass instrument. This makes it possible to construct hybrid method...

  4. Influence of tool deflection on micro channel pattern of 6:4 brass with rectangular tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Jin JE; Kang-Won LEE; Sang-Cheon PARK; Jae-Gu KIM; Doo-Sun CHOI; Kyoung-Taik PARK; Kyung-Hyun WHANG

    2009-01-01

    Machining experiment of micro channel structure with 6:4 brass was carried out by shaping process using a single crystal diamond tool. FEM simulation using solid cantilever beam model was analyzed. In result of experiment, tool deflection is observed as machining characteristics through result of experiments such as surface roughness, cutting force and burr formations. And the influence of tool deflection is experimentally proved.

  5. Comparison of brass alloys composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and self-organizing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Legnaioli, Stefano [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Lezzerini, Marco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Lorenzetti, Giulia [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Applied and Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, ICCOM-CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Department of Civilizations and Forms of Knowledge, University of Pisa, Via L. Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we face the problem of assessing similarities in the composition of different metallic alloys, using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. The possibility of determining the degree of similarity through the use of artificial neural networks and self-organizing maps is discussed. As an example, we present a case study involving the comparison of two historical brass samples, very similar in their composition. The results of the paper can be extended to many other situations, not necessarily associated with cultural heritage and archeological studies, where objects with similar composition have to be compared. - Highlights: • A method for assessing the similarity of materials analyzed by LIBS is proposed. • Two very similar fragments of historical brass were analyzed. • Using a simple artificial neural network the composition of the two alloys was determined. • The composition of the two brass alloys was the same within the experimental error. • Using self-organizing maps, the probability of the alloys to have the same composition was assessed.

  6. Effects of nonlinear sound propagation on the characteristic timbres of brass instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Arnold; Pyle, Robert W; Gilbert, Joël; Campbell, D Murray; Chick, John P; Logie, Shona

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a brass instrument to generate sounds with strong high-frequency components is dependent on the extent to which its bore profile supports nonlinear sound propagation. At high dynamic levels some instruments are readily sounded in a "cuivré" (brassy) manner: this phenomenon is due to the nonlinear propagation of sound in ducts of the proportions typical of labrosones (lip-reed aerophones). The effect is also evident at lower dynamic levels and contributes to the overall tonal character of the various kinds of brass instrument. This paper defines a brassiness potential parameter derived from the bore geometries of brass instruments. The correlation of the brassiness potential parameter with spectral enrichment as measured by the spectral centroid of the radiated sound is examined in playing tests using musicians, experiments using sine-wave excitation of instruments, and simulations using a computational tool. The complementary effects of absolute bore size on spectral enrichment are investigated using sine-wave excitation of cylindrical tubes and of instruments, establishing the existence of a trade-off between bore size and brassiness potential. The utility of the brassiness potential parameter in characterizing labrosones is established, and the graphical presentation of results in a 2D space defined by bore size and brassiness potential demonstrated.

  7. Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Study of Self-assembled Monolayer of Phytic Acid on Brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qun-Jie; WAN Zong-Yue; ZHOU Guo-Ding; YIN Ren-He; CAO Wei-Min; LIN Chang-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid is an environment-friendly reagent for processing metals.The anticorrosion and inhibiting mechanism for phytic acid monolayers self-assembled on a brass (HSn70-1) electrode has been investigated by using electrochemical and photocurrent response methods.The electrochemical measurements indicate that phytic acid is liable to form surface complexes on the brass electrode,and the self-assembled monolayers (SAM) change the structure of the electric double-layer and shift the potential of zero charge positively.The photochemical measurement indicates that the brass electrode shows a p-type photoresponse owing to the formation of a Cu2O layer on its surface,and the presence of SAM weakens significantly the photoresponse,suggesting an excellent effect on anticorrosion,which is consistent with the EIS and polarization curve measurements.Adsorption of phytic acid was found to be typical of chemisorption,which can be reasonably described on the basis of the Langmuir isotherm.

  8. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4-5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated.

  9. Effects of nonlinear sound propagation on the characteristic timbres of brass instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Arnold; Pyle, Robert W; Gilbert, Joël; Campbell, D Murray; Chick, John P; Logie, Shona

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a brass instrument to generate sounds with strong high-frequency components is dependent on the extent to which its bore profile supports nonlinear sound propagation. At high dynamic levels some instruments are readily sounded in a "cuivré" (brassy) manner: this phenomenon is due to the nonlinear propagation of sound in ducts of the proportions typical of labrosones (lip-reed aerophones). The effect is also evident at lower dynamic levels and contributes to the overall tonal character of the various kinds of brass instrument. This paper defines a brassiness potential parameter derived from the bore geometries of brass instruments. The correlation of the brassiness potential parameter with spectral enrichment as measured by the spectral centroid of the radiated sound is examined in playing tests using musicians, experiments using sine-wave excitation of instruments, and simulations using a computational tool. The complementary effects of absolute bore size on spectral enrichment are investigated using sine-wave excitation of cylindrical tubes and of instruments, establishing the existence of a trade-off between bore size and brassiness potential. The utility of the brassiness potential parameter in characterizing labrosones is established, and the graphical presentation of results in a 2D space defined by bore size and brassiness potential demonstrated. PMID:22280689

  10. Sargassum Wightii Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selva Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of marine algae Sargassum wightii extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The inhibitive effect could be attributed to the phytochemical constituents present in the inhibitor containing N, S, O atoms. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters (free energy, enthalpy and entropy change and kinetic parameters (rate constant and half-life for inhibition process were calculated. These thermodynamic and kinetic parameters indicate a strong interaction between the inhibitor and the brass surface. The inhibition is assumed to occur via adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the brass surface, which obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of inhibitor on the brass surface is exothermic, physical, and spontaneous, follows first order kinetics. The polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor behaves as a mixed type inhibitor. Inhibition efficiency values were found to show good trend with weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. Surface study techniques (FT-IR and SEM were carried out to ascertain the inhibitive nature of the algal extract on the brass surface.

  11. A galvanic corrosion study of brass/stainless steel and brass/cast iron couples; Estudio de corrosion galvanica en pares laton/acero inoxidable y laton/fundicion de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Zinola, C. F.

    2011-07-01

    Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multi galvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass UNS C268 and Admiralty brass UNS C443) compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 degree centigrade in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals. (Author) 33 refs.

  12. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custidiano, E.R., E-mail: ernesto7661@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Valenzuela, M.R., E-mail: meraqval@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Dumont, J.L., E-mail: Joseluis.Dumont@elekta.com [Elekta CMS Software, St.Louis, MO (United States); McDonnell, J., E-mail: josemc@express.com.ar [Cumbres Institute, Riobamba 1745, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rene, L, E-mail: luismrene@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Center, Crespo 953, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M., E-mail: juakcho@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.

  14. Influence of wall vibrations on the sound of brass wind instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Wilfried; Zietlow, Daniel W; Moore, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    The results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the influence of wall vibrations on the sound of brass wind instruments are presented. Measurements of the transmission function and input impedance of a trumpet, with the bell both heavily damped and freely vibrating, are shown to be consistent with a theory that assumes that the internal pressure causes an oscillation of the diameter of the pipe enclosing the air column. These effects are shown to be most significant in sections where there are flaring walls, which explains why damping these vibrations in cylindrical pipes normally produces no measurable effects. PMID:21110611

  15. 黄铜制品开裂原因分析%Analysis on Bracking Cause of Brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾美转

    2000-01-01

    The brass parts with cracking have been analyzed from macro,trend of cracking,fracture aspects and metallographic structure.And tested for its chemical composition.According to comprehensive analysis of experimental results and discuss,because of residual tension of brass itself,so stress-corrosion lead to its cracking.This is failure cause of brass.%针对黄铜开裂件进行了宏观分析、裂纹走向及断口分析;并对其金相组织及化学成分进行了测试分析。综合分析表明,该黄铜制品的开裂是由残余拉应力引起,属应力腐蚀开裂所致。从而找到了黄铜制品失效的原因所在。

  16. Corrosion inhibition of low phosphonic multipolymer water treatment agent of industry circulating on brass in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In response to environmental guidelines, a low phosphonic multipolymer was synthesized and its corrosion inhibition efficiency to brass in synthetic water was investigated through weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests.It showed that the synthesized inhibitor decreased corrosion under the conditions tested.Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the new inhibitor acted as an anodic inhibitor, reducing metal dissolution.The composition of protective films formed on the brass was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).The inhibition effects were due to the formation of a protective film of the multipolymer inhibitor on the metal surface.

  17. The inhibited effect of some tetrazolic compounds towards the corrosion of brass in nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihit, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); El Issami, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); Bouklah, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco); Bazzi, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); Hammouti, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Oujda (Morocco)]. E-mail: hammoutib@yahoo.fr; Ait Addi, E. [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Equipe de Chimie Moleculaire and Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, Agadir B.P 8106 (Morocco); Salghi, R. [Laboratoire de l' Environnement et Science de l' Eau, Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquees d' Agadir, B.P. 33/S, Agadir (Morocco); Kertit, S. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Ecole Normale Superieure-Takaddoum, Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-01-15

    The effect of the addition of some tetrazolic type organic compounds: 1-phenyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (PMT), 1,2,3,4-tetrazole (TTZ), 5-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (AT) and 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrazole (PT) on the corrosion of brass in nitric acid is studied by weight loss, polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The explored methods gave almost similar results. Results obtained reveal that PMT is the best inhibitor and the inhibition efficiency (E%) follows the sequence: PMT > PT > AT > TTZ. Polarization measurements also indicated that tetrazoles acted as mixed-type inhibitors without changing the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. Partial {pi}-charge on atoms has been calculated. Correlation between the highest occupied molecular orbital energy E {sub HOMO} and inhibition efficiencies was sought. The adsorption of PMT on the brass surface followed the Langmuir isotherm. Effect of temperature is also studied in the (25-50 deg. C) range.

  18. Study of ultrasonically assisted turning of stainless steel and brass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonically assisted turning (UAT) is a hybrid machining technique employing high-frequency small-amplitude vibration superimposed on the tool movement during turning. It is superior to conventional turning (CT) with regard to cutting forces, surface quality and machining accuracy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different machining parameters on stainless steel and brass alloys, during both UAT and CT, and evaluate improvements of cutting forces, surface roughness, surface integrity, and machining accuracy. An experimental setup for UAT at Loughborough University was used to accomplish this investigation. This setup used a Picoscope data acquisition add-on with Kistler three-component dynamometer, Seco DNMG cutting inserts were utilized, a surface tester from Taylor Hobson was used to evaluate surface roughness, Alicona Infinite Focus microscope was used to evaluate surface roughness and surface integrity, while Metris CMM with Renishaw probe was employed to evaluate machining accuracy. Cylindrical workpieces of steel and brass alloys were turned under CT and UAT conditions; cutting forces, surface roughness, and machining accuracy produced with both techniques where compared. Significant improvements were noticed in the ultrasonically assisted machining when compared to the CT for both alloys

  19. Using miniature signal processing equipment in real-time brass performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plsek, Thomas J.

    2003-04-01

    Real time signal processing for brass instrument performance has been in use for more than 20 years now. It has been fraught with many problems not the least of which is the complexity, size, and expense of the equipment as well as the acoustical output of the instrument itself. One device which addresses these issues is the new Yamaha ST5: Personal Studio for brass instruments. By combining a Yamaha Pickup Mute, which very effectively minimizes the acoustical output of the instrument, with a battery powered unit small enough to be worn on a belt (ca. 5 in.×3 in.×1 in.), this system enables the performer to use such effects as reverb, delay, chorus, equalizer, pitch shifter, etc., that can be used in a wide variety of situations such as private practice, live concert performances, and recordings. By creatively managing the acoustic instrument and the miniature electronic equipment, a reasonably large array of musical resources become available to the performer enabling him/her to enhance existing performance environments, as well as find and develop new ones.

  20. Curcumin Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for α-Brass in Nitric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A. S.; Elattar, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    1,7- Bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-4-arylazo-3,5-dione I-V have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for α-brass in 2 M nitric acid solution using weight-loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The efficiency of the inhibitors increases with the increase in the inhibitor concentration but decreases with a rise in temperature. The conjoint effect of the curcumin derivatives and KSCN has also been studied. The apparent activation energy ( E a*) and other thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion process have also been calculated. The galvanostatic polarization data indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed-type, but the cathode is more polarized than the anode. The slopes of the cathodic and anodic Tafel lines ( b c and b a) are maintained approximately equal for various inhibitor concentrations. However, the value of the Tafel slopes increases together as inhibitor concentration increases. The adsorption of these compounds on α-brass surface has been found to obey the Frumkin's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition was discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the undertaken inhibitors.

  1. 78 FR 56656 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... companies for which this review was requested, showed no entries of subject merchandise during the POR.\\4... International Trade Administration Brass Sheet and Strip From France: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013 AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department...

  2. Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Allium Cepa for the Corrosion of -?Brass in HNO3 Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda, Abd El-Aziz S.; Nofal, Ashraf M.; Maher, Reham

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of allium cepa has been evaluated as a green corrosion inhibitor for ?-brass in HNO3 solutions using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that this extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the extract concentration, but decreases with raising the temperature. The adsorpt...

  3. Bacterial killing in macrophages and amoeba: do they all use a brass dagger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Nadezhda; Doyscher, Dominik; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Macrophages are immune cells that are known to engulf pathogens and destroy them by employing several mechanisms, including oxidative burst, induction of Fe(II) and Mn(II) efflux, and through elevation of Cu(I) and Zn(II) concentrations in the phagosome ('brass dagger'). The importance of the latter mechanism is supported by the presence of multiple counteracting efflux systems in bacteria, responsible for the efflux of toxic metals. We hypothesize that similar bacteria-killing mechanisms are found in predatory protozoa/amoeba species. Here, we present a brief summary of soft metal-related mechanisms used by macrophages, and perhaps amoeba, to inactivate and destroy bacteria. Based on this, we think it is likely that copper resistance is also selected for by protozoan grazing in the environment.

  4. Electrochemical evaluation of the influence of pseudomonas sp on aluminium brass in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a biofilm on metallic surfaces generates serious problems for the acceleration of corrosive processes. The control of the development of the biological film is important because its formation, among other effects, causes fouling of the surface where it has developed, producing differential aeration cells and aggressive metabolites. The influence of surface films was studied by applying electrochemical techniques in artificial seawater with and without bacteria, under different immersion times. Since the pitting potential (Epic) defines the metals' ability to resist pitting corrosion, a measure of susceptibility to pitting in aggressive solutions is considered. The pitting potential was studied in the systems being studied as well as the influence of seawater + ClO- ion biocides on the systems, since the biocides used was sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO). The material used was aluminum brass and a wild bacterial strain was used, which was isolated from the tubes by a heat exchanger from a thermoelectric plant (CW)

  5. Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T...

  6. Particle manipulation with acoustic vortex beam induced by a brass plate with spiral shape structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu; Li, Weiping; Yang, Qian; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we give direct demonstration of acoustic radiation force and acoustic torque on particles exerted by an acoustic vortex beam, which is realized by an acoustic artificial structure plate instead of traditional transducer arrays. First, the first order acoustic vortex beam, which has the distinctive features of a linear and continuous phase variation from -π to π around its propagation axis and a magnitude null at its core, is obtained through one single acoustic source incident upon a structured brass plate with Archimedean spiral grating engraved on the back surface. Second, annular self-patterning of polystyrene particles with a radius of 90 μm is realized in the gradient field of this acoustic vortex beam. In addition, we further exhibit acoustic angular momentum transfer to an acoustic absorptive matter, which is verified by a millimeter-sized polylactic acid disk self-rotating in water in the acoustic field of the generated vortex beam.

  7. Chemical decontamination studies on aluminium brass condenser tubes of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    activity levels to background values. The two BWRs of Tarapur atomic power station (TAPS) have been in operation for the past 40 years. The aluminum brass condenser tubes of these stations have been removed and replaced with new tubes of the same material. The decontamination methodologies for effective removal of activities from these used condenser tubes were evaluated. Seven aluminum brass condenser tube specimens were initially evaluated by gamma spectrometry and the dissolution efficiency in various decontamination formulations was subsequently evaluated. The predominant presence of Cs-137 and Co-60 isotopes was shown by gamma spectrometry. Two step oxidative-complexing dissolution was carried out. Oxidative pretreatment of acidic permanganate with varying concentrations was followed by treatment with formulations containing EDTA reagent. Around 75 % of Cs was removed during the pretreatment step while Co was removed to the extent of 40 %. Major amount of Co-60 came out during EDTA complexing dissolution step. The cycles were repeated to improve the decontamination factor (DF). An average cumulative DF of 190 with 95 - 99.5 % activity removal could be achieved by the decontamination. Selective leaching of Zn over Cu to the extent of 25 μm base metal thickness (assuming uniform dissolution over the surface) could be seen by the elemental analysis of the spent decontamination formulation. Spent decontamination formulation handling methodology was also studied. The possibility of single step dissolution was also explored by dissolving synthetic cuprous oxide in permanganate solutions. An oxidative acidic dissolution was observed with fast dissolution kinetics. Base metal attack in this formulation was also evaluated. The average corrosion rate in this formulation was found to be 70 mpy. There was also sign of pitting on the coupons exposed in this formulation. Elemental analysis of the solution after treatment has shown preferential dissolution of copper from

  8. Effect that the relative abundance of copper oxide and zinc oxide corrosion has on the visualization of fingerprints formed from fingerprint sweat corrosion of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W

    2011-07-01

    From an examination of the fingerprint sweat corrosion of 40 different individuals on α phase brass, we show that an increase in visualization can be achieved by applying a negative potential to the brass followed by the introduction of a conducting powder. Previously, this technique has been demonstrated only for a positive applied potential and a corrosion product that was dominated by p-type copper (I) oxide. X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopic analyses of the surface of the corroded brass show that an increase in visualization with a negative applied potential corresponds with an increase in the concentration of n-type zinc oxide relative to p-type copper (I) oxide with the Cu:Zn ratio <0.8:1. Work function conditions for the formation of an n-type zinc oxide/brass rectifying Schottky barrier are fulfilled.

  9. ‘Pulling the Heads off Rats’: Exploring the Factors that Limit the Performance of Contemporary Music by Amateur Musicians in British Brass Bands

    OpenAIRE

    BAKER, ANDREW

    2015-01-01

    This thesis seeks to explore the reasons why amateur musicians, specifically those in British brass bands, do not commission and/or perform contemporary music. To give a meaningful answer, the text seeks first to reach a working definition of the concept of an amateur musician in the opening chapter. This chapter also provides a brief overview of the principal developments in the brass band repertoire since 1913. Chapter two presents a hypothesis relating to the discomfort that Br...

  10. Structural and phase transformations in zinc and brass wires under heating with high-density current pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervikov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The work is focused on revealing the mechanism of structure and phase transformations in the metal wires under heating with a high-density current pulse (the electric explosion of wires, EEWs). It has been demonstrated on the example of brass and zinc wires that the transition of a current pulse with the density of j ≈ 3.3 × 107 A/cm2 results in homogeneous heating of the crystalline structure of the metal/alloy. It has been determined that under heating with a pulse of high-density current pulse, the electric resistance of the liquid phases of zinc and brass decreases as the temperature increases. The results obtained allow for a conclusion that the presence of the particles of the condensed phase in the expanding products of EEW is the result of overheating instabilities in the liquid metal.

  11. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis N.

    2016-01-01

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that ...

  12. Sargassum Wightii Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    R. Selva Kumar; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of marine algae Sargassum wightii extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The inhibitive effect could be attributed to the phytochemical constituents present in the inhibitor containing N, S, O atoms. The activation e...

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications: patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goidanich, S; Brunk, J; Herting, G; Arenas, M A; Odnevall Wallinder, I

    2011-12-15

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites. PMID:22051551

  14. Modifications in surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass using laser induced Ni plasma as an ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced Ni plasma has been employed as source of ion implantation for surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass. Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns, 120mJ and 30 Hz was used for the generation of Ni plasma. Thomson parabola technique was employed to estimate the energy of generated ions using CR39 as a detector. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, the ion dose varies from 60 × 1013 to 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 with constant energy of 138 KeV. SEM analysis reveals the growth of nano/micro sized cavities, pores, pits, voids and cracks for the ion dose ranging from 60 × 1013 to 70 × 1015 ions/cm2. However, at maximum ion dose of 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 the granular morphology is observed. XRD analysis reveals that new phase of CuZnNi (200 is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. However, an anomalous trend in peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation line density and induced stresses is observed in response to the implantation with various doses. The increase in ion dose causes to decrease the Yield Stress (YS, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS and hardness. However, for the maximum ion dose the highest values of these mechanical properties are achieved. The variations in the mechanical properties are correlated with surface and crystallographical changes of ion implanted brass.

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations on corrosion control of 65Cu–35Zn brass in nitric acid by two thiophenol derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M.; Gholami, M.; Momeni, M. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kosari, A., E-mail: Akosari.ali@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moayed, M.H. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoodi, A. [Materials Engineering Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 391 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Two organic compounds were studied as corrosion inhibitor for brass. • Three equivalent circuits were used to fit the impedance spectra. • Langmuir isotherm was used to determine the inhibitor adsorption type. • An increase in corrosion resistance of brass in the range of 20–35 was detected. • Correlation between quantum chemical and experimental efficiencies was acquired. - Abstract: Inhibitive performance of two thiophenol derivatives namely 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) and 4-amino phenol disulfide (4-APD) on corrosion behavior of 65Cu–35Zn brass in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} was investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and also quantum chemical study were used. 4-APD showed higher efficiency at low temperatures while for higher temperatures the 4-ATP is more efficient. The inhibitors obey Langmuir isotherm and its adsorption is both chemical and physical type. Quantum chemical study reveals that the benzene ring, S and N atoms can be suitable sites for adsorption onto surface. Finally, an acceptable correlation between the theoretical and experimental inhibitor efficiency was acquired.

  16. Critical behavior of the order-disorder phase transition in β -brass investigated by x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, A.; Als-Nielsen, J.; Hallmann, J.; Roth, T.; Lu, W.

    2016-07-01

    β -brass exhibits an archetypical example of an order-disorder transition with a critical behavior that was previously investigated by neutron scattering. The data were well described by the three-dimensional (3d) Ising model but the relatively crude experimental resolution prevented an in-depth examination of the single-length scaling hypothesis, a cornerstone in the theory of critical phenomena. With the development of synchrotron x-ray experiments, high-resolution data could be recorded and surprisingly it was found that the single-length scaling did not hold in most critical systems, possibly due to strain originating from surface defects and/or impurities. In this paper we demonstrate single-length critical behavior using high-resolution x-ray scattering in β -brass. The investigations confirm that β -brass behaves like a 3d Ising system over a wide range of length scales comprising correlated clusters of millions of atoms. To vary the surface sensitivity, experiments have been performed both in Bragg reflection and Laue transmission geometries but without any substantial differences observed in the scaling and critical behavior.

  17. High Temperature Formability Prediction of Dual Phase Brass Using Phenomenological and Physical Constitutive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, E.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the high temperature flow behavior of a lead bearing duplex brass in a wide range of forming temperatures (673-1073 K) and strain rates (0.001-0.1 s-1) has been conducted in the present work. In order to establish the constitutive equations, two major modeling procedures, phenomenological (the Original Johnson-Cook and the Arrhenius-type) and physically based (the modified Zerilli-Armstrong) models, have been employed. The capability and accuracy of each model has been assessed via standard statistical parameters such as average absolute relative error and correlation coefficient. The comparative and comprehensive study of the flow behavior indicated that the accuracy of the phenomenological models was strongly dependent on the range of the testing temperatures and the corresponding mechanism which operate under the specified deformation conditions. It has been indicated that by limiting the temperature range a more precise Q-value is reached, which positively influences the accuracy of the Arrhenius-type model. In contrast, the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model was capable to overcome these limitations and properly considers the physical characteristics including dislocation dynamics and thermal activation to develop the materials constants.

  18. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and iron treatment of brass foundry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Douglas S

    2003-01-15

    The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to determine if wastes contain extractable components subject to hazardous waste regulations. This paper examines the limitations of the TCLP and the way it is used by studying a particular example. Waste casting sand from brass foundries to which iron metal has been added passes the TCLP test but when placed in a landfill for several years may start to leach lead, copper, and zinc. Results of TCLP tests of waste sand alone and with the additives iron metal, zinc metal, hydrous ferric oxide, and hematite are reported. Three processes were studied: reduction by metallic iron, sorption by hydrous ferric oxide, and precipitation of hydroxides. Lead, copper, and zinc behave differently with respect to these three processes, and their measurement allows some deductions as to what is occurring in a TCLP test or a landfill. Iron addition does not result in long-term stabilization of a waste placed in the ground. The chemistry of a laboratory extraction can be very different from the chemistry of a waste placed in the environment. Wastes that are treated to pass the TCLP test, but are not permanently stabilized, are a threat to the environment. PMID:12564910

  19. Forging of Naval Brass (ASTM B16) - Finite Element Analysis using Ls Dyna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha Sankari, T.; Sangavi, S.; Paneerselvam, T.; Venkatraman, R.; Venkatesan, M.

    2016-09-01

    Forging is one of the important manufacturing process in which products like connecting rod, transmission shaft, clutch hubs and gears are produced. Finite element analysis (FEA) in forming techniques is of recent interest for the optimal design and determination of right manufacturing forming process. The data from the numerical results can help in providing the information for selecting the ideal process conditions. Thus aside from experimental values, simulation by the finite element analysis software's such as LS DYNA can be used for the analysis of strain distribution in forging processes. In the present work, Finite element simulation of open die forging of naval brass (ASTM B16) is done at an optimal temperature. An advanced multi physics simulation software package by the Livermore software technology cooperation LSTC - LS DYNA is utilized for the simulation of forging process. For the forging validation, experiment is conducted with a cylindrical billet having height 45 mm and diameter of 40mm. The numerical results are compared with that of experimental results carried out at the same temperature and dimensions for validation. The distribution of strain is analyzed. Energy analysis due to impact load is detailed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Radiological survey results at the former Bridgeport Brass Company facility, Seymour, Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey of the former Bridgeport Brass Company facility, Seymour, Connecticut. The survey was performed in May 1992. The purpose of the survey was to determine if the facility had become contaminated with residuals containing radioactive materials during the work performed in the Ruffert building under government contract in the 1960s. The survey included a gamma scanning over a circumscribed area around the building, and gamma and beta-gamma scanning over all indoor surfaces as well as the collection of soil and other samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in indoor and outdoor samples, and radiation measurements over floor and wall surfaces, in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines. Elevated uranium concentrations outdoors were limited to several small, isolated spots. Radiation measurements exceeded guidelines indoors over numerous spots and areas inside the building, mainly in Rooms 1--6 that had been used in the early government work.

  1. Walk-through survey report, Central Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, March 20, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaebst, D.D.; Seligman, P.J.; Bloom, T.F.

    1988-11-01

    In order to evaluate controls used to reduce or eliminate worker exposures to lead, a survey was undertaken at the nonferrous foundry, Central Brass Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. After a review of the exposure and blood lead monitoring data, along with interviews with management and union officials and a tour of the facility, the investigators conclude that there is evidence to support excessive exposures to work-place lead at the time of compensation claims made early in 1985. Since that time the company has taken steps to reduce these exposures. Some engineering controls had been installed in October of 1984, including portable flexible-duct local exhaust hoods, side draft local exhaust systems and traveling hoods. Improvements or replacements were also made to existing equipment including doubling the ventilation capacity of the exhaust system on polishing equipment and replacing local exhaust hoods on all grinding machines. All new employees receive a complete physical examination including audiometry, pulmonary function test, and blood-lead screening. The frequency of subsequent blood lead monitoring was based on the previous blood-levels. The respiratory protection program seemed generally adequate. With the improvements made, a correlation between the decline in ambient lead and blood-lead levels was noted.

  2. Thermovision systems used to improve a technological process for hot-rolled copper and brass strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rdzawski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper contains description made on thermovision testing with the use of Inframetrics 760B system. Measurements were executed on the surface of a heat furnace and also on the surface of material heated before and hot-rolled. The results of the investigations in a form of thermograpic pictures were taken down in working environment.Design/methodology/approach: The purpose of this research was to evaluate technological process of heating cooper and brass cakes, and hot-rolled strip in special passes assessment of the temperature modification. For basic criterion estimation of these processes, the maintenance at the demanded final rolling temperature in order to keep up adequate structure and narrow range of mechanical properties variation was accepted.Findings: The process of heating charge material is carried through in order to facilitate its machining in a rolling process. When the material does not obtain the adequate temperature or does not become uniformly heated, internal stresses which cause appearance of the rims of fracture and occurrence of other defects in structure appear in cold rolling, as the next. Because of this there is a need of temperature controlling. Research limitations/implications: If a temperature profile on heated to a hot-rolled cakes is not uniform and does not reach a given level, this can mean forming some defects, which can be revealed during a hot-rolled process, relatively during following technological operations leading to a quality decrease and in a consequence to product disqualificationOriginality/value: The use of thermovision system in processes of heating cakes evolution and also hot-rolling. These research enable a condition control of thermal furnace and hot-roll processes.

  3. Cavitation Erosion Corrosion Behaviour of Manganese-nickel -aluminum Bronze in Comparison with Manganese-brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Yugui Zheng; Zhiming Yao

    2009-01-01

    The cavitation erosion corrosion behaviour of ZQMn 12-8-3-2 manganese-nickel-aluminum bronze and ZHMn55-3-1 manganese-brass was investigated by mass loss, electrochemical measurements (polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and the cavitation damaged surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ZQMn 12-8-3-2 had better cavitation erosion resistance than ZHMn55-3-l. After the cavitation erosion for 6 h, the cumulative mass loss of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 was about 1/3 that of ZHMn55-3-l. The corrosion current density of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 was less than that of ZHMn55-3-l under both static and cavitaiton condition. The free-corrosion potentials of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 and ZHMn55-3-l were all shifted in positive direction under cavitation condition compared to static condition. In the total cu-mulative mass loss under cavitation condition, the pure erosion played a key role for the two tested materials (74% for ZHMn55-3-l and 60% for ZQMnl2-8-3-2), and the total synergism between corrosion and erosion of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 (39%) was larger than that of ZHMn55-3-l (23%). The high cavitation erosion resistance of ZQMnl2-8-3-2 was mainly attributed to its lower stacking fault energy (SFE), the higher microhardness and work-hardening ability as well as the favorable propagation of cavitation cracks for ZQMn 12-8-3-2, i.e., parallel to the surface rather than perpendicular to the surface for ZHMn55-3-l.

  4. Plasma chemical reduction of model corrosion brass layers prepared in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkova, Lucie; Mikova, Petra; Prikryl, Radek; Krcma, Frantisek

    2016-08-01

    The brass plates of (50 × 10 × 1) mm3 were prepared with model corrosion layer because the real archaeological artifacts could be damaged during the method optimization. Samples corroded naturally more than 2 years in the soil. Excavated samples were treated in the low pressure (150 Pa) quartz glass plasma reactor (90 cm long and 9.5 cm in diameter) which was surrounded by two external copper electrodes supplied by radio-frequency generator (13.56 MHz). The experiments were carried out in a hydrogen-argon gas mixture at mass flows of 30 sccm for hydrogen and 20 sccm for argon for 90 min. The plasma power was 100, 200, 300 and 400 W in continuous and pulsed mode. Maximum sample temperature was set at 120 °C. The whole process was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy and the obtained data were used to calculate the relative intensity of OH radicals and rotational temperature. The results showed that the higher power had the greater maximum intensity of the OH radicals and rapidly degraded the corrosion layer. Corrosion layer was not completely removed during the reduction, but due to the reactions which occur in the plasma corrosion layer became brittle and after plasma chemical treatment can be removed easily. Finally, the SEM-EDX analysis of the surface composition confirmed removal of chlorine and oxygen from the corrosion products layers. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  5. Enhancement of mechanical properties of low stacking fault energy brass processed by cryorolling followed by short-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bulk-size ultrafine grained brass prepared by cryorolling of LFE commercial alloy. • A good combination of YS and ductility attained by cryorolling followed by annealing. • The LFE caused formation of subgrains and nanotwins to achieve the high YS and ductility. • Fractography analysis corroborated mechanical behavior of the cryorolled and annealed samples. - Abstract: The mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of ultrafine grained low stacking faulty energy (SFE) brass processed by cryorolling were investigated in the present work. The commercial brass with 18 wt.% Zn was subjected to cryorolling to obtain specimens with different percentage of reduction in area (RA). Short time post-processing annealing was carried out for the specimens with maximum RA (90%) to enhance their ductility. The mechanical properties of all the specimens were assessed by tensile tests and hardness measurements. Microstructural analysis was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (EM). The maximum yield strength (YS) of 600 MPa with 2.1% ductility was obtained for the cryorolled samples with 90% RA. The YS decreased to 452 MPa with a corresponding increase in the ductility (10%) after annealing at 225 °C. The YS of the cryorolled + annealed sample is found to be 465% higher compared to that of the as-received specimens (YS = 80 MPa). Fractography analysis of the 90% rolled specimens showed a brittle fracture; while, presence of dimples marks on the fractured surface of the annealed specimens indicated a ductile failure. The low SFE of the alloy plays a vital role on the deformation mechanisms during cryorolling and simultaneous improvement of the YS and ductility. Hence, improvement in the mechanical properties has been discussed in the light of refinement of microstructure, formation of sub-grains and nano-twins driven by the low SFE

  6. Effects of ethanolamine, pH change, and increased hydrazine levels on deposit-covered alloy 600 and brass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical dissolution tests and electrochemical tests were carried out on alloy 600 (UNS N06600) specimens covered with synthetic deposit simulating the tube deposits in the steam generators at Indian Point 2 Station in Buchanan, New York. The tests showed that the introduction of ethanolamine (ETA) and a moderate increase in pH gave rise to lower corrosion rates, but enhancement of hydrazine levels caused them to rise. In the case of brass, both types of tests showed that raising the pH caused the corrosion rates to increase, but the introduction of ETA led to a mild decrease in these rates

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of the Cu–Sn–Zn system for compositions close to brass alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarinho, Cândida; Soares, Delfim; Castro, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of tin content in the equilibrium phases of the Cu–Zn-based alloys, within the range of chemical compositions with interest to brass producers is described. For this purpose, ternary alloys with copper contents between 55.4 and 67.5 wt.% and tin contents up to 5.30 wt.% have been studied. The chemical composition of each alloy has been determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Isothermal homogenization, followed by rapid cooling, has been employed to determine the ...

  8. Recent Research and Mechanism Analysis of Free-Cutting Brass%易切削黄铜的研究现状及其机理浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃臣; 王晓庆

    2011-01-01

    The element of Pb contained in the traditional free-cutting lead brass harms environment and humans badly, so it urgently needs to looking for one or some kinds of elements to substitute the element of Pb in the free-cutting lead brass. This paper introduces the current development of free-cutting brass and some kinds of free-cutting brass which has potential prospects through comparing and analyzing their properties. The cutting mechanism is explored from the characteristics of free-cutting brass. The cutting property has been improved by adding many kinds of microelements such as Ni, P, Ca and rare earth like Ce and that achieves the aim of reducing lead or lead free in the free-cutting brass.%传统的易切削铅黄铜中含有的铅元素对环境和人都有极大的危害,所以急需寻找一种或者多种元素来替代易切削铅黄铜中的铅.本文介绍了易切削黄铜的发展现状,并经过对比分析其性能了解几种有发展前景的易切削黄铜.从易切削黄铜的切削特点出发研究其易切削的本质,并通过添加微量元素如Ni、P、Ca等,以及稀土元素Ce来改善黄铜的切削性能,达到易切削黄铜低铅或者无铅的目的.

  9. On the possible importance of mechanical twinning for the development of the brass-type rolling texture and final comment on the above remarks by T. Leffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben

    1970-01-01

    The author presents his final comments on the discussion between himself and Heye and Wasserman (see abstrs. A11834 and A11835 of 1970) which arose from the latter authors' paper on mechanical twinning (see abstr. A19815 of 1969). The validity of the twinning theory for the brass-type rolling...... texture is questioned for two reasons: There is no convincing crystallographic model explaining how the formation of the brass-type texture by combined twinning and slip should work in theory, and there are experimental results indicating that it should not work in practice...

  10. Study on the Formation and Precipitation Mechanism of Mn5Si3 Phase in the MBA-2 Brass Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jie, Jinchuan; Zhang, Pengchao; Jia, Chunxu; Wang, Tongmin; Li, Tingju

    2016-06-01

    Mn5Si3 is an attractive dispersion in the special brass, owing to its high hardness and high wear resistance. In the present study, synchrotron X-ray radiography and rapid cooling were applied to investigate the formation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase in the MBA-2 brass alloy. The primary Mn5Si3 phase is proved to exist stably in the alloy melt and nucleate from the melt at temperatures above 1373 K (1100 °C). In addition, the precipitation mechanism of Mn5Si3 phase is addressed systematically by the isothermal heat treatment. The Mn5Si3 particles are observed to precipitate from the matrix at temperatures above 1023 K (750 °C), and a crystallographic orientation relationship is found between the precipitated Mn5Si3 particle and β phase: (110)_{β } //(1overline{1} 00)_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} and [overline{1} 11]_{β } //[11overline{2} overline{2} ]_{{{{Mn}}5 {{Si}}3 }} . However, the precipitation of Mn5Si3 phase is thermodynamically inhibited at lower temperatures, which can be ascribed to the increase in the Gibbs free energy of formation of Mn5Si3 with decreasing the temperature.

  11. Determination of electric field-dependent effective secondary emission coefficients for He/Xe ions on brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective secondary emission coefficients, γeff, for He+ and Xe+ ions are determined from the experimental Paschen curves of Postel and Cappelli [Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 544 (2000)] through Townsend's condition for a self-sustained discharge. The γeff dependence on the reduced electric field E/p, where p is the gas pressure, is obtained using the calculated dependence of the reduced Townsend's ionization coefficient α(E/p)/p on the reduced electric field. Average values of the secondary emission coefficients are also estimated for brass and atomic and molecular ions as well as excited atoms and molecules of He and Xe, through a best fit of the simulated Paschen curves to the experimental ones. The found average values of the secondary emission coefficients are 0.1 for He and 0.0016 for Xe. Comparison is made with the limited available experimental results

  12. Densification and volumetric change during supersolidus liquid phase sintering of prealloyed brass Cu28Zn powder: Modeling and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to use response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for modeling and optimizing the effect of sintering variables on densification of prealloyed Cu28Zn brass powder during supersolidus liquid phase sintering. The mathematical equations were derived to predict sintered density, densification parameter, porosity percentage and volumetric change of samples using second order regression analysis. As well as the adequacy of models was evaluated by analysis of variance technique at 95% confidence level. Finally, the influence and interaction of sintering variables, on achieving any desired properties was demonstrated graphically in contour and three dimensional plots. In order to better analyze the samples, microstructure evaluation was carried out. It was concluded that response surface methodology based on central composite rotatable design, is an economical way to obtain arbitrary information with performing the fewest number of experiments in a short period of time.

  13. 无铅易切削黄铜的研究进展%Progress in Lead-free Free-cutting Brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱权利; 张先满; 陈家坚; 陈维平; 李微

    2011-01-01

    随着世界各国对铅造成的污染和危害的重视,含铅黄铜的使用受到越来越多的限制,开发低成本无铅易切削黄铜迫在眉睫.本文根据无铅黄铜第三组元的选择特性,从组织结构、易切削机理、加工工艺、耐腐蚀性能四个方面综述了国内外无铅易切削黄铜合金的研究现状,并详细分析了铋、锑的凝固行为对合金显微组织和性能的影响,重点介绍了无铅易切削钙磷黄铜合金的微观组织、能谱分析结果、力学性能和切削性能,提出了当前工作中存在的问题,并对今后的研究趋势进行了展望,期待能够在无铅易切削黄铜的研究及实际应用中起到一定的指导作用.%With the attentions of the world on the pollution and harm caused by lead, the use of leaded brass has been restricted more and more, so it is urgent to work out low-cost lead-free free-cutting brass. According to characteristic of choosing the third compositions of lead-free free-cutting brasses, a general review on the microstructure, free-cutting processing and corrosion resistance of lead-free free-cutting brass was showed. In detail, the effects of the solidification behavior of Bi and Sb on microstructure and properties were also analyzed. Meanwhile, the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, mechanical and cutting properties of a newly lead-free free-cutting brass containing Ca and P prepared by authors were given in this article. Also, some problems to be solved were summarized, and an outlook for research trends was presented. It is expected that will play a helpful role in the investigation and practical applications of lead-free free-cutting brass.

  14. Analysis and Solution to the Crucial Problems during Brass Instrument Playing%铜管演奏把握性问题的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 史育松

    2015-01-01

    本文列举了以往铜管演奏者在演奏中出现的把握性问题,并对其进行了分析研究,认为至少有3个方面的原因:演奏技术的问题,演奏心理的问题,体力与体能的原因。针对这3个方面的原因文章提出了具体的解决办法。%The paper lists and analyzes the crucial problems during brass instruments playing. And it also sums up three factors during brass instruments which can cause the problems:playing skill ,playing psychology and physical capacity as well, and offers specific solutions to the problems.

  15. Addressing and Assessing Lead Threats in Drinking Water: Non-Leaded Brass, Product Testing, Particulate Lead Occurrence and Effects of the Chloride to Sulfate Mass Ratio on Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over adverse health effects from low level lead exposure motivated reassessment of lead occurrence in drinking water, from the perspective of 1) possibly eliminating lead from new brass materials, and 2) performance testing of existing products. During the course of this thesis work, it was discovered that several cases of childhood lead poisoning in North Carolina, South Carolina and Washington D.C. occurred from contaminated potable water. That disconcerting finding prompt...

  16. Production and Characterization of Brass-matrix Composites Reinforced with Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 Glassy Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Sung Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brass-matrix composites reinforced with 40 and 60 vol.% of Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 glassy particles were produced by powder metallurgy. The crystallization behavior and the temperature dependence of the viscosity of the glass reinforcement were studied in detail to select the proper sintering parameters in order to avoid crystallization of the glassy phase during consolidation. The brass-glass powder mixtures were prepared through manual blending as well as by ball milling to analyze the effect of the matrix ligament size on the mechanical properties of the composites. The powder mixtures were then consolidated into highly-dense bulk specimens at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region by hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. The preparation of the powder mixtures has a strong influence on the mechanical behavior of the composites. The strength increases from 500 MPa for pure brass to 740 and 925 MPa for the blended composites with 40 and 60vol.% of glass reinforcement, while the strength increases to 1,240 and 1,640 MPa for the corresponding composites produced by ball milling. Modeling of the mechanical properties indicates that this behavior is related to the reduced matrix ligament size characterizing the milled composites.

  17. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (EmimHSO4) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO4 and HmimHSO4, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO4 system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 degree centigrade leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO4 concentration at 60 degree centigrade and 80 degree centigrade in the following order; 40%>20%>60%>80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc. (Author)

  18. Optimization in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass with multiple surface roughnesses characteristics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Chandra Routara; Saumya Darsan Mohanty; Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

    2010-10-01

    The present study highlights a multi-objective optimization problem by applying utility concept coupled with Taguchi method through a case study in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass. The study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy multiple requirements of surface quality. In view of the fact, the traditional Taguchi method cannot solve a multi-objective optimization problem; to overcome this limitation, utility theory has been coupled with Taguchi method. Depending on Taguchi’s Lower-the-Better (LB) response criteria; individual surface quality characteristics has been transformed into corresponding utility values. Individual utility values have been aggregated finally to compute overall utility degree which serves as representative objective function for optimizing using Taguchi method. Utility theory has been adopted to convert a multi-response optimization problem into a single response optimization problem; in which overall utility degree serves as the representative single objective function for optimization. The study of combined utility theory and Taguchi method for predicting optimal setting. Based on Taguchi’s Signal-to-Noise ratio (S/N), analysis has been made on the overall utility degree and optimal process environment has been selected finally which corresponds to highest S/N Ratio. Optimal result has been verified through confirmatory test. The case study indicates application feasibility of the aforesaid methodology proposed for multiresponse optimization and off-line control of multiple surface quality characteristics in CNC end milling.

  19. Recovery of Metallic Values from Brass Waste Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer; Saridede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2015-11-01

    The waste formed during industrial brass manufacturing is rich in copper and zinc metals. Therefore, treatment of this waste is a necessity from economic and environmental aspects. This study presents a process for recovery of zinc and copper through Brønsted ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate; [Bmim]HSO4), as leachate. It was found that all zinc content could be dissolved from the waste under two optimum conditions: (1) in ionic liquid (IL) concentration of 70% (v/v) at 60°C in 30 min or (2) in IL concentration of 50% (v/v) at 100°C in 60 min. On the other hand, ionic liquid leaching gave poor copper solubility under the conditions of the study. Zinc dissolution in the range 5-75 min by [Bmim]HSO4 can be explained with the shrinking core model controlled by diffusion through a product layer, and the apparent activation energy was calculated as 4.36 kJ/mol. The leach liquor was treated to obtain metallic zinc by the electrowinning method without a purification step. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) investigations showed that the layer of metallic zinc was plated successfully on the cathode.

  20. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelicarslan, A.; Saridede, M. N.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ionic liquids (ILs), 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO{sub 4}), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (EmimHSO{sub 4}) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO{sub 4} and HmimHSO{sub 4}, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO{sub 4} system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 degree centigrade leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO{sub 4} concentration at 60 degree centigrade and 80 degree centigrade in the following order; 40%>20%>60%>80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc. (Author)

  1. Time-domain numerical modeling of brass instruments including nonlinear wave propagation, viscothermal losses, and lips vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Berjamin, Harold; Vergez, Christophe; Cottanceau, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain numerical modeling of brass instruments is proposed. On one hand, outgoing and incoming waves in the resonator are described by the Menguy-Gilbert model, which incorporates three key issues: nonlinear wave propagation, viscothermal losses, and a variable section. The non-linear propagation is simulated by a TVD scheme well-suited to non-smooth waves. The fractional derivatives induced by the viscothermal losses are replaced by a set of local-in-time memory variables. A splitting strategy is followed to couple optimally these dedicated methods. On the other hand, the exciter is described by a one-mass model for the lips. The Newmark method is used to integrate the nonlinear ordinary differential equation so-obtained. At each time step, a coupling is performed between the pressure in the tube and the displacement of the lips. Finally, an extensive set of validation tests is successfully completed. In particular, self-sustained oscillations of the lips are simulated by taking into account the nonli...

  2. Application of an Aided System to Multi-Step Deep Drawing Process in the Brass Pieces Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Ramírez, Francisco; Domingo, Rosario

    2009-11-01

    In general, pieces manufacturing procedure, through deep drawing, requires operations that must be carried out in several phases that extend the time and the cost of the process. Material determination, by considering shape, dimensions, mechanical characteristics, etc., can provoke an overdose at estimating proportions with the consequent increase of the manufacturing costs. Furthermore, the processes improvement with its simultaneous reduction of costs, provides to a company a higher profit in competitive markets. Thus, this paper introduces an aided system that allows the technological design of multi-step deep drawing processes, by the optimization of both initial material and process associated costs, and moreover, their application to brass pieces, in particular in CuZn30 alloy (UNS C26000). The aided system considers process technological constraints and pursues a reduction of manufacturing times, by means of the optimization process and fitting. The results show that this system provides, in each stage of the process, a homogenous distribution of the drawing coefficient, thickness reduction, required force and height of the piece, as well as a saving in times.

  3. Calibration-free analysis of immersed brass alloys using long-ns-duration pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with and without correction for nonstoichiometric ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-ns-duration, single pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is known to be an effective method to observe well resolved spectra from samples immersed in water at high hydrostatic pressures. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the signals obtained using this method are suitable for quantitative analysis of chemical composition. Six certified brass alloys consisting of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were measured underwater using a laser pulse of duration 250 ns, and their compositions were determined using calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) and corrected CF-LIBS (CCF-LIBS) methods. The mass fractions of Cu and Zn calculated using CF-LIBS showed better agreement with the certified values than those determined using CCF-LIBS, with relative errors of Cu 4.2 ± 3.3 % and Zn 7.2 ± 6.4 %. From the results, it can be said that the difference of preferential evaporation and ablation among elements does not need to be considered for underwater measurements with the long-pulse LIBS setup used in this work. While the results indicate that the CF-LIBS method can be applied for in situ quantitative analysis of major elements with concentrations > ~ 10 %, the mass fractions determined for Pb, with concentrations < 5 % had large relative errors, suggesting that an alternative method is required to quantify minor elements. - Highlights: • The spectra of submerged metal alloys obtained using a long pulse is suitable for CF-LIBS. • CF-LIBS determines the mass fractions of major elements of submerged brass targets in water. • The compositions of Cu and Zn are determined within 10 % relative error. • The preferential evaporation and ablation among elements do not have a significant influence on the quantitative analysis of brass samples submerged in water using a long-ns-duration laser pulse

  4. Calibration-free analysis of immersed brass alloys using long-ns-duration pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with and without correction for nonstoichiometric ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tomoko, E-mail: takahas@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Thornton, Blair [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ohki, Koichi [OK Lab. Co., Ltd. 8-7-3 Shimorenjyaku, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0013 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Long-ns-duration, single pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is known to be an effective method to observe well resolved spectra from samples immersed in water at high hydrostatic pressures. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the signals obtained using this method are suitable for quantitative analysis of chemical composition. Six certified brass alloys consisting of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were measured underwater using a laser pulse of duration 250 ns, and their compositions were determined using calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) and corrected CF-LIBS (CCF-LIBS) methods. The mass fractions of Cu and Zn calculated using CF-LIBS showed better agreement with the certified values than those determined using CCF-LIBS, with relative errors of Cu 4.2 ± 3.3 % and Zn 7.2 ± 6.4 %. From the results, it can be said that the difference of preferential evaporation and ablation among elements does not need to be considered for underwater measurements with the long-pulse LIBS setup used in this work. While the results indicate that the CF-LIBS method can be applied for in situ quantitative analysis of major elements with concentrations > ~ 10 %, the mass fractions determined for Pb, with concentrations < 5 % had large relative errors, suggesting that an alternative method is required to quantify minor elements. - Highlights: • The spectra of submerged metal alloys obtained using a long pulse is suitable for CF-LIBS. • CF-LIBS determines the mass fractions of major elements of submerged brass targets in water. • The compositions of Cu and Zn are determined within 10 % relative error. • The preferential evaporation and ablation among elements do not have a significant influence on the quantitative analysis of brass samples submerged in water using a long-ns-duration laser pulse.

  5. Tribological studies of composite material based on CuZn38Al2Mn1Fe brass strengthened with δ-alumina fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaczmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of tribological studies (friction coefficient, wear resistance of the frictional couple of composite material based on CuZn38Al2Mn1Fe brass strengthened with δ-alumina fibres (Saffil and cast iron are shown in this paper. The wear investigations were conducted applying the tribological pin-on-disc tester and the friction forces between composite materials containing 10 and 20 vol. % of δ-alumina fibres (Saffil and cast iron were registered. Wear was determined on the base of the specimen mass loss after 1, 3,5 and 8.5 km of friction distance.

  6. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    possible biofilm composition and understand the role of microorganisms in the biodeterioration process. Using these methodologies, the box was correctly identified as being made of cellulose acetate plastic with brass decorations and the white film was identified as being composed mainly of polymer exudates, namely sulphonamides and triphenyl phosphate.

  7. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  8. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  9. Study on Welding Technology of Brass Heat Exchanger Tube and Shell%黄铜换热器管头焊接工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦娅妮; 高磊; 张莹莹; 纪强

    2014-01-01

    针对黄铜换热器管头焊接工艺进行研究,采用宏观检验、金相组织观察、硬度测试等方法来表征焊接接头的质量。探讨黄铜换热管头的焊接工艺,并通过对焊缝、母材、管材及热影响区组织的金相分析,找出比较合理的黄铜换热器管头焊接工艺方案。%The welding process of brass heat exchanger tube and shell was studied;the welding quality was tested by macroscopic examination, microstructure observation and hardness test. Through metallographic analysis of welding seam, base metal, pipe material and organization at heat-affected zone, reasonable welding process scheme of the brass heat exchanger tube and shell was determined.

  10. Leaching performance of imidazolium based ionic liquids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for recovery of metals from brass waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilicarslan, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of ionic liquids (ILs, 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (HmimHSO4 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl as leaching agents was investigated in the leaching of copper and zinc from brass waste in the presence of an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Factors that affect copper and zinc dissolution rates such as ionic liquid concentration, time and temperature were investigated. The results indicated that zinc was dissolved in leach solutions with EmimHSO4 and HmimHSO4, completely. Temperature had no considerable influence on copper dissolution rate whilst the rate increased with decreasing IL concentration. In the EmimHSO4 system, higher copper recoveries were achieved with 40% and 60% IL concentrations compared with IL concentrations of 20% and 80% at 40 °C leaching temperature. Copper dissolution rates decreased with EmimHSO4 concentration at 60 °C and 80 °C in the following order; 40% > 20% > 60% > 80%. On the other hand the leaching system with BmimCl generally resulted in poor extractions of copper and zinc.Este trabajo investiga el uso de líquidos iónicos (LIs, hidrogenosulfato de 1-metillimidazolio (HmimHSO4, hidrogenosulfato de 1-etil-3- metilimidazolio (EmimHSO4 y cloruro de 1-butil-1-metilimidazolio (BmimCl, como agentes de lixiviación de cobre y zinc a partir de residuos de latón en presencia de un oxidante, peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2. Se estudiaron distintos factores que afectan a la velocidad de disolución del cobre y el zinc, como la concentración del líquido iónico, el tiempo y la temperatura. Los resultados indican que el zinc se disuelve completamente en las disoluciones que contienen EmimHSO4 y HmimHSO4. La temperatura no tiene un efecto significativo en la velocidad de disolución del cobre, mientras que dicha velocidad aumenta al disminuir la concentración del líquido iónico. En los sistemas que contienen EmimHSO4, los mejores

  11. Effect of Silver Content on Microstructure and Properties of Brass/steel Induction Brazing Joint Using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn Filler Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Cao; L.X. Zhang; H.Q. Wang; L.Z. Wu; C. Feng

    2011-01-01

    The induction brazing of brass to steel using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal was investigated in this study. The influence of Ag content on the microstructure and properties were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Defect free joint was achieved using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal. The microstructure of the joint was mainly composed of Ag-based solid solution and Cu-based solid solution. The increase of Ag content and the cooling rate both led to the increase of the needle like eutectic structure. The tensile strength decreased with the increase of Ag content. The tensile strength at room temperature using Ag25CuZnSn filler metal reached 445 MPa. All fractures using Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn filler metal presented ductile characteristic.

  12. Investigation of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR on Tool Steel Using Brass and Copper Electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hafiz Helmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation on surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR of tool steel machined with brass and copper electrode for Electrical Discharge Grinding (EDG process. The machining parameter include pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, peak current and capacitance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Taguchi method is used to investigate the significant effect on the performance characteristic and the optimal cutting parameters of EDG. The result shows that, the surface roughness value when using of both tool materials are mostly influenced by pulse ON time and peak current. The capacitance parameter in both experiments was not giving any significant effect. The significant factors for the material removal rate due to the machining parameter are peak current parameter and ON time parameter but it also can increase the machining time

  13. 黄铜药筒表面防锈ATA自组装膜实验研究%Study on Rust Prevention of the Self-assembled Monolayers of ATA on Brass Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢俊磊; 张怀智; 曹宏安; 谷智国

    2011-01-01

    Brass case long-term storage process surface prone to coeeosion, which seriously affects the normal use of ammunition. ATA has strong chelating sex, is a kind of effected environmental friendly metal corrosion inhibitor, in brass case surface coated ATA self-assembly menbrane to ease the case corrosion has certain feasibility. This article through the experiment in the brass case surface coated ATA self-assembly membrane, adopted EDS energy spectrum a-nalysis, potential-time case curve of coated surface was analyzed and studied by weightlessness experimental preliminary case coated brass surface in acidic environment of corrosion resistance. The test results show that the method can coat ATA self-assembly menbrane in brass case and the coated brass case has excellent rust preventive property in acidic environment.%黄铜药筒长期储存过程中表面易发生锈蚀,严重影响了弹药的正常使用.ATA具有很强的螫和性,是一种有效的环境友好型金属缓蚀剂,在黄铜药筒表面包覆ATA自组装膜对缓解药筒锈蚀具有一定的可行性.笔者通过试验在黄铜药筒表面包覆ATA自组装膜,采用EDS能谱分析,电位-时间曲线对对药筒表面覆膜情况进行了分析,通过失重实验初步研究了表面覆膜黄铜药筒在酸性环境下的抗腐蚀性能.结果表明:本方法可以在黄铜药筒表面包覆ATA自组装膜,且在酸性环境下覆膜药筒有较好的防锈缓蚀性能.

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion evaluation on brass (UNS C68700, UNS C443) and AISI 316 stainless steel; Estudio de la influencia microbiologica en la corrosion de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443) y acero inoxidable AISI 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Russi, P.; Pianzzola, M. J.; Menes, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of bio films: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These bio films affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (Uns C.a.), admiralty brass (Uns C.a.) and stainless steel Asi 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay). The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Ei). The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel Asi 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration. (Author)

  15. SU-E-T-554: Monte Carlo Calculation of Source Terms and Attenuation Lengths for Neutrons Produced by 50–200 MeV Protons On Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used TOPAS (TOPAS wraps and extends Geant4 for medical physicists) to compare Geant4 physics models with published data for neutron shielding calculations. Subsequently, we calculated the source terms and attenuation lengths (shielding data) of the total ambient dose equivalent (TADE) in concrete for neutrons produced by protons in brass. Methods: Stage1: The Bertini and Binary nuclear models available in Geant4 were compared with published attenuation at depth of the TADE in concrete and iron. Stage2: Shielding data of the TADE in concrete was calculated for 50– 200 MeV proton beams on brass. Stage3: Shielding data from Stage2 was extrapolated for 235 MeV proton beams. This data was used in a point-line-source analytical model to calculate the ambient dose per unit therapeutic dose at two locations inside one treatment room at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center. Finally, we compared these results with experimental data and full TOPAS simulations. Results: At larger angles (∼130o) the TADE in concrete calculated with the Bertini model was about 9 times larger than that calculated with the Binary model. The attenuation length in concrete calculated with the Binary model agreed with published data within 7%±0.4% (statistical uncertainty) for the deepest regions and 5%±0.1% for shallower regions. For iron the agreement was within 3%±0.1%. The ambient dose per therapeutic dose calculated with the Binary model, relative to the experimental data, was a ratio of 0.93±0.16 and 1.23±0.24 for two locations. The analytical model overestimated the dose by four orders of magnitude. These differences are attributed to the complexity of the geometry. Conclusion: The Binary and Bertini models gave comparable results, with the Binary model giving the best agreement with published data at large angle. Shielding data we calculated using the Binary model is useful for fast shielding calculations with other analytical models. This work was supported by

  16. Temperature based segmentation for spectral data of laser-induced plasmas for quantitative compositional analysis of brass alloys submerged in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomoko; Thornton, Blair; Sato, Takumi; Ohki, Toshihiko; Ohki, Koichi; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2016-10-01

    This study describes a method to quantify the composition of brass alloys submerged in water using laser-induced plasmas. Principal component regression (PCR) analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis are applied to spectral measurements of plasmas generated using a long-ns duration pulse. The non-linear effects of excitation temperature fluctuations on the signals are treated as systematic errors in the analysis. The effect of these errors on the analytical performance is evaluated by applying PCR and PLS with a temperature segmented database. The results of the analysis are compared to conventional methods that do not consider the excitation temperature and it is demonstrated that the proposed database segmentation improves accuracy, with root-mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.7% and 2.8% for Cu and Zn in the PCR model and 2.9% and 1.8% for Cu and Zn in the PLS model, respectively. The results indicate that systematic effects contribute to fluctuation of underwater plasmas, where appropriate database segmentation can improve the performance of the PCR and PLS methods.

  17. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface.

  18. The remarkable activity and stability of a highly dispersive beta-brass Cu-Zn catalyst for the production of ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Zheng, Jianwei; Qu, Jin; Liao, Fenglin; Raine, Elizabeth; Kuo, Winson C. H.; Su, Shei Sia; Po, Pang; Yuan, Youzhu; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation of Zn atoms into a nanosize Cu lattice is known to alter the electronic properties of Cu, improving catalytic performance in a number of industrially important reactions. However the structural influence of Zn on the Cu phase is not well studied. Here, we show that Cu nano-clusters modified with increasing concentration of Zn, derived from ZnO support doped with Ga3+, can dramatically enhance their stability against metal sintering. As a result, the hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO) to ethylene glycol, an important reaction well known for deactivation from copper nanoparticle sintering, can show greatly enhanced activity and stability with the CuZn alloy catalysts due to no noticeable sintering. HRTEM, nano-diffraction and EXAFS characterization reveal the presence of a small beta-brass CuZn alloy phase (body-centred cubic, bcc) which appears to greatly stabilise Cu atoms from aggregation in accelerated deactivation tests. DFT calculations also indicate that the small bcc CuZn phase is more stable against Cu adatom migration than the fcc CuZn phase with the ability to maintain a higher Cu dispersion on its surface. PMID:26856760

  19. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cryorolling (CR strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α−brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10−3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10−3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10−5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  20. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards.Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p<0.01, while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p<0.01. Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p<0.05. There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p<0.01.This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance.

  1. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  2. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  3. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  4. 黄铜表面富植酸钝化工艺研究%Passivation Technology Research of Rich-Phytic Acid for Brass-Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡薇; 刘仁辉; 魏仕勇; 刘羽飞

    2012-01-01

    The effect of passivation conditions (temperature, passivation time and pH value of passivation solution) on the corrosion resistance of passivation film treated by passivator of rich-phytic acid (50% , mass fraction) 8 ml·L-1, hydrogen peroxide (30%, mass fraction) 30 ml·L-1, boric acid 5 g·L-1, polyethylene glycol 15 ml·L-1, additive 4 g·L-1 was investigated. Samples were made of cold-rolled strip of HA172-2.5-1 alloy. The corrosion resistance of passivation film was detected by nitric acid dripping. The results showed that the optimum condition of passivation by rich-phytic acid passivation solution was at the range of 35 ~ 40 ℃, pH 2.5 dipping for about 60 s. Photos of SEM showed that the passivation film was uniform and compact. The weight loss test showed that the average corrosion rate of samples treated by rich-phytic acid passivator was 0. 0054 g·m-2·h-1, that was equal to the rate (0.0040 g·m-2·h-1) of dichromate treated samples, and much lower than the corrosion rate (0.0376 g·m-2·h-1) of samples without passivation treatment. It meant that rich-phytic acid passivator protected brass strip well. 12 h of salt spray test showed that the dichromate treated samples changed brown with a lot of corrosion spots, and rich phytic acid treated samples turned to golden yellow with only a few spots. It showed that brass strip processed by rich phytic acid had better anti-color capability than those dichromate treated samples. The rich phytic acid passivator was environment protection without chromium ions.%采用植酸(50%,质量分数)8 ml·L-1,双氧水(30%,质量分数)30 ml·L-1,硼酸5 g·L-1,聚乙二醇15 ml·L-1,添加剂4 g·L-1钝化液对冷轧HA172-2.5-1黄铜带材进行钝化处理,探讨工艺条件(钝化温度、钝化时间和钝化液pH值)对富植酸钝化膜耐蚀性的影响.通过硝酸溶液点滴腐蚀试验对黄铜表面富植酸钝化膜的耐腐蚀性能进行研究.结果表明,富植酸钝化膜的最佳工艺条

  5. Getting Down to "Brass Tacks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Doug; Sharland, Maggie

    1980-01-01

    Describes a Canadian secondary school communications and history course dealing with the oral and cultural history of the area. Following intensive workshops, students develop ideas, interview, write, photograph, edit, lay out, and publish a commercial quality magazine for sale to the public. (Author/KC)

  6. Brass plating on steel wire by thermal diffusion method as an alternative to cyanide plating%取代氰化物的热扩散法镀黄铜线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程沪生

    2013-01-01

    Currently the plating of brass on the surface of steel wire is usually carried out in a cyanide bath. However, the cyanide brass plating is limited by environment protection law and regulation. In the paper, a process for forming brass on steel wire surface by thermal diffusion method as an alternative to cyanide plating was introduced: (a) chemical pickling and electrolytic pickling of steel wire treated at high temperature; (b) pyrophosphate copper plating, acidic copper plating, and sulfate zinc plating successively, making the content ratio of copper to zinc in deposit equal to 73∶27; and (c) interdiffusion of Cu and Zn atoms to opposite crystal lattice by heating at 420-450 ℃ on thermal diffusion wheel to form Cu-Zn alloy coating. The process is simple and easy, and convenient for management and wastewater treatment, thus achieving the goal of environmentally-friendly electroplating.%目前,黄铜线电镀通常是在氰化物镀液中完成.受环保法规的限制,氰化物黄铜线电镀已受到严格控制.介绍了可取代氰化物电镀的热扩散法镀黄铜线工艺:钢丝经高温处理后进行化学酸洗和电解酸洗,然后依次进行焦磷酸镀铜和酸性镀铜,再进行硫酸盐镀锌,使镀层中铜、锌含量比为73:27;最后在420~450℃的热扩散轮子上进行热扩散,使铜、锌原子互相扩散到对方晶格中,形成铜-锌合金镀层.该工艺简单易行,便于管理,污水处理方便,实现了环保电镀.

  7. 米诺六辊UC轧机轧制黄铜板材板形问题分析%Flatness analysis of brass plate cast by Minoxidil six UC mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建波; 郭丽丽; 赵峰; 孙庆安; 李学帅; 刘维民; 刘耀

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the serious shape problem of brass plate by Mino six roll UC mill. The factors for poor shape, high roll bending force and high work hardening of C2680 sheet with width of 650 mm are analyzed. The results show that the shape of wide brass sheet can be dramatically improved by controlling rollers precision, in-termediate rolls position and rolling process. Controlling the rollers precision is applied to guarantee the eccen-tricity ratio to be lower than 0.01mm. The value of intermediate rolls position is about two times as processing rate, which ensure the hardness of raw materials to be lower than 70 HV. The deformation resistance can be de-creased by improving the quality of shape of brass sheet and eliminating work hardening imprints.%针对中色奥博特铜铝业有限公司意大利米诺六辊UC轧机轧制黄铜板带出现的严重板形问题,探讨了造成宽度为650 mm的C2680黄铜板形差、弯辊力大、加工硬化严重等问题的原因.结果表明,通过控制辊系精度、中间辊抽动位置及轧制工艺调整可以显著改善宽幅黄铜轧制的板形,控制辊系精度保证偏心率不超过0.01 mm,中间辊的位置约为带卷加工率的2倍,保证来料的软硬性能(硬度低于70 HV),即可降低合金的变形抗力,提高合金的板形质量,并彻底消除加工硬化印.

  8. Caracterización Experimental de un Empaque Estructurado de Gasa de Latón de Alta Eficiencia Experimental Characterization of a High Efficiency Brass Gauge Structured Packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H Chávez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra la operación de un empaque estructurado construido en el Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ, del tipo gasa de alambre y fabricado en latón. Los resultados experimentales son las caídas de presión generadas por el paso de los flujos gaseoso y líquido que cruzan el empaque, las retenciones volumétricas del líquido, los coeficientes volumétricos de transferencia de masa por el lado líquido y las alturas de unidades de transferencia de masa del líquido. Los resultados son comparados con los de el empaque estructurado comercial Sulzer BX, igualmente del tipo de gasa de alambre y construido en acero inoxidable,. Los resultados experimentales muestran que el empaque ININ es más eficiente en la transferencia de masa, pero con mayor caída de presión, en comparación con el empaque Sulzer BX, debido a las características geométricas y al tipo de material de construcción.This paper shows the performance of a structured packing of the gauze type and made out of brass, developed at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, Mexico (ININ. The experimental results are the pressure drop of the gas and liquid through the packing, the liquid volumetric holdups, the liquid-side volumetric mass transfer coefficients and the heights of liquid-side mass transfer unit. The results are compared with the commercial structured packing Sulzer BX, also of the gauze type and made out of stainless steel. The experimental results show that the ININ packing offers higher mass transfer efficiency but higher pressure drop than the Sulzer BX packing due to their geometric characteristics and the type of construction material.

  9. Investigation on the Free Micro-bending Device and Size Effect for H62 Brass%H62黄铜自由微弯曲装置及其尺度效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桢英; 王匀; 吴俊峰; 朱永书

    2012-01-01

    Since the micro-bending know-how is different from traditional bending, the device for micro-bending is designed according to the characteristics of micro-bending, and the device mainly includes transmission mechanism, die, data acquisition system and positioning system. Using this device, an experiment of free micro-bending was implemented for the ultra-thin sheet of H62 brass with different thicknesses :0. 1 mm 0. 2mm and 0. 4mm, and the velocity of the die is 0. 077mm/s. According to the curve of bending moment-defeleetion which is fitted by the collected dala, the results show that bending moment decreases with the increasing of average grain size owing to the size effect influence. This can be explained by the Hall-Petch theory and surface layer modeling.%微型化和尺度效应使得微弯曲在成形工艺、方法和装置上和传统弯曲有很大差异.本文针对微弯曲成形的特点研制出微弯曲成形装置,主要包括传动机构、模具、数据采集模块和定位系统.利用该装置,在0.077 mm/s的成形速度下,分别对0.1 mm、0.2 mm和0.4 mm厚的H62黄铜超薄板进行自由弯曲实验,根据采集数据得到弯矩-挠度拟合曲线,分析了微弯曲过程中的尺寸效应:即试样尺寸与晶粒尺寸对弯矩的影响规律,结果表明弯矩随着晶粒尺寸的增大而减小,并用表面层模型和细晶强化理论来进行解释.

  10. Propagation speed of gamma radiation in brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose T.P.D.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovich, Henrique

    2009-07-01

    The propagation speed (PS) of visible light -represented by a short frequency range in the large frame of electromagnetic radiations (ER) frequencies- in air was measured during the last century, using a great deal of different methods, with high precision results being achieved. Presently, a well accepted value, with very small uncertainty, is c= 299,792.458 Km/s) (c reporting to the Latin word celeritas: 'speed swiftness'). When propagating in denser material media (MM), such value is always lower when compared to the air value, with the propagating MM density playing an important role. Until present, such studies focusing propagation speeds, refractive indexes, dispersions were specially related to visible light, or to ER in wavelengths ranges dose to it, and with a transparent MM. A first incursion in this subject dealing with {gamma}-rays was performed using an electronic coincidence counting system, when the value of it's PS was measured in air, C{sub {gamma}}{sub (air)}298,300.15 Km/s; a method that went on with later electronic improvements. always in air. To perform such measurements the availability of a {gamma}-radiation source in which two {gamma}-rays are emitted simultaneously in opposite directions -as already used as well as applied in the present case- turns out to be essential to the feasibility of the experiment, as far as no reflection techniques could be used. Such a suitable source was the positron emitter {sup 22}Na placed in a thin wall metal container in which the positrons are stopped and annihilated when reacting with the medium electrons, in such way originating -as it is very well established from momentum/energy conservation laws - two gamma-rays, energy 511 KeV each, both emitted simultaneously in opposite directions. In all the previous experiments were used photomultiplier detectors coupled to NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators, which have a good energy resolution but a deficient time resolution for such purposes. Presently, as an innovative improvement, were used BaF{sub 2} and Cs F crystal scintillators which display a much better time resolution. Incidentally, the use of {gamma}-rays would a 110 W a determination of ER propagation values in non-transparent MM, non transparent for visible light; and in such a way better sketching their structural -or of other nature- properties that may interfere with this propagation. (author)

  11. Day Care: Gold Coin or Brass Check?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Sidney

    1972-01-01

    Because a national day care program will probably be instituted soon, the major issues should be debated before policies are set. Thus some program models are analyzed and then related to the needs of various consumer groups. (Author)

  12. Day Care: Gold Coin or Brass Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Sidney

    On the assumption that there will be a national program of day care for preschool children, the author presents the major issues involved. An attempt is made to bring together some figures on current need and available facilities, to examine policy considerations in the implementation of programs, to present some difficulties in providing adequate…

  13. Eletrodissolução de ligas de latão empregando sistemas de análise em fluxo para a determinação de cobre, zinco e chumbo por ICP-AES Electrodissolution of brasses alloys employing flow systems for determination of copper, zinc and lead by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. Gervasio

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available An on-line electrodissolution procedure implemented in a flow injection system for determination of copper, zinc and lead in brasses alloys by ICP-AES is described. Sample dissolution procedure was carried out by using a PTFE chamber and a DC power supply with constant current. Solid sample was attached to chamber as anode and a gold tubing coupled in the chamber was used as cathode. An electrolytic solution flowing through the gold tubing closed the electric circuit with sample, in order to provide condition for electric dissolution when the DC power supply was switched on. The best results were achieved by using a 1.5 mol l-1 nitric acid solution as electrolyte and a 2.5 A current intensity. The procedure presented a good performance characterized by a relative standard deviation better than < 5% (n=5 and a sample throughput of 180 determinations per hour for Cu, Zn and Pb. Results were in agreement with those obtained by conventional acid dissolution (99% confidence level.

  14. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, C., E-mail: carla.martini@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Chiavari, C., E-mail: cristina.chiavari@unibo.it [C.I.R.I. M.A.M (Advanced Applications in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Technology Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research), University of Bologna, Via Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Ospitali, F., E-mail: francesca.ospitali@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Grazzi, F., E-mail: francesco.grazzi@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Scherillo, A., E-mail: antonella.scherillo@stfc.ac.uk [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Neutron Source, OX0QJ Didcot (United Kingdom); Soffritti, C., E-mail: chiara.soffritti@unife.it [TekneHub, Department of Architecture, University of Ferrara, Via Quartieri 8, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Garagnani, G.L., E-mail: gian.luca.garagnani@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina.

  15. Investigations on a brass armour: Authentic or forgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A copper-based armour, supposedly excavated in Eastern Georgia and tentatively dated to the I–II century AD, was investigated with the aim of checking its authenticity. The finding consisted of several pieces, mostly in a good state of conservation: helmet, lorica musculata (i.e. muscled cuirass), forearm guards, pterygies (covering the lower body and thighs), shin greaves and a spear tip. The combination of conventional metallography with in situ and non-destructive investigations (including Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (ToF-ND)) on the front of the lorica, on one of the pterygies and on the spear tip showed that the composition and microstructure of the armour was not fully homogeneous. However, the results from the muscled cuirass are fairly coherent and raise suspicion about the authenticity of the piece, namely because of the (i) presence of metallic Al in the alloy, in solid solution with Cu, (ii) prevalence of an as-cast microstructure, which lead to a heavy weight as well to the need for a high amount of metal by comparison to hammered sheet and (iii) presence of an artificial patina, combined with earthy deposits which are not explainable if the original patina was removed before artificial patination for aesthetical reasons. - Highlights: • Cu-based armour from Eastern Georgia (I–II century AD?): check authenticity. • Conventional metallography combined with in situ and non-destructive investigations (ToF-ND). • Suspicious points: Al in the alloy, as-cast microstructure, artificial patina

  16. Investigation of the diffusion {proportional_to} brasses using methods depending on the evaporation or condensation of zinc; Etude de la diffusion dans les laitons {proportional_to} au moyen des methodes d'evaporation ou de condensation du zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accary, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique du CNRS (France)

    1959-07-01

    Diffusion in {alpha} brasses has been investigated using methods involving the evaporation and the condensation of zinc. Having shown that at sufficiently high temperatures intergranular diffusion has no effect, it was then proved that the rate of evaporation or of condensation can only be defined if the mechanical treatment of the test piece before diffusion, the direction of the diffusion and the nature of the impurities present are also defined. The coefficient of diffusion D is then given by the equation D ({pi}/4t){rho}{sup 2}{sub 0} where t is the duration of the diffusion; {rho}{sub 0} is the extrapolated value of {rho} = ({delta}m)/({delta}C) for a zero value of the variation of concentration ({delta}m in is the change in weight of the test piece per unit surface; {delta}C is the difference between the concentration at the surface and the initial concentration of the test piece). This method has been used to study the effect of the direction of the diffusion on the coefficient of diffusion. The coefficient for diffusion which decreases the concentration of zinc is 5 times greater than that for diffusion which increases the quantity of zinc in the metal; an interpretation of this phenomena based on the mechanism of diffusion vacancies in the structure has been proposed. By means of micrographic investigation and by weighing it has been shown that the presence of certain impurities, such as phosphorous, arsenic, antimony, silicon, and aluminium can result in a marked increase of the rate of diffusion: the effect of these impurities on the coefficient of diffusion has been related to their valency and atomic weight. (author) [French] La diffusion dans les laitons {alpha} a ete etudiee au moyen des methodes d'evaporation et de condensafion du zinc. Apres avoir montre qu'aux temperatures suffisamment elevees, la diffusion intergranulaire ne jouait aucun role, l'auteur a prouve que la vitesse d'evaporation ou de condensation n'est definie

  17. 便携式 X荧光仪测定铅黄铜合金中主元素的研究应用%The Research and Application of Using the Portable X Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer to Determine the Main Elements of Lead Brass Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢希成; 赖万昌; 李军; 吴和喜

    2014-01-01

    tube which can obtain the best peak to background ratio are with the setting at 22kV and 8μA respectively.Application study in the determination of the main elements of lead brass alloy in the use of portable X fluorescence analyzer shows that, using the experi-ence coefficient method to calculate the relative strength is needed in the first element content value determina-tion, and the fundamental parameter method process can be used in the following iterations.The experimental results show that, using this method for quantitative analysis of Cu, Zn, Pb, the average relative error of 1. 04%, 3.3%, 6.22%, can be obtained.

  18. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  19. 75 FR 18801 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... like product in packed condition and ready for shipment. In our sales-below-cost analysis, we relied on... customer, and is treated as such by Wieland both in its sales and cost accounting, the Department should... the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on BSS from Germany on March 6, 1987 (52 FR...

  20. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... reviews on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11509) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 35910, June 20, 2011). Notice of the scheduling of the Commission's reviews and of a public... the Federal Register on September 12, 2011 (76 FR 58299). The hearing was held in Washington, DC,...

  1. Visualization of latent fingerprint corrosion on a discharged brass shell casing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, John W; Heidel, Chuck

    2009-07-01

    Latent fingerprint visualization on discharged shell casings can provide good forensic evidence, particularly if the casing is recovered at the scene of a crime where a firearm has been discharged. Unfortunately, visualization of such latent fingerprints when they were deposited prior to discharge of the firearm is problematic as both increased temperature and abrasive friction can inhibit fingerprint visualization with conventional techniques. We present a case study that demonstrates latent fingerprint visualization on a discharged shell casing recovered 14 years ago from the scene of a homicide. Previous cyanoacrylate fuming of the casing had failed to reveal any fingerprints. We use a visualization technique in which a conducting carbon powder adheres preferentially to latent fingerprint corrosion of the casing surface, following the application of a potential of 2.5 kV to the casing. This technique presents opportunities for the review of old cases and for consideration of its use in current cases.

  2. 77 FR 49780 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 12559 (March 1... Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 25401 (April 30, 2012). On... Metals, Inc., Aurubis Bufalo, Inc., PMX Industries, Inc., and Revere Copper Products, Inc....

  3. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in woodwind, brass and percussion players: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Soriano, Pedro; Llana Belloch, Salvador; Cebria i Iranzo, Maria Dels Angels; Igual Camacho, Celedonia; Cortell Tormo, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Performing Arts Medicine is a broad field that includes the study of medical conditions and injuries incurred by dancers, instrument musicians and vocalists. Musicians' playing-related health problems have focused more and more the interest of scientists, researchers, physicians, physiotherapists and, in generally, of health care professionals during the last decades. The most relevant Performing Arts Medicine's literature of approximately the past twenty years has been summari...

  4. On the Development of the Brass-Type Texture in Austenitic Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been clarified and demonstrated that the conclusions drawn by Singh, Ramaswamy and Suryanarayana (1992) in an investigation of development of rolling textures in an austenitic stainless steel are correct. The observations and reinterpretations drawn by Leffers (1993) are without any proper scientific basis and do not hold good at least in austenitic stainless steel.

  5. 76 FR 58299 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...-year review were such that a full review pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (76 FR... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to...

  6. 75 FR 14443 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for Revere Copper and Brass in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Job Duties: Extruders and Shapes Specialists who worked in the Rod and Shape Mill. Period of Employment: January 1, 1943 through December 31, 1984. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stuart L. Hinnefeld.... Information requests can also be submitted by e-mail to DCAS@CDC.GOV . John Howard, Director,...

  7. Anatomical studies of timber and EPMA analysis of brass artefacts collected from steam engine shipwreck of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    sample-mounting press. These plastic mounts were ground and polished using Buehler Automet-250 polishing machine to get a fine polished surface of the sam- ples. The polished sections were coated with carbon using SPI module carbon coater...

  8. Decontamination of discharged aluminum brass condenser tubes of a BWR. Evolving the chemical formulation for copper oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical formulations for copper oxide dissolution have been evaluated primarily for the minimum ionic load resulting in the spent formulation along with other desirable qualities. Peroxydisulfuric acid prepared freshly through ion exchange route has shown almost stoichiometric dissolution of the copper oxide as per the acidic oxidative action with efficient kinetics. Stability of the prepared formulation for its application and its effective oxidizing behaviour and aqueous cupric ion stabilizing by its redox product has been established experimentally. (author)

  9. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires via Hotwire Thermal Evaporation of Brass (CuZn Assisted by Vapor Phase Transport of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K. Thandavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires (NWs were synthesized using vapor phase transport (VPT and thermal evaporation of Zn from CuZn. Time dependence of ZnO NWs growth was investigated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes. Significant changes were observed from the field electron scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images as well as from the X-ray diffraction (XRD profile. The photoluminescence (PL profile was attributed to the contribution of oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitials, and hydrogen defects in the ZnO NWs. Raman scattering results show a significant peak at 143 cm−1 and possible functionalization on the wall of ZnO NWs. Growth of ZnO NWs in (0002 with an estimated distance between adjacent lattice planes 0.26 nm was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis.

  10. Improvisation and entrepreneurial bricolage versus rationalisation: A case-based analysis of contrasting responses to economic instability in the UK brass musical instruments industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David J.; Blundel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In periods of economic crisis and instability, the response of many business organisations is to try and adapt to prevailing market conditions. This typically results in a pattern of retrenchment and rationalisation designed to cut costs. Responses of this kind may be justifiable and, to varying degrees, effective at a firm-level. However, their wider repercussions can include the worsening of a pre-existing economic downturn (e.g. large- scale redundancies affecting local communities and can...

  11. The Verbenaceae, collected in Papua by L. J. Brass for the Archbold Expedition. (American Museum of Natural History), 1933—1934

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Mr. BRASS’S New Guinea collection has yielded valuable data to our knowledge of the Verbenaceae. He discovered one new genus (Archboldia), 3 new species (Clerodendron Brassii, C. populneum and Premna inaequilateralis) and some interesting additions to the area’s of earlier described species, among w

  12. RESEARCH OF THE REASONS OF BRASS COVERING SEPARATION OF WIRE – BILLET FOR PRODUCTION OF METAL CORD AND WIRE FOR REINFORCEMENT OF SLEEVES OF HIGH PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Seryogina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that research of impurities on wire surface with the help of optical microscope after chemical bleed of covering enables to define type of pollution, character of their arrangement on wire surface, and also to eliminate the reason of their formation.

  13. Relation Between Corrosion Rate of Brass and Concentration of Chloride Ion%黄铜腐蚀速度与Cl-浓度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志武; 原素芳

    2004-01-01

    为了定量确定黄铜腐蚀与Cl浓度的关系,对HSn70-1A、HAl77-2A两种黄铜进行静态挂片浸泡试验,并根据试验数据拟合了关系曲线.试验结果表明,在含Cl-的水溶液中HSn70-1A较HAl77-2A腐蚀严重;HSn70-1A、HAl77-2A的腐蚀速度随Cl-浓度的变化均呈三次方关系,区别在于HAl77-2A的腐蚀速度随Cl-浓度的变化较为平缓,而HSn70-1A的腐蚀速度随Cl-浓度的变化较为显著,HSn70-1A的腐蚀对Cl-较HAl77-2A更为敏感.

  14. Quantified In Situ Analysis of Initial Atmospheric Corrosion : Surface heterogeneity, galvanic effects and corrosion product distribution on zinc, brass and Galvalume

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the surface of a pure metal or an alloy with the surrounding atmosphere occurs in a highly complex interfacial regime. During atmospheric corrosion this interfacial regime involves the metal surface, often covered by a naturally formed oxide layer of a few nanometers thickness; an aqueous adlayer, typically with a thickness of a few to a few tens of nanometers, and the atmosphere from which airborne particles, oxygen, and gaseous pollutants dissolve into the adlayer and inf...

  15. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  16. Study on Coating Monitor System of Ferrous Sulphate Coating for Brass Tubes in Condenser%凝汽器铜管FeSO4镀膜监测系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春雷; 李长鸣

    2002-01-01

    为了减缓凝汽器铜管的腐蚀,通常采用FeSO4造膜保护,而FeSO4膜质量很难控制.作者通过对凝汽器黄铜管FeSO4镀膜成膜工艺、影响因素的深入研究,建立了以电化学响应为特征的镀膜控制系统,选择了相应的传感器,形成以计算机处理为核心的监测系统.应用表明,该系统方便、可靠.

  17. Numerical modelling of coupled phenomena within molten glass heated by induction and mechanically stirred; Modelisation numerique de phenomenes couples dans des bains de verre brasses mecaniquement et elabores en creuset froid inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoutot, L

    2006-11-15

    This study reports on a new vitrification process developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, Marcoule). This process is used for the treatment of high activity nuclear waste. It is characterized by the cooling of all the metal walls and by currents directly induced inside the molten glass. In addition, a mechanical stirring device is used to homogenize the molten glass. The goal of this study is to develop numerical tools to understand phenomena which take place within the bath and which involve thermal, hydrodynamic and electromagnetic aspects. The numerical studies are validated using experimental results obtained from pilot vitrification facilities. (author)

  18. Corrosion behaviour of copper alloys in the WWER-440 secondary coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass did not prove useful as the tubing material in low-pressure preheaters. Tubing lifetime is ≤ 16 years for the higher stages of heating. Another drawback is release of copper into the feedwater. Consequently, brass tube low-pressure preheaters are an essential source of steam generator fouling. Moreover, the dissolved copper supports local corrosion of the generator tubes. Brass is proposed to be substituted by austenitic CrNi steel as the tubing material of low-pressure preheaters. (author)

  19. 40 CFR 60.130 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in secondary brass or bronze production plants: Reverberatory and electric furnaces of 1,000 kg (2205 lb) or greater production capacity and blast (cupola) furnaces of 250 kg/h (550 lb/h) or greater production capacity. Furnaces from which molten brass or bronze are cast into the shape of finished...

  20. 78 FR 25469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of South Alabama Center for Archaeological Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...,976 glass beads or bead fragments, 1 sand-tempered aboriginal ceramic bowl base, 1 brass kettle, 11...-green cylindrical glass bottle in 88 fragments. The human remains from Burial 2 represent, at minimum... Burial 2 are 11 glass beads/bead fragments, 2 plain shell-tempered ceramic jars, 1 small brass kettle,...

  1. Differential Effects of Cognitive Load on University Wind Students' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive load during practice on university wind students' learning. Cognitive load was manipulated through instrument family (woodwind or brass) and the amount of repetition used in practice (highly repetitive or random). University woodwind and valved-brass students (N = 46)…

  2. APPLICATION OF THE X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCES- SES OF WIRE PRODUCTION AT BMZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diffraction methods of qualitative and quantative analysis of phase composition of the brass coating, scale on the surface of brass wire, rod, patented wire, methods of determining the characteristics of the microstrains the lattice ferritic matrix pearlitic high-carbon steel, are explored.

  3. SIM-Lite: status of the engineering progress toward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Bloemhof, Eric E.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Eldred, Daniel; Goullioud, Renaud; Jeganathan, Muthu; Nicaise, Fabien; Zhao, Feng

    2008-07-01

    We present an overview of the ongoing progress towards flight readiness of the SIM project. We summarize the engineering milestones that have been completed in the last two years, namely: the Brass-Board Internal and External Metrology Beam Launchers, the Brass-Board Metrology Source, and the Instrument Communication Hardware/Software Architecture Demonstration. We also show other progress such as: the life test of the bass-screw and PZT actuators, building the Metrology Fiducials and the Single Strut Test Article. We status the ongoing work on the Brass-Board Fast Steering Mirror and the Brass-Board Astrometric Beam Combiner. We end with a proposed path towards finishing the Brass-Board suite.

  4. Evaluation and characterization of mechanisms controlling fate and effects of Army smokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McKinley, J.P.; Mi, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1990-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to characterize the fate and response of soil and biotic components of the terrestrial environment to aerosols, deposited brass, and brass in combination with fog oil. Important physical, chemical, and biotic aspects were investigated using an environmental wind tunnel. Air/surface deposition rates were determined for foliar and soil surfaces, both in the absence and presence of fog oil. Deposition velocities for foliage ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 cm/s at wind speeds of 2 to 10 mph, respectively. Foliar contact toxicity was assessed using five different types of terrestrial vegetation representative of Army training sites and surrounding environments. No significant foliar contact toxicity was observed for brass. The weathering and chemistry of brass aerosols deposited and amended to soils was assessed, along with the impacts of acid precipitation and moisture regimes on weathering rates. Rates of brass weathering and the fate of solubilized Cu and Zn are discussed. The influence of soil weathering processes and brass solubilization on seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects were noted after seed germination indicated no detectable effects of brass. However, moderate toxicity effects were noted after 160 days of soil incubation. The effects were proportional to soil-loading levels. Influence of soil weathering processes and contaminant solubilization on soil microbiological activities indicated that soil dehydrogenase activity was more susceptible to impacts than was phosphatase activity or microbial biomass. Nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria were not significantly affected by brass. Invertebrates (earthworms) associated with soil contaminated with brass were only slightly impacted, and only at loading rates >445 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}.

  5. 4-吡啶甲酰肼与十二烷基苯磺酸钠对盐水中黄铜的协同缓蚀效应研究%Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition of Brass in Brine by Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide and Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulphonate(SDBS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小红; 张胜涛; 胡莲跃

    2011-01-01

    本文采用失重法、极化曲线法、交流阻抗法研究环境友好型缓蚀剂4-吡啶甲酰肼与十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)对黄铜在3.0%NaCl介质中的缓蚀作用.结果表明:当4-吡啶甲酰肼浓度为0.50g/L,十二烷基苯磺酸钠浓度为0.35g/L时,其复配缓蚀效率达到99.65%.本文还对4-吡啶甲酰肼和十二烷基苯磺酸钠对黄铜的缓蚀机理进行了分析,表明4-吡啶甲酰肼在铜合金表面通过化学吸附形成保护膜,SDBS可在保护膜外形成疏水层,阻碍C1对铜的侵蚀,两者通过协同缓蚀作用达到对铜的高效保护.

  6. Sample (S): SE25_S07 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE25_S07 Brassica oleracea var. capitata T-767 Leaf Brassica oleracea var. capitata NCBI taxonomy:3716 Brass...ica oleracea var. capitata are grown at agricultural field in natural conditions. ...

  7. Kerr electro-optic field mapping study of the effect of charge injection on the impulse breakdown strength of transformer oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zahn, M.

    2013-10-01

    The smart use of charge injection to improve breakdown strength in transformer oil is demonstrated in this paper. Hypothetically, bipolar homo-charge injection with reduced electric field at both electrodes may allow higher voltage operation without insulation failure, since electrical breakdown usually initiates at the electrode-dielectric interfaces. To find experimental evidence, the applicability and limitation of the hypothesis is first analyzed. Impulse breakdown tests and Kerr electro-optic field mapping measurements are then conducted with different combinations of parallel-plate aluminum and brass electrodes stressed by millisecond duration impulse. It is found that the breakdown voltage of brass anode and aluminum cathode is ˜50% higher than that of aluminum anode and brass cathode. This can be explained by charge injection patterns from Kerr measurements under a lower voltage, where aluminum and brass electrodes inject negative and positive charges, respectively. This work provides a feasible approach to investigating the effect of electrode material on breakdown strength.

  8. Forte Fortissimo for amateur musicians: no effect on otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møllerløkken, Ole J; Magerøy, Nils; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Moen, Bente E

    2013-03-01

    Many amateur musicians are likely to be exposed to high sound levels during rehearsals. Measuring otoacoustic emissions (OAE) is an objective technique to assess hearing ability and can be used as an early predictor of hearing loss. This study aimed to record sound levels at an amateur brass band rehearsal and to examine the cochlear function of the musicians by evaluating distortion product (DP) OAE amplitudes before and after sound exposure. Twenty-four brass band musicians and 10 office workers were examined with personal noise measurements and DPOAE tests before and after a music rehearsal or one office workday, respectively. The sound levels in the brass band ranged from 92 to 100 dBA, LaEQ 96 dBA. However, the amateur brass band members had no change in DPOAEs after this exposure compared to pre-exposure levels and compared to office workers.

  9. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  10. Eesti viib Rostrumile kolm teost

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    11. juunil algab Pariisis rahvusvaheline heliloojate Rostrum, millel osalevad ka kolme noore eesti helilooja teosed: Mirjam Tally :Swinburne" Hasso Krulli luulele, Tõnis Kaumanni "Long Play" brass ansamblile ja Helena Tulve "Traces"

  11. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 2 SBIR proposal describes the design, fabrication and calibration of a brass-board Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM). The SVHM...

  12. Friction stir welding of copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuhua; Liu Meng; Wang Deqing; Xu Zhenyue

    2007-01-01

    Copper plates,brass plates and copper/brass plates were friction stir welded with various parameters. Experimental results show that the microstructure of the weld is characterized by its much finer grains as contrasted with the coarse grains of parent materials and the heat-affected zones are very narrow. The microhardness of the copper weld is a little higher than that of parent plate. The microhardness of brass weld is about 25% higher than that of parent material. The tensile strength of copper joints increases with increasing welding speed in the test range. The range of parameters to obtain good welds for copper is much wider than that for brass. When different materials were welded, the position of copper plate before welding affected the quality of FSW joints. If the copper plate was put on the advancing side of weld, the good quality of weld could be got under proper parameters.

  13. Initial evidence of dolphin takes in the Niger Delta region and a review of Nigerian cetaceans. Scientific Committee document SC/62/SM1, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Uwagbae, M.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    An interview survey among artisanal fishermen from Brass Island, Niger Delta, in 2008-2009 revealed, for the first time, regular takes of delphinids in Nigerian coastal waters. Three fishermen at Imbikiri, Brass Island, were identified as dedicated 'dolphin hunters'. Evidence is difficult to obtain but one video footage authenticated the landing of a live common bottlenose dolphin. Fraser's dolphin is suggested to occur offshore (probable sighting) but no other documented sightings of odontoc...

  14. Open areas of vibrating lips in trombone playing

    OpenAIRE

    Bromage, Seona; Campbell, Murray; Gilbert, Joël

    2010-01-01

    In brass instruments the player's lips are used as a control valve that allows an oscillating flow of air into the instrument. The behaviour of this valve, the lip-reed, is determined by both the pressure difference across the lips and the open area between the lips. Computer simulations of brass instrument playing frequently represent the lips as an oscillating system with one degree of freedom, representing the height of the lip opening. This study aims to provide experimental evidence to d...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF HORIZONTAL TUBE BUNDLES IN VACUUM STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shen; SUN Feng-zhong; SHI Yue-tao

    2012-01-01

    To develop an excellent heat transfer element under the vacuum condition,experiments about the heat transfer performance of horizontal tube bundles of different materials under various vacuum conditions were carried out,including the stainless steel tube,the brass tube,the Ni-based implanted steel tube and the ion implanted brass tube.The relative trends show that the condensation heat transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient of bundles of four materials all increase with the vacuum degree,especially,those of the Ni-based implanted steel tube and the ion implanted brass tube.Under a high vacuum condition (0.07 MPa),the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the Ni-based implanted steel tube bundle is about 1.4 times of that of the stainless steel tube bundle,the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the ion implanted brass tube bundle is found to be about 1.3 times of that of the common brass tube bundle.Therefore,according to the condensation heat transfer characteristics studied under high vacuum conditions,it is believed that a dropwise condensation is partly achieved on the surface of these two implanted tube bundles,and the ion implantation is shown to be an effective method to achieve the dropwise condensation.Based on this study,it is believed that the Ni-based steel tube may replace the brass tube,which is more expensive as a heat transfer component.

  16. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  17. PELATIHAN TEKNIK ELEKTROPLATING NIKEL BAGI INDUSTRI KERAJINAN KUNINGAN DI DESA KAMASAN KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Tirta Nindhia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Village of Kamasan at Klungkung in the Province of Bali is recognized as a centre of metal handicrafts,especially the handicraft made from brass. Many home industries for the brass handicraft are established in thisvillage. Recently due to Rapid progress of Tourism in Bali, The brass handicraft in Kamasan are growing wellbecause the demand for the souvenir. However some problem arise such as limited of variation, and surface qualityof the brass handicraft that tend to become blurred or dull due to the process of oxidation. This condition makethe brass handicrafts become not so interest as silver handicrafts that can shine for quite long time. To overcomethis problem it is needed to coating the surface of the brass handicrafts so that there will be no contact withoxygen. The coating will be more benefit if able to exhibit more interesting appearance, as what nickel coatingcan affect the appearance of the surface to become like silver but more clear. Equipment for nickel elektroplatingwas designed for this purpose and donated for this purpose. The unique of the equipment that was donated weresmall in size therefore only low electric power is needed, only 1 liter electrolyte was used and can be use manytime. The positive result is obtained for this activity where all participants able to operate the elektroplatingprocess with excellent result.

  18. Standard Practice for Use of Mattsson's Solution of pH 7.2 to Evaluate the Stress- Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Copper-Zinc Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the preparation and use of Mattsson's solution of pH 7.2 as an accelerated stress-corrosion cracking test environment for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The variables (to the extent that these are known at present) that require control are described together with possible means for controlling and standardizing these variables. 1.2 This practice is recommended only for brasses (copper-zinc base alloys). The use of this test environment is not recommended for other copper alloys since the results may be erroneous, providing completely misleading rankings. This is particularly true of alloys containing aluminum or nickel as deliberate alloying additions. 1.3 This practice is intended primarily where the test objective is to determine the relative stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of different brasses under the same or different stress conditions or to determine the absolute degree of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility, if any, of a particular brass or brass component ...

  19. Experiences with electrochemical analysis of copper at the PPB-level in saline cooling water and in the water/steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K. [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Determination of trace amounts of copper in saline cooling water and in process water by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry combined with an UV-photolysis pretreatment is described. Copper concentrations well below 1 {mu}g/L may be analysed with a precision in the order of 10% and a high degree of accuracy. The basic principles of the method are described together with three applications covering analysis of cooling and process water samples. The analysis method has been applied to document the adherence of environmental limits for the copper uptake of cooling water passing brass condensers, to monitor the formation of protective layers of iron oxides on the cooling water side of brass condensers, and to study the transport of copper in water/steam cycles with heat exchangers and condensers of brass materials. (au)

  20. Effect of the Heat Flux Density on the Evaporation Rate of a Distilled Water Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental dependence of the evaporation rate of a nondeaerated distilled water drop from the heat flux density on the surfaces of non-ferrous metals (copper and brass. A drop was placed on a heated substrate by electronic dosing device. To obtain drop profile we use a shadow optical system; drop symmetry was controlled by a high-speed video camera. It was found that the evaporation rate of a drop on a copper substrate is greater than on a brass. The evaporation rate increases intensively with raising volume of a drop. Calculated values of the heat flux density and the corresponding evaporation rates are presented in this work. The evaporation rate is found to increase intensively on the brass substrate with raising the heat flux density.

  1. The effect of electrostatic fingerprint visualization on integrated ballistic identification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Serge; Bond, John W

    2011-09-01

    Visualization of fingerprint corrosion on spent brass cartridge cases by the application of a high electrical potential and conducting carbon powder is becoming an accepted method of fingerprint enhancement. However, to date, no examination has been made of any effect this technique has on ballistic identification. To resolve this, images of the breech face and firing pin marks were captured on six plated nickel and six brass primer cup spent cartridge cases. Three nickel and three brass cases were then subjected to the application of a potential of +2500 V for a period of 1 min. The remaining cases were additionally subjected to the application of carbon powder. These latter cases were then washed to remove all traces of powder. Each case was recaptured with the same ballistic identification apparatus and imaging procedure. None of the twelve cases showed any visual difference after the application of the potential or conducting powder.

  2. Effect of stacking fault energy on nanostructure formation under accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effect of stacking fault energy on the formation of nanostructure in aluminum, copper, and brass fabricated via the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process was investigated. Evolution of microstructure of the samples was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Occurrence of the recrystallization (both continuous and discontinuous) in the copper and brass led to the formation of nano grains with mean sizes of 80, and 40 nm, respectively; while, the mean grain size of aluminum was 250 nm. Differences in microstructural evolution during processing of aluminum, copper, and brass was related to their stacking fault energies. In order to facilitate nanostructure formation in the commercial purity aluminum, the second phase particles (alumina) were added to aluminum matrix. In this case, the mean grain size of the aluminum changed down to 90 nm

  3. Study of metallic components of historical organ pipes using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence imaging and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L K; Justo, A; Muñoz-Páez, A; Sans, J A; Martínez-Criado, G

    2009-12-01

    A comparative study of the composition and microstructure of two different brass alloys from reed pipes, one from a Spanish baroque organ and the other from a modern one, was carried out. This study allowed us to determine the procedure followed to produce the brass used to make ancient reed pipes. Moreover the distribution and correlation of lead and other trace elements present into the main component of the brass, the copper and zinc phases, of the historical tongues and shallots were established. This chemical composition was compared with that of a tongue from a twentieth-century organ. The whole study was accomplished using a combination of laboratory and synchrotron radiation techniques. X-ray fluorescence was the technique used to obtain elemental and chemical imaging of the main phases and the trace elements at a sub-micrometer scale. PMID:19730830

  4. The prevention of Indian childhood cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, S A; Pandit, A N; Singh, S; Walia, B N; Tanner, M S

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have led to the hypothesis that the gross hepatic copper storage characteristic of Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) is due to the early introduction of animal milk feeds which have been contaminated with copper from brass household utensils. Amongst the families of 100 cases of ICC, the incidence of ICC in children born after dietary advice had been given (1/86) was significantly lower than in older siblings (12/125). This study attempted to document the incidence of ICC and the usage of brass before and after an intervention programme in Pune District advising against this pattern of infant feeding. The study encountered numerous difficulties in data gathering, but documented a fall in ICC prevalence resulting in its virtual disappearance in Pune District. This contrasted with an unchanged incidence in Chandigarh. Although a fall in brass usage was seen in Pune District, this was actually a spontaneous sociological change rather than a result of health education. PMID:1376582

  5. Automatic rotor diaphragm for a microphotometer 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotor diaphragm with electronic control is developed for automating microphotometering process. The diaphragm design is described and the flowsheet of the electronic control device is shown. The diaphragm incorporates one micarta and two brass disks at diameter 107 mm. All the disks have six axially coincident holes along a circumference whose radius is 37 mm and angular interval is 60 deg. In the first micarta disk 3 mm thick, the hole diameter is equal to 10 mm, and the middle brass disk 0.6 mm thick has square holes 15 x 15 mm for compensation filters. The second thin brass disk 0.2 mm thick has calibrated openings, the diameters of which correspond to microphotometered areas with diameter 800, 580, 280, 168, 96 and 48 μm. The automatic diaphragm has been successfully operated during three years and permitted to considerably enhance the experimental data processing rate

  6. Note: Development of target changeable palm-top pyroelectric x-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    A target changeable palm-top size x-ray tube was realized using pyroelectric crystal and detachable vacuum flanges. The target metals can be exchanged easily by attaching them on the brass stage with carbon tape. When silver and titanium palates (area: 10 mm{sup 2}) were used as targets, silver L{alpha} and titanium K lines were clearly observed by bombarding electrons on the targets for 90 s. The intensities were the same or higher than those of previously reported pyroelectric x-ray tubes. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc K lines in the x-ray tube (stainless steel and brass) disappeared by replacing the brass stage and the stainless steel vacuum flange with a carbon stage and a glass tube, respectively.

  7. The effect of electrostatic fingerprint visualization on integrated ballistic identification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Serge; Bond, John W

    2011-09-01

    Visualization of fingerprint corrosion on spent brass cartridge cases by the application of a high electrical potential and conducting carbon powder is becoming an accepted method of fingerprint enhancement. However, to date, no examination has been made of any effect this technique has on ballistic identification. To resolve this, images of the breech face and firing pin marks were captured on six plated nickel and six brass primer cup spent cartridge cases. Three nickel and three brass cases were then subjected to the application of a potential of +2500 V for a period of 1 min. The remaining cases were additionally subjected to the application of carbon powder. These latter cases were then washed to remove all traces of powder. Each case was recaptured with the same ballistic identification apparatus and imaging procedure. None of the twelve cases showed any visual difference after the application of the potential or conducting powder. PMID:21595699

  8. Effect of the mode of plastic deformation on the formation of the alloy-type texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, F.; Bochniak, W. [Akademy of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Structure and Mechanics of Solids

    1995-06-15

    The aim of this work was to explore the role of heterogeneous deformation in the formation of the alloy-type texture. Recent works on the role of the deformation mode in evolution of the deformation texture seem to shed new light on the problem of texture formation. In particular it has been shown, that the texture typical for pure fcc metals (copper type texture), may be easily converted into the B-component of the alloy type texture (brass texture) due to shear banding induced during cross-rolling. It was proved that deformation in shear bands is a simple transgranular shear (micro-shearband) which makes the polycrystalline metal behave like a single crystal oriented for the single system slip. In view of these results, it seems necessary to re-examine the problem of the formation of the brass type texture during monotonic rolling. In particular, there is no experimental information about the spatial orientation of shear bands in the test piece of brass, except that they occurs on average on lateral face of sample, at 35{degree} with respect to the rolling direction. This does not suffice yet to conclude whether the position of shear in brass is the same as in copper. It may as well be expected, that if the deformation in shear bands in brass is not a plane strain deformation with respect to the sample reference system or, in other words, the sample transverse direction does not lie in the plane of shear, the formation of shear bands may systematically lead to splitting of the metal type texture (resulting from homogeneous deformation) according to the geometry of shear bands. The problem of the spatial orientation of shear bands in monotonically rolled brass and of the evolution of the texture pattern is discussed in this work.

  9. Spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: Setting up of high-performance laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; Kamlesh Alti; Rajesh Nayak; Rodney Bernard; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G P Gupta; B M Suri

    2010-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged as one of the best analytical techniques for multi-elemental compositional analysis of samples. We report assembling and optimization of LIBS set up using high resolution and broad-range echelle spectrograph coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) to detect and quantify trace elements in environmental and clinical samples. Effects of variations of experimental parameters on spectroscopy signals of copper and brass are reported. Preliminary results of some plasma diagnostic calculations using recorded time-resolved optical emission signals are also reported for brass samples.

  10. Development of a strong Goss texture during annealing of a heavily rolled Al–0.3% Cu alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeel, Aneela; Huang, T.L.; Wu, G.L.;

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during isochronal annealing of a heavily cold rolled Al–0.3% Cu alloy has been characterized using electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that the rolling texture of this alloy is dominated by the Brass component and that recrystallization during...... annealing leads to the formation of a pronounced Goss texture. It is suggested that the development of the strong Goss texture in Al–0.3% Cu is caused by preferred growth of Goss-oriented grains into the Brass-oriented matrix....

  11. Simultaneous determination of trace-levels of alloying zinc and copper by semi-mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis with chemometric data treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Assays of copper and zinc in brass samples were performed by Semi-Mercury Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (S-MF PSA) using a thin-film mercury covered glassy-carbon working electrode and dissolved oxygen as oxidizing agent during the stripping step. The stripping peak transients were...... resolved by chemometrics which enabled simultaneous determination of both the copper and the zinc concentrations, thereby eliminating the conventional necessary pretreatment of the sample solution, such as initial addition of Ga(III) or solvent extraction of copper. The brass samples were diluted...

  12. Fabrication of laminated carbon-carbon materials and investigating their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of obtaining laminated composite materials is developed and their physical-mechanical properties are investigated. The essence of the method consists in the fact that using a special tool the carbon felt surface is bristled up forming ''a brass''. In the process of preform making the ''brass'' fibers penetrate between the carbon cloth fibers (of another layer) and reinforce heavily the interlaminar composite strength. As a result, the laminated composite obtained has, in fact, a 3D reinforcement structure. The experimental data on the physical-mechanical properties of the material confirm its isotropy

  13. The fractal characterization of wear particles in relation to the wear status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The topography and distribution of wear particles produced in the wear process containmuch information about the wear status. Fractal geometry is applied in this paper to describe thewear particle accumulation in order to characterize the wear status change. The sliding wear test isperformed on a pin-on-disc apparatus using steel disc and brass pin. The investigation resultsshow that wear particle accumulation presents a strong bi-fractal behavior. Also, the fractal dimen-sion varies in correspondence to the wear status change. A new fractal index characterizing thewear particle accumulation is put forward. The wear tests of brass pin demonstrate that the fractalindex is effective in describing the wear status change.

  14. A simulation tool for brassiness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joël; Menguy, Ludovic; Campbell, Murray

    2008-04-01

    A frequency-domain numerical model of brass instrument sound production is proposed as a tool to predict their brassiness, defined as the rate of spectral enrichment with increasing dynamic level. It is based on generalized Burger's equations dedicated to weakly nonlinear wave propagation in nonuniform ducts, and is an extension of previous work by Menguy and Gilbert [Acta Acustica 86, 798-810 (2000)], initially limited to short cylindrical tubes. The relevance of the present tool is evaluated by carrying out simulations over distances longer than typical shock formation distances, and by doing preliminary simulations of periodic regimes in a typical brass trombone bore geometry. PMID:18396993

  15. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Senguttuvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were analyzed separately and aluminum is found the best material among the steel, brass and ABS material for common rail injection tube. Keywords: Common Rail Injection System, Alternate Material.

  16. An active mute for the trombone

    OpenAIRE

    Meurisse, Thibaut; MAMOU-MANI, Adrien; Causse, Rene; Sluchin, Benny; Sharp, David

    2016-01-01

    A mute is a device that is placed in the bell of a brass instrument to alter its sound. However, when a straight mute is used with a brass instrument, the frequencies of its first impedance peaks are slightly modified, and a mistuned, extra impedance peak appears. This peak affects the instrument’s playability, making some lower notes difficult or impossible to produce when playing at low dynamic levels. To understand and suppress this effect, an active mute with embedded microphone and speak...

  17. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  18. 75 FR 47268 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... like or directly competitive with those produced by each firm contributed importantly to the total or..., Inc.... 1005 N. Vine Street, 7/26/2010 Patriot Metal provides custom coating and Berwick PA 18603... that include stainless steel, brass and aluminum. Gulf Crown Seafood Company, Inc 306 Jon Floyd Rd,...

  19. de Haas-van Alphen Effect, LMTO Bandstructure and Fermi Surface of beta-AgMg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunsworth, A. E.; Jan, J. - P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1978-01-01

    The de Haas-van Alphen effect has been measured in the ordered alloy beta '-AgMg. The relativistic LMTO bandstructure has been calculated, and predicts a Fermi surface in good agreement with experiment. Both bandstructure and Fermi surface are similar to those of other beta brasses with the same ...

  20. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, D.; Brunell, G.; Lindh, U.

    1982-06-01

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25×25×25)μm 3. The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively.

  1. Kontserdipeegel / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2000-01-01

    Kontsertidest Estonia kontserdisaalis ئ 17. veebr. ERSO A. Tshistjakovi juhatusel, solist S. Kuulmann; 28. veebr. Eesti-Soome SO A. Tali juhatusel kontserdiga "Armastus"; 2. märtsil ERSO A. Manzano juhatusel, solistid M. Mikalai, M. Männi ja P. Tarvas; 3. märtsil The Brass Brothers

  2. Numerical simulation of self-sustained oscillation of a voice-producing element based on Navier-Stokes equations and the finite element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Martinus P. de; Hamburg, Marc C.; Schutte, Harm K.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical removal of the larynx results in radically reduced production of voice and speech. To improve voice quality a voice-producing element (VPE) is developed, based on the lip principle, called after the lips of a musician while playing a brass instrument. To optimize the VPE, a numerical model

  3. Copper and Copper Alloys Disintegration Using Pulsating Water Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Lehocká, D.; Klich, J. (Jiří); Foldyna, J.; S. Hloch; M. Zeleňák; Cárach, J.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the surface topography of copper and coppeer alloys - brass and bronze is the object of investigation. The material was disintegrated using multiple transition of pulsating water jet with changing speed of feed. It is assumed that this ew way of metal eroding can be used in the automotive and engineering industries in the future.

  4. 46 CFR 28.835 - Fuel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section, fuel piping shall be steel pipe, annealed seamless copper, brass, nickel copper, or.../fire pumps. (b) Each integral fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point... mating spud, pipe, or hose fitting. (k) Supply piping that conveys fuel oil or lubricating oil...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.706 - Oil piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... described in § 3280.706(b) (1) through (4). (1) Steel or wrought-iron pipe shall comply with ANSI B 36.10-1979, Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe. Threaded copper or brass pipe in iron pipe sizes may be... the Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-93, or shall comply with ASTM...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.607 - Plumbing fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... locations shall be not less than No. 20 Brown and Sharpe gage seamless drawn-brass tubing or other approved pipe or tubing materials. Inaccessible fixture connections shall be constructed according to the... tanks shall be fitted with an overflow pipe large enough to prevent flooding at the maximum flow rate...

  7. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion inhibition efficiency of N-(4-(Morpholinomethyl Carbamoyl Phenyl Furan-2-Carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulfareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mannich base namely N-(4-(Morpholinomethyl Carbamoyl Phenyl Furan-2-Carboxamide (MFC was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The molecular weight of MFC was confirmed by LC-MS. The inhibition effect of MFC on brass in 1 M HCl medium has been investigated by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltametry (CV. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, entropy and enthalpy were calculated to describe the mechanism of corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency of MFC increases with increase in concentration and temperature ranges from 30 °C to 60 °C. Polarization measurements indicated that MFC acts as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor. AC impedance indicates that Rct value increases with increase in the concentration of inhibitor. CV reveals that the oxidation of the copper is controlled by the addition of inhibitor on the brass metal. Surface analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM shows a significant morphological improvement on the brass surface with the addition of the inhibitor. The adsorption of MFC on brass obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The molecular structure of MFC was distorted to quantum chemical indices using density functional theory (DFT which indicates that the inhibition efficiency of MFC is closely related to quantum parameters.

  8. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum...

  9. Low-Cost Timer to Measure the Terminal Velocity of a Magnet Falling through a Conducting Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish R.; Huli, Saurabhee; Lahane, Rohan; Sawant, Sumedh

    2014-01-01

    Dropping a magnet into a conductive pipe (made up of copper or brass or aluminum) is a very popular demonstration in many physics classrooms and laboratories. In this paper we present an inexpensive timer that can be used to measure the terminal velocity of the magnet falling through a conducting pipe. The timer assembly consists of Hall effect…

  10. Annotated phyto-taxonomical and phyto-geographical publications on the Malaysian Flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1947-01-01

    Blake, S.T.: The Cyperaceae collected in New Guinea by L.J. Brass II (Journ. Arn. Arbor. 28 (1947) 207-229, 1 fig. 2 pl.). Deals with the genera Hypolytrum, Thoracostachyum, Paramapania, Mapania, Lepironia, Cyperus, Eleocharis, Bulbostylis, Fuirena, Lipocarpha. Two new species of Cyperus, 1 of Mapan

  11. Formation of deformation textures in face-centered-cubic materials studied by in-situ high-energy x-ray diffraction and self-consistent model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, N.; Nie, Z. H.; Ren, Y.; Peng, R. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Zhao, X.; X-Ray Science Division; Northeastern Univ.; Linkoping Univ.; Beijing Inst. of Tech.

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of deformation textures in copper and a brass that are representative of fcc metals with different stacking fault energies (SFEs) during cold rolling is predicted using a self-consistent (SC) model. The material parameters used for describing the micromechanical behavior of each metal are determined from the high-energy X-ray (HEXRD) diffraction data. At small reductions, a reliable prediction of the evolution of the grain orientation distribution that is represented as the continuous increase of the copper and brass components is achieved for both metals when compared with the experimental textures. With increasing deformation, the model could characterize the textures of copper, i.e., the strengthening of the copper component, when dislocation slip is still the dominant mechanism. For a brass at moderate and large reductions, a reliable prediction of its unique feature of texture evolution, i.e., the weakening of the copper component and the strengthening of the brass component, could only be achieved when proper boundary conditions together with some specified slip/twin systems are considered in the continuum micromechanics mainly containing twinning and shear banding. The present investigation suggests that for fcc metals with a low SFE, the mechanism of shear banding is the dominant contribution to the texture development at large deformations.

  12. 78 FR 33809 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Roper Corporation; Subzone 26G (Kitchen Ranges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... CFR 400.22) was received on May 21, 2013. The subzone currently has authority to produce various types... during customs entry procedures that apply to gas and electric kitchen ranges (duty rate ranges from duty... rings, springs, brass orifice spuds, base burner assemblies, head burners, burner injet assemblies,...

  13. Finding the Muse: Teaching Musical Expression to Adolescents in the One-to-One Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Eleanor A.

    2011-01-01

    One-to-one music lessons are a common and effective way of learning a musical instrument. This investigation into one-to-one music teaching at the secondary school level explores the teaching of musical expression by two instrumental music teachers of brass and strings. The lessons of the two teachers with two students each were video recorded…

  14. Leadership in Two Worlds: Operating in Disparate Realms, One that Pushes Ego and Ambition, the Other that Promotes Personal Values and Principled Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goens, George A.

    2011-01-01

    People live in two worlds. The first is the external world of competition, ego, ambition and power. Here they chase the brass ring of success through control and standardized procedures designed to stave off failure. In this context, leaders face politics, conflicting expectations and bottom-line metrics. But in quiet moments of solitude, these…

  15. 40 CFR 59.503 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tarnish and corrosion of uncoated brass, bronze, or copper metal surfaces. Distributor means any person... between that surface and subsequent coats. Product-Weighted Reactivity (PWR) Limit means the maximum allowed “product-weighted reactivity,” as calculated in § 59.505, of an aerosol coating product that...

  16. Deposition of corrosion products from dowels on human dental root surfaces measured with proton microprobe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of copper, mercury and zinc on human teeth root surfaces adjacent to dowels of gold alloy or brass as well as dowels of brass in conjunction with an amalgam crown has been measured with a proton microprobe using PIXE techniques. Upper limits of the contents of gold and silver on the root surfaces were established. Pronounced concentration profiles of copper and zinc were observed on the root surfaces of teeth prepared with dowels of brass. The dowel of gold alloy revealed only zinc deposition. The major part of copper on the root surfaces is assumed to arise from corrosion of the dowels, and has been transported to the surface by diffusion through the dential tubuli. Zinc in the volume analysed is a constituent of dentin tissue as well as a corrosion product of the brass dowel. Part of the zinc level could also be ascribed to erosion of the zinc phosphate cement matrix. The volumes analysed were (25 x 25 x 25)μm3. The levels of copper, mercury and zinc on the tooth root surfaces attained values up to about 200, 20 and 600 ppm, respectively. (orig.)

  17. MM97.48 Influence of multidirectional deformation mode on flow stress behaviour during cold forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Maria; Pavel, Huml; Mendoza, Camus Luis

    1997-01-01

    In the present experimental investigation the influence of strain path on behaviour and final properties has been simulated in uni-, two- and three-directional deformation regimes. Pure iron and a low carbon steel have been investigated considering stress strain behaviour. Brass and copper...

  18. Lack of Involvement of Fenton Chemistry in Death of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Destruction of Their Genomes on Wet or Dry Copper Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The pandemic of hospital-acquired infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has declined, but the evolution of strains with enhanced virulence and toxins and the increase of community-associated infections are still a threat. In previous studies, 107 MRSA bacteria applied as simulated droplet contamination were killed on copper and brass surfaces within 90 min. However, contamination of surfaces is often via finger tips and dries rapidly, and it may be overlooked by cleaning regimes (unlike visible droplets). In this new study, a 5-log reduction of a hardy epidemic strain of MRSA (epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus 16 [EMRSA-16]) was observed following 10 min of contact with copper, and a 4-log reduction was observed on copper nickel and cartridge brass alloys in 15 min. A methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strain from an osteomyelitis patient was killed on copper surfaces in 15 min, and 4-log and 3-log reductions occurred within 20 min of contact with copper nickel and cartridge brass, respectively. Bacterial respiration was compromised on copper surfaces, and superoxide was generated as part of the killing mechanism. In addition, destruction of genomic DNA occurs on copper and brass surfaces, allaying concerns about horizontal gene transfer and copper resistance. Incorporation of copper alloy biocidal surfaces may help to reduce the spread of this dangerous pathogen. PMID:26826226

  19. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy CuZn30 after recrystallizion annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the investigations is to determine the influence of the recrystallization temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the brass CuZn30 subjected to cold deformation in the process of rolling at various degrees of strain.Design/methodology/approach: The brass CuZn30 was recrystallization annealed within the temperature range of 300-650°C after cold rolling with the strain of 15.8-70.2%. The tensile test was carried out by the use of universal testing machine. Metallographic observations were performed on an optical microscope and fractographic tests on a scanning electron microscope. The hardness was also measured.Findings: The analysis of the results of investigations concerning the mechanical properties permitted to determine the effect of the temperature of recrystallization annealing on the strength and plastic properties of the investigated brass, subjected to cold deformation with a varying strain in the course of rolling. The character of fracture after decohesion in the tension test was determined basing on fractographic investigations.Practical implications: An increase of the recrystallization temperature within the range of 400-650°C results in a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the brass CuZn30 and an increase of its plastic properties.Originality/value: The results of the investigation revealed the occurrence of the phenomenon of heterogeneous plastic deformation in the recrystallized alloy.

  20. Pro Forma Registration of Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the view taken by Community law on companies' pro forma registration in another EU or EEA country. Community law recognises pro forma registration under company law, i.e. a brass plate is sufficient, whereas it does not recognise pro forma registration under tax law, i...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.253 - Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the regulations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, 49 CFR parts 171-179. (ii... reach them, or fire-resistant shields shall be provided. (J) Cylinders shall not be placed where they...) Joints in brass or copper pipe shall be welded, brazed, threaded, or flanged. If of the socket type,...

  2. PERSPECTIVES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PRODUCTION OF METAL CORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gordienko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on investigations on the problems of metal cord production are given. The matters connected with generation of single-phase corrosion-resistant brass covering, breakages at laying and plasticity after low-temperature processing are considered.

  3. 77 FR 67334 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... recalculated the surrogate financial ratios using the financial statements of FVC Philippines, Inc. and Makati... Comment 3: Surrogate Value for Brass Scrap Comment 4: Financial Ratios Comment 5: Brokerage and Handling... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 26489 (May 4, 2012). DATES: Effective Date: November 9,...

  4. The Effects of Orchestration on Musicians' and Nonmusicians' Perception of Musical Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of orchestration on musicians' and nonmusicians' (N = 40) perception of musical tension. Participants were asked to register their perceptions of tension using the Continuous Response Digital Interface dial while listening to three orchestrations (full orchestra, brass quintet, and solo piano)…

  5. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  6. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING INSOLUBLE STARCH XANTHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northern Regional Research Center developed an effective process to remove heavy metals from wastewaters of two nonferrous metal industries and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX). The study included bench-scale evaluation of wastewaters from two lead battery and one brass mill w...

  7. Photographic Gelatin and the World Market%照明相胶和世界市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction   1.1 Life cycle of photographic gelatin   During the conference in Cambridge, Septmber 1997,I reminded of an early publication of a scientist, we all highly respect, Prof.Dr.Ammann-Brass,who honoured the centenary(100 years)of photographic in 1971[1].……

  8. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... FR 27266 (May 16, 2001). III. EPA's Evaluation of the Waste Information and Data A. What Waste Did... copper and zinc to produce a brass coating. The facility generates F006 filter cake by the dewatering of... (carcinogenic risk of 10 -5 and non-cancer hazard index of 1.0). The DRAS program can back-calculate...

  9. Formation of Copper Type Texture in Cold Rolled Aluminum Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The formation process of copper type rolling texture in f.c.c. Metals was simulated based on a deformation modelconsidering internal reaction stresses induced by the neighboring matrix as well as external shear stress induced byrollers. It is indicated that the external shear stress will reduce the brass type texture and increase the copper typetexture obviously.

  10. Sexual slander and the 1965/66 mass killings in Indonesia: political and methodological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Wieringa

    2011-01-01

    Indonesia has been haunted by the "spectre of communism" since the putsch by military officers on 1 October 1965. That event saw the country's top brass murdered and the military attributing this putsch to the Communist Party. The genocide that followed was triggered by a campaign of sexual slander.

  11. The fluence threshold of femtosecond laser blackening of metals: The effect of laser-induced ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhigui; Huang, Min; Zhao, Fuli

    2016-05-01

    With the primary controlling factor of the laser fluence, we have investigated femtosecond laser blackening of stainless steel, brass, and aluminum in visible light range. In general, low reflectance about 5% can be achieved in appropriate ranges of laser fluences for all the treated metal surfaces. Significantly, towards stainless steel and brass a fluence threshold of blackening emerges unusually: a dramatic reflectance decline occurs in a specific, narrow fluence range. In contrast, towards aluminum the reflectance declines steadily over a wide fluence range instead of the threshold-like behavior from steel and brass. The morphological characteristics and corresponding reflectance spectra of the treated surfaces indicates that the blackening threshold of stainless steel and brass corresponds to the fluence threshold of laser-induced subwavelength ripples. Such periodic ripples growing rapidly near ablation threshold absorb visible light efficiently through grating coupling and cavity trapping promoted by surface plasmon polaritons. Whereas, for aluminum, with fluence increasing the looming ripples are greatly suppressed by re-deposited nanoparticle aggregates that present intrinsic colors other than black, and until the formation of large scale "ravines" provided with strong light-trapping, sufficient blackening is achieved. In short, there are different fluence dependencies for femtosecond laser blackening of metals, and the specific blackening fluence threshold for certain metals in the visible range originates in the definite fluence threshold of femtosecond laser-induced ripples.

  12. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  13. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel;

    2009-01-01

    one example. The new platform can also be used to evaluate the parameters of the compass in all possible variations in azimuth, pitch, and roll. The system is based on piezoelectric motors, which are placed on a platform made of aluminum, brass, plastic, and glass. Position sensing is accomplished...

  14. Plaadid / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Neil Siamond "12 Songs", The Bamboos "Step It Up", Van Morrison "Pay The Devil", Mystery Jets "Making Dens", In Extremo "Raue Spree 2005", "Bossa n' Marley", Liv Kristine "Enter My Religion", Ugly Ducling "Bang The Buck", "Big Boi Presents", Youngblood Brass Band "Is That A Riott", Tosca "Souvenirs", Azymuth "Pure", Eels "With Strings", "Metal For The Masses"

  15. Subjective impression of differences in realism, source width, and orientation between auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    in realism and source width. Auralizations were made using three different types of musical instruments: woodwinds (flute), brass (trombone) and strings (violin). Subjects were asked to rate each musical track on a seven-point scale for the degree of realism and source width. An analysis of variance (ANOVA...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S.png Brassica_rapa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brass...ica+rapa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NS ...

  17. ADHESION OF PSEUDOMONAS-FLUORESCENS TO METALLIC SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VIEIRA, MJ; OLIVEIRA, R; MELO, L; PINHEIRO, M; VANDERMEI, HC

    1992-01-01

    Deposition of Pseudomonas fluorescens on aluminium, brass and copper plates was studied in a flow system. The number of bacteria deposited on aluminium was greater than on the other two types of metals. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms (transport and/or adhesion) that may control

  18. Corrosion of metals and alloys in the coastal and deep waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Corrosion rate of mild steel (MS), stainless steel (SS), copper, brass and cupro-nickel has been determinEd. by exposing metallic coupons in coastal and oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Amongst the metals and alloys under study...

  19. 75 FR 43230 - Notice of Application for Special Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... the Flame Penetration and Resistance Test and the Thermal Resistance Test, when no other practical... reinforced, brass lined composite pressure vessels. (modes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) 15071-N Orbital Sciences 49 CFR 173...)(4). gases without outer packaging capable of passing the Flame Penetration and Resistance Test...

  20. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Mineral oil - RM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RM. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.804 - Disconnecting means and branch-circuit protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... etched, metal-stamped or embossed brass, stainless steel, anodized or alclad aluminum not less than 0.020... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disconnecting means and branch-circuit protective equipment. 3280.804 Section 3280.804 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  2. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  3. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he…

  4. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  5. The crucial role of temperature in high-velocity weakening of faults : Experiments on gouge using host blocks with different thermal conductivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Platt, John D.; Niemeijer, André R.; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    We study the important role of temperature rise in the dynamic weakening of fault gouge at seismic slip rates by using host blocks composed of brass, stainless steel, titanium alloy, and gabbro with thermal conductivities (λh) of 123, 15, 5.8, and 3.25 W/m/K, respectively. Our experiments are perfor

  6. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  7. Fouling communities and degradation of archeological metals in the coastal sea of the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Garrido, Pedro H; González-Sánchez, J; Escobar Briones, Elva

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion and biofouling phenomena of cast iron and brass were evaluated under natural conditions to determine the degradation process of archeological artifacts. Field exposure studies of experimental materials were conducted over 15 months at an offshore position in the sea of Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Corrosion was determined by gravimetric measurements. The community structure of the benthic assemblage inhabiting the surfaces of both materials was evaluated. A total of 53 species was identified. The community in both cases was composed of a small number of species. Encrusting, attached and erect life forms were dominant on iron. Attached life forms were dominant on brass. Biofouling produced a decrease in the weight loss measurements of cast iron samples. Biofouling provided a beneficial factor for in situ preservation of iron archeological artifacts in wreck sites. PMID:26087877

  8. A Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Copper and Its Alloy in Pongamia pinnata Oil at Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi H. N. Parameswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are promising substitutes for petrodiesel as they can be produced from numerous oil seed crops that can be cultivated anywhere and have high energy contents, exhibiting clean combustion behavior with zero CO2 emission and negligible SO2 generation. The impact of biofuel on the corrosion of various industrial metals is a challenge for using biofuel as automotive fuel. Fuel comes in contact with a wide variety of metallic materials under different temperatures, velocities, and loads thereby causing corrosion during storage and flow of fuel. Hence, the present investigation compares the corrosion rates of copper and brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (O100, 3% NaCl, and oil blend with NaCl (O99 obtained by static immersion test and using rotating cage. The corrosivity and conductivity of the test media are positively correlated. This study suggested that the corrosivity of copper is higher than brass in Pongamia pinnata oil (PO.

  9. Study on Grain Boundary Structure and Corrosion Behavior of Copper Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grain boundary structure of Cu alloy was observed and the characteristic of the boundaries was studied,including 70∶30 cupronickel and 7 0∶30 brass. The results show that in the case of the 70∶30 cupronickel thin platelets with nickel and iron e nrichment in it precipitate intergranular so that the alloy was sensitive to sea water corrosion. In the case of 70∶30 brass the situation of grain boundary seg regation of different inclusions made the corrosion resistance of the alloy even worse. All of those were discovered through the corrosion behavior of the two d iff erent copper alloys served in various environments. The experimental methods use d here were, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(T EM) and energy dispersive of X ray(EDX). The intergranular corrosion morphologie s of those copper alloys served in engineering or exposed to seaw ater for a long term were given.

  10. Media effects on nanobrass arc fabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass rods (3 mm x 30 mm) are directly converted into brass nanoparticles through a modified arc method, at 100 A, and in five different media. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data show strong dependence of nanoparticle sizes and their compositions on the media employed. In distilled water, both nanobrass (30 nm) and nano-Cu/ZnO (18 nm) are produced in comparable quantities. In gaseous nitrogen merely nanobrass (49 nm) is observed, in a high yield. In contrast, a very low yield of nanoproduct(s) is encountered in liquid nitrogen. In the open air, nanobrass (75 nm) is formed along with traces of ZnO. In ethylene glycol, nanobrass (108 nm) is formed as the major product along with a nanoalloy of CuZn5 (25 nm). Among these, distilled water proved to be the medium of choice for the arc synthesis of nanobrass

  11. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring.

  12. Using reverberation techniques to study the properties of shock loaded soda-lime glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of plate impact experiments on soda-lime glass specimens was performed in order to probe the properties of the glass behind the failure wave front. Shock stresses in the range of 2-6 GPa were induced in the glass specimens by impacting them with thick brass impactors. Stress histories, at the back of the specimens, were recorded using commercial manganin gauges, which were backed by thick plexiglass disks. The gauges followed the shock and release reverberations in the glass resulting from the mismatch of brass and plexiglass on each side of the glass specimen. By analyzing the height and duration of these reverberations we can determine several important features of the glass behind the fracture wave front

  13. Pitfalls of tungsten multileaf collimator in proton beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States) and Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center (Formerly Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute), Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Particle beam therapy is associated with significant startup and operational cost. Multileaf collimator (MLC) provides an attractive option to improve the efficiency and reduce the treatment cost. A direct transfer of the MLC technology from external beam radiation therapy is intuitively straightforward to proton therapy. However, activation, neutron production, and the associated secondary cancer risk in proton beam should be an important consideration which is evaluated. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation with FLUKA particle transport code was applied in this study for a number of treatment models. The authors have performed a detailed study of the neutron generation, ambient dose equivalent [H*(10)], and activation of a typical tungsten MLC and compared with those obtained from a brass aperture used in a typical proton therapy system. Brass aperture and tungsten MLC were modeled by absorber blocks in this study, representing worst-case scenario of a fully closed collimator. Results: With a tungsten MLC, the secondary neutron dose to the patient is at least 1.5 times higher than that from a brass aperture. The H*(10) from a tungsten MLC at 10 cm downstream is about 22.3 mSv/Gy delivered to water phantom by noncollimated 200 MeV beam of 20 cm diameter compared to 14 mSv/Gy for the brass aperture. For a 30-fraction treatment course, the activity per unit volume in brass aperture reaches 5.3 x 10{sup 4} Bq cm{sup -3} at the end of the last treatment. The activity in brass decreases by a factor of 380 after 24 h, additional 6.2 times after 40 days of cooling, and is reduced to background level after 1 yr. Initial activity in tungsten after 30 days of treating 30 patients per day is about 3.4 times higher than in brass that decreases only by a factor of 2 after 40 days and accumulates to 1.2 x 10{sup 6} Bq cm{sup -3} after a full year of operation. The daily utilization of the MLC leads to buildup of activity with time. The overall activity continues to increase

  14. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXPERIMENTO DIDÁTICO DE ELETROGRAVIMETRIA DE BAIXO CUSTO UTILIZANDO PRINCÍPIOS DA QUÍMICA VERDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Antonio Finazzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the development of low-cost teaching experiments of electrogravimetry for undergraduate students using principles of green chemistry. Copper was electrochemically deposited on brass under an electrical current density of 50 mA cm−2 from acidic solutions containing nitrate anions. Color changes at the brass electrode and of the solution were observed, indicating that the reduction of copper ions had occurred. The deposition efficiency values were between 92.8% and 93.8%, and the electrochemical efficiency values were between 85.6% and 86.5%. There was no significant contribution from parallel reactions. These experimental conditions facilitated the didactic exploration of gravimetric and electrochemical concepts. Following the principles of green chemistry, the experiments produced no toxic substances, all the materials could be recycled, and the energy consumption was the lowest. For this reason, this experiment was considered to be very interesting for didactical purposes.

  15. Bioinspired Low-Frequency Material Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. O'Leary; J. G. Rees; Jackson, P.D.; Gunn, D.A.; P. B. Wilkinson; Assous, S.; Hopper, C.; Lovell, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    New-coded signals, transmitted by high-sensitivity broadband transducers in the 40–200 kHz range, allow subwavelength material discrimination and thickness determination of polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, and brass samples. Frequency domain spectra enable simultaneous measurement of material properties including longitudinal sound velocity and the attenuation constant as well as thickness measurements. Laboratory test measurements agree well with model results, with sound velocity predictio...

  16. Blackberries and Barnyards: Patent Trolls and the Perils of Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Magliocca, Gerard N

    2007-01-01

    This Essay provides some perspective on the troll issue by pointing out a historical parallel that has received no attention. It turns out that these opportunistic licensors were also active in the nineteenth century. Called “patent sharks,” they bought dormant agricultural patents and then sued farmers who were unknowingly using protected technology. This brass knuckles tactic outraged rural activists and led to the same calls for sweeping patent reform that we hear now. At that time,...

  17. Corrosion properties of bio-oil and its emulsions with diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHANG Jian; ZHU XiFeng

    2008-01-01

    Bio-oil is a new liquid fuel but very acidic. In this study, bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk and two bio-oil/diesel emulsions with bio-oil concentrations of 10 wt% and 30 wt% were prepared. Tests were carried out to determine their corrosion properties to four metals of aluminum, brass, mild steel and stainless steel at different temperatures. Weight loss of the metals immersed in the oil samples was recorded. The chemical states of the elements on metal surface were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that mild steel was the least resistant to corrosion, followed by aluminum, while brass exhibited slight weight loss. The weight loss rates would be greatly enhanced at elevated temperatures. Stainless steel was not affected under any conditions. After corrosion, increased organic deposits were formed on aluminum and brass, but not on stainless steel. Mild steel was covered with many loosely attached corrosion materials which were easy to be removed by washing and wiping. Significant metal loss was detected on surface of aluminum and mild steel. Zinc was etched away from brass surface, while metallic copper was oxidized to Cu2O. Increased Cr2O3 and NiO were presented on surface of stainless steel to form a compact passive protection film. The two emulsions were less corrosive than the bio-oil. This was due to the protection effect of diesel. Diesel was the continuous phase in the emulsions and thus could limit the contact area between bio-oil and metals.

  18. Functional innovations of three chronological mesohexaploid Brassica rapa genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungeun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Choi, Jae-Pil; Park, Inkyu; Yang, Kyungbong; Kim, Min Keun; Lee, Young Han; Nou, Ill-Sup; Kim, Dae-Soo; Min, Sung Ran; Park, Sang Un; Kim, HyeRan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brassicaceae family is an exemplary model for studying plant polyploidy. The Brassicaceae knowledge-base includes the well-annotated Arabidopsis thaliana reference sequence; well-established evidence for three rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD); and the conservation of genomic structure, with 24 conserved genomic blocks (GBs). The recently released Brassica rapa draft genome provides an ideal opportunity to update our knowledge of the conserved genomic structures in Brass...

  19. Religious Affiliation, Ethnicity, and Child Mortality in Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Eunice D. Vargas; Potter, Joseph E.; Fernández, Leticia

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether there is a relationship between religious affiliation and child mortality among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Chiapas, México. Our analysis relies on Brass-type estimates of child mortality by ethnicity and religious affiliation and multivariate analyses that adjust for various socioeconomic and demographic factors. The data are from the 2000 Mexican Census 10 percent sample. Among indigenous people, Presbyterians have lower rates of child mortality than Cathol...

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF THE NEW STEEL 75‘/25ГМФС FOR THE INSTRUMENT OF COLD FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Fedulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of improving tool life of cold deformation. Composition designed and studied mechanical properties of the new tool steel 75H5GMFS, by allowing the application of different types of heat treatment, including high-temperature tempering after casting, the use for the manufacture of cold-forming tool, for example, upon receipt of the housings of watches brass billets.

  1. Comparative analysis of wear mechanism of different types of forging dies

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mazurkiewicz; Smolik, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Hot working dies are influenced by three main factors causing their destruction: the cyclically changeable mechanical loads, intensive thermal shocks, as well as intensive friction, and erosion. The great variety of the shapes of forgings, the material they are made of (carbon steel, alloy steel, brass) and the precision of their production – whether they are supposed to undergo further treatment or are considered to be the final products – result in a variety of problems encountered...

  2. Chemical Compatibility of High-Performance Engineering Thermoplastics in Compressor Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Pai-Paranjape, Vandita

    2014-01-01

    The compressor industry faces a difficult design environment for achieving performance improvement, reduced cost, and lower environmental footprint. In order to address some of these challenges, thermoplastics can be considered as a replacement for metal in some compressor parts. Thermoplastics have been found to be suitable for steel replacement in structural parts for automotive and brass replacement in water-handling applications such as meters. As such, we believe certain high-performance...

  3. Low-Wear Ball-Bearing Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Elden L.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed ball-bearing separator for use in cryogenic pump stronger and more resistant to wear. Consists of molded plastic-and-metal composite ring imbued with solid lubricant and containing embedded metal ring. Obtains combination of strength and lubricity. Before molding and machining, ring includes tooling portion for handling and indexing. Molded composite blend of PTFE and fluorinated ethylene/propylene (FEP) filled with brass and bronze powder and molybdenum disulfide powder.

  4. Problems with cryogenic operation of piezoelectric bending elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, C. L.; Moreland, John; Fickett, F. R.

    1986-05-01

    Piezoelectric bimorphs constructed from lead titanate-zirconate (PZT) ceramic bonded to a brass sheet have been tested at cryogenic temperatures to determine their suitability for use in a low-temperature micropositioner. Experimental data are presented on bimorph sensitivity (displacement per volt) as a function of the number of temperature cycles. Results indicate that bimorphs of this type cannot be calibrated because of irreversible changes in the bending characteristics that occur while cycling from room temperature to 4 K.

  5. Self-other control: a candidate mechanism for social cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Sowden

    2014-01-01

    Despite ever-growing interest in the “social brain” and the search for the neural underpinnings of social cognition, we are yet to fully understand the basic neurocognitive mechanisms underlying complex social behaviors. One such candidate mechanism is the control of neural representations of the self and of other people (Brass et al., 2009; Spengler et al., 2009a), and it is likely that “common” disorders of social cognition such as autism and schizophrenia involve atypical modulation of sel...

  6. Nick Clegg’s performance at the Liberal Democrat party conference proves that he has won the match for now, but for this ‘government of two halves’, the season is a long one

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Following a torrid year in government, Nick Clegg has faced down his party’s conference without any embarrassing policy reversals. Disaffected Lib Dems might be placated by the string of promises laid out by the party’s big brass, which will be unpalatable to their partners in government, but if a week is a long time in politics, Nick Clegg has a painfully long fight against the threat of end of season relegation yet to come, argues Matt Cole.

  7. Study on the use of model life tables methodology in birth defect's life expectancy estimation:the case of Down's syndrome%模型生命表方法在出生缺陷患者预期寿命估算中的应用——以唐氏综合征为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪颖; 陈功; 郑晓瑛

    2008-01-01

    以唐氏综合征为例,研究采用Brass-Logit模型生命表的原理,通过美国一般人群的生命表、美国唐氏综合征患者的生命表、中国一般人群的生命表,间接估算中国唐氏综合征患者的生命表和预期寿命.经过与其他国家一般人群和唐氏综合征人群预期寿命的比较,研究认为,用Brass-Logit模型生命表原理来推算出生缺陷患者的生存状况和预期寿命,是在某一国家或地区的出生缺陷患者存活的数据非常缺乏、而另一些国家已有比较系统数据的情况下可以考虑使用的方法.%Using Brass-Logit model and life tables for general population and Down's syndrome patients in U.S.A and lire tables for general population in China,we estimated the life table of Down's syndrome patients in China.Through comparing with data from other countries,we suggested that BrassLogit Model Life Table could be adopted were minimum data of birth defects survival was available and systematic data was handy in another areas.

  8. 刀具角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Amplification analysis for zig-zag slab lascr system, An implicit FE analysis of power transmitting mechanisms of CVT using a dry hybrid V-belt,Autonomous tool adjustment in robotic grinding,Autonomous tool path generation in robotic polishing of an aluminum alloy,Burr minimizing scheme in drilling,Evaluation of cutter orientations in high-speed ball end milling of cantilever-shaped thin plate, Machinability of Oxygen-Free Pure Copper and Brass with Various Coated Tools.

  9. WEDM process variables investigation for HSLA by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sharma; Rajesh Khanna; Rahul Dev Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is a thermo-electric spark erosion non-traditional type manufacturing process. The applications of WEDM have been found in aerospace and die manufacturing industries, where precise dimensions were the prime objective. This process is applied in case of processing difficult to machine material. Brass wire is used as an electrode and High strength low alloy (HSLA) steel as a work-piece during experimentation. The present research deals with the effect of...

  10. Nontrivial scaling laws for a block sliding down a rough plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V. P.; Gomes, M. A. F.

    1996-04-01

    The measured length distributions of slidings of solid cylinders of aluminum, brass, teflon, and polyvinyl chloride on an incline obey nontrivial scaling laws. No significant dependence of the scaling exponent on material is observed and the data obtained are in agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter law for the distribution of earthquakes and with numerical simulations exhibiting self-organized criticality made by Chen, Bak, and Obukhov [Phys. Rev. A 43, 625-630 (1991)].

  11. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of ...

  12. Description of the manufacture of a Geiger-Muller counter with window; Descripcion de la fabricacion de un contador Geiger-Muller con ventana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, C. E.

    1959-07-01

    Total details about the manufacture elements in counter fabrication and the way of obtention are described as well as total indications useful in the installation process and filling of the counter. The appropriate materials and precautions that might be adopted in order to obtain counters with uniform operation and good characteristics, are described. Counters are of brass, with thin mica or aluminium windows and operate at 1100 V approximately with a slope lower than 5 % 1100 V. (Author)

  13. Protection of copper and its alloys using corrosion inhibitor-literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Milorad V.; Pavlović, Miomir; Jotanović, Milovan; Fuchs-Godec, Regina

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the electrochemical corrosion of copper and its alloys with purpose to find the most suitable inhibitor for its protection has been done. According to their chemical composition of corrosion inhibitors are divided into inorganic and organic inhibitors. Inhibition of alloying metals are possible (such as the addition of arsenic alloy components in brass, preventing its unzincanization). The paper reviews the theoretical basis of application of inhibitors...

  14. Electrochemical Depositions in Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    De Vreese, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, several aspects of the electrodeposition of metals and alloys in ionic liquids were investigated. First, the deposition of brass from choline acetate was studied. Secondly, the electrodeposition of pure molybdenum from ionic liquids based on phosphonium chloride and zinc chloride was treated. In each case, the influence of water, either as a main constituent of the electrolyte or an impurity, was investigated. When comparing electrochemical processes such as electrodeposit...

  15. 镦锻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Observations of barrelling in aluminium solid cylinders during cold upsetting using different lubricants; Observations on fracture in axi-symmetric and three-dimensional cold upsetting of brass; Parallel processing of 3D rigid-viscoplastic finite element analysis using domain decomposition and modified block Jacobi preconditioning technique; Parameter study into the friction welding of the intermetallic TiAI and the alloy Ti6AI4V

  16. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    OpenAIRE

    Senguttuvan, N.; Raja, S; R. Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were anal...

  17. Sound / Ülo Külm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Ülo

    1998-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Uriah Heep "Sonic Origami", Amanda Lear "Follow Me Back In My Arms", No Mercy "More", Dr.Bombay "Rice & Curry", Vanilla Ice"Hard To Swallow", Orgy "Cancỳass", Bee Gees "One Night Only", PJ Harvey "Is This Desire", Mudhoney "Tomorrow Hit Today", Frank Sinatra "Sinatra And Swingin Brass", Kurupt "Kuruption!", Mike Scott & The Waterboys "The Whole Of The Moon", Dodgy "Ace As & Killer Bs"

  18. How far can the resonance frequencies give informations about the playing frequencies? The trumpet example

    OpenAIRE

    Eveno, Pauline; Kieffer, Benoît; Gilbert, Joël; Petiot, Jean-François; Caussé, René

    2012-01-01

    International audience Measurements and calculations of the input impedance of wind musical instruments are now well mastered. The purpose of this work is to study experimentally how far the resonance frequencies of brass instruments, taken from their input impedance, are able to give informations about the playing frequencies. Three different trumpets, obtained by changing only the leadpipe of the same instrument, were considered for the experiment. After a measurement of the input impeda...

  19. Identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weizhen; Yi, Fajun; Zhu, Yanwei; Meng, Songhe

    2016-07-01

    A modified Levenberg–Marquardt method (LMM) for the identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is proposed; the experiment and structure of the specimen for identification are also designed. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of copper C10200 and brass C28000 are identified to verify the effectiveness of the proposed identification method. The comparison between identified results and the measured data of laser flash diffusivity apparatus indicates the fine consistency and potential usage of the proposed method.

  20. Character Strengths Profiles of Musicians and Non-Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Güsewell; Willibald Ruch

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s a series of studies investigated musicians’ personalities using Cattell’s 16 personality factors, Eysenck’s PEN super factors, and Costa and McCrae’s Big Five. The findings hinted at some traits most musicians seemed to share, and highlighted differences between the personality traits of brass and string players. However, results were inconclusive and sometimes contradictory. The main aim of this study was to further investigate the topic using novel theoretical framewo...

  1. Effect of water temperature on the fit of provisional crown margins during polymerization: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanandan Ramkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of water temperature on the marginal fit of bis-acrylic composite provisional crown during resin polymerization. Materials and Methods: Precisely machined 10 brass master dies were designed to simulate molar teeth. Five brass dies were selected and precisely machined to simulate all ceramic crown preparation. An acrylic jaw replica was made in which brass dies were arranged equidistant from each other. A custom-made metallic tray was fabricated on the acrylic jaw replica to make polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Bis-acrylic composite resin provisional crowns were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression matrix. Provisional crowns were polymerized at room temperature (Group I direct technique, on dental stone cast; Group I indirect technique crowns and at different water temperatures (Group II direct technique crowns. The vertical marginal gap between all the provisional crown margins and the finish line of brass dies was measured using a Research Stereomicroscope System. Results: The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test and Newman-Keul′s test. The results showed that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air, due to the reduced polymerization shrinkage. Conclusion: This study shows that crowns polymerized in 20°C and 30°C water had mean vertical marginal gap approximately three times smaller than those polymerized in 30°C air. It was approximately closer to that of crowns fabricated by indirect technique. Warmer water also supposedly hastens polymerization.

  2. Effect of Wire Material on Productivity and Surface Integrity of WEDM-Processed Inconel 706 for Aircraft Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyaranjan; Chakradhar, D.; Narendranath, S.

    2016-07-01

    Inconel 706 is a recently developed superalloy for aircraft application, particularly in turbine disk which is among the most critical components in the gas turbine engines. Recently, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) attained success in machining of gas turbine components which require complex shape profiles with high precision. To achieve the feasibility in machining of these components, the research work has been conducted on Inconel 706 superalloy using WEDM process. And, the effect of different wire materials (i.e., hard brass wire, diffused wire, and zinc-coated wire) on WEDM performance characteristics such as cutting speed, surface topography, surface roughness, recast layer formation, residual stresses, and microstructural and metallurgical alterations have been investigated. Even though, zinc-coated wire exhibits improved productivity, hard brass wire was found to be beneficial in terms of improved surface quality of the machined parts. Additionally, lower tensile residual stresses were obtained with hard brass wire. However, diffused wire has a moderate effect on productivity and surface quality. Under high discharge energy, higher elemental changes were observed and also the white layer was detected.

  3. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for quantitative elemental analysis of materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; K Mridul; R Nayak; K Alti; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G Gupta; B M Suri

    2012-08-01

    The application of calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) for quantitative analysis of materials, illustrated by CF-LIBS applied to a brass sample of known composition, is presented in this paper. The LIBS plasma is produced by a 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 6 ns focussed onto a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. The time-resolved atomic and ionic emission lines of Cu and Zn from the LIBS spectra recorded by an Echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector are used for the plasma characterization and the quantitative analysis of the sample. The time delay where the plasma is optically thin and is also in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), necessary for the elemental analysis of samples from the LIBS spectra, is deduced. An algorithm relating the experimentally measured spectral intensity values with the basic physics of the plasma is developed. Using the algorithm, the Zn and Cu concentratioins in the brass sample are determined. The analytical result obtained from the CF-LIBS technique agree well with the certified valued of the elements in the sample, with an accuracy error < 1%

  4. Matisse to Picasso: a compositional study of modern bronze sculptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marcus L; Schnepp, Suzanne; Casadio, Francesca; Lins, Andrew; Meighan, Melissa; Lambert, Joseph B; Dunand, David C

    2009-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to determine the bulk metal elemental composition of 62 modern bronze sculptures cast in Paris in the first half of the twentieth century from the collections of The Art Institute of Chicago and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. As a result, a comprehensive survey of the alloy composition of the sculptures of many prominent European artists of the early twentieth century is presented here for the first time. The sculptures in this study consist of predominantly copper with two main alloying elements (zinc and tin). By plotting the concentrations of these two elements (zinc and tin) against each other for all the sculptures studied, three clusters of data become apparent: (A) high-zinc brass; (B) low-zinc brass; (C) tin bronze. These clusters correlate to specific foundries, which used specific casting methods (sand or lost wax) that were influenced by individual preferences and technical skills of the foundry masters. For instance, the high-zinc brass alloys (with the highest levels of tin and zinc and the lowest melting temperature) correspond to most of the Picasso sculptures, correlate with the Valsuani foundry, and are associated with the most recent sculptures (post-WWII) and with the lost-wax casting method. By expanding the ICP-OES database of objects studied, these material correlations may become useful for identifying, dating, or possibly even authenticating other bronzes that do not bear foundry marks. Figure. PMID:19629458

  5. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound

  6. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  7. Degradation and Failure of Stored Radiological Material Containers and Packages, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 3 December 2003, at the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, in the United States of America, a canister containing an irradiated non-fuel test specimen failed catastrophically while stored in a water pool. The failure made a large noise, dislodged the stainless steel canister made from 10 cm diameter schedule 40 pipe 45 cm long, ruptured its brass cap, and projected part of the cap 3 m away underwater. No injuries or other damage occurred and there was no measurable release of radioactivity to the environment. The brass cap screwed onto the canister, with two nitrile rubber O-rings providing a watertight seal. Investigators found evidence of water leakage inside the canister. Their preliminary conclusion is that during the 14 years the canister was stored in the water pool, the nitrile rubber seals degraded from exposure to high flux gamma radiation emitted from the test specimen. Water leaked into the canister and the canister subsequently resealed tightly as a result of the brass cap’s corrosion. Radiolysis caused the captured water to break down into hydrogen and oxygen gas, pressurizing the canister. (Decomposition of the nitrile rubber could also generate flammable gases.) The investigators concluded that the hydrogen detonated and caused the failure. Although the ignition source is still not clear, it could have been thermal energy from the specimen, reactions from radicals produced by the radiolysis, sparking from interaction of metallic components, or static electricity discharge

  8. Effect of Wire Material on Productivity and Surface Integrity of WEDM-Processed Inconel 706 for Aircraft Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyaranjan; Chakradhar, D.; Narendranath, S.

    2016-09-01

    Inconel 706 is a recently developed superalloy for aircraft application, particularly in turbine disk which is among the most critical components in the gas turbine engines. Recently, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) attained success in machining of gas turbine components which require complex shape profiles with high precision. To achieve the feasibility in machining of these components, the research work has been conducted on Inconel 706 superalloy using WEDM process. And, the effect of different wire materials (i.e., hard brass wire, diffused wire, and zinc-coated wire) on WEDM performance characteristics such as cutting speed, surface topography, surface roughness, recast layer formation, residual stresses, and microstructural and metallurgical alterations have been investigated. Even though, zinc-coated wire exhibits improved productivity, hard brass wire was found to be beneficial in terms of improved surface quality of the machined parts. Additionally, lower tensile residual stresses were obtained with hard brass wire. However, diffused wire has a moderate effect on productivity and surface quality. Under high discharge energy, higher elemental changes were observed and also the white layer was detected.

  9. Metal alloys, matrix inclusions and manufacturing techniques of Moinhos de Golas collection (North Portugal): a study by micro-EDXRF, SEM-EDS, optical microscopy and X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Joana; Figueiredo, Elin; Silva, Rui J. C.; Araújo, M. Fátima; Fonte, João; Bettencourt, Ana M. S.

    2016-09-01

    A collection of 35 metallic artefacts comprising various typologies, some of which can be attributed to the Bronze Age and others to later periods, were studied to provide detailed information on elemental composition, manufacturing techniques and preservation state. Elemental analysis by micro-EDXRF and SEM-EDS was performed to investigate the use of different alloys and to study the presence of microstructural heterogeneities, as inclusions. X-ray radiography, optical microscopy and SEM-EDS were used to investigate manufacturing techniques and degradation features. Results showed that most of the artefacts were produced in a binary bronze alloy (Cu-Sn) with 10-15 wt% Sn and a low concentration of impurities. Other artefacts were produced in copper or in brass, the latest with varying contents of Zn, Sn and Pb. A variety of inclusions in the metal matrices were also found, some related to specific types of alloys, as (Cu-Ni)S2 in coppers, or ZnS in brasses. Microstructural observations revealed that the majority of the artefacts were subjected to cycles of thermomechanical processing after casting, being evident that among some artefacts different parts were subjected to distinct treatments. The radiographic images revealed structural heterogeneities related to local corrosion processes and fissures that seem to have developed in wear-tension zones, as in the handle of some daggers. Radiographic images were also useful to detect the use of different materials in one particular brass artefact, revealing the presence of a possible Cu-Sn solder.

  10. Estudio de corrosión galvánica en pares latón/acero inoxidable y latón/fundición de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multigalvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass –UNS C268– and Admiralty brass –UNS C443– compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 °C in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na2SO4 solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals.

    El ataque por corrosión en los sistemas intercambiadores de calor constituye un problema para el mantenimiento de cualquier planta industrial. Se trata de sistemas multigalvánicos con particular complejidad geométrica y fluidodinámica. Las patologías corrosivas incluyen el fenómeno de dealeación selectiva de cinc en las aleaciones de cobre. A fin de explicar un caso particular de ataque por decinficación (deterioro en placa de intercambiador de calor de tubos de inoxidable, el presente trabajo aborda en ensayos a escala de laboratorio, la caracterización e interacciones entre dos aleaciones de cobre y cinc, (Yellow brass –UNS C268– y Admiralty brass –UNS C443–, respecto a acero inoxidable AISI 316 y fundición gris de hierro. Los ensayos se realizan a 20 °C en disoluciones de NaCl 1,5 % y Na2SO4 1,5 % y pH 8. Se caracterizan electroquímicamente las aleaciones y materiales involucrados mediante barridos potenciodinámicos. Los pares galvánicos formados se analizan mediante el

  11. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain. PMID:23027034

  12. Hot rolling textures of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aeronautical alloys: Experiments and simulations to high strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contrepois, Q.; Maurice, C. [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France); Driver, J.H., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne, CEDEX 2 (France)

    2010-10-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Systematic hot plane strain compression tests have been made under controlled conditions of temperature and strain to compare texture evolution in Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Li-Cu. {yields} The hot rolling textures in Al-Cu-Li are the same as those of standard Al-Zn-Mg alloys, when deformed under the same conditions. {yields} The stronger textures, particularly the Brass {l_brace}110{r_brace}<112> component, of industrially rolled Al-Cu-Li are due to the higher rolling temperatures. {yields} The experimental results are consistent with the model of non-octahedral slip at high temperaturesz. - Abstract: The development of hot rolling textures, and particularly the Brass {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> component, of two typical aeronautical alloys: Al-Cu-Li AA2050 and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu AA7050, has been investigated by EBSD and X-ray diffraction measurements after plane strain compression tests and industrial hot rolling. Systematic hot channel-die compression tests were performed to strains of 2.7 at 420-450 deg. C, on both as-homogenized alloys. Under the same processing conditions, the two alloys develop the same rolling textures showing that the presence of Li is not intrinsically responsible for the development of strong Brass components. However, it is shown, by further channel-die compression tests between 350 and 500 deg. C and up to strains of 3.9, that the deformation temperature can have a major influence: with increasing temperature {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <1 1 2> orientations are strongly favoured at the expense of the Copper {l_brace}1 1 2{r_brace} <1 1 1> component. Numerical simulations demonstrate that previous and current experimental observations of the influence of temperature on texture development can be explained by increasing slip on non-octahedral slip systems.

  13. Effect of cerium addition on casting/chill interfacial heat flux and casting surface profile during solidification of Al-14%Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeesh, V.; Prabhu, K. N.

    2016-03-01

    In the present investigation, Al-14 wt. % Si alloy was solidified against copper, brass and cast iron chills, to study the effect of Ce melt treatment on casting/chill interfacial heat flux transients and casting surface profile. The heat flux across the casting/chill interface was estimated using inverse modelling technique. On addition of 1.5% Ce, the peak heat flux increased by about 38%, 42% and 43% for copper, brass and cast iron chills respectively. The effect of Ce addition on casting surface texture was analyzed using a surface profilometer. The surface profile of the casting and the chill surfaces clearly indicated the formation of an air gap at the periphery of the casting. The arithmetic average value of the profile departure from the mean line (Ra) and arithmetical mean of the absolute departures of the waviness profile from the centre line (Wa) were found to decrease on Ce addition. The interfacial gap width formed for the unmodified and Ce treated casting surfaces at the periphery were found to be about 35µm and 13µm respectively. The enhancement in heat transfer on addition of Ce addition was attributed to the lowering of the surface tension of the liquid melt. The gap width at the interface was used to determine the variation of heat transfer coefficient (HTC) across the chill surface after the formation of stable solid shell. It was found that the HTC decreased along the radial direction for copper and brass chills and increased along radial direction for cast iron chills.

  14. Ifluence of outer electrode material on ozone production in coaxial negative corona discharge fed by oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszagh, J.; Skalny, J. D.; Mason, N. J.

    2008-07-01

    The "electric odour", observed by Van Marum when oxygen was passing trough electric spark in 1785, has been later (1839), identified by Ch. F. Schonbeim as a new chemical compound named ozone (Stolarski 1999). Almost from those times ozone is widely used chemical compound. The effect of outer electrode material on the ozone production in negative corona discharge have been studied. Two electrodes with the same dimensions were used in the experiment. One was made of stainless steel other one of brass. First the outer electrode was mechanically cleaned to remove the layer of oxides. The reactor have been filled by pure oxygen and closed. Then the measurement (1 hour measurement of discharge current at the constant voltage and time dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor) was repeated 5 times without cleaning the surface to see the ageing effects. Especially the influence of electrode oxidation on ozone concentration was studied. The experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The ozone concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy method directly in the discharge reactor. As one can expect the brass surface was oxidizing faster. After five measurements the electrode surface was covered by layer of greenish oxides. On the other hand the steel electrode surface had no visible oxides layer. The oxidation of the outer electrode had little systematic effect on the ozone concentration but in case of brass electrode the results were scattered in the range from 8000 ppm to 15000 ppm of ozone. It seems that the more oxides are created on the surface the less ozone is produced or the faster the ozone decomposition processes are (see Fig. 1). On the other hand in case of stainless steel electrode the ozone concentrations were comparable in all 5 measurements. Overall ozone concentration was higher in steel electrode. Figure 1: Time dependence of ozone concentration.

  15. Implementation of 'solid IMRT' : modulator design, fabrication, dose delivery, and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Solid modulators have long been theoretically accepted as a valid IMRT delivery technique. The challenges of clinically implementing 'solid IMRT' include: choosing an appropriate modulator material, ensuring high-resolution and accurate milling, accurate dose calculation through a complex and patient-dependent solid device, and thorough dose verification (QA). To ensure smooth and mill-able modulators, optimized fluence maps were convolved with a smoothing kernel with dimensions mimicking those of the known fine-tip milling bore. Fluence maps were then transformed into modulator thickness arrays and read by a computer-controlled milling machine (high speed - NURB surface machining, Southeastern Radiation Products, Inc., FL, USA), and subsequently milled directly from 5.1 cm thick brass blanks with 0.01 cm accuracy. The solid modulators were then tray-mounted and inserted into the wedge position on a Varian 2100EX accelerator. Dosimetric verification was done using radiographic film in a flat solid-water phantom. Absolute dose measurements were compared directly with absolute dose calculated by a convolution algorithm incorporating the effects of beam hardening through the brass. When used with 6 MV beams, 5 cm brass modulators provide an adequate dynamic range (approximately 18% to 100% fluence) and superior resolution. Absolute dose analysis of a complex head/neck modulator yielded 99% of calculated dose points within 3%/3mm of measurement, with the majority of points within 1%. Figures A and B illustrate measured (A) and calculated (B) QA films. With an integrated process of computer-controlled milling, solid IMRT is not only feasible clinically, but also provides high spatial- and intensity-resolution. It is a familiar technology that allows clinics not equipped with MLC, or those more comfortable with a static, solid modulator, to provide quality IMRT treatment at relatively low cost, in addition, total linear accelerator monitor units are kept to a

  16. Use of conventional electrochemical techniques to produce crystalline FeRh alloys induced by Ag seed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noce, R.D., E-mail: rodrnoce@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Benedetti, A.V. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Kumar, H.; Cornejo, D.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Magnani, M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-05

    Highlights: •Production of FeRh alloys by electrodeposition. •Use of Ag seed layer causes crystallization in electrodeposited Fe{sub 20}Rh{sub 80} alloy. •Mössbauer spectroscopy indicates that the FeRh/Ag alloy has a long range atomic order structure. -- Abstract: By combining galvanic displacement and electrodeposition techniques, an ordered Fe{sub 20}Rh{sub 80} structure deposited onto brass was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction analyses suggest that the Fe–Rh alloy directly electrodeposited onto brass displays a nanocrystalline state while a similar alloy deposited onto Ag/brass shows a faced centered cubic-like structure, with dendrites-like features. These results directly indicate that the presence of Ag seed layer is responsible for the Fe–Rh alloy crystallization process. In addition, room temperature Mössbauer data indicate firstly paramagnetic states for two Fe-species. In the dominant Fe-species (major fraction of the Mössbauer spectra), Fe atoms are situated at a cubic environment and it can be attributed to the γ-Fe{sub 20}Rh{sub 80} alloy based on their hyperfine parameters. In the second species, Fe atoms are placed in a non-local symmetry, which can be related to Fe atoms at the grain boundaries or/and Fe small clusters. These Fe-clusters are in superparamagnetic state at room temperature, but they may be ordered below 45 K, as suggested by magnetization data.

  17. Influence of playing wind instruments on activity of masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotouda, A; Yamaguchi, T; Okada, K; Matsuki, T; Gotouda, S; Inoue, N

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of change in sound tone of playing wind instruments on activity of jaw-closing muscles and the effect of sustained playing for a long time on fatigue of jaw-closing muscles. Electromyograms (EMG) of 19 brass instrument players and 14 woodwind instrument players were measured while playing instruments in tuning tone and high tone and under other conditions. Nine brass instrument players and nine woodwind instrument players played instruments for 90 min. Before and after the exercise, power spectral analyses of EMG from masseter muscles at 50% of maximum voluntary clenching level were performed and mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated. Root mean square (RMS) of EMG in masseter and temporal muscles while playing were slightly larger than those at rest but extremely small in comparison with those during maximum clenching. Root mean square in orbicularis oris and digastric muscles were relatively large when playing instruments. In the brass instrument group, RMS in high tone was significantly higher than that in tuning tone in all muscles examined. In the woodwind instrument group, RMS in high tone was not significantly higher than that in tuning tone in those muscles. Mean power frequency was not decreased after sustained playing in both instrument groups. These findings indicate that contractive load to jaw-closing muscles when playing a wind instrument in both medium and high tone is very small and playing an instrument for a long time does not obviously induce fatigue of jaw-closing muscles. PMID:17716263

  18. La méthanisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées : comparaison des performances de 3 technologies différentes

    OpenAIRE

    Reverdy, A.L.; Baudez, J.C.; Dieudé-Fauvel, E.

    2011-01-01

    / La valorisation du biogaz est une technologie en développement et qui présente un fort potentiel en France. Ce biogaz peut avoir diverses origines telles que la méthanisation des boues issues du traitement des eaux usées. Cependant, en France, ces installations sont peu nombreuses (seulement 68 stations de plus de 30 000EH). Ces technologies de méthanisation sont la plupart du temps identiques : un grand réacteur dans lequel des boues chauffées à 37°C sont introduites et sont brassées...

  19. An all-digital Manchester symbol synchronizer for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, B. H.; Vang, H.; Cellier, A.; Lindsey, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Shuttle S-Band relay communications links via TDRS are coded and may operate at symbol signal-to-noise ratios (Es/No) as low as -5dB. A brass-board all-digital bit synchronizer with very low (0.05dB) degradation relative to an idealized analog model has been designed to process the 216 KBPS Manchester data symbols. This all-digital bit synchronizer, which provides soft decision detected outputs to a convolutional decoder, may be operated at any rate below 216 KBPS by merely changing the master clock frequency.

  20. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  1. Sistema limpo em linha para extração em fase sólida de contaminantes emergentes em águas naturais An in-line clean system for the solid-phase extraction of emerging contaminants in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Sodré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase in-line extraction system for water samples containing low levels of emerging contaminants is described. The system was specially developed for large volume samples (up to 4 L using commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges. Four sets containing PTFE-made connectors, brass adapters and ball valves were used to fit SPE cartridges and sample bottles to a 4-port manifold attached to a 20 L carboy. A lab-made vacuum device was connected to the manifold cap. The apparatus is robust and less expensive than the typical available system. Its also provides less experimental handling, avoiding cross contamination and sample losses.

  2. Effect of Flow and Dissolved Oxygen on the Compatibility of Pongamia pinnata Biodiesel with Common Construction Materials Used in Storage and Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel (PBD and its NaCl blends on aluminium, brass, copper, carbon steel, and mild steel has been studied by static mass loss and rotating cage methods. The effects of dissolved oxygen and flow on the metal corrosion in PBD were also observed. This study confirmed that the copper strip test alone is not enough to determine the fuel property since the corrosion of ferrous metal was found to be high in PBD compared to other metals. The least corrosion rate of aluminium was confirmed by surface morphology and elemental analysis.

  3. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  4. Design and construction of two phases flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)

  5. Recrystallization texture evolution in Ni{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, C.; Neves, S.; Gottstein, G. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik

    1998-01-05

    The recrystallization texture development during annealing of cold rolled Ni{sub 3}Al polycrystals and single crystals was investigated. The recrystallization texture in single crystals, regardless whether boron-free or boron-doped, comprised all eight 35{degree} <111> rotations of the single component deformation texture (close to the brass orientation). No annealing twins were observed in single crystals, in contrast to polycrystals. The recrystallization textures of polycrystals were very weak, but reproducible. Their components can be interpreted as a compromise between {+-} 35{degree} <111> rotations and second order twinning to the deformed matrix.

  6. Recrystallization textures and microstructures of Al-0.3%Cu alloy after deformation to high strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.R.; Wakeel, A.; Huang, T.L.;

    2015-01-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy was deformed to high strains by cold rolling. The as-deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures until complete recrystallization. The cold rolling textures were determined by X-ray diffraction while the recrystallization textures and microstructures were...... characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the rolling texture was characterized by a strong Brass component. After complete recrystallization Goss and Cube textures were developed. The effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the recrystallization textures are...

  7. Recrystallization textures and microstructures of Al-0.3%Cu alloy after deformation to high strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. R.; Wakeel, A.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, G. L.; Huang, X.

    2015-08-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy was deformed to high strains by cold rolling. The as-deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures until complete recrystallization. The cold rolling textures were determined by X-ray diffraction while the recrystallization textures and microstructures were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. It was found that the rolling texture was characterized by a strong Brass component. After complete recrystallization Goss and Cube textures were developed. The effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the recrystallization textures are discussed.

  8. Dispersion of axially symmetric waves in fluid-filled cylindrical shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, X.L.; Überall, H.; Raju, P. K.;

    2000-01-01

    on such shells have been investigated for the case of aluminum shells, and their phase-velocity dispersion curves have been obtained for double fluid loading [Bao, Raju, and Überall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2704 (1999)]. Similar results were obtained for empty or fluid-filled brass shells [Kumar, Acustica 27......, 317 (1972)]. We have extended the work of Kumar to the case of fluid-filled aluminum shells and steel shells imbedded in air. These cases demonstrate the existence of circumferential waves traveling in the filler fluid, exhibiting a certain simplicity of the dispersion curves of these waves...... circumferential waves determines the eigenfrequency spectrum of the shell....

  9. A 3 to 6 GHz microwave/photonic transceiver for phased-array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Edward; Wanuga, Stephen; Candela, Karen; Scotti, Ronald E.; MacDonald, V. W.; Gates, John V.

    1992-04-01

    The general design and operation of a microwave/photonic transceiver operating in the range 3-6 GHz are presented. The transceiver consists of drop-in submodules with optical fiber pigtails mounted on a brass carrier measuring less than 1 x 1 x 0.1 inch along with MMIC amplifiers and an alumina motherboard. Minimum 3 to 6 GHz return losses of 6 dB have been measured for both the microwave input and the microwave output of the module; the insertion loss is between 19 and 20 dB at most frequencies in the 3-6 GHz band.

  10. Evaluation of fracture toughness of ceramic thin plates through modified single edge-precracked plate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate fracture toughness of thin plates of aluminum nitrides and silicon nitrides, a small, thin single edge notched plate with the thickness of 0.32 or 0.64 mm was glued on one side of a brass beam and the assembly was deformed in three-point bending to introduce the precrack. The flexural strength of the precracked specimen was measured using a special 3pt-bending fixture. The resultant fracture toughness was almost identical to those obtained for the standard-sized specimens

  11. Local texture of microstructural inhomogeneities in rolled microalloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotorevsky, N.; Panpurin, S.; Kazakov, A.; Pakhomova, O.; Petrov, S.

    2015-04-01

    Specific inhomogeneities consisting of coarse-grained bainite are observed in the microstructure of low carbon microalloyed steels after hot rolling. Earlier a special etching method has been developed allowing to reveal that these inhomogeneities markedly affect a fracture toughness of steels. In the present work their crystal geometry was studied using EBSD technique, and orientations of former austenite grains were reconstructed. The austenite, from which the coarse-grained bainite regions have been produced, is shown to have orientations concentrated predominantly within the brass component of austenite rolling texture. The inhomogeneities of steel microstructure are promoted by orientation dependency of the deformation substructure of heavily deformed austenite grains.

  12. Cryogenic loading of large volume presses for high-pressure experimentation and synthesis of novel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-01-21

    We present an efficient easily implemented method for loading cryogenic fluids in a large volume press. We specifically apply this method to the high-pressure synthesis of an extended solid derived from CO using a Paris-Edinburgh cell. This method employs cryogenic cooling of Bridgman type WC anvils well insulated from other press components, condensation of the load gas within a brass annulus surrounding the gasket between the Bridgman anvils. We demonstrate the viability of the described approach by synthesizing macroscopic amounts (several milligrams) of polymeric CO-derived material, which were recovered to ambient conditions after compression of pure CO to 5 GPa or above.

  13. Interaktion och kunskapsutveckling : en studie av frivillig musikundervisning

    OpenAIRE

    West, Tore; Rostvall, Anna-Lena

    2001-01-01

    In a joint dissertation project, 11 brass instrument and guitar lessons, with 4 teachers and 21 students aged 9-35 years, were videotaped, transcribed and ana­lyzed. Two were group lessons and 9 were private lessons. The object of the pro­ject was to study how music teaching and learning can be under­stood from an institutional perspective by describing, analyzing and in­terpreting musical in­strument lessons. The lessons were viewed as social encounters in which the action of participants cr...

  14. Understanding the performance of CMS calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seema Sharma; on behalf of the CMS Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The performance of the CMS hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam facilities at CERN. Two wedges of brass-scintillator calorimeter are exposed to negative and positive beams with momenta between 3 and 300 GeV/c. Light produced in the scintillators are collected using wavelength shifting fibres and read out using hybrid photo-diodes. Each of the wedges has 17 layers of scintillators. In one of these wedges signal from all 17 layers are grouped together while in the other each layer is read out separately. The response, energy resolution, longitudinal and lateral shower profiles are measured.

  15. Stochastic cooling equipment at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The photo shows (centre) an experimental set-up for stochastic cooling of vertical betatron oscillations, used at the ISR in the years before the ICE ring was built. Cooling times of about 30 min were obtained in the low intensity range (~0.3 A). To be noted the four 50 Ohm brass input/output connections with cooling fins, and the baking-out sheet around the cylinder. On the left one sees a clearing electrode box allowing the electrode current to be measured, and the pressure seen by the beam to be evaluated.

  16. Evolution of {001}orientation and related lattice rotation of Al alloy 6111 during rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yang; TIAN Ni; ZHAO Gang; LIU Chun-ming; ZUO Liang

    2007-01-01

    The texture evolution and lattice rotation in Al alloy 6111 with an initial{001} component during symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling were investigated by means of orientation distribution function(ODF). The results show that the as-rolled initial{001}orientation evolves into not only the copper orientation but also all the other orientations along the β fiber, including the brass orientation, by lattice rotation around special directions. Compared with the symmetrical rolling, the{001}component in the surface layer on the slower roller side evolves more quickly into the orientations along the β fiber during asymmetrical rolling, while that in the surface layer on the faster roller side evolves more slowly.

  17. Experimental Ultrasound Transmission through Fluid-Solid and Air-Solid Phononic Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez-Lozano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater ultrasonic transmissions for fluid-solid and air-solid phononic brass plates are reported in this work. Although the structure is roughly the same, experimental results show very different behaviour between fluid-solid and air-solid phononic plates, due to most of the properties of the fluid-solid perforated plates rely on Fabry-Perot resonances, Wood anomalies and Lamb modes. In air-solid phononic plates Fabry-Perot resonance is highly attenuated due to impedances difference between air and water, and therefore some transmission modes are now distinguishable due to surface modes coupling.

  18. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Yu, Yanguang; Xi, Jiangtao; Li, Huijun; Guo, Qinghua; Tong, Jun; Su, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD) for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases. PMID:27338413

  19. On The Role of Wetting, Structure Width, and Flow Characteristics in Polymer Replication on Micro- and Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytka, Christian; Opara, Nadia; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    - and nanostructures by injection molding. The dewetting potential of a polymer is determined by integrating the spreading coefficient over the range from melt temperature to no-flow temperature. From all polymers tested, the lowest dewetting potential is calculated for PP and the highest for polymethylmethacrylate....... The dewetting potential correlates well with the replicated height of four different structures covering both the micro- and the nanorange on two different surfaces (brass and fluorocarbon modified nickel) and polymers with different spreading coefficients. It is clearly shown that a lower dewetting potential...

  20. Waste Heat Recovery by Heat Pipe Air-Preheater to Energy Thrift from the Furnace in a Hot Forging Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lerchai Yodrak; Sampan Rittidech; Nattapol Poomsa-ad; Pattanapol Meena

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Currently, the heat pipe air-preheater has become importance equipment for energy recovery from industrial waste heat because of its low investment cost and high thermal conductivity. Approach: This purpose of the study was to design, construct and test the waste heat recovery by heat pipe air-preheater from the furnace in a hot brass forging process. The mathematical model was developed to predict heat transfer rate and applied to compute the heat pipe air-preheater in a h...

  1. Methodology for fabrication of hydraulics mini turbines with composite materials; Metodologia para a fabricacao de mini turbinas hidraulicas com materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, M.T.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEMEC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: mtcdf@uol.com.br; Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (EHR-UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@bol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the description of methodological procedure specially developed for manufacturing mini turbines. This procedure is used in the design of a Francis type mini turbine with 12.5 kW. The housing volute and the suction tube of this equipment are manufactured with using composed material based on glass fiber and its distributor system is manufactured with stainless steel and brass. At the end it is presented an estimate cost of design / manufacturing of such equipment and a comparison with other equipment in the market.

  2. Improvement in operating reliability of oil field compressor engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, G.M.; Pashayev, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experience is presented of using combined start-up winding developed by the department of electric drive and the APU of the AzINneftekhim as applied to synchronous engine of oil field compressor. The results of the experimental study indicated that using the combined start-up winding, the electromagnetic momentum of the engine (in the area of small slippings) increases 1.4-fold, while the start-up time of the drive diminishes by 15% as compared to the engine with plant brass start-up winding.

  3. Creep behaviour of Cu-30 percent Zn at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present, intermediate-temperature (573-823 K) range investigation of creep properties for single-phase Cu-30 percent Zn alpha-brass observed inverse, linear, and sigmoidal primary-creep transients above 573 K under stresses that yield minimum creep rates in the 10 to the -7th to 2 x 10 to the -4th range; normal primary creep occurred in all other conditions. In conjunction with a review of the pertinent literature, a detailed analysis of these data suggests that no clearly defined, classes M-to-A-to-M transition exists in this alloy notwithstanding the presence of both classes' characteristics under nominally similar stresses and temperatures.

  4. [Effects of loud music on the Garde Républicaine musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Y F; Fratta, A; Poncet, J L; Rondet, P; Buffe, P

    1990-01-01

    The authors report their observations on the auditory status of 76 musicians belonging to a Republican Guard brass band, and give their interpretation of abnormal findings, as they compare percussion with wind instruments and make reference to literature data. Accompanying signs, such as ear fatigue, noise intolerance, tinnitus, ear-aches, disturbance of sleep, psychic disorders, and disturbances of equilibrium are also taken into account as predisposing factors. Lastly, an attempt is made to bring out some of the characteristics that are specific to each instrument.

  5. Mechanical properties of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; K. Lukaszkowicz; A. Zarychta

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This research was done to investigate the mechanical properties of monolayer coatings (Ti/CrN,Ti/TiAlN, Ti/ZrN, CrN, TiAl/TiAlN, Zr/ZrN, TiN) deposited by PVD technique (reactive magnetron sputteringmethod) onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass. A thin metallic layer was deposited prior to depositionof ceramic monolithic coatings to improve adhesion.Design/methodology/approach: The microstructure of the coatings was cross section examined using scanningelectron microscope. The ...

  6. Mechanical properties of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lukaszkowicz; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This research was done to investigate the mechanical properties of monolayer coatings (Ti/CrN, Ti/TiAlN, Ti/ZrN, CrN, TiAl/TiAlN, Zr/ZrN, TiN) deposited by PVD technique (reactive magnetron sputtering method) onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass. A thin metallic layer was deposited prior to deposition of ceramic monolithic coatings to improve adhesion.Design/methodology/approach: The microstructure of the coatings was cross section examined using scanning electron microscope. ...

  7. A new gas counter for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabelled cell cultures used in studies of lymphocyte proliferation at the Clinical Research Centre are blotted in arrays of 10x6 spots spaced at 6 mm. A new detector has been designed to count the beta particles emitted from high energy radiolabels such as 14C using point anodes working within the cells of a brass collimator to count all 60 samples simultaneously. The cells are identified by a resistive readout technique applied independently to each of the six rows of ten anodes, and a compact data capture system provides economical readout into a personal computer. ((orig.))

  8. Continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of a superplastic Al-10Mg-0.1Zr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Crooks, R.

    1990-01-01

    Microstructural evolution via static continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of an Al-Mg-Zr alloy is addressed. Mechanical property data demonstrated that as-rolled material was capable of superplastic response without further treatment. Further, superplastic ductility at 300 C was enhanced by a factor of five by increasing the reheating time between rolling passes during processing also at 300 C. This enhanced ductility was associated with a Cu-texture and a microstructure consisting of predominantly high-angle boundaries. Processing to minimize recovery resulted in a strong Brass-texture component, a predominantly low-angle boundary microstructure and poorer ductility.

  9. Development of a 300-kV Marx generator and its application to drive a relativistic electron beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Choyal; Lalit Gupta; Preeti Vyas; Prasad Deshpande; Anamika Chaturvedi; K C Mittal; K P Maheshwari

    2005-12-01

    We have indigenously developed a twenty-stage vertical structure type Marx generator. At a matched load of $90-100 \\Omega$, for 25 kV DC charging, an output voltage pulse of 230 kV, and duration 150 ns is obtained. This voltage pulse is applied to a relativistic electron beam (REB) planar diode. For a cathode-anode gap of 7·5 mm, an REB having beam voltage 160 kV and duration 150 ns is obtained. Brass as well as aluminum explosive electron emission-type cathodes have been used.

  10. Alpha-particle emission from contaminants in counter materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of surface activities from thorium and uranium contaminants have been investigated for typical counter materials. Soft-tempered stainless steel with a rate of 1.2±0.1 α-particles emitted per 100 cm2 in one hour was found better than other stainless steel and far better than brass and aluminum. Energy spectra provide information about the contaminating activity and about its depth profile. Thorium, uranium and 210Pb contamination was also observed for thin sources of other materials including isotopically enriched materials. (orig.)

  11. Festival Branding – Case Study: The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Stamenković; Tatjana Pivac; Ivana Blešić; Snežana Besermenji

    2013-01-01

    The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (The Republic of Serbia) is a unique competition of folk brass bands in the world and one of the most important events of the overall national creativity and cultural amateurism in Serbia. Therefore, Guča represents an event which is used for branding of tourist offer and musical culture of Serbia at regional and international level. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 50th anniversary of The Drag...

  12. Photoacoustic spectroscopy for fast and sensitive ammonia detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhang; Zhiying Wu; Qingxu Yu

    2007-01-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer with H-type first longitudinal resonant cells for ammonia detection is developed. A new PA cell structure is designed to accelerate the drift velocity of the sample gas near the cell surface, so that the short response time at the flow rate of 100 sccm (standard cubic centimeter per minute) is achieved. The response time of 5 min and detection limit of 0.86 ppbv is reached for ammonia concentration measurement with a Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cell. Further improvement could be expected when using a brass cell with a high quality Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) coating.

  13. Numerical Simulation Research on Laser Shock Forming of Thin Metal Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; YAO Zhen-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Laser shock forming (LSF) of sheet metal is a new technique realized by applying an impulsive pressure generated by laser-induced shock wave on the surface of metal sheet.LSF of brass sheet metal was investigated using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with an energy per pulse of 15~50 joules.ABAQUS software was used to simulate laser shock forming process.The central displacement of the shocked region is measured and compared with the simulation.The higher pulse energy, the higher central displacement of the shocked region were obtained.The deformation of the simulation matches the experiment quite well.

  14. Zen diamond-anvil low-pressure cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, N. W. A.; Dunstan, D. J.

    2000-11-01

    A diamond-anvil cell can be operated with only one anvil in order to generate modest pressures in relatively large volumes. We demonstrate it to pressures up to 2.5 GPa with gaskets of steel, brass, and other metals, with a sample chamber 0.25 mm in diameter by 0.25-0.9 mm depth, and with various pressure media. In this form the cell is very simple to operate and is useful for much work on biological systems and soft solids which requires pressures in the 1 GPa range.

  15. Results for electrons from the 1995 ATLAS forward calorimeter prototype testbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, J.C. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Artamonov, A.; Epchtein, V.; Jemanov, V.; Khovansky, V.; Ryabinin, M.; Shatalov, P. [ITEP Moscow, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Austin, L.; Johns, K.; Loch, P.; Norton, R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Savin, A.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Steinberg, J.; Tompkins, D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mayer, J.K.; Orr, R.S.; Stairs, G. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    1998-02-01

    The performance of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon/brass forward calorimeter with its new readout geometry consisting of tube/rod electrodes with cylindrical shell gaps, has been evaluated with a full depth prototype in a testbeam experiment with electrons in 1995. The results for signal linearity of better than 1% and a constant term in the relative energy resolution of 3% meet and even exceed the original performance requirements very well. Space resolution in the order of 0.5 mm in the high energg limit, and an insignificant signal dependency on the electron impact angle have been found in addition. (orig.). 8 refs.

  16. Portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment for the analysis of cultural heritage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roberto Cesareo

    2011-02-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) especially in its portable version, generally characterized by a small X-ray tube and a Si-PIN or Si-drift detector is particularly useful to analyse works of art. EDXRF technique is nondestructive, noninvasive and multielemental. A variety of works, such as paintings of all types (including frescos and illuminated manuscripts), bronzes and brasses, gold alloys, silver alloys, ceramics, porcelains and faiences, papers, ink, stones of all types (marbles, obsidians etc.), stamps, etc. can be studied using a portable EDXRF equipment. In this paper, examples are given for analysis of the works of art with a portable EDXRF equipment.

  17. Počátky hry na trubku

    OpenAIRE

    JUŘÍČEK, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the history of the instrument from prehistory to the present and introduces the basic types of today used trumpets. It also describes the methodology, which is mainly based on the Textbook of playing the trumpet written by Michal Krčma and Antonín Vaigl and The Art of Brass Playing by Philip Farkas. The thesis mainly handles individual chapters on the methodology of playing the trumpet such as breathing in general, proper breathing when playing the trumpet, embouchure fu...

  18. Stress velopharyngeal incompetence: Two case reports and options for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raol, Nikhila; Diercks, Gillian; Hersh, Cheryl; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Stress velopharyngeal incompetence (SVPI) commonly affects brass and wind musicians. We present a series of two patients who presented with nasal air emission following prolonged woodwind instrument practice. Neither patient demonstrated audible nasal air emission during speech, but endoscopy revealed localized air escape/bubbling from different sites for each patient with instrument playing only. Both underwent tailored surgical treatment with resolution of symptoms during performance. Diagnosis of SVPI requires examination during the action that induces VPI to allow for directed management. Treatment should be targeted based on nasopharyngoscopy findings. PMID:26531005

  19. Studies of some alloys using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project an attempt has been made for the study of alloys commonly used using x-ray fluorescence ( XRF ) technique. The alloys selected for the study included gold jewellery, steels, brasses and coins. The XRF method proved to be simple, fast, non-destructive and reliable as compared to chemical methods. The results showed that most of the gold jewellery used in this country have carat value of 18 and 21. Also most coins used in different countries are alloys of Cu and Ni. A simple spark method was used for the determination of C in steels, since C is not possible to analyze by XRF. ( Author )

  20. Bagatellid : maailm / Nele-Eva Steinfeld, Ivo Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Steinfeld, Nele-Eva

    2011-01-01

    Muusikasõnumeid maailmast: 14. Tšaikovski nimelisest konkursist. Daniel Barenboim tõstetakse rüütliseisusesse. Orkestrist I, Culture Orchestra. Charles Dutoit plaanib luua Lõuna- ja Põhja-Koread ühendava orkestri. Lahkus Josef Suk. Seiji Ozawa pälvis Praemium Imperiale auhinna. Cardiffi lauljate konkursi võitis Valentina Nafornita. Lahkus Nikolai Petrov. Venetsueelas lööb laineid noor dirigent Jose Omar Davila. "Jazzkaare" täht Brass Jaw sai Suurbritannias suure tunnustuse osaliseks. Põhjamaade Nõukogu muusikaauhinna teenis Mats Gustafsson. Black Eyed Peas paneb pillid kotti. Kuuba kitarrist Manuel Galban surnud. Eesti on Tšehhi jazziraadio fookuses

  1. Extractants to assess zinc phytoavailability in mineral fertilizer and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analytical methods for the quantification of plant-available Zn contained in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products are fundamental for the control and marketing of these inputs. In this sense, there are some doubts on the part of the scientific community as well as of the fertilizer production sector, whether the extractor requested by the government (Normative Instruction No. 28, called 2nd extractor, which is citric acid 2 % (2 % CA (Brasil, 2007b, is effective in predicting the plant availability of Zn via mineral fertilizers and about the agronomic significance of the required minimal solubility of 60 % compared to the total content (HCl (Brasil, 2007a. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alternative extractors DTPA, EDTA, neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, buffer solution pH 6.0, 10 % HCl, 10 % sulfuric acid, 1 % acetic acid, water, and hot water to quantify the contents of Zn available for maize and compare them with indices of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers and industrial by-products when applied to dystrophic Clayey Red Latosol and Dystrophic Alic Red Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The rate of Zn applied to the soil was 5 mg kg-1, using the sources zinc sulfate, commercial granular zinc, ash and galvanic sludge, ash and two brass slags. Most Zn was extracted from the sources by DTPA, 10 % HCl, NAC, 1% acetic acid, and 10 % sulfuric acid. Recovery by the extractors 2 % CA, EDTA, water, and hot water was low. The agronomic efficiency index was found to be high when using galvanic sludge (238 % and commercial granular zinc (142 % and lower with brass slag I and II (67 and 27 %, respectively. The sources galvanizing ash and brass ash showed solubility lower than 60 % in 2 % CA, despite agronomic efficiency indices of 78 and 125 %, respectively. The low agronomic efficiency index of industrial by-products such as brass slag I and galvanizing ash can be compensated by higher doses, provided there is no

  2. Performance of a nitrogen laser with a modified electrode configuration and gas flow arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagi, V. V.; Pawar, B. H.; Itagi, S.

    1980-10-01

    A Blumlein discharge N2 laser with modified electrode structure and gas flow arrangement is described. The compact nitrogen laser has a brass anode and hacksaw blade cathode, with the nitrogen flow across the electrodes and the Blumlein line formed by copper and aluminum sheets, with polyester as the dielectric. Output power is measured as a function of pressure, voltage and flow rate, and the trend of the power output towards saturation could be due to a nonlinear dependence of the excitation cross section on the electron temperature, which depends on the charging voltage. The laser can pump some dyes to amplified spontaneous emission and can trigger spark gaps.

  3. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66Zn/63Cu, 208Pb/238U, 232Th/238U, 66Zn/232Th and 66Zn/208Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass. • Formation

  4. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases.

  5. On the lattice rotations accompanying slip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, M.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Leffers, Torben

    2013-01-01

    of the crystal lattices, and this texture may have a strong effect on the properties of the materials. The texture is introduced by lattice rotations in the individual grains during processing. The present critical assessment deals with the lattice rotations during rolling of face centred cubic (fcc) metals...... and alloys. Sixteen years ago, a modification of the traditional procedure for the calculation of these lattice rotations was suggested, a modification that would permit a realistic modelling of the development of the brass type texture, one of the two types of texture developed during rolling of fcc...

  6. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture......" and the "brass-type texture." The type of texture developed is determined by the stacking fault energy of the material, the rolling temperature and the strain rate of the rolling process. Recent texture simulations by the present authors provide the basis for a renewed discussion of the whole field of fcc...

  7. Quality harvesting in the basement cut of sugarcane soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Naves dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanized harvesting of sugarcane has relevance across the crop production process and can be influence the cutting quality base for soil management systems. This study aimed to assess the damage caused to the mechanical harvesting of ratoon sugarcane raw relative wear of the base shear knives and soil management. The experimental design was completely randomized, factorial divided into two schemes which are: 2 different soil tillage (moldboard plow + average grade and heavy harrow + average grade x 4 times of use of knives (0-2, 2-4 , 4-6 , 2-6(1 and 10 repetitions , and 2 soil tillage (moldboard plow + harrow heavy, and heavy harrow + average grade x 2 cutting discs (left and right x 20 repetitions, forming meshes regularly spaced 27 x 23 m, amounting to 100 repeats, or 50 replicates for each treatment in order to standardize the location of the samples taken. The variables evaluated were the mass loss of the knives of the base shear mechanism and the degree of damage to brass knuckles. The quality of mechanized harvesting of cane sugar is influenced by the soil management systems. Soil management with heavy grade + average grade has the highest quality of the harvesting operation in relation to the degree of damage to brass knuckles.

  8. The effect of pouring time on the dimensional accuracy of casts made from different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supneet Singh Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the time dependent accuracy of casts made from three different irreversible hydrocolloids. Materials and Methods: The effect of delayed pouring on the accuracy of three different irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials - Regular set CA 37(Cavex, The Netherlands, regular set chromatic (Jeltrate, Dentsply, and fast set (Hydrogum soft, Zhermack Clinical was investigated. A brass master die that contained two identical posts simulating two complete crown-tapered abutment preparations with reference grooves served as a standardized master model. A total of 120 impressions were made using specially prepared stock-perforated brass tray with 40 impressions of each material. The impressions were further sub-grouped according to four different storage time intervals: 0 min (immediately, 12 min, 30 min, and 1 h. The impressions were stored at room temperature in a zip-lock plastic bag. Interabutment and intraabutment distances were measured in the recovered stone dies (Type IV, Kalrock using a profile projector with an accuracy of 0.001 mm. The data so obtained was analyzed statistically. Results: Results of this study showed no statistically significant differences in the accuracy of casts obtained at different time intervals. Conclusion: Because it is not always possible to pour the impression immediately in routine clinical practice, all irreversible hydrocolloid materials studied could be stored in a zip-lock plastic bag for upto 1 h without any significant distortion.

  9. Microstructure of planar glass substrates modified by Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometrically controlled, channel-like structures were prepared on commercial, soda-lime glass substrates, by a Laser Ablation Backwriting (LAB) process using a commercial Nd:YVO4 laser fitted with a beam steering galvanometer mirror unit. 70Cu30Zn Brass alloy, Ag and Al metal targets were evaporated onto glass substrates by simple irradiation through the same glass substrates. The resultant structures were characterized by SEM, TEM, and UV-vis-nIR spectroscopy. These revealed the presence of metal nanostructures in the case of brass and Ag targets, with their typical local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands. In contrast, Al was not found in its elemental form, but rather integrated into the glass substrate. These results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) studies, performed with TEM and SEM observation on representative, polished cross section samples. Preliminary light guiding studies demonstrated the potential to develop burried waveguides just below the surface of the glass substrates in all cases, suggesting that LAB may be a convenient method to prepare stable waveguides by modifying inexpensive, commercial window glass.

  10. Atmospheric corrosion of Cu, Zn, and Cu-Zn alloys protected by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Saman; Forslund, Mattias; Johnson, C. Magnus; Pan, Jinshan; Leygraf, Christofer

    2016-06-01

    In this article results from earlier studies have been compiled in order to compare the protection efficiency of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkanethiols for copper, zinc, and copper-zinc alloys exposed to accelerated indoor atmospheric corrosion conditions. The results are based on a combination of surface spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The protection efficiency of investigated SAMs increases with chain length which is attributed to transport hindrance of the corrosion stimulators in the atmospheric environment, water, oxygen and formic acid, towards the copper surface. The transport hindrance is selective and results in different corrosion products on bare and on protected copper. Initially the molecular structure of SAMs on copper is well ordered, but the ordering is reduced with exposure time. Octadecanethiol (ODT), the longest alkanethiol investigated, protects copper significantly better than zinc, which may be attributed to the higher bond strength of Cu-S than of Zn-S. Despite these differences, the corrosion protection efficiency of ODT for the single phase Cu20Zn brass alloy is equally efficient as for copper, but significantly less for the heterogeneous double phase Cu40Zn brass alloy.

  11. PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER IN INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative copper (Cu sources could be used in fertilizer production, although the bioavailability of copper in these materials is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extractants neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, 2 % citric acid, 1 % acetic acid, 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, buffer solution pH 6.0, DTPA, EDTA, water, and hot water in the quantification of available Cu content in several sources, relating them to the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE of wheat grown in a clayey Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (Oxisol and Neossolo Quartzarênico (Typic Quartzipsamment. Copper was applied at the rate of 1.5 mg kg-1 as scrap slag, brass slag, Cu ore, granulated copper, and copper sulfate. The extractants 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, and NAC extracted higher Cu concentrations. The RAE values of brass slag and Cu ore were similar to or higher than those of Cu sulfate and granulated Cu. Solubility in the 2nd NAC extractant, officially required for mineral fertilizers with Cu, was lower than 60 % for the scrap slag, Cu ore, and granulated copper sources. This fact indicates that adoption of the NAC extractant may be ineffective for industrial by-products, although no extractant was more efficient in predicting Cu availability for wheat fertilized with the Cu sources tested.

  12. Inverse Calibration Free fs-LIBS of Copper-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Antonella; De Bonis, Angela; Galasso, Agostino; Guarnaccio, Ambra; Santagata, Antonio; Teghil, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    In this work the analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique of copper-based alloys having different composition and performed with fs laser pulses is presented. A Nd:Glass laser (Twinkle Light Conversion, λ = 527 nm at 250 fs) and a set of bronze and brass certified standards were used. The inverse Calibration-Free method (inverse CF-LIBS) was applied for estimating the temperature of the fs laser induced plasma in order to achieve quantitative elemental analysis of such materials. This approach strengthens the hypothesis that, through the assessment of the plasma temperature occurring in fs-LIBS, straightforward and reliable analytical data can be provided. With this aim the capability of the here adopted inverse CF-LIBS method, which is based on the fulfilment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition, for an indirect determination of the species excitation temperature, is shown. It is reported that the estimated temperatures occurring during the process provide a good figure of merit between the certified and the experimentally determined composition of the bronze and brass materials, here employed, although further correction procedure, like the use of calibration curves, can be demanded. The reported results demonstrate that the inverse CF-LIBS method can be applied when fs laser pulses are used even though the plasma properties could be affected by the matrix effects restricting its full employment to unknown samples provided that a certified standard having similar composition is available.

  13. Media effects on nanobrass arc fabrications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassaee, M.Z. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: kassaeem@modares.ac.ir; Motamedi, E.; Majdi, M.; Cheshmehkani, A.; Soleimani-Amiri, S. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buazar, F. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Marine Chemistry, Khorramshahr University of Nautical Sciences and Technologies, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-04-03

    Brass rods (3 mm x 30 mm) are directly converted into brass nanoparticles through a modified arc method, at 100 A, and in five different media. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data show strong dependence of nanoparticle sizes and their compositions on the media employed. In distilled water, both nanobrass (30 nm) and nano-Cu/ZnO (18 nm) are produced in comparable quantities. In gaseous nitrogen merely nanobrass (49 nm) is observed, in a high yield. In contrast, a very low yield of nanoproduct(s) is encountered in liquid nitrogen. In the open air, nanobrass (75 nm) is formed along with traces of ZnO. In ethylene glycol, nanobrass (108 nm) is formed as the major product along with a nanoalloy of CuZn{sub 5} (25 nm). Among these, distilled water proved to be the medium of choice for the arc synthesis of nanobrass.

  14. Examination of the Oxidation Protection of Zinc Coatings Formed on Copper Alloys and Steel Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G.; Skolianos, S.

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

  15. The effect of Cu-rich sub-layer on the increased corrosion resistance of Cu-xZn alloys in chloride containing borate buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behaviour of Cu-xZn alloys, as well as their constituent metals, in a borate buffer containing chloride ions in the molar range from 0.01 to 1 M are studied. Characteristics of these materials under anodic polarization are compared and the composition and morphology of the corrosion products formed in the course of polarization experiment are analysed by SEM and EDS. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance measurements are used for characterization of the surface layers formed on Cu, Zn and Cu-40Zn alloy during 2-h immersion at E oc in a borate buffer containing two different concentrations of chloride ions. New aspects of the behaviour of brass under E oc condition are revealed. The improved corrosion resistance of brass in chloride media, if compared to zinc metal, is attributed to a Cu-rich layer formed by the selective dissolution of zinc. Based on the results, a structural model describing the improved corrosion resistance of Cu-40Zn alloy with respect to Zn metal is proposed

  16. Designing, Building and Testing of an Electropolishing Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajlouni, M.; Al-Hamdan, A.

    During the work of this research, designing, building and testing of an electropolishing cell has been carried out. Various tests have been performed for three different materials namely, steel, aluminum and brass at different environment conditions in order to a better evaluation of electropolishing. These conditions include the effect of concentration of electrolytes, electrolytes temperature, power supplied and machining time. The results of these tests have been analyzed and performance curves have been drawn. The optimum temperatures and the optimum time have been obtained at which the maximum metal removal and the best surface quality is achieved. These temperature and time for Aluminum, Brass and Steel are T = 60, 50 and 75°C, t = 20, 40 and 50 min, respectively. Surface roughnesses of the specimens have been measured before and after electropolishing. The results showed a significant improvement that effect positively on strength, fatigue resistance and corrosion resistance. Many important conclusions have been extracted from these performance curves and some recommendations have been noted to help in future works.

  17. Development of tecniques for constructing Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of several construction techniques of Geiger-Mueller counters was carried out in order to establish the most suitable technology for such purpose. The results obtained with counters for alpha, beta and gamma rays, which were designed and built in the laboratory of Sao Paulo University (USP) are described. Most of the counters were built inside Pyrex-glass envelope and their cathodes were made of electrolytic copper or brass foils of still a silver layer deposited by chemical process. Some counters were made with cilyndrical brass tube. Anode wires of different materials and diameters and severals quenching vapors were used and the results obtained are described. All the procedures used in preparation of surfaces, cleaning of materials, purification of filling mixtures, the procedures for operating evacuation and filling of counters are described. The results obtained with self quenching counters using soda glass and an external colloidas graphite cathode are presented and the influence of filling mixtures is analysed. A technology to produce reliable counters from materials and gases easily available in the country was established. It is shown that counters with an external cathode can be used when recovery time on order of 2 μs are required. The plateus obtained for such counters were on order of 1000V with slope of about 0.5%. (Author)

  18. Music and its Impact on Musicians in Broadcasting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Milani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound is an inseparable part of human life and provides us with lovely experiences such as listening to music. Musicians from classical orchestras to rock groups are exposed to high decibel of sounds. Musicians playing percussion musical instruments are exposed to high level of impact noise and players of Brass musical instruments are highly exposed to noise peaks higher than 100dB. Woodwind players are enduring the risk of posing directly in front of Brass players. Based on the above-mentioned risks for hearing loss clinical consideration of noise induced hearing loss in musicians is highly required. In the current study we were aimed at examining hearing stratus of classic and traditional musicians by means of pure tone audiometry in Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. 33 subjects were evaluated aged between 22 to 59 years old. Their musical experience was variable between 6 to 45 years. The study demonstrated that most of the musicians in this study suffered bilateral high frequency hearing loss with a notch in the frequency range of 4-8 KHz.

  19. Waste Heat Recovery by Heat Pipe Air-Preheater to Energy Thrift from the Furnace in a Hot Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerchai Yodrak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Currently, the heat pipe air-preheater has become importance equipment for energy recovery from industrial waste heat because of its low investment cost and high thermal conductivity. Approach: This purpose of the study was to design, construct and test the waste heat recovery by heat pipe air-preheater from the furnace in a hot brass forging process. The mathematical model was developed to predict heat transfer rate and applied to compute the heat pipe air-preheater in a hot brass forging process. The heat pipe air-preheater was designed, constructed and tested under medium temperature operating conditions with inlet hot gas ranging between 370-420°C using water as the working fluid with 50% filling by volume of evaporator length. Results: The experiment findings indicated that when the hot gas temperature increased, the heat transfer rate also increased. If the internal diameter increased, the heat transfer rate increased and when the tube arrangement changed from inline to staggered arrangement, the heat transfer rate increased. Conclusion/Recommendations: The heat pipe air-preheater can reduced the quantity of using gas in the furnace and achieve energy thrift effectively.

  20. The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the machinability of titanium, two commercial titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) and free-cutting brass using the cutting temperature. The cutting temperature was estimated by measuring the thermal electromotive force of the tool-workpiece thermocouple during cutting. The thermoelectric power of each metal relative to the tool had previously been determined. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and carbide square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were significantly higher than that of the titanium, while that of the free-cutting brass was lower. This result coincided with the relationship of the magnitude of the cutting forces measured in a previous study. For each metal, the cutting temperature became higher when the depth of cut or the cutting speed and feed increased. The increase in the cutting speed and feed was more influential on the value than the increase in the depth of cut when two cutting conditions with the same removal rates were compared. The results demonstrated that cutting temperature measurement can be utilized to develop a new material for dental CAD/CAM applications and to optimize the cutting conditions.

  1. One-step fabrication of copper sulfide nanoparticles decorated on graphene sheets as highly stable and efficient counter electrode for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessein, Amr; Wang, Feiju; Masai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Kazunari; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are thin-film photovoltaics and highly promising as next-generation solar cells owing to their high theoretical efficiency, easy fabrication process, and low production cost. However, the practical photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSSCs are still far below the theoretically estimated value owing to the lack of an applicable design of the materials and electrodes. In this work, we developed a highly stable and efficient counter electrode (CE) from copper sulfide nanocrystals and reduced graphene oxide (Cu x S@RGO) for QDSSC applications. The Cu x S@RGO electrocatalyst was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, then directly applied to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by the simple drop-casting technique. Owing to the synergistic effect between Cu x S nanocrystals and conductive RGO sheets, the Cu x S@RGO CE showed high electrocatalytic activity for polysulfide electrolyte reduction. A CdS QDSSC based on the Cu x S@RGO CE yielded a high and reproducible PCE of 2.36%, exceeding those of 1.57 and 1.33% obtained with the commonly used Cu2S/brass and Pt CEs, respectively. Moreover, the QDSSC with the Cu x S@RGO CE showed excellent photostability in a light-soaking test without any obvious decay in the photocurrent, whereas the cell based on the Cu2S/brass CE was severely degraded.

  2. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  4. Optimización de los parámetros tecnológicos para la obtención de piezas de latón por pulvimetalurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivij, N.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of brass 60 (40 % Zn and brass 80 (20 % Zn have been produced by spraying molten metal with water at high pressure in the powder metallurgy plant belonging to the Metallurgical Research Centre (CIME in Havana. A physical-chemical and technological characterization of the powders has been carried out and the optimum parameters have been determined for the formation and sintering of details from these powders. The mechanical properties of these details can rival bronze and iron in applications such as in household electrical goods and in construction.

    Se han producido polvos de latón 60 (40 % de Zn y latón 80 (20 % de Zn mediante la atomización del metal fundido con agua a alta presión, en la planta de pulvimetalurgia del Centro de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CIME de La Habana. Se ha realizado la caracterización fisicoquímica y tecnológica y se han determinado los parámetros óptimos para conformar y sinterizar piezas a partir de estos polvos. Las propiedades mecánicas de estas piezas pueden competir con las de bronce y hierro, en aplicaciones para equipos electrodomésticos y en construcción.

  5. An active mute for the trombone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurisse, Thibaut; Mamou-Mani, Adrien; Caussé, René; Sluchin, Benny; Sharp, David B

    2015-12-01

    A mute is a device that is placed in the bell of a brass instrument to alter its sound. However, when a straight mute is used with a brass instrument, the frequencies of its first impedance peaks are slightly modified, and a mistuned, extra impedance peak appears. This peak affects the instrument's playability, making some lower notes difficult or impossible to produce when playing at low dynamic levels. To understand and suppress this effect, an active mute with embedded microphone and speaker has been developed. A control loop with gain and phase shifting is used to control the damping and frequency of the extra impedance peak. The stability of the controlled system is studied and then the effect of the control on the input impedance and radiated sound of the trombone is investigated. It is shown that the playability problem results from a decrease in the input impedance magnitude at the playing frequency, caused by a trough located on the low frequency side of the extra impedance peak. When the extra impedance peak is suppressed, the playability of the note is restored. Meanwhile, when the extra impedance peak is moved in frequency, the playability problem position is shifted as well. PMID:26723311

  6. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie - I.P.N.A.S., Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 10 Bat-15, Sart Tilman, 4000-Liege 1 (Belgium)], E-mail: hcalvo@ulg.ac.be; Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Salinas Nolasco, M.F. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Mejia, L.M. [Direccion de Arqueologia Subacuatica, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Perdigon, K. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for ename0008.

  7. Analytical capability of the plasma induced by IR TEA CO2 laser pulses on copper based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of nanosecond infrared (IR transversely excited atmospheric (TEA CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm and 100 ns pulse length (initial spike, induced plasma under reduced air pressure for spectrochemical analysis of bronze and brass samples was investigated. The plasma consisted of two clearly distinguished and spatially separated regions and expanded to a distance of about 10 mm from the surface. Elemental composition of the samples was determined using a time-integrated space-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (TISR-LIPS technique. Sharp and well resolved spectral lines mostly atomic, and negligibly low background emission, were obtained from a plasma region 7 mm from the target surface. Good signal to background and signal to noise ratios were obtained. Estimated detection limits for trace elements Mg, Fe, Al and Ca were in the order of 10 ppm in bronze and around 50 ppm in brass. Damage on the investigated samples induced by TEA CO2 laser radiation was negligible. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  8. Extension of the preceding birth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1994-01-01

    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  9. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem A. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Even though [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with

  10. Electron backscatter diffraction study of deformation and recrystallization textures of individual phases in a cross-rolled duplex steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during cross-rolling and annealing was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction in a ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel. For this purpose an alloy with nearly equal volume fraction of the two phases was deformed by multi-pass cross-rolling process up to 90% reduction in thickness. The rolling and transverse directions were mutually interchanged in each pass by rotating the sample by 90° around the normal direction. In order to avoid deformation induced phase transformation and dynamic strain aging, the rolling was carried out at an optimized temperature of 898 K (625 °C) at the warm-deformation range. The microstructure after cross warm-rolling revealed a lamellar structure with alternate arrangement of the bands of two phases. Strong brass and rotated brass components were observed in austenite in the steel after processing by cross warm-rolling. The ferrite in the cross warm-rolling processed steel showed remarkably strong RD-fiber (RD//< 011 >) component (001)< 011 >. The development of texture in the two phases after processing by cross warm-rolling could be explained by the stability of the texture components. During isothermal annealing of the 90% cross warm-rolling processed material the lamellar morphology was retained before collapse of the lamellar structure to the mutual interpenetration of the phase bands. Ferrite showed recovery resulting in annealing texture similar to the deformation texture. In contrast, the austenite showed primary recrystallization without preferential orientation selection leading to the retention of deformation texture. The evolution of deformation and annealing texture in the two phases of the steel was independent of one another. - Highlights: • Effect of cross warm-rolling on texture formation is studied in duplex steel. • Brass texture in austenite and (001)<110 > in ferrite are developed. • Ferrite shows recovery during annealing retaining the (001

  11. Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marking, G.A.

    1994-01-04

    Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf{sub 10}Ta{sub 3}S{sub 3} was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the known gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported {open_quotes}stuffed{close_quotes} gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo K{alpha} X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co{sub 2}Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Magnetic Flux Compression Generator%磁通压缩发生器数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇; 孔斌

    2009-01-01

    该文建立了磁通压缩发生器的等效电路模型,利用LS-DYNA中的分区算法结合任意拉格朗日-欧拉法(ALE)数值模拟了螺旋形磁通压缩发生器的电枢膨胀过程,得出了不同电枢材料、不同电枢几何尺寸和线圈尺寸下的电枢膨胀角.研究表明,在相同的炸药参数和电枢几何尺寸下,铝电枢膨胀角大于铜电枢,且负载电感上产生的电压也大于铜电枢;铝电枢材料可提高装置的输出电压,而铜电枢材料则能增大脉冲宽度.该文研究可为非核爆磁通压缩发生器输出性能的理论计算提供必要参数,为电枢几何外形设计提供依据.%An equivalent circuit model of the magnetic flux compression generator is established. The armature expansion process of the helical magnetic flux compression generator is simulated by ALE algorithm of LS-DYNA. The armature expansion angle formed in different armature materials, armature dimension and stator dimension is obtained. The research results show that: in the similar explosives parameters and armature dimension, the aluminum armature expansion angle is bigger than the brass armature expansion angle, and the voltage generated in inductive load is bigger than that in the brass armature; the aluminum armature material can improve the equipment output voltage, and the brass armature material can enlarge the pulse width. The results provide necessary parameters for the theoretical computation of the output characteristic of the non-nuclear explosive magnetic flux compression generator and an important basis for designing reasonable geometrical armature figure.

  13. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though [123I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [123I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [123I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with previously

  14. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  15. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  16. Commissioning of modulator-based IMRT with XiO treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the procedures for correction of the modulator thickness and commissioning of the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) for modulator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (M-IMRT). This modulator manufacturing system adopts a method in which the modulator is milled using a floor-type computer-aided numerical control milling machine (CNC-mill) with modulator data calculated by XiO TPS. XiO TPS uses only effective attenuation coefficients (EAC) for modulator thickness calculation. This article describes a modified method for assessing modulator thickness. A two-dimensional linear attenuation array was used to correct the modulator thickness calculated by XiO. Narrow-beam geometry was used for measuring the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) at off-axis positions (OAP) for varying brass thicknesses. An equation for the two-dimensional LAC ratio (2D-LACR) can be used to calculate the corrected modulator thickness. It is assumed that the broad beam EAC of a small field varies with the brass thickness and the OAP distance in the same way as that of LACR, so the two-dimensional EAC (2D-EAC) is equal to the EAC corrected using the LACR. The dose distribution was evaluated for three geometric patterns and one clinical case on low energy x ray (4 MV) with a large field size (20 x 20 cm2). The results using the proposed correction method of modulator thickness showed a good agreement between the measured dose distributions and the dose distributions calculated by TPS with the correction. Hence, the method is effective to improve the accuracy of M-IMRT in XiO TPS. An important problem for the brass modulator is the milling condition, such as the drill diameter and the cutting pitch size. It is necessary to improve the accuracy of M-IMRT for the "softening" and "hardening" effects of the beam to be considered in dose calculation in patients and the modulator profile design. PMID:19235394

  17. Measurement of HETP of SUS Dixon ring and porcelain packing in small-scale water distillation column for H2O-HTO isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of water distillations in a total reflux mode have been performed in a 100 cm height column of 1.6 cm I.D. in order to measure values of HETP for various packings, that is, one brass or three SUS Dixon rings and three porcelain packings. The HETP were measured by changing the vapor flow rate within the column. The SUS Dixon ring of 1.5 mm diameter and the porcelain packing of 1.2 mm O.D. had a small HETP (∼5 cm), but could not meet a large vapor flow rate because of a large pressure drop. The SUS Dixon ring of 6.0 mm diameter had a small HETP (∼6 cm) in the vapor flow rate under 2 g/min, but the HETP value increased with increasing the vapor flow rate. The pressure drop for the ring, however, was almost constant in the range of these measurements. (author)

  18. The study on nondestructive evaluation for a tubular structure by the lamb-type guided wave wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the cylindrical guided wave was carried out to investigate its feasibility for nondestructive evaluation of tubular structures such as heat exchanger tubings of power industries and various pipings of chemical plants. The concept of wedge design and incident angle selection to optimize guided wave generation is presented based on the dispersion theory and the snell's law for the cylindrical guided wave. The brass tubes with artificial defects in the circumferential or axial direction were used for detect defection experiments. It was found that guided wave sensitivity for detecting an axial defect can be remarkably improved by using non-axisymmetrically launched guided waves. Through this study, it is expected that the guided wave can be successfully applied to tubular structure inspections as an more advanced and efficient NDE technique than a conventional point-by-point technique.

  19. Nacjonalizm zwyczajnych ludzi. Etnicy­zowanie tradycji muzycznej na przykładzie festiwalu w Gučy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kuligowski

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I discuss a few contradictions in the relationship between tradition, nationalism and music. An excellent example illustrating specific nature of these contradictions is Dragačevski sabor trubača (Guča Trumpet Festival in Guča, Serbia and particular music genre – brass music. In my opinion there are three distinctive discourses/narrations about history and meaning this festival and specific kind of music: dominating Serbian discourse, ‘weak’ Gypsy discourse, and researcher’s discourse. This study is effect an ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2010 by an author and large group of students from Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland.

  20. Resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow fluid channel clad between two metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Nagaraj; Krokhin, Arkadii; Sánchez-Dehesa, José.; Garcia-Chocano, Victor M.

    2012-02-01

    We study extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two unidentical metal plates with Brass plate on one side of the channel and Aluminium plate on the other. The extraordinary absorption is observed at discrete resonant frequencies. From the elastic properties of the metal plates we derive a dispersion equation for coupled Rayleigh waves. Two different types of resonances, corresponding to different polarizations of the coupled waves, are studied for different channel widths and are experimentally confirmed. We also present the experimental confirmation of coupling through measurements of change in transmission minima with channel aperture. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical results are in a good agreement.

  1. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  2. Public health assessment for Rodale Manufacturing Company, Inc. , Emmaus, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis no. PAD981033285. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-16

    The Rodale Manufacturing site, a National Priorities List (NPL) site, is at the corner of Sixth and Minor Street in the Borough of Emmaus, south of Allentown in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. In 1961, approximately 3,000 gallons per day of rinse water from zinc and copper plating and acid brass dipping operations were disposed in a borehole (injection well), 431 feet deep. Emmaus production well No. 5, approximately 0.7 miles northwest of the site, was taken out of service in 1981 because it contained elevated levels of trichloroethene (TCE). High levels of the volatile organic compounds were detected in the injection wells and monitoring wells. The site represents a public health hazard because of risk to human health from the past exposures to contaminants that may cause adverse health effects. Current exposures are below levels of public health concern, but future exposures may occur if further groundwater remediation plans are not implemented.

  3. Microwave Loss Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of microwave attenuation at room temperature and 4.2 K have been performed on some conductors commonly used in receiver input circuits. The reduction in loss on cooling is substantial, particularly for copper and plated gold, both of which showed a factor of 3 loss reduction. Copper passivated with benzotriazole shows the same loss as without passivation. The residual resistivity ratio between room temperature and 4.2 K, deduced from the measurements using the classical skin effect formula, was smaller than the measured DC value to a degree consistent with conduction in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime at cryogenic temperatures. The measurements were made in the 5-10 GHz range. The materials tested were: aluminum alloys 1100-T6 and 6061-O, C101 copper, benzotriazole treated C101 copper, and brass plated with electroformed copper, Pur-A-Gold 125-Au soft gold, and BDT200 bright gold.

  4. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  5. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper...

  7. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present paper...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for fast determination of appropriate coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper. The method has...

  8. A Death Involving a Fired and Deflected Bullet: A Case Report from Lyon University Institute of Forensic Science, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maujean, Géraldine; Guinet, Tiphaine; Malicier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In case of gunshot deaths, atypical wounds can make the distinction between entrance and exit wounds harder. They may be due either to anatomical reasons or to diverse cogent ballistic arguments. The reported case pertains to a fatal hunting accident involving an expanded conical point bullet against the neck with both atypical entrance and exit wounds. Ballistic analyses including test firings allowed a better understanding of the external and internal findings. Upon premature impact with an intermediary target, the bullet experienced expansion in the formation of sharp brass petals responsible for a star-shaped entry wound. The trajectory of the deformed high energy projectile through the victim's body was then deviated by the cervical column, causing it to be tangential to the skin when exiting the body. The description of such atypical cases may benefit other experts and may assist in their investigation into similar cases.

  9. Collective monitors for high-current pulse electron beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collector monitor for high-current pulsed electron beams at average power of 100 W and pulse current of 100 A has been developed. The monitor comprises a Faraday cup, profile monitor, sector diaphragm, energy detector. The collector was fixed on a brass radiator transformed into a rod. The rod ensures reliable and electric contact of the collector with the ''earth'' and small RC of this line. Such design permits to stabilize the heat mode of the collector without utilization of external cooling. The monitors have been tested in electron beams at head load up to 100 W during 40 hours. Wear at the expense of evaporation, microexplosions were not observed. Accuracy of current measuring made up 5-10% for absolute and 1-2% for relative measurements

  10. Festival Branding – Case Study: The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stamenković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (The Republic of Serbia is a unique competition of folk brass bands in the world and one of the most important events of the overall national creativity and cultural amateurism in Serbia. Therefore, Guča represents an event which is used for branding of tourist offer and musical culture of Serbia at regional and international level. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 50th anniversary of The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (DTF in August 2010. The results were based on 300 questionnaires. The questionnaire contained, in one of its parts, questions regarding festival branding and influences, i.e. effects which brands (various advertisements of great sponsors and festival donators may produce and thus leave an impression on perception of each visitor as well as on a destination itself.

  11. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  12. Computerized simulation methods for dose reduction, in radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work presents computational methods that allow the simulation of any situation encountered in diagnostic radiology. Parameters of radiographic techniques that yield a standard radiographic image, previously chosen, and so could compare the dose of radiation absorbed by the patient is studied. Initially the method was tested on a simple system composed of 5.0 cm of water and 1.0 mm of aluminium and, after verifying experimentally its validity, it was applied in breast and arm fracture radiographs. It was observed that the choice of the filter material is not an important factor, because analogous behaviours were presented by aluminum, iron, copper, gadolinium, and other filters. A method of comparison of materials based on the spectral match is shown. Both the results given by this simulation method and the experimental measurements indicate an equivalence of brass and copper, both more efficient than aluminium, in terms of exposition time, but not of dose. (author)

  13. Investigation of tribological and mechanical properties of metal bearings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bekir Sadik Ünlü

    2009-08-01

    Copper, aluminum and tin–lead based alloys are widely used as journal bearing materials in tribological applications. Bronze and brass are widely used as journal bearing materials for copper based alloys. Zamacs find applications as journal bearing materials for zinc based alloys, while duralumines are chosen as journal bearing materials for aluminum based alloys. In addition, white metals are widely used as journal bearing materials for tin–lead based alloys. These alloys ensure properties expected from journal bearings. In this study, tribological and mechanical properties of these journal bearings manufactured by metals were investigated. SAE 1050 steel shaft was used as counter abrader. Experiments were carried out in every 30 min for a total of 150 min by using radial journal bearing wear test rig.

  14. Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, D; Wei, X; Steingart, DA; Banerjee, S

    2014-06-15

    Preferred orientation of zinc deposits during charging is shown to significantly improve performance and cycle life in flow-assisted alkaline zinc batteries, which has not been demonstrated earlier. The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compact zinc is found to have (11 (2) over bar2) preferred orientation on brass, which contributes to similar to 60% of the texture. The effect of charging current and zincate concentration on morphology was investigated in a rotating hull cell and correlated with anodic efficiency. Compact zinc deposits are found to have a fine-grained, bright finish and the highest anodic efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proves that compact zinc corresponds to the minimum in the half-cell resistance. Morphological control using compact zinc could be accomplished using innovations such as pulse charging or enhanced mass-transfer to improve anode performance without affecting the cathode. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and structure of particles synthesized on the surface of HHPC in nuclear reactions induced by bremstrahlung γ quanta with threshold energy of 10 MeV in molecular hydrogen at a pressure of 0.5 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2015-12-01

    A high-pressure chamber filled with molecular hydrogen (HHPC) at a pressure of 0.5 kbar with a Pd rod inside has been irradiated for 14 h with γ quanta with an energy of 9.7 kbar produced by an electron beam current of 20-21 μA. Postirradiation studies of the changes in the structure of the synthesized particle and other objects on the surface of a brass hub in the composition of HHPC revealed the presence of light elements from carbon to calcium. Multiple small particles of lead have also been found and studied. The detected synthesized particle has complex shape and composition. Also, thin-walled microtubes were detected on the inner surfaces inside HHPC. Based on fission reactions of intermediate mass nuclei (descending reactions), as well as the reactions of synthesis from hydrogen and heavier nuclei (ascending reactions), an attempt to explain the anomalies that were observed is made.

  16. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Its President is Hubert Curien - former French Minister of Research and Space Research, and President of the CERN Council from 1994 to 1996. Photo 01: (left to right) Konrade Von Bremen, Claude-Olivier Rochat, T. Virdee and Guillaume Pictet in front of one of the two end-caps of the CMS detector at the assembly site. The brass structure in the top right-hand corner is part of the hadronic calorimeter that will measure the energy of strongly interacting particles produced in collisions at the LHC.

  17. 基于市政再生水的微生物金属腐蚀行为比较%Comparison of Microbiologically Induced Corrosion on Metals in Industrial Recycling Cooling System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许萍; 王锦; 张雅君; 许兆义; 刘晓冬; 刘挺

    2013-01-01

    Compared with surface water,there are more organics,nitrogen,phosphorus and microorganisms in municipal reclaimed water,It is necessary to research microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) in industrial recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water.For recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water,MIC of stainless steel,brass and carbon steel in the sterile and non-sterile real water is studied and compared by electrochemical method,corrosion coupons experiment and scanning electron microscope.The main parameters are fitting resistance (solution resistance,biofilm resistance and polarization resistance),corrosion potential,corrosion current and corrosion rate.The results show that the corrosions of three metals are all exacerbated in nonsterile water,with the MIC of stainless steel the most serious and that of brass the least serious.The impacts of microorganism on the corrosion behavior of stainless steel,brass and carbon steel are significantly different.Microorganism has no influence on the variation of corrosion behavior of stainless steel and carbon steel with time,but its impact on brass corrosion behavior is significant.%市政再生水的有机物、氮、磷和微生物含量均高于地表水,采用其作为工业循环冷却水系统的补充水源后,微生物对金属腐蚀的影响亟待研究.为此,针对市政再生水作为补充水源的循环冷却水,采用实际水质,以微生物群体为研究对象,采用电化学分析、腐蚀挂片实验和电镜扫描方法,对比分析了常规循环水与灭菌循环水中不锈钢、黄铜和碳钢的3种拟合电阻(溶液电阻、生物膜电阻和极化电阻)、腐蚀电流、腐蚀电位以及腐蚀速率的变化规律.实验结果表明,循环水中的微生物均在不同程度上加剧了3种金属的腐蚀,其中微生物对不锈钢腐蚀的影响最大,碳钢次之,黄铜最小.微生物对不锈钢、黄铜和碳钢腐蚀行为变化规律的

  18. Near-net shape manufacturing of miniature spur gears by wire spark erosion machining

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    This work describes an experimental investigation with the aim to evaluate and establish wire spark erosion machining (WSEM) as a viable alternative for high quality miniature gear manufacturing. External spur type miniature brass (ASTM 858) gears with 12 teeth, 9.8 mm outside diameter and 5 mm face width were manufactured by WSEM. The research work was accomplished in four distinct experimental stages viz., preliminary, pilot, main and confirmation. The aim, scope and findings of each stage are progressively presented and discussed. In essence, the investigation found that it was possible to manufacture miniature gears to high quality by using WSEM. Gears up to DIN 5 quality with a good surface finish (1.2 µm average roughness) and satisfactory surface integrity were achieved. The results suggest that WSEM should be considered a viable alternative to conventional miniature gear manufacturing techniques and that in some instances it may even be superior. This work will prove useful to researchers and profess...

  19. Reduction of cathodic delamination rates of anticorrosive coatings using free radical scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Weinell, C. E.; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic delamination is one of the major modes of failure for anticorrosive coatings subjected to a physical damage and immersed in seawater. The cause of cathodic delamination has been reported to be the result of a chemical attack at the coating-steel interface by free radicals and peroxides f...... against photochemical degradation by UV-radiation of top coatings. Both substrate corrosion and degradation of a coating exposed to UV-radiation lead to the formation of free radicals as reactive intermediates......., copper, aluminum, galvanized steel, and brass also showed a reduction in the rate of cathodic delamination when the coating was modified with a free radical scavenger. The protective mechanism of free radical scavengers investigated for the primers are similar to that of antioxidants used for protection...

  20. Modeling of the voltage-controlled friction effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟永钢; 蒋洪军; 常秋英; 黄柏林

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenological model of the dependence of friction coefficient on external voltage is proposed based on experimental results of friction and electric current of three different trbopairs, Si3N4-ball/steel-disc, Si3N4-ball/brass-disc and SiO2-ball/steel-disc, lubricated with zinc strearate suspension. It was found that the variation of friction coefficient correlates with the variation of electric current for all of the three tribopairs. The change in electric current is considered to be caused by the rate of electrochemical reactions occurring on the rubbing surface. By taking the electrochemical reaction into account in the total energy consumption, an expression for describing the relationship between the rates of friction coefficient and electric current is derived, and the constants included in the expression are determined through curve fitting of experimental data.

  1. Process of electroless plating Cu-Sn-Zn ternary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cu-Sn-Zn ternary alloy layer with 10 μm thickness was prepared through electroless plating method. The influences of process conditions including the concentration of metallic salts, reductant and complex agent on Cu-Sn-Zn alloy were studied in details.The stability to bear color changes and corrosion resistance of Cu-Sn-Zn film layer were studied through air-exposure experiment and electrochemical analyses test respectively. The results show that the performances of Cu-Sn-Zn film layer are obviously superior to brass matrix. By use of SEM,EDS and XRD, the morphology, microstructure and chemical composition were investigated. The results show that complex agent can increase the content of Sn and Zn, improve the evenness and compactness and decrease needle holes, therefore the properties of electroless plating layer such as the stability to bear color changes and corrosion resistance are improved remarkably.The probable mechanism of complex agent was discussed.

  2. Microband evolution during large plastic strains of stable {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> Al and Al-Mn crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albou, A.; Driver, J.H. [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Maurice, C., E-mail: driver@emse.fr [Ecole des Mines de St Etienne, Centre SMS, CNRS UMR 5146, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2010-05-15

    The deformation microstructures of Al and Al-Mn {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace}<1 1 2> single crystals have been characterized after room temperature channel-die compression up to true strains of 2.1. The evolution of local misorientations and microband structures were quantified by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a field emission gun scanning electron microscope and their alignments compared with the traces of active slip planes and macroscopic shear stress planes. During plane-strain compression these 'Brass' oriented crystals remain stable in terms of the final, average, orientation, with a small orientation spread. However, the microband alignment varies with strain and also with solute content. There is a general tendency for the microbands to be both crystallographic and non-crystallographic at low strains, then crystallographic, and finally mixed again at high strains (with some lamellar banding).

  3. Active Mixing in a Microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-Hai; Tan, Jun-Jie; Ren, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Hua

    2010-11-01

    We investigate a minute magneto hydro-dynamic mixer with relatively rapid mixing enhancement experimentally and analytically. The mixer is fabricated with brass and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layers. A secondary flow is generated by using the Lorentz force in the fluids. The efficiency of mixing is greatly improved due to the large increase of the contact area between two mixing fluids. The micro particle image velocimetry technique is employed to measure the fluid flow characteristics in the micro-channel. Numerical simulation is performed based on the theoretical model of the computational fluid dynamics and the electromagnetic field theory. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results, which indicates that the mixing area is enlarged by the driving of Lorentz force and the mixing can be enhanced.

  4. Active Mixing in a Microchannel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chun-Hai; TAN Jun-Jie; REN Deng-Feng; ZHANG Yu-Cheng; WANG Fu-Hua

    2010-01-01

    @@ We investigate a minute magneto hydro-dynamic mixer w/th relatively rapid mixing enhancement experimentally and analytically.The mixer is fabricated with brass and polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA)layers.A secondary flow is generated by using the Lorentz force in the fluids.The efficiency of mixing is greatly improved due to the large increase of the contact area between two mixing fluids.The micro particle image velocimetry technique is employed to measure the fluid flow characteristics in the micro-channel.Numerical simulation is performed based on the theoretical model of the computational fluid dynamics and the electromagnetic field theory.The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results,which indicates that the mixing area is enlarged by the driving of Lorentz force and the mixing can be enhanced.

  5. Utilizing a Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Technique (MAF Via Adaptive Nero Fuzzy(ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer A. Moosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted for measuring the quality of surface finishing roughness using magnetic abrasive finishing technique (MAF on brass plate which is very difficult to be polish by a conventional machining process where the cost is high and much more susceptible to surface damage as compared to other materials. Four operation parameters were studied, the gap between the work piece and the electromagnetic inductor, the current that generate the flux, the rotational Spindale speed and amount of abrasive powder size considering constant linear feed movement between machine head and workpiece. Adaptive Neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was implemented for evaluation of a series of experiments and a verification with respect to specimen roughness change has been optimized and usefully achieved by obtained results were an average of the error between the surface roughness predicted by model simulation and that of direct measure is 2.0222 %.

  6. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri LILLE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7439

  7. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  8. Ultrasonic Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) for heat exchanger and steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is used for inspection of tubes of heat exchangers and steam generators. The system displays circumferential cross section of tubes (wall thickness of tubes) at any given axial position and reveals both uniform and localised (pitting) corrosion. In this paper, the operating principle of IRIS and comparison of wall thickness measurements by physical and IRIS methods are briefly explained. Details of studies carried out on the resolution capabilities of IRIS in stainless steel and brass tubes having artificial defects (holes) are discussed. The results obtained from a study carried out on a carbon steel tube with artificial defects under baffle plate are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. EFFECT OF SHOCK WAVES ON WEAR BEHAVIOR OF FEW METALLIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIVALINGAPPA.S.KUBSAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the wear behavior of few ductile materials subjected to the shock waves up to 2 Mach. The samples of material such as aluminum, mild steel and brass of diameter 6mm are prepared and the ends are machined carefully to get good surface finish. One end is exposed to 3 shock waves and the other is not exposed. Both ends of specimen are tested for wear in Ducom wear testing machine. The test results indicate considerable improvement in the wear resistance of material surface exposed to shock waves. The materials undergo plastic deformation at the surface layers. This results in strain hardening of the material leading to enhanced yield stress and consequent improvement in wear resistance.

  10. Comparative Study of Remote Fiber Laser and Water-Jet Guided Laser Cutting of Thin Metal Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Klaus; Adelmann, Benedikt; Hellmann, Ralf

    This article presents a comparison between remote laser cutting with a fiber laser and water-jet guided laser cutting using a 532 nm solid state laser. Complex contours are processed in stainless steel and brass sheets (thickness ≤ 100 μm), respectively. Results for achievable quality and productivity as well as possible applications for both systems are shown and discussed. We sustained dross free cuts with almost no heat affected zone and small kerf width for the water-jet guided process, whereas small dross, notable heat affected zone and varying kerf width where observed for remote cutting. However, process times for the water-jet guided process where considerably higher than those for remote cutting.

  11. Evaluation of the Spectral Finite Element Method With the Theory of Phononic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Guarín-Zapata, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the classical and spectral finite element method in the simulation of elastodynamic problems. We used as a quality measure their ability to capture the actual dispersive behavior of the material. Four different materials are studied: a homogeneous non-dispersive material, a bilayer material, and composite materials consisting of an aluminum matrix and brass inclusions or voids. To obtain the dispersion properties, spatial periodicity is assumed so the analysis is conducted using Floquet-Bloch principles. The effects in the dispersion properties of the lumping process for the mass matrices resulting from the classical finite element method are also investigated, since that is a common practice when the problem is solved with explicit time marching schemes. At high frequencies the predictions with the spectral technique exactly match the analytical dispersion curves, while the classical method does not. This occurs even at the same computational demands. At low frequencies howeve...

  12. Electroless deposition of Cu dendrites decorated with ZnO rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Liu, G.; Xue, D. [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, copper dendrites decorated with ZnO rods have been electrolessly deposited on brass substrate by a simple galvanic replacement method. SEM images show that these copper dendrites possess a pronounced trunk and highly ordered branches distributed on both sides of the trunk. Meanwhile, both the trunk and branches are decorated with ZnO rods. The diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model has been used to explain the fractal growth of Cu dendritic structures. This method provides a facile route to the synthesis of copper dendrites with ZnO, which can be extended to the preparation of other forms three-dimensional (3-D) metal structures or metal/ZnO composites by modifying electrolyte parameters such as composition, concentration, pH and temperature. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Exceptional Portable Sundials at Harvard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments at Harvard University has the largest assemblage of sundials in North America. The dials date from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and most are designed to be carried in one’s pocket or put on a window sill. They take advantage of the sun’s changing altitude, azimuth, hour angle, or a combination of the foregoing in order to find the time. Many are also usable at a wide range of latitudes, and therefore are suitable tools for travelers. Fashioned of wood, paper, ivory, brass, and silver, the sundials combine mathematical projections of the sun’s apparent motion with artistry, fashion, and exquisite craftsmanship. This paper will explore the wide variety of sundials and what they tell us about the people who made and used them.

  14. Interfacial microanalysis of rubber-tyre-cord adhesion and the influence of cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cobalt-containing adhesion promoters on the structure and morphology of rubber-brass and rubber-tyre-cord interfaces before and after ageing has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect the cobalt adhesion promoters had upon the interface morphology as they suppressed the growth of crystalline dendrites normally associated with the ageing process was imaged in TEM using samples prepared by the focused ion beam (FIB) milling technique. XPS depth profiling through the interfaces revealed that different types of adhesion promoter influenced the amount and distribution of cobalt ions in the bonding layer. XRD demonstrated the influence that cobalt had upon the structure of the interface and subsequent crystallinity, with a lesser degree of crystallinity being associated with better adhesion performance. From the results a model for the effect of the Co chemistry of the adhesion promotor has been developed

  15. A comparative evaluation of fluidized bed assisted drag finishing and centrifugal disk dry finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barletta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drag finishing of brass (Cu-30 wt.% Zn rings using fluidized abrasives, which is a new finishing technology, is comparatively evaluated with centrifugal disk finishing. The comparison was performed by selecting the same abrasive granulates of two different sizes and operating the equipment for the same processing time or at their respective maximum speeds. The experimental analysis investigated the change in workpiece morphology, material removal during finishing and dimensional accuracy. The results showed that each of the types of equipment investigated in the study were capable of a high finishing performance with a relatively short processing time. However, fluidized bed assisted drag finishing was more effective than centrifugal disk finishing in both the achievable quality of the processed parts and reduced processing time. In contrast, centrifugal disk finishing was preferable whenever low erosion and stringent dimensional tolerances were demanded.

  16. Fast Fourier Transform Analysis of Welding Penetration Depth Using 2 kW CW Nd:YAG Laser Welding Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental results on the correlations between welding penetration depth and the frequencies of the radiation from the welding pool. Various welding samples such as SUS304, brass, SUS316, etc. have been investigated with 2 kW CW Nd:YAG laser welding machine. The radiation signals from the plume generated by the interactions between the welding sample and laser with respect to the defocusing length was measured with fiber system collecting the plume signal. Analysis of the frequencies by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) shows that the penetration depth is deep as plume signal frequencies are low, shallow penetration depth for high frequencies. Frequencies up to 250 Hz for obtained signals can be analyzed with the discrete FFT. This is the useful method fur closed loop control of the laser power with respect to the welding penetration depth and is used for real time inspection of the welding quality

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of sound propagation in a trumpet with accurate mouthpiece shank geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Resch, Janelle; Vanderkooy, John

    2016-01-01

    The length and bore geometry of musical instruments directly influences the quality of sound that can be produced. In brass instruments, nonlinear effects from finite-amplitude wave propagation can lead to wave distortion giving sounds a brassy timbre [3, 5, 14, 20, 26]. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model to describe nonlinear wave propagation in a trumpet and investigate the importance of the mouthpiece shank geometry. Time pressure waveforms corresponding to B_3(b) and B_4(b) notes were recorded at the mouthpiece shank and used as inputs for our model. To describe the motion of compressible inviscid fluid, we numerically solved the compressible Euler equations using the discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate our approach, the numerical results were compared to the recorded musical notes outside the bell of the trumpet. Simulations were performed on computational trumpets where different bore geometries were considered. Our results demonstrate that the shape of the narrow region near mou...

  18. Development of standard test methods for evaluating defibrillation recovery characteristics of disposable ECG electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E; Lyon, P C

    1979-01-01

    A clinically relevant test for the measurement of defibrillation overload recovery of prefilled disposable ECG electrodes was developed and is proposed for use in an ECG electrode standard under development by AAMI. Defibrillation overload voltages and currents, as well as electrode polarization recovery voltages, were first measured in animal tests on 12 types of electrodes to allow correlation with various bench tests using a capacitor discharge at 10, 200, or 1000 V. Current overloads absorbed by the electrodes under worst conditions in animal tests were in the range of 2 percent of the defibrillation current flowing through the chest. These overloads were absorbed by most Ag-AgCl electrodes without excessive polarization. However, stainless steel, brass, and tin electrodes tended to polarize to levels that would saturate many ECG monitors. A standard bench test using a 200-V 10-muF capacitor was recommended for inclusion in the AAMI standard to determine whether electrodes are acceptable for use during defibrillation.

  19. Design and manufacture of a toroidal-type SMES for combination with real-time digital simulator (RTDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-min; Kim, A.-Rong; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Eom, Bum-Yong; Sim, Kidoek; Kim, Seok-Ho; Sohn, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Jong; Bae, Joon-Han; Seong, Ki-Cheol

    2011-06-01

    The authors designed and manufactured a toroidal-type superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system. The toroidal-type SMES was designed using a 3D CAD program. The toroidal-type magnet consists of 30 double pancake coils (DPCs). The single pancake coils (SPCs), which constitute the double pancake coils, are arranged at an angle of 6° from each other, based on the central axis of the toroidal-type magnet. The cooling method used for the toroidal-type SMES is the conduction cooling type. When the cooling method for the toroidal-type SMES was designed, the two-stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator was considered. The Bi-2223 HTS wire, which was made by soldering brass on both sides of the superconductor, is used for the magnet winding. Finally, the authors connected the toroidal-type SMES to a real-time digital simulator (RSCAD/RTDS) to simulate voltage sag compensation in a power utility.

  20. Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA Microimmunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne W. Kusterbeck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence immunoassays employing monoclonal antibodies directed against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT were conducted in a multi-channel microimmunosensor. The multi-channel microimmunosensor was prepared in poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA via hot embossing from a brass molding tool. The multi-channeled microfluidic device was sol-gel coated to generate a siloxane surface that provided a scaffold for antibody immobilization. AlexaFluor-cadaverine-trinitrobenzene (AlexaFluor-Cad-TNB was used as the reporter molecule in a displacement immunoassay. The limit of detection was 1-10 ng/mL (ppb with a linear dynamic range that covered three orders of magnitude. In addition, antibody crossreactivity was investigated using hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, HMX, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT, 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT and 2-amino-4,6-DNT.

  1. Application of risk analysis and quality control methods for improvement of lead molding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gołaś

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the significance of implication of risk analysis and quality control methods for the improvement of parameters of lead molding process. For this reason, Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA was developed in the conceptual stage of a new product TC-G100-NR. However, the final product was faulty (a complete lack of adhesion of brass insert to leak regardless of the previously defined potential problem and its preventive action. It contributed to the recognition of root causes, corrective actions and change of production parameters. It showed how these methods, level of their organization, systematic and rigorous study affect molding process parameters.

  2. Layer wise evolution of the Cu–Zn alloy microstructure after sandblasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Yuriy N.; Vasylyev, Mihail A.; Trofimova, Lidiya N.; Makeeva, Irina N.; Filatova, Vera S., E-mail: tchudo55@hotmail.com

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports our recent studies on structural changes of a brass alloy (Cu–37Zn) after sandblasting. Investigation of the alloy foils using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) obtained at different distance from the treated surface. The existence of three structural surface layers after sandblasting was shown. The upper surface layer about 5 μm, corresponds to nano-crystalline state, the second one, consisting of nano-crystalline, ultra-microcrystalline and microcrystalline grains with FCC and orthorhombic structure mixture, occurs deeper than 5 μm and reaches the depth of 30 μm. The third layer can be attributed to the FCC disoriented cellular structure with multi-layer stacking-faults. The parameters characterizing changes of the nano-crystalline grains and polygonal structures are given. The role of the structural changes from one layer to another is discussed.

  3. Burnisher's asthma--a case due to ammonia from silverware polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Chan, C C; Tan, K T; Cheong, T H; Chee, C B; Wang, Y T

    1993-12-01

    A 39-year-old man with no past or family history of asthma developed asthmatic symptoms five months after working as a burnisher in a hotel. He polished brass or silverware using "brasso" or "silvo" respectively. He noticed symptoms only when using "silvo". Specific bronchial provocation testing (BPT) to "brasso" was negative. Specific BPT to "silvo" produced a dual asthmatic reaction. Ammonia was present in both polishes. The ammonia-in-air levels during polishing was 8-15 ppm with "silvo" and less than 1 ppm with "brasso". A specific BPT to 12 ppm of ammonia produced an immediate asthmatic reaction. Our opinion is that he had occupational asthma from the ammonia liberated while polishing silverware with "silvo". Ammonia has been reported to cause asthma. However, there have been no previous reports of occupational asthma among burnishers doing silver polishing. PMID:8153728

  4. Measurement for Mass Concentration of Benzotriazole in Antirust Liquid by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer%紫外分光光度法测定防锈液中苯并三氮唑质量浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵强; 李嘉仪; 李欣

    2016-01-01

    In order to effectively control of mass concentration of benzotriazole(BTA)in antirust fluid,according to Lambert-Beer absorption law,the mass concentration of BTA in antirust fluid for brass cage is measured by using ultra-violet spectrophotometer.The results show that the measuring method is accurate,convenient and quick.%为保证防锈液中苯并三氮唑的质量浓度能够得到有效控制,根据 Lambert -Beer 吸收定律,采用紫外可见光分光光度计测定铜保持架防锈液中苯并三氮唑的质量浓度。结果证明,该测定方法可准确、简便、快速地检测工艺范围内的质量浓度。

  5. Multi-channel gas electron multiplier with metallic electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, B M; Ovchinnikov, Yu B

    2010-01-01

    The design of multi-channel gas electron multiplier (MGEM) with metallic electrodes is proposed, produced and tested. The electrodes of MGEM are produced from the brass plates with thickness of 1 mm, round openings of 1 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm steps between them. The gap between the electrodes is equal to 3 mm, while the total working area has a diameter of 20 mm. The neon gas fillings of the MWGEM chamber with micro admixtures of N_2 and H_2O have been tested. The total maximal coefficient of proportional multiplication of electrons in neon with admixture of (H_2O+N_2)<100 ppm of 30000 is obtained.

  6. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  7. Properties of electrodeposited amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng-jiao; WANG Miao; LU Xin

    2006-01-01

    A new technique of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits was proposed. The structure and morphology of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were detected by XRD and SEM. The friction and wear behavior of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were studied and compared with that of chromium deposit. The corrosion properties against 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide were also discussed. The experimental results indicate that Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits have superior properties against wear than hard chromium deposits under dry sliding condition. Under oil sliding condition, except their better wear resistance, the deposits can protect their counterparts against wear. The deposits plated on brass and AISI 1045 steel show good behavior against corrosion of 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide. The bath of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits is environmentally friendly and would find widely use in industry.

  8. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  9. Musical Instrument Timbres Classification with Spectral Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostini Giulio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of features is evaluated for recognition of musical instruments out of monophonic musical signals. Aiming to achieve a compact representation, the adopted features regard only spectral characteristics of sound and are limited in number. On top of these descriptors, various classification methods are implemented and tested. Over a dataset of 1007 tones from 27 musical instruments, support vector machines and quadratic discriminant analysis show comparable results with success rates close to 70% of successful classifications. Canonical discriminant analysis never had momentous results, while nearest neighbours performed on average among the employed classifiers. Strings have been the most misclassified instrument family, while very satisfactory results have been obtained with brass and woodwinds. The most relevant features are demonstrated to be the inharmonicity, the spectral centroid, and the energy contained in the first partial.

  10. Flute-like musical instruments: a toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Soizic; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modeled by nonlinear dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modeled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasi-periodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  11. Flute-like musical instruments: A toy model investigated through numerical continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    Self-sustained musical instruments (bowed string, woodwind and brass instruments) can be modelled by nonlinear lumped dynamical systems. Among these instruments, flutes and flue organ pipes present the particularity to be modelled as a delay dynamical system. In this paper, such a system, a toy model of flute-like instruments, is studied using numerical continuation. Equilibrium and periodic solutions are explored with respect to the blowing pressure, with focus on amplitude and frequency evolutions along the different solution branches, as well as "jumps" between periodic solution branches. The influence of a second model parameter (namely the inharmonicity) on the behaviour of the system is addressed. It is shown that harmonicity plays a key role in the presence of hysteresis or quasiperiodic regime. Throughout the paper, experimental results on a real instrument are presented to illustrate various phenomena, and allow some qualitative comparisons with numerical results.

  12. Effect of gas ratio on tribological properties of sputter deposited TiN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Mahesh R.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited on Si, corning glass, pins of mild steel (MS, ϕ3mm), aluminium (Al, ϕ4mm) and brass (ϕ6mm) substratesby DC magnetron sputtering. The argon and nitrogen (Ar:N2)gas ratio was precisely controlled by Mass Flow Controller (MFC) and was varied systematically at diffract values of 10:10,12:08, 16:04 and 18:02sccm. The structural properties of TiN coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its surface topography was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The tribological properties of TiN coatings were investigated using pin-on-disc tribometer.

  13. Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadesch, Jong S.; Leidecker, Henning; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A whisker from a tin plated part was blamed for the loss of a commercial spacecraft in 1998. Although pure tin finishes are prohibited by NASA, tin plated parts, such as hybrids, relays and commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts, are something discovered to have been installed in NASA spacecraft. Invariably, the assumption is that a conformal coat will prevent the growth of, or short circuits caused by, tin whiskers. This study measures the effect a Uralane coating has on the initiation and growth of tin whiskers, on the ability of this coating to prevent a tin whisker from emerging from the coating, and on the ability to prevent shorting. A sample of fourteen brass substrates (1 inch by 4 inches by 1/16 inch) were plated by two separate processes: half of the specimens were 'bright' tin plated directly over the brass substrate and half received a copper flash over the brass substrate prior to 'bright' tin plating. Each specimen was coated on one half of the substrate with three bi-directional sprays of Uralane 5750 to a nominal thickness of 25 to 75 micrometers (1 to 3 mils). Several specimens of both types, Cu and non-Cu flashed, were placed in an oven maintained at 50 C as others' work suggests that this is the optimal temperature for whisker formation. The remaining specimens were maintained at room ambient conditions. The surfaces of each specimen have been regularly inspected using both optical (15 to 400x power) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Many types of growths, including needle-like whiskers, first appeared approximately three months after plating on the non-conformally coated sides of all specimens. At four months, 4 to 5 times more growth sites were observed on the coated side; however, the density of growth sites on the non-conformally coated side has since increased rapidly, and now, at one year, is about the same for both sides. The density of growth sites is estimated at 90/sq mm with 30 percent of the sites growing whiskers (needle

  14. Preparation of solar selective absorbing CuO coating for medium temperature application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qunwu; WANG Yiping; LI Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    A new method of preparing CuO solar selective absorbing coating for medium temperature is presented.After pretreatment,brass was overlaid with CuO by chemical plating.The effects of reactant concentration,reaction temperature and reaction time on the absorptivity of CuO coating were investigated.The optimized condition of preparing CuO coating was obtained.The CuO coating was analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).In order to prolong the period of use,the CuO coating was protected by TiO2.The experiment shows that the TiO2/CuO coating is more heat-resistant,acid-resistant,and wear resistant than CuO coating,without Iosing absorptivity markedly.The TiO2 coating can reduce emissivity and protect the CuO coating.

  15. Development of Lead-Free Copper Alloy-Graphite Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, P.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (US)

    1999-10-01

    In this project, graphite is used as a substitute for lead in order to maintain the machinability of plumbing components at the level of leaded brass. Graphite dispersed in Cu alloy was observed to impart good machinability and reduce the sizes of chips during machining of plumbing components in a manner similar to lead. Copper alloys containing dispersed graphite particles could be successfully cast in several plumbing fixtures which exhibited acceptable corrosion rate, solderability, platability, and pressure tightness. The power consumption for machining of composites was also lower than that of the matrix alloy. In addition, centrifugally cast copper alloy cylinders containing graphite particles were successfully made. These cylinders can therefore be used for bearing applications, as substitutes for lead-containing copper alloys. The results indicate that copper graphite alloys developed under this DOE project have a great potential to substitute for lead copper alloys in both plumbing and bearing applications.

  16. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  17. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((BmimCl/AlCl3 (40/60 mol % as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication. These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties.

  18. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  19. Experimental Study of Heat Energy Absorber with Porous Medium for Thermoelectric Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric conversion system usually consists of the heat absorber, the thermoelectric generator (TEG and the heat sink, while the heat absorber collects the heat to increase the temperature on the hot surface of TEG and enhances the generating electricity. This study experimentally investigated the performance of the brass-beads packed-bed heat absorber for the thermoelectric conversion system. The packed-bed heat absorber is installed in a square channel with the various flow orientation systems and the small ratio of channel width to bead diameter. The flow orientation systems included the straight flow and jet flow systems. This study showed the local and average heat transfer characteristics for various parameters. The experimental results can be the base of designs for the novel porous heat absorber of the thermoelectric conversion system.

  20. Quasi-discrete particle motion in an externally imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., “hopping”) motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.

  1. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  2. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2012-01-01

    www.interfon.fr « Nouveaux partenaires » chez Interfon « Brasserie Gessienne » Fabrication de bière biologique artisanale brassée à l’ancienne et non filtrée. Tout au long de l’année, bénéficiez de 5 % de remise immédiate sur tous vos achats. Ouverture début septembre. N’oubliez pas de présenter votre carte Interfon pour obtenir cette remise. Ce nouveau partenaire sera présent à notre « Portes Ouvertes » le 4 octobre pour vous offrir une dégustation gratuite. ZA de la Maladière – 358, rue de Perruet – 01210 – ORNEX Tél : 04 50 40 59 89 – www.brasseriegessienne.fr « Homme ou femme » bénéficiez de  20 % en présentant votre carte Interfo...

  3. Optimum dimple diameter for friction reduction with laser surface texturing: the effect of velocity gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological texturing of surfaces has demonstrated high potential to reduce friction and wear. In order to understand the effect of different velocity gradients over the textured area on the optimum dimple diameter, we textured brass pins with round dimples having diameters between 20 and 200 μm. The dimple depth and packing density were kept constant. The samples were tested in a pin-on-disc fashion against sapphire discs and experiments were conducted under mixed lubrication and for two different sliding radii. Our results show that larger velocity gradients favor smaller dimples, whereas for the smaller velocity gradients, larger dimple diameters were beneficial. The effect of there being an influence of the velocity gradient was also found in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Experimentally, friction forces could be reduced by up to 80%, demonstrating the tremendous potential of laser surface texturing (LST) to lower friction forces and reduce CO2 emissions. (paper)

  4. A relic of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum (1903–34)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the origins of an old brass monocular microscope in the Central Laboratory in Khartoum, which used to be the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratory in Khartoum (1903–1934). Examination of the microscope and review of published literature gave clues to the historical background of this microscope. Identical microscopes were first manufactured by R and J Beck in 1898, and continued to be advertised in 1899. The microscope was probably among the instruments provided by Wellcome for the initial establishment of the laboratories in 1902–1903. The article includes a brief review of the development of light microscopy. The need for preservation and proper restoration of old relics of the Wellcome laboratories in Khartoum is emphasized.

  5. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF2 with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  7. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  8. Application of mechanochemical activation for synthesis of uranium-lanthanoid mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of mechanochemistry to produce uranium-lanthanoid mixed oxides is presented. Phase homogeneous uranium-cerium solid solutions of the type Cex U1-x O2 (x = 0.3 / 0.95) and polyphase systems containing Lay U1-y O2+x (y = 0.12) were prepared by mechanochemical activation in air of sol-gel produced precursors. The possibility for synthesis of urania-lanthania solid solution by mechanochemical interaction of La2O3 with sol-gel produced U (IV,VI) oxide is established. The crystal structures of the obtained oxides before and after the mechanochemical treatment are analysed by the use of X-ray diffraction method. The size of the crystallites (8-16 nm), lattice parameters, crystallite strains and densities of the oxides are calculated by BRASS program for Rietveld calculation. (author)

  9. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  10. Structure of monolayer coatings deposited by PVD techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research is the investigation of the structure of coatings deposited by PVD technique(reactive magnetron sputtering method onto the substrate from the CuZn40Pb2 brass.Design/methodology/approach: Microstructure was characterised using optical metallography, scanning andtransmission electron microscopy.Findings: The hard PVD coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method demonstrate structurecomposed of fine crystallites. In case of the monolayer coatings the columnar structure occurs. Examinations of thePVD coating textures reveal that in most cases they have the binary textures {111} and {100} or {110} and {311}.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying thesecoatings in tools, further investigations should be concentrated on the determination of the mechanical andtribological properties of the coatings.Originality/value: The paper contributes to better understanding and recognition the structure of thin coatingsdeposited by PVD techniques.

  11. [Study of Paints and Drawing Techniques of Fine Brushwork Yunlong Ripples Painting in Qing Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Sheng-cai; Shi, Ji-long; Wang, Ji-gang; He, Qiu-ju; Qi, Xiao-kun; Zhou, Zhong; Zhou, Wen-hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the paints and techniques of decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves, the materials based on a Qing Dynasty meticulous painting were measured by three-dimensional video microscopy, Raman microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the green clothes was firstly colored by Paris green, the decorative patterns of dragon among clouds and water waves were then painted by hematite, the edge was delineated by brass powder at last. The dark yellow area within the decorative patterns was presented due to the interaction of green and red paints. In addition, ultramarine blue was checked in the painting. According to the first synthesized time of ultramarine blue and Paris green, we can make sure the time limit of the painting finished. PMID:27209755

  12. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of a HMX-based pressed explosive: Effects of combined high pressure and strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biessy M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the combined effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the behaviour and microstructure evolutions of a HMX-based explosive. Hopkinson bar compression experiments are carried-out on samples confined with a brass sleeve. The latter is instrumented in order to determine the confining pressure on the explosive sample, directly function of the sleeve thickness and yield strength. A sample confined at 75 MPa and deformed at 250s−1 is recovered, cross-sectioned and studied using optical microscopy. Distributed microplasticity and microcracking appear similar to those induced by confined quasi-static experiments, indicating that stress triaxiality is the most important loading parameter. The sample also displays a large shear macrocrack, resulting from the formation of an adiabatic shear band. Shear banding seems to proceed by strong plastic strain gradients, followed by dynamic re-crystallization. Further strong thermal effects are observed, resulting in local reactive melting.

  13. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller;

    2011-01-01

    exposure depends significantly on the specific instrument and the repertoire played by the exposed musician. Concerts, group rehearsals and individual practice were all significant contributors to the sound exposure. The highest LAeq of 86 –98 dB was found among the brass players. High string players were......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed and...... levels exceeding LAeq8h of 85 dB.Conclusions: Binaural recording of the individual sound exposure showed that orchestra musicians could be exposed differently to the left and right ear and that they were primarily exposed from their own instruments. Specific repertoires as well as the specific instrument...

  14. Musician's cramp as manifestation of maladaptive brain plasticity: arguments from instrumental differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Baur, Volker; Hofmann, Aurélie; Lim, Vanessa K; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2012-04-01

    Musician's cramp is a task-specific movement disorder that presents itself as muscular incoordination or loss of voluntary motor control of extensively trained movements while a musician is playing the instrument. It is characterized by task specificity and gender bias, affecting significantly more males than females. The etiology is multifaceted: a combination of a genetic predisposition, termed endophenotype, and behavioral triggering factors being the leading features for the manifestation of the disorder. We present epidemiological data from 591 musician patients from our outpatient clinic demonstrating an influence of fine-motor requirements on the manifestation of dystonia. Brass, guitar, and woodwind players were at greater risk than other instrumentalists. High temporospatial precision of movement patterns, synchronous demands on tonic and phasic muscular activation, in combination with fine-motor burdens of using the dominant hand in daily life activities, constitute as triggering factors for the disorder and may explain why different body parts are affected. PMID:22524368

  15. Statistical thermodynamics of ordering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical thermodynamic approximation for cooperative phenomena in Ising and Heisenberg systems has been developed. Description of order-disorder transformation in alloys as well as evaluation of the magnetic contribution for the free energy of ferromagnets is provided with this approach. The constant coupling approximation is improved by introducing a second pairs reactions after averaging atomic groups, on the analogy of block construction in renormalization group techniques. Temperature variation after renormalizing is taken into account by two suitable temperature functions. An analytic expression for the system free energy is obtained which gives well approximate thermodynamic quantities (order parameter, internal energy, specific heat). In particular, the critical behaviour is properly described, with accurate thermodynamic quantities and right exponents. This approach has been applied to real system, showing what are the differences with ideal Ising system. In order-disorder alloys like β-brass, order parameter and specific heat as a function of temperature are obtained and ordering phenomena are discussed. (orig.)

  16. A Non-linearized PLS Model Based on Multivariate Dominant Factor for Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Lizhi; Ni, Weidou; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate dominant factor based non-linearized PLS model is proposed. The intensities of different lines were taken to construct a multivariate dominant factor model, which describes the dominant concentration information of the measured species. In constructing such a multivariate model, non-linear transformation of multi characteristic line intensities according to the physical mechanisms of lased induced plasma spectrum were made, combined with linear-correlation-based PLS method, to model the nonlinear self-absorption and inter-element interference effects. This enables the linear PLS method to describe non-linear relationship more accurately and provides the statistics-based PLS method with physical backgrounds. Moreover, a secondary PLS is applied utilizing the whole spectra information to further correct the model results. Experiments were conducted using standard brass samples. Taylor expansion was applied to make the nonlinear transformation to describe the self-absorption effect of Cu. Then, li...

  17. A high transmission broadband gradient index lens using elastic shell acoustic metamaterial elements

    CERN Document Server

    Titovich, Alexey S; Norris, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The use of cylindrical elastic shells as elements in acoustic metamaterial devices is demonstrated through simulations and underwater measurements of a cylindrical-to-plane wave lens. Transformation acoustics (TA) of a circular region to a square dictates that the effective density in the lens remain constant and equal to that of water. Piecewise approximation to the desired effective compressibility is achieved using a square array with elements based on the elastic shell metamaterial concept developed in [30]. The size of the elements are chosen based on availability of shells, minimizing fabrication difficulties. The tested device is neutrally buoyant comprising 48 elements of nine different types of commercial shells made from aluminum, brass, copper, and polymers. Simulations indicate a broadband range in which the device acts as a cylindrical to plane wave lens. The experimental findings confirm the broadband quadropolar response from approximately 20 to 40 kHz, with positive gain of the radiation patte...

  18. Copper alloys deterioration due to anthropogenic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Perez-Rodriguez, J. L.; Herrera, L. K.; Jimenez-de-Haro, M. C.; Robador, M. D.; Justo, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Perez-Ferrer, J. C.

    2008-07-01

    Results are presented from several samples taken from leaves of the Pardon Portico of Mosque-Cathedral or Cordoba, where an alteration on their surface was detected. Metal samples analyzed using X-ray microanalysis and powder x-ray diffraction were predominantly constituted by copper with some amounts of zinc attributed to brass, whereas other samples were also constituted by copper, tin and lead attributed to bronze. surface samples were analyzed using the same techniques. In addition Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was also used. The main compound identified in all the surface of the leaves is copper chloride hydroxide (atacamite). Lead chlorides have also been found. These data show that the sudden alteration that appears may be attributed to the use of some cleaning product containing chloride. Other compounds detected in the surface were gypsum, quartz and oxalates coming from environmental contamination. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Burns, S.; Hawreliak, J.; House, A.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenphysik, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.4–10 keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-α x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/ΔE = 220 at 9.8 keV.

  20. A new KVp tool and its sensitivity to spectral changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an improvement on Stanton's original design. It combines an useful feature of the Ardran and Crooks method with the Staton method. The device employs a polyethylene reference block alongside adjacent copper wedges. To determine the kVp, the kVp test tool is placed over a conventional X-ray cassette containing a fresh sheet of film and an appropriate exposure is made at the kVp which one wishes to measure. We used two thicknesses of brass to test the sensitivity of the wedge to spectral changes. The results indicate that the device is useful for measuring kVp over the diagnostic X-ray range (45-110 kvp). (author)