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Sample records for bransfield strait region

  1. Multidecadal freshening and lightening in the deep waters of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

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    Dotto, Tiago S.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Mata, Mauricio M.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The deep waters of the Bransfield Strait receive considerable amounts of water from the Weddell Sea continental shelf. The restricted connections to the surrounding ocean and relatively easier access makes the Bransfield Strait an important proxy region for monitoring changes in the dense Weddell Sea shelf water masses, which are an important precursor of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Long-term hydrographic data from the period 1960s-2010s showed freshening and lightening of the deep water masses of the Bransfield Strait, which was likely caused by large freshwater inputs originating from the western shelf of the Weddell Sea. The rates of freshening and lightening were -0.0010 ± 0.0005 yr-1 and -0.0016 ± 0.0014 kg m-3 yr-1 for the central basin, respectively, and -0.0010 ± 0.0006 yr-1 and -0.0029 ± 0.0013 kg m-3 yr-1 for the eastern basin, respectively. The deep waters showed a high degree of interannual thermohaline variability, which appeared to be caused by changes in the proportions of source water mass mixing between the years. Statistically significant negative correlations between salinity/neutral density fields and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) were observed (-0.56 and -0.62 for the central basin, respectively, and -0.58 and -0.68 for the eastern basin, respectively) between 1980 and 2014. During SAM positive phases, communication between the Weddell Sea and the Bransfield Strait is reduced, which leads to less saline and lighter water masses in the Bransfield Strait; however, the opposite trends are observed during SAM negative phases.

  2. Tidal and residual currents in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

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    O. López

    Full Text Available During the 1992-1993 oceanographic cruise of the Spanish R/V Hespérides, recording equipment was deployed in the Bransfield Strait. Six Aanderaa RCM7 current meters and three Aanderaa WLR7 tide gauges were successfully recovered after an operation period of 2.5 months. Relevant features of the time series obtained are presented and discussed in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the tidal character of the currents and the relative importance of tidal flow in the general hydrodynamics of the strait. For these purposes a dense grid of hydrographic stations, completed during the BIOANTAR 93 cruise, is used. Preliminary geostrophic calculations relative to a 400 m depth, yield current velocities of around 0.20 m s-1 in the study area, whereas the magnitude of tidal currents is seen to be 0.30-0.40 m s-1.

  3. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

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    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  4. Composition of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island during austral summer of 1999

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    Sonia Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors inform about the composition and distribution of phytoplanktonic community between the first 75 m of depth in Bransfield Strait y around the Elephant island, during the ANTAR X expedition in the 1999 Austral Summer (22nd–29th January 1999. The higher cellular concentration (500 cel/mL was given by the autotrophic nanoplankton, with a high density mainly on the bay stations and down the first 25 m of depth. Among the most representative species we have Leucocryptos marina, Phaeocystis antarctica, the Monadas and the pennate diatoms.

  5. Iron isotopes in bottom waters from the Bransfield Strait: Implications for deep water Fe supply

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    Stichel, Torben; Homoky, William; Connelly, Douglas; Klar, Jessica; Mills, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an important micro-nutrient in the global ocean. However, its low bioavailability due to poor solubility in oxygenated waters, leads to a strongly limiting character of this trace metal as a nutrient. The major sources of Fe to seawater are largely known (i.e. aeolian dust deposition, riverine and groundwater input, seawater-sediment interaction, and hydrothermal vents) but the relative significance of these sources to the marine Fe supply are not yet well quantified. Areas with low atmospheric inputs, such as the Southern Ocean, are severely Fe limited in surface waters. Here, strong upwelling and a deeply penetrating surface mixed layer fuel one of the largest biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the global ocean. One significant pathway to bottom waters is the benthic flux of trace metals from hydrothermal systems, where Fe can be stabilised in the water column by different dissolved species. For example, benthic fauna, such as tube-worms, may enhance transportation of dissolved trace metals from pore waters through oxic surface layers of sediments into the deep ocean. Concentrations of total dissolvable Fe (DFe) in these bottom waters have been reported to be significantly higher than surrounding seawater (Aquilina et al., 2014). Here we present DFe isotope composition of bottom water from the Hook Ridge, a shallow (~1100m) sediment covered volcanic feature within a rifted margin. On the basis of Fe isotopes we will determine whether Fe is released by non-reductive dissolution from poorly oxygenated sediments via the presence of tubeworms Sclerolinum spec. This will help to evaluate whether benthic fluxes from hydrothermal fields can be a major source of bioavailable Fe to the deep Southern Ocean. References: Aquilina, A., Homoky, W.B., Hawkes, J. A., Lyons, T.W., Mills, R. a., 2014. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 64-80. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.003

  6. Seasonal variations of total {sup 234}Th and dissolved {sup 238}U concentration activities in surface water of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, from March to October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Flavia V.; Oliveira, Joselene de; Costa, Alice M.R., E-mail: fvlapa@ipen.br, E-mail: jolivei@ipen.br, E-mail: lice_mrc@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 234}Th and {sup 238}U were used to investigate the magnitude of upper ocean particulate organic carbon export in Bransfield Strait, Southern Ocean. This region is the largest oceanic high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area in the world and is known to contribute to regulate of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} via the biological pump. Due to its different geochemical behavior in seawater, the resulting U/Th disequilibria can be easily used to constrain the transport rates of particles and reaction processes between solution and particulate phases. Sampling occurred during the summer (March and November) 2011. Total {sup 234}Th activities in surface seawater samples ranged from 1.3 to 3.7 dpm L{sup -1} (station EB 011) during March/11 campaign, while in October/11 total {sup 234}Th activity concentrations varied from 1.4 to 2.9 dpm L{sup -1}. Highest total {sup 234}Th activities were found late in the austral summer season. Activity concentrations of dissolved {sup 238}U in surface seawater varied from 2.1 to 2.4 dpm L{sup -1}. Taking into account all sampling stations established in March and October/11 the relative variability of total {sup 234}Th distribution was 22%. (author)

  7. The Bransfield Gravity Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangrà, P.; Stegner, A.; Hernández-Arencibia, Mónica; Márrero-Díaz, A.; Salinas, C.; Aguiar-González, B.; Henríquez-Pastene, C.H.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data and laboratory experiments, we show that the circulation of the Bransfield Current (BC) around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) may be characterized in terms of a propagating buoyant gravity current. First, we describe the SSI hydrography and some drifter trajectories, paying spec

  8. DATING SED IMENT CORE BY RELATIVE PALEOINTENSITY AND D IRECTION OF GEOMAGNETIC FIELD IN BRANSFIELD STRAIT,ANTARCTIC PENINSULA%南极半岛布兰斯菲尔德海峡沉积物的地磁场长期变化与定年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛淑兰; 陈志华; 刘建兴; 黄元辉; 王汝建; 闫仕娟

    2014-01-01

    studies are undertaken in sediment core D1-7 of Bransfield Strait,Antarctic Peninsula,to obtain continuous variation of relative paleointensity (RPI)and direction of geomagnetic field.The lithologies of the core are mainly gray soft and plastic clay,a dark tephra layer at the lower part 2.20-2.21 m with sharp lower contact and gradual upper contact.Combined with AMS 14 C dating of bulk sediment and foram (Wang R J,et al,unpublished data),RPI and direction of geomagnetic field provide a continuous time scale of the last 8 ka,among which RPI comparing with Laguna Potrok Aike lake of South America produced 5 tie points,mean-while,inclination comparing with this record results in additional 4 tie points.Drastic changes of bottom current (1 100 m,Antarctic deep water)for middle and late Holocene are revealed by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS),as well as magnetic concentration,grain size and wet density.These changes basically are controlled by summer insolation at 65 °S,therefore by the summer monsoon precipitation in cycles of precession.Millennial scale variations are also observed but no other records with similar resolution are available to decipher origin and ranges of these climate or environment events.The ages from secular variation are systematically younger than organic dating results.The mixing of different water masses and intermediate,deep water evolution related with Antarctic ice sheet retreat during Holocene are reasonable reasons for complex carbon input in Bransfield Strait.The intensity and direction of geomagnetic field recorded by sediments can avoid this influence and provide reliable age information. An average sedimentation rate of 38 cm·ka-1 for the the last 8 ka in D1-7 suggest a rich and constant terrigenous input in Bransfield Strait,Antarctic.

  9. Cretaceous to Recent extension in the Bering Strait region, Alaska

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    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Miller, Elizabeth L.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Hannula, Kimberly A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Gans, Phillip B.

    1995-06-01

    A key issue presented by the geology of northern Alaska concerns the demise of the Brooks Range going west toward the Bering Strait region. The main Brookian tectonic and stratigraphic elements continue into the Russian Far East, but the thick crustal root and high elevations that define the modern physiographic Brooks Range die out approaching the Bering and Chukchi shelves, which form an unusually broad area of submerged continental crust. Structural, geochronologic, and apatite fission-track data indicate that at least three episodes of extension may have affected the crust beneath the Bering Strait region, in the middle to Late Cretaceous, Eocene-early Oligocene, and Pliocene(?)-Recent. This extension may explain the present thinner crust of the region, the formation of extensive continental shelves, and the dismemberment and southward translation of tectonic elements as they are traced from the Brooks Range toward Russia. Evidence for these events is recorded within a gently tilted 10- to 15-km thick crustal section exposed on the western Seward Peninsula. The earliest episode is documented at high structural levels by the postcollision exhumation history of blueschists. Structural data indicate exhumation was accomplished in part by thinning of the crust during north-south extension bracketed between 120 and 90 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb ages. The Kigluaik Mountains gneiss dome rose through the crust during the later stages of this extension at 91 Ma. Similar gneiss domes occur within a broad, discontinuous belt of Cretaceous magmatism linking interior Alaska with northeast Russia; mantle-derived melts within this belt likely heated the crust and facilitated extension. Apatite fission-track ages indicate cooling below ≈120-85°C occurred sometime between 100 and 70 Ma, and the area subsequently resided at shallow crustal depths (<3-4 km) until the present. This suggests that denudation of deep levels of the crust by erosion and/or tectonism was mostly

  10. Anomalous dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region

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    Gabrielski, A.; Badin, G.; Kaleschke, L.

    2015-03-01

    The single-particle dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region is investigated using ice drift buoys deployed from 2002 to 2009 within the Fram Strait Cyclones and the Arctic Climate System Study campaigns. A new method to estimate the direction of the mean flow, based on a satellite drift product, is introduced. As a result, the bias in the dispersion introduced by the mean flow is eliminated considering only the displacements of the buoys in the cross-stream direction. Results show an absolute dispersion growing quadratically in time for the first 3 days and an anomalous dispersion regime exhibiting a strongly self-similar scaling following a 5/4 power law for time scales larger than 6 days persisting over the whole time series of length 32 days. The non-Gaussian distribution of the velocity fluctuations with a skewness of -0.15 and a kurtosis of 7.33 as well as the slope of the Lagrangian frequency spectrum between -2 and -1 are in agreement with the anomalous diffusion regime. Comparison with data from the International Arctic Buoy Program yields similar results with an anomalous dispersion starting after 10 days and persisting over the whole time series of length 50 days. The results suggest the presence of deformation and shear acting on the sea ice dispersion. The high correlation between the cross-stream displacements and the cross-stream wind velocities shows the important role of the wind as a source for the anomalous dispersion.

  11. Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits - ESR Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Regional Stratification and Shear of the Various Streams Feeding the Philippine Straits – ESR Component Amy Ffield Earth & Space Research , 290...N0001406C0578 http://www.esr.org LONG-TERM GOALS To determine the impact of the regional oceanographic and atmospheric mean and variable ...Surface Temperature: Analysis of the OI Infrared Satellite SST reveals that the SST in the Philippine Archipelago region has significant variability

  12. Geological Features Inferred from Local Seismic Tomography in the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia

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    Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly

  13. STUDY OF CHLOROPHYLL-A DISTRIBUTIONS IN LOMBOK STRAIT USING BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL BASED ON REGIONAL OCEAN MODELLING SYSTEM (ROMS

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    KADEK ARY ANGGRAENI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS has been intended to be a multi-purpose, multi-disciplinary oceanic modeling tool. The Biogeochemical model have coupled to ROMS consists of a system of seven coupled partial differential equations that include: nitrate, ammonium, small and large detritus, phytoplanJ..'ton, zooplankton, and a dynamic phytoplanJ..-ton carbon to chlorophyll ratio. The study of distribution patterns of chlorophyll-a in Lombok Strait (-7 °N - ·10 •sand 114 "E - 117 °E in 2006 was analyzed using the Biogeochemical model based on ROMS. The results show that low chlorophyll-a distributions (0.20 mgChl-a/m3 observed in Lombok Strait in ,January. Chlorophyll-a estimated around the southern part of Bali Strait and low chlorophyll-a distribution in upper layer of the Lomhok Strait. Chlorophyll-a of the booming (0.32 mgChl-a/m3 observed in August. The northeast current direction moves to the west and southern part of research area through Lombok Strait. The highest chlorophyll-a concentration estimated in the northern and southwestern part of Bali Tsland and also in the southern part of Lombok Island. During dry monsoon, southeasterly wind blow from Australia generates upwelling process (low temperature and nutrient-rich water near the surface also estimated from ROMS.

  14. Identification decomposition of regional economic disparity for the west coast of Taiwan Strait of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Regional economic disparity is a hot issue in the development of society and economy.As the conjunct of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta and the frontier to Taiwan,the west coast of the Taiwan Strait (WCS) is of great social and political significance.The paper defines" the connotation of the WCS,decomposed the regional economic disparity by using weighted coefficient of variation and Theil coeJficient,and explores the industrial and regional source of the regional economic disparity of the WCS.The analysis results show that:(1) the WCS has important political,economic and military position,so it's better to regard it to be comprehensive region,not just refer to Fujian Province;(2)from the industrial decomposition of weighted variation coefficient,the influence of the primary industry was tiny,conversely,the development inequity of the secondary and the tertiary indus'try was the main source of regional economic disparity.Their contribution has had the converse trend and the secondary contribution has gone beyond the tertiary since 2003;(3)from the regional decomposition of Theil coefficient,the regional economic disparity mainly came from inter-area inequity of 4 areas.Moreover,the inner economic disparity mainly drove by Fujian,suggesting that the urban development inequity in Fujian Province was comparatively outstanding.

  15. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Bransfield Basin, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J.D.; Thomas, M.A.; Anderson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Bransfield basin is the youngest and best developed of a series of extensional marginal basins on the Pacific margin of the Antarctic Peninsular. Marine geophysical data collected over five seasons show that the back arc is segmented laterally into three subbasins separated by transform zones. These subbasins differ in width, depth, structural style, and seisimicity and are correlated with three different age segments of subducted sea floor. The distribution of principal sedimentary environments, identified from high-resolution seismic reflection data, and their associated lithofacies, seen in piston cores and surface sediment samples, is controlled largely by the tectonic segmentation of the basins. Terrigenous sediments prograde into the basin from the continent side, whereas sediment gravity-flow processes deliver volcaniclastic material from the arc to slope-base aprons and to fan lobes at the outlets of fiords. Organic-rich muds fill the deep basin; their proximity to submarine volcanic centers produces thermogenic hydrocarbons. Understanding the recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Bransfield basin may help refine interpretations of the older deformed marginal basin sequences of southern South America, the Scotia Arc, and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  16. Analysis on the Evolution of Regional Economic Disparity in the West Coast of the Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jianzhong; Wu Dianting; Zhao Xiaofang; Lu Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the implementation of reform and opening-up,the overall economy of China has made brilliant achievements;meanwhile,however,the economic disparity has been enlarging among some regions,and between the city and the countryside.The existence and evolution of this kind of economic disparity is concerned with social stability,sustainable development and the construction of harmonious society,which has gradually become the hotspot in social economic development.The West Coast of the Strait (WCS) located in southeast littoral areas is adjacent to the Pearl and Yangtze River Delta in the south and north and faces Taiwan Province in the east.The stability and development of this region has vital political and economic meaning in the social economic development of our country.It has important theoretical meaning and practical value to research the form,characteristics and evolution of regional economic disparity in the WCS.Based on insightful analysis on existing study results on the WCS,the paper defines the connotation and extension.By a series of absolute and comparative relative evaluation indexes and taking the WCS since 1992 as the study object,the paper makes analysis on different scales including three regions,four regions,20 cities and 152 counties,quantitatively evaluates the level,characteristics and evolution of the regional economic disparity and compares the regional economic disparity on different scales.The main conclusions are as follows:the variation trend of the absolute disparity of the whole region is obvious and stable,which has presented an inflating trend; the comparative variation trend on a large scale has waved,The comparative disparity of the three regions increased annually from 1992 to around 2000,which had a decreasing trend from around 2000 to 2005; the comparative variation trend on a small scale was not stable,which showed an annual increase of four regions,20 cities and 152 counties from 1992 to around 2003 and a decrease from around

  17. Seasonal patterns in Arctic planktonic metabolism (Fram Strait – Svalbard region

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    R. Vaquer-Sunyer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of the Arctic Ocean is marked by extreme pronounced seasonality and spatial heterogeneity associated with light conditions, ice cover, water masses and nutrient availability. Here we report the marine planktonic metabolic rates (Net Community Production, Gross Primary Production and Community Respiration along three different seasons of the year for a total of eight cruises along the western sector of the European Arctic (Fram Strait – Svalbard region in the Arctic Ocean margin: one at the end of 2006 (fall/winter, two in 2007 (early spring and summer, two in 2008 (early spring and summer, one in 2009 (late spring–early summer and one in 2010 (spring. The results show that metabolisms of the western sector of the European Arctic varies throughout the year, depending mostly on the stage of bloom, which is mainly determined by availability of light and nutrients. Here we report metabolic rates for the different periods, including the spring bloom, summer and the dark period, increasing considerably the empirical basis on metabolic rates in the Artic Ocean, and especially in the European Arctic corridor. We also report a rough annual metabolic balance for this area of the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a Net Community Production of 108 g C m−2 yr−1.

  18. A Pliocene flora and insect fauna from the Bering Strait region

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    Hopkins, D.M.; Matthews, J.V.; Wolfe, J.A.; Silberman, M.L.

    1971-01-01

    A flood-plain forest has been preserved beneath a lava flow that invaded the Inmachuk River Valley in the northern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, during the Pliocene Epoch. The fossil flora is of great biogeographic interest because of its position (Fig. 1) in a tundra region about 250 km east of Bering Strait, 75 km south of the Arctic Circle, and 65 km west of the northwestern limit of spruce-birch forest. It provides insight into the history of the development of the circumpolar boreal forest (taiga). A rich arthropod fauna casts light on the phylogeny of several modern insect genera and on the origin of modern tundra faunas. A potassium-argon analysis of the overlying basaltic lava provides our first radiometric age estimate (5.7??0.2 million years) for the Clamgulchian Stage, a Late Tertiary time-stratigraphic unit based on fossil plants and widely recognized in Alaska (Wolfe and Hopkins 1967) and northeastern Siberia. ?? 1971.

  19. Strait Stance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Despite rebukes against pro-independence Taiwan leader Chen Shui-bian's move to disrupt peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, the mainland remains active in pushing forward links with the island. Sun Shengliang, a research fellow at the Institute of Taiwan Studies under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, analyzes the mainland's stance and efforts in cross-strait relations. Following are excerpts of his article carried in the People's Daily Overseas Edition:

  20. STRAIT REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Relations across the Taiwan Strait got off the ground last year with direct flights between the mainland and Taipei, though interaction at an official level remained turbulent. The cross-strait relationship, which continues to be an unrelenting focus of government attention, has a complicated background and unclear future, a situation echoed in recent Chinese media reports on topics relating to Taiwan. While seemingly innocuous in subject matter-charter flights, cuddly pandas- the back-story to the headl...

  1. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-02-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) (r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) (r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) (r = 0.609, P management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  2. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P termed dribble spawning, and is the same in all populations. The principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that A. granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  3. First report of a Trichinella papuae infection in a wild pig (Sus scrofa) from an Australian island in the Torres Strait region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, L; Cookson, B; Jackson, L A; Gray, C; Traub, R J

    2012-04-30

    Multiple Trichinella species are reported from the Australasian region although mainland Australia has never confirmed an indigenous case of Trichinella infection in humans or animals. Wildlife surveys in high-risk regions are essential to truly determine the presence or absence of Trichinella, but in mainland Australia are largely lacking. In this study, a survey was conducted in wild pigs from mainland Australia's Cape York Peninsula and Torres Strait region for the presence of Trichinella, given the proximity of a Trichinella papuae reservoir in nearby PNG. We report the detection of a Trichinella infection in a pig from an Australian island in the Torres Strait, a narrow waterway that separates the islands of New Guinea and continental Australia. The larvae were characterised as T. papuae (Kikori strain) by PCR and sequence analysis. No Trichinella parasites were found in any pigs from the Cape York Peninsula. These results highlight the link the Torres Strait may play in providing a passage for introduction of Trichinella parasites from the Australasian region to the Australian mainland.

  4. Ice Complex permafrost of MIS5 age in the Dmitry Laptev Strait coastal region (East Siberian Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Vladislav; Maksimov, Fedor; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei A.; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    Ice Complex deposits (locally known as the Buchchagy Ice Complex) are exposed at both coasts of the East Siberian Dmitry Laptev Strait and preserved below the Yedoma Ice Complex that formed during MIS3 and MIS2 (Marine Isotope Stage) and lateglacial-Holocene thermokarst deposits (MIS1). Radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) of peaty horizons date the Buchchagy Ice Complex deposition to 126 + 16/-13 kyr and 117 + 19/-14 kyr until 98 ± 5 kyr and 89 ± 5 kyr. The deposit is characterised by poorly-sorted medium-to-coarse silts with cryogenic structures of horizontal ice bands, lens-like, and lens-like reticulated segregation ice. Two peaty horizons within the Buchchagy Ice Complex and syngenetic ice wedges (2-4 m wide, up to 10 m high) are striking. The isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of Buchchagy ice-wedge ice indicates winter conditions colder than during the MIS3 interstadial and warmer than during MIS2 stadial, and similar atmospheric winter moisture sources as during the MIS2 stadial. Buchchagy Ice Complex pollen spectra reveal tundra-steppe vegetation and harsher summer conditions than during the MIS3 interstadial and rather similar vegetation as during the MIS2 stadial. Short-term climatic variability during MIS5 is reflected in the record. Even though the regional chronostratigraphic relationship of the Buchchagy Ice Complex to the Last Interglacial remains unclear because numerical dating is widely lacking, the present study indicates permafrost (Ice Complex) formation during MIS5 sensu lato, and its preservation afterwards. Palaeoenvironmental insights into past climate and the periglacial landscape dynamics of arctic lowlands in eastern Siberia are deduced from the record.

  5. Regional Library Consortia in Western Mainland of Taiwan Strait%海峡西岸区域图书馆联盟体建设探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳红红

    2011-01-01

    建设海峡西岸区域图书馆联盟体是与国家战略规划相适应的举措。基于对专业图书馆联盟、区域图书馆联盟等联盟模式的研究与分析,确立联盟体所具有的管理中心、分中心和成员馆三级体系结构,提出同系统、同专业和跨系统图书馆联盟分步建设的新策略,最后讨论联盟体的主要任务和服务。%Building the regional library consortia in western mainland of Taiwan Strait is compatible with the national strategic planning. On the basis of researches and analyses on the pattern of professional library consortia and regional library consortia, the author establishes a three lever structure of library consortia which contains management center, sub-centers and members of the consortia. The author puts forward that constructing the regional library consortia in same system, in same profession and in cross-system step by step, and discusses the main tasks and services of the consortia of library in western mainland of Taiwan Strait.

  6. The distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the north-west coastal region of Malacca Straits, Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khairun Yahya; Shuhaida Shuib; Fatin Izzati Minhat; Omar Ahmad; Anita Talib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in relation with environmental parameters in Penang Island (the northern part of Malacca Straits, west coast of Peninsula Malaysia). Methods: Foraminifera samples were obtained from 144 sediment samples collected bimonthly throughout a one year sampling period using Ponar grab. These samples were then fixed with 4%buffered formalin stained with Rose Bengal. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were detected in-situ at six sampling points within each transect approximately one metre above the seafloor. Sediment samples collected was also used to determine particle size. Results: A total of fourteen benthic foraminiferal genera obtained from two major groups belonging to the calcareous and agglutinated groups have been identified at all four sampling locations throughout the sampling period. The abundance of 13 out of 14 species were significantly affected by different sampling sites and times (P<0.05). Physicochemical variables comprising temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH differed among sites and sampling months (P<0.05).Conclusions:The distribution of foraminifera in terms of abundance and presence of species indicated dominance by calcareous genera of foraminifera contributed by significantly great abundances of Ammonia sp. and relatively low abundance of agglutinated taxa. This pattern of distribution could indicate a close association between foraminifera and physicochemical parameters.

  7. Taiwan strait dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastrati Bilbil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War resulted in a diffusion of the level of threat worldwide and concluded the system of bipolarity in the world. Beside the European continent, where the rivalries were at the highest level, the consequences of the end of the Cold War were especially visible in North-East Asia. A decrease of military activities of Russia and China, and the retreat of the USA from the region, give way for improvement of political and economical relations between the countries of the region. The end of hostilities produced by the Cold War no doubt have relaxed relations between countries in the region and opened ways for a new more peaceful co-existence. However, this does not mean that the region is not vulnerable to some of the hot spots such as North Korea, Spratly Parcels and especially Taiwan Strait. The latter is considered to be the most dangerous potential Asian zone of crisis in the twenty-first century.

  8. STUDY OF CHLOROPHYLL-A DISTRIBUTIONS IN LOMBOK STRAIT USING BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL BASED ON REGIONAL OCEAN MODELLING SYSTEM (ROMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KADEK ARY ANGGRENI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional Ocean Modelling System atau Sistem Pemodelan Laut Regional (ROMS telah digunakan untuk bermacam keperluan, bermacam pemodelan kelautan. Model Biogeokimia yang dipasangkan dengan ROMS terdiri dari tujuh pasang bagian persamaan yang berbeda-beda mencakup: nitrat, amonium, detritus kecil dan besar, fitoplankton, zooplankton, dan karbon fitoplankton yang dinamis menjadi suatu rasio klorofi.1. Studi pola penyebaran klorofil-a di Selat Lombok (-7 °N - -10 °5 dan 114 °E - 117 °E pada tahun 2006 telah dianalisis menggunakan model Biogeokimia berdasar pada ROMS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebaran klorofil-a teramati rendah (0,20 mgChl-a/m3 di Selat Lombok pada bulan Januari. Klorofil-a diperkirakan di bagian sebelah selatan Selat Bali dan penyebaran klorofil-a rendah pada lapisan atas dari Selat Lombok. Klorofil-a berlimpah (0,32 mgChl-a/m3 teramati di bulan Agustus. Arah arus timur laut bergerak kearah barat clan bagian selatan di daerah penelitian melalui Selat Lombok. Konsentrasi klorofil-a tertinggi diperkirakan di sebelah utara hingga bagian barat daya Pulau Bali clan juga di bagian selatan Pulau Lombok. Selama musim kering, angin arah tenggara berhembus dari Australia memicu terjadinya proses upwelling ( temperatur rendah clan air yang kaya nutrien di dekat permukaan juga diperkirakan berdasarkan ROMS.

  9. Petrology and geochronology of crustal xenoliths from the Bering Strait region: Linking deep and shallow processes in extending continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinin, V.V.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrologic, geochemical, and metamorphic data on gneissic xenoliths derived from the middle and lower crust in the Neogene Bering Sea basalt province, coupled with U-Pb geochronology of their zircons using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG), yield a detailed comparison between the P-T-t and magmatic history of the lower crust and magmatic, metamorphic, and deformational history of the upper crust. Our results provide unique insights into the nature of lithospheric processes that accompany the extension of continental crust. The gneissic, mostly maficxenoliths (constituting less than two percent of the total xenolith population) from lavas in the Enmelen, RU, St. Lawrence, Nunivak, and Seward Peninsula fields most likely originated through magmatic fractionation processes with continued residence at granulite-facies conditions. Zircon single-grain ages (n ??? 125) are interpreted as both magmatic and metamorphic and are entirely Cretaceous to Paleocene in age (ca. 138-60 Ma). Their age distributions correspond to the main ages of magmatism in two belts of supracrustal volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Bering Sea region. Oscillatory-zoned igneous zircons, Late Cretaceous to Paleocene metamorphic zircons and overgrowths, and lack of any older inheritance in zircons from the xenoliths provide strong evidence for juvenile addition of material to the crust at this time. Surface exposures of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks locally reached upper amphibolite-facies (sillimanite grade) to granulite-facies conditions within a series of extension-related metamorphic culminations or gneiss domes, which developed within the Cretaceous magmatic belt. Metamorphic gradients and inferred geotherms (??30-50 ??C/km) from both the gneiss domes and xenoliths aretoo high to be explained by crustal thickening alone. Magmatic heat input from the mantle is necessary to explain both the petrology of the magmas and elevated metamorphic temperatures. Deep

  10. Lagrangian study of temporal changes of a surface flow through the Kamchatka Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu; Budyansky, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using Lagrangian methods we analyze a 20-year-long estimate of water flux through the Kamchatka Strait in the northern North Pacific based on AVISO velocity field. It sheds new light on the flux pattern and its variability on annual and monthly time scales. Strong seasonality in surface outflow through the strait could be explained by temporal changes in the wind stress over the northern and western Bering Sea slopes. Interannual changes in a surface outflow through the Kamchatka Strait correlate significantly with the Near Strait inflow and Bering Strait outflow. Enhanced westward surface flow of the Alaskan Stream across the $174^\\circ$ E section in the northern North Pacific is accompanied by an increased inflow into the Bering Sea through the Near Strait. In summer, the surface flow pattern in the Kamchatka Strait is determined by passage of anticyclonic and cyclonic mesoscale eddies. The wind stress over the Bering basin in winter - spring is responsible for eddy generation in the region.

  11. Relevance of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area to the Bering Strait Region: a Policy Analysis Using Resilience-Based Governance Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hillmer-Pegram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bering Strait, separating the North American and Asian continents, is a productive social-ecological marine system that is vulnerable to increasing maritime traffic. In other parts of the world, the International Maritime Organization (IMO, an agency of the United Nations, has designated similar marine systems as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA in an effort to protect vulnerable resources from international shipping. We present information about the 14 existing PSSAs around the world and the political process by which designation is achieved. We examine specific characteristics of the Bering Strait system that are relevant to a PSSA application; these include vulnerable resources such as marine mammals and their contribution to the food and cultural security of indigenous communities, threats to these resources from shipping activities, and the viable mitigation options to reduce these threats. We then use five criteria derived from empirical research on resilience-based governance to analyze whether a PSSA designation would promote the resilience of marine mammal populations and indigenous communities to increased maritime activities. Despite the elusiveness of a definitive answer, we conclude that although the designation is not a perfect fit from a theoretical standpoint, it still holds the potential to benefit marine mammals and indigenous communities in terms of resilience. We conclude by identifying critical challenges and trade-offs that practitioners would need to negotiate when attempting to apply theoretical governance principles via real-world policy tools.

  12. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  13. High Prevalence of Gammaproteobacteria in the Sediments of Admiralty Bay and North Bransfield Basin, Northwestern Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Diego C.; Signori, Camila N.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Campos, Lúcia S.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms dominate most Antarctic marine ecosystems, in terms of biomass and taxonomic diversity, and play crucial role in ecosystem functioning due to their high metabolic plasticity. Admiralty Bay is the largest bay on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) and a combination of hydro-oceanographic characteristics (bathymetry, sea ice and glacier melting, seasonal entrance of water masses, turbidity, vertical fluxes) create conditions favoring organic carbon deposition on the seafloor and microbial activities. We sampled surface sediments from 15 sites across Admiralty Bay (100–502 m total depth) and the adjacent North Bransfield Basin (693–1147 m), and used the amplicon 454-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags to compare the bacterial composition, diversity, and microbial community structure across environmental parameters (sediment grain size, pigments and organic nutrients) between the two areas. Marine sediments had a high abundance of heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (92.4% and 83.8% inside and outside the bay, respectively), followed by Alphaproteobacteria (2.5 and 5.5%), Firmicutes (1.5 and 1.6%), Bacteroidetes (1.1 and 1.7%), Deltaproteobacteria (0.8 and 2.5%) and Actinobacteria (0.7 and 1.3%). Differences in alpha-diversity and bacterial community structure were found between the two areas, reflecting the physical and chemical differences in the sediments, and the organic matter input. PMID:28210255

  14. The Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum (BMP) is planning for further exclusive licences for exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Greenland off shore areas of Davis Strait. To support the decision process BMP has asked DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy and the Greenland...... with the existing licence blocks, the SEIA describes the physical and biological environment including protected areas and threatened species, contaminent levels, and natural resource use. This description of the existing situation then forms the basis for assessment of the potential impacts of oil activities....... If more licences are granted in the assessment area implementation of an environmental background study programme is planned to fi ll the data gaps that have been identifi ed and provide information required to support the environmental planning and regulation of the oil activities. The new information...

  15. Influence of a narrow strait connecting a large ocean and a small sea on magnetotelluric data: Gibraltar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castillo, Lourdes; Junge, Andreas; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Löwer, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Long period magnetotelluric (LMT) data are generally used as the prime tool to shed light on the conductivity of the deep crust and upper mantle structure. Naturally, LMT data are sensitive to the influence of highly conductive bodies even at far distances. Sea water constitutes the main widespread electrical conductor at shallow levels of the Earth's crust. Its low resistivity values, around 0.25 Ωm, contrast sharply with most geological structures of solid earth. Consequently, the presence of irregular continental borders and varying bathymetries significantly influences LMT parameter, such as phase tensor and tipper vectors. This effect is especially important in areas where large and small oceans are connected by narrow gateways. The Gibraltar Strait (southern Spain) connects the vast Atlantic Ocean with the irregular and relatively small Mediterranean Sea. Several 3D models have been developed in the region nearby the Strait, some featuring a roughly simplified geological structure, to show the influence of seawater on tipper and phase tensor. Here, detailed bathymetry (General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, GEBCO) including the coastline is considered in a model that enables us to analyze the influence of the Strait of Gibraltar on LMT data. We stress the significance of the Sea for LMT data interpretation and the development of 3D conductivity models, especially in regions involving complex coastline geometries and bathymetry near narrow straits. Forward modeling studies are essential to accurately appraise the sea influence, which may mask 3D geological structures.

  16. The vulnerability of the Strait of Georgia (Canada) to future hypoxia and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianson, Debby; Allen, Susan; Moore-Maley, Ben; Haigh, Rowan; Johannessen, Sophia; Macdonald, Robie; Krogh, Jeremy; Simpson, Eleanor; Kohfeld, Karen; Hamme, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Pacific coast is filled with fjords and islands. Circulation in the region is dynamic, so that large changes in acidity (pH) and oxygen may occur both in space and time. The Strait of Georgia (Canada) is a large (200 X 30 km) semi-enclosed basin, that has relatively low pH with respect to the adjacent outer coast and yet hosts a lucrative aquaculture industry. On the other hand this region is relatively well oxygenated due to gas exchange in the turbulent (tidal) flow in the narrow Straits with sills connecting it with the outer coast. We investigate the role that this intense gas exchange plays in protecting the Strait of Georgia from future hypoxia and ocean acidification. Finally, we contrast surface water properties (including dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity) measured on large ships with those measured nearshore and at shore-based aquaculture sites within the Strait.

  17. On summer stratification and tidal mixing in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHU; Jianyu HU; Zhiyu LIU

    2013-01-01

    On continental shelves,a front that separates the sea into well-mixed and stratified zones is usually formed in warm seasons due to spatial variations of tidal mixing.In this paper,using eight years of in situ hydrographic observations,satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration,and results of a tidal model,we investigate summer stratification in the Taiwan Strait and its dependence on tidal mixing,upwelling,and river diluted water plumes.In most regions of the strait the dominant role of tidal mixing in determining the thermohaline structure is confirmed by the correlation between the two; there are some regions,however,where thermohaline structttre varies in different ways owing to significant influences ofupwelling and river diluted water plumes.The well-mixed regions are mainly distributed on the Taiwan Bank and in the offshore regions offthe Dongshan Island,Nanao Island,and Pingtan Island,while the northern and central Taiwan Strait and the region south of the Taiwan Bank are stratified.The critical Simpson-Hunter parameter for the region is estimated to be 1.78.

  18. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-06-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  19. Sedimentary Record and Morphological Effects of a Landslide-Generated Tsunami in a Polar Region: The 2000 AD Tsunami in Vaigat Strait, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Rosser, N. J.; Strzelecki, M. C.; Long, A. J.; Lawrence, T.; Buchwal, A.; Chague-Goff, C.; Woodroffe, S.

    2012-12-01

    coast and in front of inland scarps. In the most inland parts of the inundation they are often marked only by patches of coarse sand left on the pre-tsunami soil. At several sites we observed boulder deposits, although in many cases they were likely transported as boulders in icebergs. A characteristic feature related to tsunami deposits were "mud pats" - up to 1 m in diameter and about 20 cm thick silty deposits with occasional gravels - which cover the tsunami deposit. They are interpreted as the result of melting of icebergs washed inland by the tsunami. They often occur close to the inundation limit. The mud pats are a characteristic feature for the tsunami deposits in iceberg dominated settings and are unlikely to be left by storms. The results of this study will serve as a guide for further studies of palaeotsunami in the Vaigat region and elsewhere in polar regions. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Fieldwork was supported by the Arctic Station, Disko (Danish Polar Centre). The police at Ilulissat is acknowledged for providing photographic documentation of the tsunami taken one day after the event.

  20. Human genetic differentiation across the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Mazas Alicia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strait of Gibraltar is a crucial area in the settlement history of modern humans because it represents a possible connection between Africa and Europe. So far, genetic data were inconclusive about the fact that this strait constitutes a barrier to gene flow, as previous results were highly variable depending on the genetic locus studied. The present study evaluates the impact of the Gibraltar region in reducing gene flow between populations from North-Western Africa and South-Western Europe, by comparing formally various genetic loci. First, we compute several statistics of population differentiation. Then, we use an original simulation approach in order to infer the most probable evolutionary scenario for the settlement of the area, taking into account the effects of both demography and natural selection at some loci. Results We show that the genetic patterns observed today in the region of the Strait of Gibraltar may reflect an ancient population genetic structure which has not been completely erased by more recent events such as Neolithic migrations. Moreover, the differences observed among the loci (i.e. a strong genetic boundary revealed by the Y-chromosome polymorphism and, at the other extreme, no genetic differentiation revealed by HLA-DRB1 variation across the strait suggest specific evolutionary histories like sex-mediated migration and natural selection. By considering a model of balancing selection for HLA-DRB1, we here estimate a coefficient of selection of 2.2% for this locus (although weaker in Europe than in Africa, which is in line with what was estimated from synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates. Selection at this marker thus appears strong enough to leave a signature not only at the DNA level, but also at the population level where drift and migration processes were certainly relevant. Conclusions Our multi-loci approach using both descriptive analyses and Bayesian inferences lead to

  1. ECFA对海峡两岸区域金融合作的法律支撑分析%Analysis of the ECFA legal framework on both sides of the Strait regional financial cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本

    2012-01-01

    随着《海峡两岸经济合作框架协议》(ECFA)的签署,其对海峡两岸区域金融合作的法律支撑效应尽显。从法律定位角度分析,ECFA不仅涵盖两岸货物贸易、服务贸易(含金融服务),还涉及投资内容,完全符合世界贸易组织(WTO)认可的"深度PTA"特征。从金融合作的实质内容来看,ECFA在金融方面的全面渗透,广泛合作的态势对金融监管提出了严峻的挑战,要求两岸在监管方面也必须配套广泛性和协同性。截止目前,ECFA框架尚未达成解决解决争端的救济模式,但考虑以政治性、法律程序性混合机制公允、灵活解决争端应成为题中应有之义。%Along with the "Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement" ( ECFA ) signed on the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, the legal support effect of the regional financial cooperation is showing. From the legal position angle , ECFA covers not only trade in goods, trades in services ( include financial ) but also the content of the investment, in full compliance with the ap- proved by the WTO "deep PTA" feature. From the financial cooperation in light of the substantial content, ECFA in the financial aspects of the full penetration, extensive cooperation with the trend of financial supervision and proposed the stern challenge, re- quirement cross in the regulation must also be broad matching and coordination. The ECFA framework has not been reached to re- solve disputes relief pattern, but to consider political, legal procedure of mixing mechanism fair, flexible solutions to disputes shall become the proper meaning.

  2. Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72% notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%. Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

  3. The bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qingsong; ZHAO Jianru; ZHANG Junbiao; SHI Weiyong; LIU Chunqiu

    2014-01-01

    Combined conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and Argo profiles, 3 086 historical hydrocasts were used to quantify the water column characteristics in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent waters. Based on a two-dimensional“gravest empirical mode”(GEM), a gravitational potential (׋, a verti-cally integrated variable) was used as proxy for the vertical temperature profiles TG(p,׋).׋integrated from 8 MPa to the surface shows a close relationship with the temperature, except in the deep layer greater than 15 MPa, which was caused by the bimodal deep water in the region. The GEM temperature profiles successfully revealed the bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water, that disparate hydrophic vertical profiles can pro-duce distinct specific volume anomaly (į) in the SCS and the western Philippine Sea (WPS), but failed in the Luzon Strait, where different temperature profiles may produce a sameį. A significant temperature diver-gence between the SCS water and the WPS water confirmed that the bimodal structure is strong. The deep-water bifurcation starts at about 15 MPa, and gets stronger with increasing depth . As the only deep channel connecting the bimodal-structure waters, water column characteristics in the Luzon Strait is in between, but much closer to the SCS water because of its better connectivity with the SCS. A bimodal temperature structure below 15 MPa reveals that there was a persistent baroclinic pressure gradient driving flow through the Luzon Strait. A volume flux predicted through the Bashi Channel with the hydraulic theory yields a value of 5.62×106 m3/s using all available profiles upstream and downstream of the overflow region, and 4.03×106 and 2.70×106 m3/s by exclusively using the profiles collected during spring and summer, respectively. No volume flux was calculated during autumn and winter because profiles are only available for the upstream of the Bashi Channel during the corresponding period.

  4. A MILESTONE IN CROSS-STRAITS RELATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG YUNGUANG; DING XING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chongqing, the southwestern municipality that served as China's capital during World War Ⅱ, will be remembered again for hosting a landmark event in the Chinese history on June 29. On that day, Chen Yunlin,President of the mainland's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits,and Chiang Pin-kung, Chairman of Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation,signed the long-awaited Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) in Chongqing, a move hailed by many as a milestone in cross-Straits relations.

  5. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  6. On Flow Variability in the Bosphorus Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-27

    Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Undersea Research Center ( NURC ) in collaboration with the Turkish Navy Office of Navigation, Hydrography, and...Oceanography deployed two mooring sections in the Bosphorus Strait (at the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara entrances) from the R/V Alliance (a NATO- NURC ...research vessel) as a part of TSS08 ( NURC project) and "Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits" (EPOS, NRL project) programs in September 2008 (Figure 1

  7. Moho Depth Derived from Gravity Data in the Taiwan Strait Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hsiang Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed are gional Bouguer gravity anomaly map using marine and land data from Tai wan and the Chinese province of Fuchien, as well as SEASAT altimetry-de rived gravity data for the Tai wan Strait and its surrounding area. The map shows isogals trending generally in a NE-SW direction, conforming with the over all shallower geo logical strike of the strait. Removing gravity effects generated by the water layer and seafloor to pography, the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly is obtained, reflecting the subsurface structure. Moho depth is then computed by the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method from the regional Bouguer gravity data set. Over the strait area, the geometry of the Moho relief is smooth with an average depth of about 30 km, except for the Penghu up lift. Moho depth is shallower in the Taiwan Strait and thickens to ward both sides of the strait. The relatively shallower Moho depth, reaching up to 28 km, is convex up ward underneath the Penghu uplift.

  8. Is the Gibraltar strait a barrier to gene flow for the bat Myotis myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, V; Ruedi, M; Excoffier, L; Ibáñez, C; Arlettaz, R; Hausser, J

    2000-11-01

    Because of their role in limiting gene flow, geographical barriers like mountains or seas often coincide with intraspecific genetic discontinuities. Although the Strait of Gibraltar represents such a potential barrier for both plants and animals, few studies have been conducted on its impact on gene flow. Here we test this effect on a bat species (Myotis myotis) which is apparently distributed on both sides of the strait. Six colonies of 20 Myotis myotis each were sampled in southern Spain and northern Morocco along a linear transect of 1350 km. Results based on six nuclear microsatellite loci reveal no significant population structure within regions, but a complete isolation between bats sampled on each side of the strait. Variability at 600 bp of a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) confirms the existence of two genetically distinct and perfectly segregating clades, which diverged several million years ago. Despite the narrowness of the Gibraltar Strait (14 km), these molecular data suggest that neither males, nor females from either region have ever reproduced on the opposite side of the strait. Comparisons of molecular divergence with bats from a closely related species (M. blythii) suggest that the North African clade is possibly a distinct taxon warranting full species rank. We provisionally refer to it as Myotis cf punicus Felten 1977, but a definitive systematic understanding of the whole Mouse-eared bat species complex awaits further genetic sampling, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean areas.

  9. 231Pa/230Th records of Arctic/Atlantic interchange in Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S. S.; McDermott, K. J.; McManus, J. F.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Fram Strait, the Arctic Ocean's only deep passage for exchange with lower latitude oceans, today serves as a conduit for waters flowing north into the Arctic Ocean and south into the Atlantic. Reconstruction of circulation patterns and strength at depth in the strait can help to clarify the history of Arctic/Atlantic deep water exchange and Arctic contributions to global meridional overturning circulation. We will present new sedimentary measurements of radioisotopes 231Pa and 230Th to provide information on this exchange in the past and its relationship to sedimentation and climatic events. Coretop and downcore 231Pa/230Th ratios from Arctic sediments indicate that 231Pa has been exported from the central Arctic basin throughout the Holocene and deglaciation. Fram Strait represents a possible sink for this "missing" 231Pa. Preliminary results from ODP Holes 908A and 909A, at 1274 m and 2519 m water depths respectively in the central strait, suggest that ratios in this region during the Holocene have varied between ~0.106 (above the 231Pa/230Th production ratio of 0.093 in seawater, indicating net import of 231Pa)and ~0.055 (well below the production ratio, indicating net export of 231Pa). Further measurements in cores from the Greenland and Svalbard continental slopes will give a fuller regional picture of 231Pa deposition and transport across the strait.

  10. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  11. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  12. Performance assessment for an operational ocean model of the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinyou; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Zhang, Zhenchang

    2016-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait Nowcast/Forecast System (TFOR), which is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System, may be the first operational ocean model to include both tide and circulation processes in the Taiwan Strait. In this study, we assessed the performance of TFOR by investigating the differences between observational data and the results obtained by TFOR, thereby illustrating the ability of TFOR to reproduce significant physical processes. We also evaluated the utility and reliability of TFOR products for successful applications in maritime search and rescue. The mean bias, root mean-squared difference, correlation coefficient (CC), and Willmott skill for the differences in temperature between the cruise observations and the TFOR results were -0.01°C, 1.2°C, 0.87, and 0.92, respectively, and those for the corresponding salinity results were 0.06 PSU, 0.4 PSU, 0.74, and 0.83, respectively. The distributions of the TFOR M2 harmonic constants indicated that TFOR simulates the tidal characteristics well in the Taiwan Strait. The CC between the Taiwan Strait volume transport based on the TFOR results and the along-strait wind stress was 0.77, thereby indicating that monsoon winds exert an important influence on the variability in volume transport through the Taiwan Strait. Statistical analyses of the TFOR results showed that the annual, spring, summer, autumn, and winter mean transport volumes were 1.16, 1.28, 2.52, 0.80, and 0.04 Sv, respectively. In conclusion, the TFOR is robust and it can simulate the temperature, salinity, and velocity in a reasonable and stable manner.

  13. Observed Volume Fluxes in the Bosphorus Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tugrul et al, 2002]. [4] The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the NATO Undersea Research Center ( NURC ) in col- laboration with the...Turkish Navy Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography deployed two mooring sections in the Bosphorus Strait as a part of the TSS08 ( NURC

  14. Water mass of the northward throughflow in the Bering Strait in the summer of 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jinping; SHI Jiuxin; GAO Guoping; JIAO Yutian; ZHANG Hongxin

    2006-01-01

    The temperature and salinity data obtained by the Chinese national arctic research expedition (CHINARE2003) are used to study the water structure in the Bering Strait and ambient regions. Four water masses appeared in the research region: the intermediate Bering Sea water mass (IBWM), the Alaska coastal water (ACW), the Anadyr water (AW) and the Bering shelf water (BSW). The AW originates from the IBWM, but the upper layer water has been greatly altered. In the cruise on 28/29 July 2003, there were only the BSW and ACW in a section across the Bering Strait (BS section), but in the September 12/13 cruise, the AW, BSW and ACW flowed parallelly into the Bering Strait. The upper waters of these water masses were all altered due to ice melting, runoff, solar radiation, and wind mixing. The waters in the central and northern parts of Bering Strait stratified by two uniform layers,were expressed as the typical feature of the water masses originating from the pacific. A two-layer structure also dominated the vertical stratification in most part of the Chukchi Sea. An obvious subseasonal variation was observed in the BS section, which caused varying transportation of fresh water,heat, and substance, and produced a long-term and extensive impact on the Arctic Ocean.

  15. Research On Building the Regional Financial Services Centers on both Sides of Straits under the Perspective of Taxing%税收视角下的海峡两岸区域性金融服务中心构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珊

    2014-01-01

    "推进海峡两岸区域性金融中心建设"已被确定为国家战略,良好的金融业税收政策是促进其发展的一个重要因素。通过对两岸金融业税收政策的取向、现行税种以及税收优惠的比较,在借鉴台湾地区金融业税制设计经验的基础上,对两岸区域性金融中心税收政策的构建和完善提出了三点建议:在厦门先行金融领域“营改增”试点;深化所得税改革,逐步实现所得税“二税合一”;通过规范的税收优惠促进两岸区域性金融中心的发展。%"The promotion of building the cross-strait regional financial center in Xiamen"has been identified as a national strategy.A good financial tax policy is important for the development.The writer compares the financial tax policy orientations,the existing taxes and the preferential taxes in Taiwan and mainland China,analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of them,refers to the experi-ences of the financial tax system design in Taiwan,and presents three suggestions about the construc-tion of regional financial center tax policy.The suggestions are piloting "Business Tax changed to Value-added Tax" in Xiamen regional financial center;deepening Income Tax reformation and gradu-ally unifying "Corporate Income Tax" and "Foreign Investment Enterprises and Foreign Enterprise Income tax";standardizing preferential tax to promote the development of the cross-strait regional fi-nancial center.

  16. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  17. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  18. 区域空气资源的评估方法及其在台湾海峡西岸地区的应用%The method of regional air resource assessment and its application in the west coast of Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 王体健; 李宗恺; 庄炳亮; 谢旻; 王勤耕; 孙振海

    2011-01-01

    To meet the requirements of regional atmospheric environment management,we brought forward the concept of air resource and the estimation and assessment methods.A case study was conducted for the west coast of Taiwan Strait.Based on the analysis of climate characteristics and various weather systems associated with high levels of air pollution occurring in this area,both regional and local meteorological fields were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting(WRF) model.The key factors that affected air resource significantly were selected from the meteorological fields and turbulence parameters.They acted as evaluating indicators of regional air resource.Each of the factors was classified and then graded to determine the weighted coefficient.The total scores of air resource in west Strait were estimated from the weighted sum of the respective factor scores.The levels of air resource were determined subsequently.Finally,spatial distribution of the overall scores and the levels of air resource were obtained.It showed that the air resource over the Strait was of the top grade(5) with the score 18.The grades in the rest were of 2 to 4 with the scores 14 to 18.In general,the air resource in the coastal area was most abundant,inland flat less and mountainous area the least,showing an inhomogeneous pattern.The results indicated that the method proposed in this paper was a reasonable solution to assess regional air resource.There will be a great application prospect for regulation and management of the atmospheric environment.%从区域大气环境管理的需要出发,提出了空气资源的概念、等级计算及评估方法.以台湾海峡西岸(简称"海西")地区为例,在深入分析该地区污染气候特征和各种特殊污染气象过程特点、频率及对空气资源的制约因素基础上,利用新一代气象模式WRF进行了区域尺度和局地尺度的气象场模拟.从模拟的气象要素场及湍流特征量中筛选

  19. Last Glacial - Holocene stratigraphic development at the Marmara Sea exit of the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köprülü, Kerem; Alpar, Bedri; Vardar, Denizhan

    2016-03-01

    High resolution Chirp and Sparker data allowed definition and mapping of distinct seismic units in the shallow sediment record (~100 ms) acquired from the southern exit of the Bosphorus Strait; a dynamic depositional environment. The bottommost unit observed in the Chirp data (unit-3) is made up of marine-lacustrine sediments thinning seaward and onlaps the basement rocks which are represented by folded strata in the Sparker data, possibly lower to middle Pleistocene age. It is overlain by a series of prograding deposits along the shelf (unit-2) referring to sediment input from the northern sector depending on the water levels of the paleo Marmara lake's during MIS 3. The uppermost deposits (unit-1) close to the Bosphorus Strait were represented by three separate subunits, unlike to relatively thin drape of sediments observed at the other places in the surrounding regions. The detailed definition of these subunits deduced from the closely-spaced reflection profiles and available radiocarbon ages helped to explain the history of the latest stratigraphic development depending on the connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In addition to the previously proposed major conduits, which controlled the sedimentary deposition at the southern exit of the Bosphorus, namely the Bosphorus Strait and Kurbağalıdere River, another submarine sedimentary pathway at the eastern bank of the strait's channel seems to have delivered sediments directly into the basin.

  20. The Forest Pattern and Its Variation Characteristics in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; TAN; Qing; WANG; Min; WANG; Chenyan; SHA; Junjie; RUAN; Shenfa; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Taking Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits as the study area,we use GIS,remote sensing,mathematical statistics and other methods,to analyze the forest pattern and its variation characteristics in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits during the period 1992-2008;use canonical correspondence analysis(CCA)to examine the effects of environmental factors on changes in forest pattern.The results show that the forest resources are rich in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits,accounting for 61.40% of the total area,but the geographical distribution is very uneven,with obvious regional and elevation gradient difference;since1992,the forest has been dwindling in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits,from 89 300 km2 in 1992 to 88 300 km2 in 2008;in terms of changes in region and elevation gradient,there is obvious difference in the forest,and the central and western forest of Wuyi Mountain tends to decline obviously;the main environmental factors influencing changes in forest pattern in Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits include temperature,sunshine hours,GDP per capita and precipitation;evaporation,evaporation and population density have weak effects on changes in forest pattern.

  1. On the dynamics of strait flows: an ocean model study of the Aleutian passages and the Bering Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2013-03-01

    A high-resolution numerical ocean circulation model of the Bering Sea (BS) is used to study the natural variability of the BS straits. Three distinct categories of strait dynamics have been identified: (1) Shallow passages such as the Bering Strait and the Unimak Passage have northward, near barotropic flow with periodic pulses of larger transports; (2) wide passages such as Near Straits, Amukta Pass, and Buldir Pass have complex flow patterns driven by the passage of mesoscale eddies across the strait; and (3) deep passages such as Amchitka Pass and Kamchatka Strait have persistent deep return flows opposite in direction to major surface currents; the deep flows persist independent of the local wind. Empirical orthogonal function analyses reveal the spatial structure and the temporal variability of strait flows and demonstrate how mesoscale variations in the Aleutian passages influence the Bering Strait flow toward the Arctic Ocean. The study suggests a general relation between the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby radii of deformations in each strait, and the level of flow variability through the strait, independent of geographical location. The mesoscale variability in the BS seems to originate from two different sources: a remote origin from variability in the Alaskan Stream that enters the BS through the Aleutian passages and a local origin from the interaction of currents with the Bowers Ridge in the Aleutian Basin. Comparisons between the flow in the Aleutian passages and flow in other straits, such as the Yucatan Channel and the Faroe Bank Channel, suggest some universal topographically induced dynamics in strait flows.

  2. The Two Branches of the Recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Schauer, Ursula; Hattermann, Tore; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard is one of the two gateways by which warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean providing oceanic heat. The West Spitsbergen Current advects the warm water northward in the eastern Fram Strait. However, only some of this water stays in the boundary current and enters the Arctic Ocean. Another part leaves the boundary current and flows westward across Fram Strait before turning southward in the East Greenland Current. This recirculation of Atlantic Water corresponds with the ice edge in Fram Strait and the two likely depend on each other. Here we present results from a high resolution regional numerical model that shows the recirculation to consist of two branches. The northern branch depends on eddy fluxes while the southern branch exhibits less high frequency variability. We also present a compilation of different observational data in the center of Fram Strait around 0°EW that give insight into the structure of the southern recirculation branch near the ice edge. A glider section resolves the small horizontal scale over which the geostrophic flow occurs. Several meridional CTD sections capture the differences and similarities between different summers. Moorings and Argo floats provide information in winter as well. These observations are compared to the representation of the recirculation in the numerical model. We show that the southern recirculation occurs over a small horizontal distance of about 20km in the vicinity of 79°N and is significantly stronger in winter than in summer. While there is cold freshwater at the surface north of the front, the temperature down to 500m is much higher in the recirculation than further south.

  3. What processes control the net currents through shallow straits? A review with application to the Bohai Strait, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfang; Wolanski, Eric; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-01

    We review the key processes controlling the net water circulation in shallow straits. The circulation is mainly barotropic, driven by the difference in mean sea level and tides on either side of the strait, the wind, the meandering of the currents in the adjoining seas, the bathymetry including the shape and width of the mouths and the presence of narrows, shoals, sills, islands, and lateral embayments. As the oceanography forcing can be non-synchronised on either side of the strait, the resulting net currents through the strait may appear chaotic. We apply these findings to the net circulation through the Bohai Strait in China using local wind, remote-sensing data of currents and sea level, and a hydrodynamic model. The net currents through the Bohai Strait were episodic. They were largest during winter storms when the wind generated a cyclonic coastal current in the northern Yellow Sea that flowed across the width of the Bohai Strait. Like the Luzon Strait, this current meandered and a branch of the current intruded into the northern Bohai Strait along the deeper channel. The wind set-up in the Bohai Sea and the wind-driven longshore current in the southern Bohai Sea generated a seaward flow through the southern Bohai Strait, somewhat like in Irbe Strait. As with the straits of the Seto Inland Sea, stagnation occurred in some embayments. As in the Torres Strait, the islands in the southern Bohai Strait retarded the net flow and increased the width of the outflow zone. These flows were also modulated at very long periods (∼60 days) by long waves in the Yellow Sea, possibly generated by meandering of the Kuroshio Current that created an additional sea level slope through the strait. The transit time in the Bohai Strait was 60 and 10 days, respectively, during calm weather and winter storms. The residence time in the Bohai Sea was estimated to be about 1.68 years by the LOICZ model and 1.56 years by the hydrodynamic model, and the influence of the river runoff

  4. “两岸四地”海上货物运输留置权法律冲突初论%Preliminary discussion on the conflict of laws concerning liens in the carriage of goods by sea among the four regions across the strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新

    2012-01-01

    With the promulgation of Regulations on the Applicable Laws of Taiwan-related Civil and Comrnercial Cases by the Supreme Court of mainland China in January 2011, the key issue of mutual recognition of the binding force of laws of the four legal regions has been roughly solved. Therefore, we are currently confronted with not only the superficial differences between the legal systems of the four regions but also the realistic conflict of laws in determining the lex eausae for specific legal issues and cases. This paper is to provide a preliminary discussion around the conflict of laws concerning liens in the carriage of goods by sea between the four regions across the strait.%随着中国大陆《关于审理涉台民商事案件法律适用问题的规定》于2011年1月正式实施,四地间法律效力的相互承认问题获得基本解决。至此,需要面对的便不仅仅是四地间法律规定的表面歧异问题,更应关注为具体案件确定准据法时所要面对的现实法律冲突问题。试就“两岸四地”海上货物运输留置权法律冲突问题作初步探讨。

  5. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-10-07

    Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

  6. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385 Section 80.1385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of...

  7. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  8. Probabilistic Hazard of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides in the Cook Strait Canyon (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily M.; Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Power, William L.; Mueller, Christof

    2016-12-01

    Cook Strait Canyon is a submarine canyon that lies within ten kilometres of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The canyon walls are covered with scars from previous landslides which could have caused local tsunamis. Palaeotsunami evidence also points to past tsunamis in the Wellington region. Furthermore, the canyon's location in Cook Strait means that there is inhabited land in the path of both forward- and backward-propagating waves. Tsunamis induced by these submarine landslides pose hazard to coastal communities and infrastructure but major events are very uncommon and the historical record is not extensive enough to quantify this hazard. The combination of infrequent but potentially very consequential events makes realistic assessment of the hazard challenging. However, information on both magnitude and frequency is very important for land use planning and civil defence purposes. We use a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geological information with modelling to construct a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of submarine landslide-generated tsunami. Although there are many simplifying assumptions used in this assessment, it suggests that the Cook Strait open coast is exposed to considerable hazard due to submarine landslide-generated tsunamis. We emphasise the uncertainties involved and present opportunities for future research.

  9. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; von Appen, W.-J.

    2015-09-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian - Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 μmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 μmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10-35 μmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  10. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  11. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stöven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA data set along 78°50′ N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian – Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5–0.8 fmol kg−1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500–1600 m. The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50–55 μmol kg−1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40–45 μmol kg−1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10–35 μmol kg−1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  12. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  13. Redefining Regional Economic Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2009, the Chinese government approved planning for 9 regional development zones, including plans for the Taiwan Strait West Bank Economic Zone, the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone, the Jiangsu Coastal Region, the Tumen River Region and Yellow River High-efficient Ecological Economic Zone, among others.

  14. Redefining Regional Economic Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ In 2009, the Chinese government approved planning for 9 regional development zones, including plans for the Taiwan Strait West Bank Economic Zone, the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone, the Jiangsu Coastal Region, the Tumen River Region and Yellow River High-efficient Ecological Economic Zone, among others.

  15. Strait of Juan de Fuca 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  16. Strait of Juan de Fuca 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  17. Strait of Juan de Fuca 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  18. Atmospheric forcing of salinity in the overflow of Denmark Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holfort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, the wind along Denmark Strait. At these time scales upstream changes in the characteristics of the different water masses involved in the formation of DSOW are only of minor importance. The main process responsible for the observed salinity changes in the DSOW is mixing in Denmark Strait. Triggered by the wind, different water masses contribute with changing amounts to the formation of DSOW, leading to the observed changes in the salinity of DSOW.

  19. Structure and Variability of Internal Tides in Luzon Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Executive Services and Communications Directorate (0704-0188). Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...suggest that remote sources of internal tides could account for these small decreases in coherence. To the west of the Luzon Strait (away from the... accounting for effects of the Kuroshio on wave propagation west of the strait improves the prediction of NLIW timing, but predicting the amplitude is

  20. Shared marine waters of British Columbia and Washington: A scientific assessment of current status and future trends in resource abundance and environmental quality in the strait of Juan de Fuca, Strait of Georgia, and Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The British Columbia/Washington Marine Science Panel was created in 1993 to evaluate the condition of the marine environment in the Strait of Georgia, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and Puget Sound region on both sides of the international boundary. The panel was asked to produce a report on the current condition of, and trends in, the marine waters shared by the province and state. This report describes the principles followed; the region of concern; physical exchange mechanisms in the transboundary region; movements, status, and trends of transboundary biological resource populations; anthropogenic impacts on the ecosystem and humans; ecosystem sensitivity and future scope of anthropogenic impacts; and degree of harm and management priorities.

  1. Analysis of turbulent mixing in Dewakang Sill, Southern Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Jaya, I.; Sudjono, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Dewakang Sill is located in southern Makassar Strait, conveying major path of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), as a confluence region of different water masses, such as salty Pacific water and fresh Java Sea water. Its depth is about 680 m which blocks the ITF flow below this depth into Flores Sea. This research aimed to estimate turbulent mixing in the Dewakang Sill by applying Thorpe analysis using 24 hours “yoyo” CTD data sets, acquired from MAJAFLOX Cruise in August 2015. The results showed that stratification of water masses is dominated by Pacific water origin. Those are North Pacific Subtropical thermocline and Intermediate water masses. Mean dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) and turbulent vertical diffusivity (Kρ ) value in the Dewakang Sill are of O(1.08 × 10‑6)Wkg‑1, and O(2.84 × 10‑4) m2s‑1 respectively. High correlation between epsilon and internal waves oscillation suggested that internal tidal waves activities are the major forcing for turbulent mixing in the study area.

  2. Seasonal Variability of Transport Through Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    We have investigated the transport variability through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily, Corsica) with a very high resolution model of the Mediterranean Sea. A numerical simulation of the Mediterranean circulation has been done with a 1/16o horizontal grid mesh, 43 vertical z-level model. Initial hydrological conditions were provided by the Mediterranean MODB5 climatology. The model has been run eleven years. It has been forced in a yearly perpetual mode by the daily sea surface fluxes from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis during the year March 1998 - February 1999. This study has been supported by the french MERCA- TOR project and SHOM. We grateful the PAM team of CERFACS (Toulouse, France). Analysis is focused on three major straits which play an important role in control- ling the circulation through mass transport exchanges. Model results are compared to recent observations and good agreement is obtained. It demonstrates advantages to improve resolution in numerical models. Gibraltar and Sicily strait transports are largely baroclinic. The transport through the Gibraltar Strait is forced by density difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Atlantic water (AW) penetrates the Mediterranean Sea while Mediterranean Outflow Water flows into the Atlantic Ocean. This transport is hy- draulically maximal, with a semi-annual signal, and its seasonal variation is weak. The Sicily Strait transport is probably first forced by the AW coming from the West rather than the density gradient between the western and eastern mediterranean seas. AW inflow (i.e. Eastern Mediterranean Overflow Water outflow) is maximum in late Fall and minimum in late Winter. In opposite to previous straits, the northward Cor- sica Strait transport presents strong seasonal variability, and thus a strong barotropic component related to the wind stress curl.

  3. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tkalich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea level in the Singapore Strait (SS exhibits response to various scale phenomena, from local to global. Longest tide gauge records in SS are analysed to derive local sea level trend and annual, inter-annual and multi-decadal sea level variability, which then are attributed to regional and global phenomena. Annual data gaps are reconstructed using functions correlating sea level variability with ENSO. At annual scale, sea level anomalies in SS are (quasi-periodic monsoon-driven, of the order of ±20 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±5 cm. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea levels in SS are varying with global mean sea level, rising at the rate 1.2–1.7 mm yr−1 for 1975–2009, 1.8–2.3 mm yr−1 for 1984–2009 and 1.9–4.6 mm yr−1 for 1993–2009. When SS rates are compared with the global trends (2.0, 2.4 and 2.8 mm yr−1, respectively derived from tide gauge measurements for the same periods, they are smaller in the earlier era and considerably larger in the recent one. Taking into account the first estimate of land subsidence rate, 1–1.5 mm yr−1 in Singapore, the recent trend of absolute sea level rise in SS follows regional tendency.

  4. Coastal Erosion Along the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait and It's Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhui; CAI Feng; QI Hongshuai; LEI Gang; CAO Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Based on the field surveys and repeated cross-profile observations combined with the comparison of many years' topographic maps, this study shows the spatial variability and varying patterns of coastal erosion along the west coast of the Taiwan Strait. Regional differentiation in the Meso-Cenozoic coastal tectonics determined the irregular coastline and geological background for large-scale coastal erosion distribution. The intensity of coastal erosion on the west side of the Taiwan Strait is mild in the northern region, severe in the central region and modest in the southern region. The beaches along the coast are mainly backed by dunes, seawalls or cliffs. The dunes and beaches show periodic erosion and recovery along the coast adjacent to river mouths, while persistent retreat of frontal dunes and beaches tends to occur in other areas. The beach erosion occurs mainly in front of seawalls. Due to the low strength of the unconsolidated sediment the soft cliffs suffer the severest coastline recession. Sea level rise and river sediment discharge reduction are main causes of coastal erosion. Storm surge is common in the studied area and plays an important role in the progress of coastal erosion. Human activities including coastal constructions and sand mining also tend to interfere strongly with the balance of sediment budget in some coastal cells.

  5. Population genetic structure of a sandstone specialist and a generalist heath species at two levels of sandstone patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-López, Manuel Jesús; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Ojeda, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier) are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras). In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness) than in Algeciras (low patchiness) for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar.

  6. Population genetic structure of a sandstone specialist and a generalist heath species at two levels of sandstone patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús Gil-López

    Full Text Available Many habitat specialist species are originally composed of small, discontinuous populations because their habitats are naturally fragmented or patchy. They may have suffered the long-term effects of natural patchiness. Mediterranean heathlands, a representative habitat in the Strait of Gibraltar region, are associated with nutrient-poor, acidic sandstone soils. Sandstone soil patches in the African side of the Strait (Tangier are, in general, smaller and more scattered than in the European side (Algeciras. In this study, we analyze the effect of this sandstone patchiness on the population genetic diversity and structure of two Erica species from these Mediterranean heathlands that differ in their edaphic specificity, E. australis, sandstone specialist, and E. arborea, generalist. Average levels of within-population genetic diversity and gene flow between populations were significantly lower in Tangier (high sandstone patchiness than in Algeciras (low patchiness for the sandstone specialist, whereas no differences between both sides of the Strait were detected in the edaphic generalist. Since most endemic species in Mediterranean heathlands of the Strait of Gibraltar are sandstone specialists, these results highlight an increased vulnerability to loss of genetic diversity and local extinction of the heathland endemic flora in the Tangier side of the Strait of Gibraltar.

  7. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  8. Sensitivity of the Denmark Strait Overflow to various parameterizations in a z-coordinate numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Pedro; Barnier, Bernard; Penduff, Thierry; Molines, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    Overflows play a key role in the climate system by ventilating deep waters, feeding boundary currents and determining the stratification of the deep ocean. Their correct representation is still an open issue in geopotential-coordinate global ocean models, and leads to misrepresentations of deep and bottom water masses. In this work we quantify the sensitivity of a realistic Denmark Strait regional configuration of the NEMO OGCM at 1/12° horizontal resolution to various parameters: partial vs full cells, use of a bottom boundary layer parameterization, and vertical resolution. We also provide a quantification of the spurious dyapicnal mixing present in the overflow through a passive tracer online release experiment.

  9. Peaceful development of cross-strait relations,"one country two systems"Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanDekuan

    2015-01-01

    " one country, peaceful reunification" policy put forward, which has existed for more than 30 set. People have proposed the development of cross-strait peace framework. It is necessary for the development of cross-strait peace framework related to cross-strait cultural environment factors, international factors, the development of cross-strait past and future context, strategic and realistic basis for cross-strait interaction were analyzed and discussed. Made more scientific framework for peaceful development of cross-strait on this basis. The paper carried a Taiwanese perspective Islanders psychological and related factors. Unified attitude on the mainland were scanned. For cross-strait peace development context briefly comb. On this basis a simple thinking related factors. Peaceful development of cross-strait relations proposed framework Opinion.

  10. Sources and levels of ambient ocean sound near the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Dziak

    Full Text Available Arrays of hydrophones were deployed within the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea (Antarctic Peninsula region from 2005 to 2009 to record ambient ocean sound at frequencies of up to 125 and 500 Hz. Icequakes, which are broadband, short duration signals derived from fracturing of large free-floating icebergs, are a prominent feature of the ocean soundscape. Icequake activity peaks during austral summer and is minimum during winter, likely following freeze-thaw cycles. Iceberg grounding and rapid disintegration also releases significant acoustic energy, equivalent to large-scale geophysical events. Overall ambient sound levels can be as much as ~10-20 dB higher in the open, deep ocean of the Scotia Sea compared to the relatively shallow Bransfield Strait. Noise levels become lowest during the austral winter, as sea-ice cover suppresses wind and wave noise. Ambient noise levels are highest during austral spring and summer, as surface noise, ice cracking and biological activity intensifies. Vocalizations of blue (Balaenoptera musculus and fin (B. physalus whales also dominate the long-term spectra records in the 15-28 and 89 Hz bands. Blue whale call energy is a maximum during austral summer-fall in the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait when ambient noise levels are a maximum and sea-ice cover is a minimum. Fin whale vocalizations were also most common during austral summer-early fall months in both the Bransfield Strait and Scotia Sea. The hydrophone data overall do not show sustained anthropogenic sources (ships and airguns, likely due to low coastal traffic and the typically rough weather and sea conditions of the Southern Ocean.

  11. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  12. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Ryou, Albert S [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power density, from outputs based on three independent observation sources to evaluate HYCOM-GOM performance. The three independent data sources include NOAA s submarine cable data of transport, ADCP data at a high power density location, and HF radar data in the high power density region of the Florida Strait. Comparisons with these three independent observation sets indicate discrepancies with HYCOM model outputs, but overall indicate that the HYCOM-GOM model can provide an adequate assessment of the ocean current hydrokinetic resource in high power density regions like the Florida Strait. Additional independent observational data, in particular stationary ADCP measurements, would be useful for expanding this model performance evaluation study. ADCP measurements are rare in ocean environments not influenced by tides, and limited to one location in the Florida Strait. HF radar data, although providing great spatial coverage, is limited to surface currents only.

  13. The spectral optical properties and relative radiant heating contribution of dissolved and particulate matter in the surface waters across the Fram Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin

    The Fram Strait is the key region for exchange processes between Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic. With two major near-surface currents, the warm and salty West Spitsbergen Current and cold low-salinity East Greenland Current, its waters encompass two distinct oceanographic environments. During...

  14. Tide and tidal current observation in the Karimata Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Sulistiyo, Budi; Dwi Susanto, R.; Setiawan, Agus; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Qiao, Fangli; Fan, Bin; Li, Shujiang

    2013-04-01

    It is believed that the water exchanges between the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas are significant, and play an important role in the water mass formation and air-sea interactions of both the South China Sea and Indonesian Seas. It has also been found that the current in Sunda Strait has been obvious seasonal variation, which indicates the water exchange between West Indonesian Seas and India Ocean. In order to make quantitative evaluation of the magnitudes of the exchange, the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), China, the Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Indonesia, and the Lamont-Doheries Earth Observatory, USA established a collaborative program, "The South-China Sea-Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration" in 2006. And, they extend and expand the cooperation to Sunda Strait in 2008, the title of the collaborative program was changed to "The South China Sea - Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Dynamics of Sunda and Lombok Straits, and Their Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration". Till now, 12 joint cruises have been conducted since December, 2007. Ten Trawl-Resistant Bottom Mounts (TRBM) have been deployed in the Karimata and Sunda Straits. The TRBMs are equipped with ADCPs and tide gauges for measuring current profiles and sea levels, respectively. The temperature-salinity profiles were measured with ship-board CTD during the cruises. Data obtained in Karimata Strait revealed that a significant water mass transport. This indicates that the Karimata Strait throughflow can greatly impacts the circulation of both the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas. The data obtained at the 5 stations alone the two sections in the Karimata Strait were used to study the tide and tidal currents in the Karimata Strait. 2 TRBMs were deployed at Section A, as well as 3 at Section B, which lies at the southeast of Section A. Station B1 is in the Gaspar Strait between Bangka Island and Belitung Island, Stations

  15. Reading the Planetary Archipelago of the Torres Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McMahon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay makes use of the Western concept of the archipelago as a starting point for an examination of island to island relations in the Torres Strait, Australia, as they are rehearsed in the imaginary domain of story, in both its written and oral modes. The essay deploys Spivak’s notions of planetarity and Bloch’s concept of utopianism as ways of charting the relationship between two Torres Strait stories, one old, one new. In so doing, the essay seeks to identify the capacity of Torres Strait literature and storytelling to re-conceive relations of space and time and to acknowledge a spatial and temporal mobility running parallel to the circumscribed trajectories of late modernity.

  16. An updated examination of the Luzon Strait transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Yi-Chia; Wu, Chau-Ron; Chao, Shenn-Yu

    2012-03-01

    Despite numerous previous estimates of Luzon Strait transport (LST), we attempt an update using a fine-resolution model. With these improvements, the circulation in and around Luzon Strait shows up rather realistically. Intrusion of a Kuroshio meander into the South China Sea (SCS) is seasonally varying. The LST, especially in the upper ocean, caused by a small difference between the large meander inflow and outflow, is also seasonally varying and subject to large standard deviation. The annual mean LST is estimated to be westward (-4.0 ± 5.1 Sv) along 120.75°E. We have also conducted process of elimination experiments to assess the relative importance of open ocean inflow/outflow, wind stress, and surface heat flux in regulating LST and its seasonality. The East Asian monsoon winds stand out as the predominant forcing. Without it, the upper ocean LST changes from westward to eastward (ranging up to 4 Sv) and, with misaligned seasonality, triggering an inflow from the Mindoro Strait to the SCS to replenish the water mass loss. Discounting monsoon winds, sea level in the Sulu Sea is generally higher because it receives the Indonesian Throughflow before the SCS, which causes an inflow from the Sulu Sea to the SCS. On the other hand, the annual mean wind from the northeast invites outflow from the SCS to the Sulu Sea (or inflow from the Luzon Strait). Weighing the two competing factors together, we see the cessation of northeast monsoon as a condition favorable for the Luzon Strait outflow or the Mindoro Strait inflow.

  17. Liquid export of Arctic freshwater components through the Fram Strait 1998–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kattner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the magnitude and composition of southward liquid freshwater transports in the East Greenland Current near 79° N in the Western Fram Strait between 1998 and 2011. Previous studies have found this region to be an important pathway for liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Our transport estimates are based on six hydrographic surveys between June and September and concurrent data from moored current meters. We combined concentrations of liquid freshwater, meteoric water (river water and precipitation, sea ice melt and brine from sea ice formation, and Pacific Water, presented in Dodd et al. (2012, with volume transport estimates from an inverse model. The average of the monthly snapshots of southward liquid freshwater transports between 10.6° W and 4° E is 100 ± 23 mSv (3160 ± 730 km3 yr−1, relative to a salinity of 34.9. This liquid freshwater transport consists of about 130% water from rivers and precipitation (meteoric water, 30% freshwater from the Pacific, and −60% (freshwater deficit due to a mixture of sea ice melt and brine from sea ice formation. Pacific Water transports showed the highest variation in time, effectively vanishing in some of the surveys. Comparison of our results to the literature indicates that this was due to atmospherically driven variability in the advection of Pacific Water along different pathways through the Arctic Ocean. Variations in most liquid freshwater component transports appear to have been most strongly influenced by changes in the advection of these water masses to the Fram Strait. However, the local dynamics represented by the volume transports influenced the liquid freshwater component transports in individual years, in particular those of sea ice melt and brine from sea ice formation. Our results show a similar ratio of the transports of meteoric water and net sea ice melt as previous studies. However, we observed a

  18. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  19. Surface circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar: A combined HF radar and high resolution model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, Javier; Lorente, Pablo; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique; Carlos Sánchez-Garrido, Jose; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    Observations from a high frequency radar system and outputs from a high resolution operational ocean model working at the Strait of Gibraltar have been analyzed and compared during the period February 2013 to September 2014 in order to evaluate their capability to resolve the surface circulation of the region. The description of the mean circulation patterns has been statistically assessed, showing good agreement, particularly in the central region of the strait corresponding with the Atlantic Jet (AJ) stream, although some short scale features are not reproduced by the model. In the frequency domain very high concordance is observed. Tidal maps of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents are in good agreement with previous observations. The analysis of the model and radar response to the wind forcing reveals that the low resolution of the model wind-forcing field and its deeper superficial level smoothes the wind effect on the simulated currents. The first three EOF modes account for the 86% of model and radar variances. The coincidence between the observed and simulated patterns is very significant for the first two modes, which account for the mean velocity field and the latitudinal shifting of the AJ consequence of the flow-topography interaction. The third mode captures the wind-induced circulation, and greater discrepancies are found in this case. Results underline the complementary character of both systems: radar observations improve the model description, resolving short scale processes, while the model completes the radar information when the time or spatial coverage is poorer.

  20. The origin, historical variations, and distribution of heavy metals in the Qiongzhou Strait and nearby marine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Liang; Wang, Weiping; Li, Tuanjie; Zu, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in a number of surface sediments and cores from the Qiongzhou Strait and surrounding marine areas. The areas of high concentrations are primarily outside the eastern mouth of the Qiongzhou Strait and on the west side of the Leizhou Peninsula, whereas the areas of low concentrations are located primarily in the eastern Qiongzhou Strait. The maximum Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in the samples collected in our study do not exceed the official standards for marine sediments, whereas the concentrations of Cr and Cu slightly exceed the standards. Correlations exist between the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd, and the concentrations of these metals are positively correlated with the mean particle size (φ value), indicating that the finer sediments have adsorbed greater amounts of heavy metal elements than the coarser sediments. An evaluation of the potential environmental risks demonstrates that certain indices of heavy metal pollution and environmental risks are relatively low and may be assigned low risk levels, thereby indicating that, in terms of heavy metals, the marine sedimentary environment in this region is only mildly impacted. Our analysis of the contaminant origins shows that the heavy metals in this region primarily originate in the Pearl River Estuary and that a small amount of them is derived from local runoff. The elevated heavy metal concentrations from the upper sections of the cores started 130 years ago, which indicats that heavy metals in the surface sediments are primarily due to human activities associated with industrialization.

  1. A Bibliography of the Physical Oceanography of Straits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Kelley (eds.), Univer- description of currents in the Glebinka Strait in Puck sity of Alaska, Fairbanks, pp. 3-37. Bay (Poland). Oceanografia , Gdansk 5...3742. Archivio di Oceanografia E Limnologia 19:65-82. Whitworth, T. and R. G. Peterson (1985). Volume Waldichuk, M. (1957). Physical oceanography of

  2. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Luu, Q.-H.; Babu, M.T.

    Sea level in the Singapore Strait (SS) exhibits response to various scale phenomena, from local to global. Longest tide gauge records in SS are analysed to derive local sea level trend and annual, inter-annual and multi-decadal sea level variability...

  3. Readjustments in U.S. Cross-Taiwan Strait Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Shengliang; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Washington had all along followed an ambiguity policy over its possible military intervention in a Taiwan contingency. However, recent years have witnessed readjustments towards "double clarity" of a possible military response in case of a Chinese-initiated use of force and potential inaction in the event of a conflict derived from Taiwanese provocations to change the status quo by seeking de jure independence. In other words, it spells a policy shift toward "dual deterrence," namely to deter the Chinese mainland from using force in seeking national reunification and to deter Taiwan from moving toward de jure independence. To prevent such eventuality, Washington made direct appeal to the Taiwan public to make clear its opposition to Taiwan independence.The reasons behind the readjustments are not far to seek. They reflect shifts in U.S. strategic focus, changes in its China policy, political developments on both sides of the Taiwan Strait and President Bush's personal disgust with former Taiwan leader Chen Shuibian's cunning tricks.However, resumption of Cross-Strait dialogue in the wake of the return to power of the Kuomintang (National Party) through the ballot in March may bring about new worries and possible further readjustments in U.S. cross-strait policy after the November presidential elections. Though uncertainties remain, in the pipeline may be an endeavor to prevent excessive cross-strait warmth and a possible tilt of Taiwan to the Chinese Mainland.

  4. Transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait in 2012 and inferred anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-02-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced, which allows for an application of the inverse-Gaussian-transit-time distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Mean current velocity measurements along the same section from 2002-2010 were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon by the boundary currents above 840 m through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD-based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data, by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996, rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 µmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 µmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10 and 35 µmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a net outflow of ˜ 0.4 DIC and ˜ 0.01 PgC yr-1 anthropogenic carbon from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic, albeit with high uncertainties.

  5. On M2 tidal amplitude enhancement in the Taiwan Strait and its asymmetry in the cross-strait direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced M2 tidal amplitude in the Taiwan Strait (TS) and asymmetric M2 tidal amplitude in the cross-strait direction have been found and reproduced in numerical simulations. In this study, Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) is applied to investigate the mechanisms behind these features. Model results show that the linear interaction of waves from the East China Sea (ECS) and the Luzon Strait (LS) can explain the formation of the co-amplitude and co-phase lines of the M2 tide in the nodal point area, while the waves from the ECS dominate the tidal motion in the TS according to a basic linear wave superposition. Model simulation also show that wave reflection and transition occur when the M2 tidal waves from the ECS propagate through the TS and encounter an sharply deepened topography. The interaction of these induced reflection waves and the incident waves from the ECS is the main cause for the enhanced M2 tidal amplitude in the TS. The distribution of the sharply deepened topography, rather than the Coriolis effect, is the main reason for the asymmetry of the M2 tidal amplitude in the cross-strait direction in the TS. These findings provide some references for tidal dynamics in other areas, especially where long waves propagate through the shallow water to the deep sea.

  6. Assessment of pollution aerosols sources above the Straits of Dover using lead isotope geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboudt, K; Flament, P; Weis, D; Mennessier, J P; Maquinghen, P

    1999-09-15

    We assess the capability of lead isotopes to study the transport of pollution aerosols above the Straits of Dover by collecting atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. During the same period, we characterized the lead isotopic signature of the main industrial sources on the French coast near the Straits of Dover. Urban and automobile-derived aerosols were also collected. Due to the phasing out of lead in gasoline, the urban isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.158 +/- 0.003) has become more radiogenic, although it is highly variable. On a regional scale, major industrial emissions have a well-defined isotopic composition (1.13 isotopic compositions, it can be shown that lead aerosols originating from eastern Europe have an isotopic signature (1.145 isotopic composition of west-European lead aerosols (1.111 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.142). The influence of remote North American sources is suggested, with caution, due to uncertainties in meteorological calculations.

  7. Genetic structure and population differentiation of the Mediterranean pioneer spiny broom Calicotome villosa across the Strait of Gibraltar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arroyo, Juan; Aparicio, Abelardo; Albadalejo, Rafael G.;

    2008-01-01

    of species during the Pleistocene, as a consequence of the lowering of sea level and climate changes associated with the Ice Ages. In the present study, we report a multilevel hierarchical investigation of the genetic diversity of Calicotome villosa, a common pioneer legume shrub, at the regional scale......The region around the Strait of Gibraltar is considered to be one of the most relevant ‘hot spots’ of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Basin due to its historical, biogeographical, and ecological features. Prominent among these is its role as a land bridge for the migration and differentiation...

  8. Crustal and upper mantle S-wave velocity structures across the Taiwan Strait from ambient seismic noise and teleseismic Rayleigh wave analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Yao, H.; Wu, F. T.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.; Lin, C.; Wen, K.

    2013-12-01

    Although orogeny seems to have stopped in western Taiwan large and small earthquakes do occur in the Taiwan Strait. Limited studies have focused on this region before and were barely within reach for comprehensive projects like TAICRUST and TAIGER for logistical reasons; thus, the overall crustal structures of the Taiwan Strait remain unknown. Time domain empirical Green's function (TDEGF) from ambient seismic noise to determine crustal velocity structure allows us to study an area using station pairs on its periphery. This research aims to resolve 1-D average crustal and upper mantle S-wave velocity (Vs) structures alone paths of several broadband station-pairs across the Taiwan Strait; 5-120 s Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion data derived by combining TDEGF and traditional surface wave two-station method (TS). The average Vs structures show significant differences in the upper 15 km as expected. In general, the highest Vs are observed in the coastal area of Mainland China and the lowest Vs appear along the southwest offshore of the Taiwan Island; they differ by about 0.6-1.1 km/s. For different parts of the Strait, the Vs are lower in the middle by about 0.1-0.2 km/s relative to those in the northern and southern parts. The overall crustal thickness is approximately 30 km, much thinner and less variable than under the Taiwan Island.

  9. Observation and modelling of turbulent mixing in the Kuril and Aleutian Straits and impact of its 18.6-year period tidal cycle on ocean and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, I.; Tanaka, Y.; Itoh, S.; Hasumi, H.; Komatsu, K.; Osafune, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kaneko, H.; Ikeya, T.; Konda, S.; Nishioka, J.; Nakatsuka, T.; Katsumata, K.; Tatebe, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hiroe, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Direct turbulent observations in the Kuril Straits and Aleutian Straits reveal that tide-induced strong vertical mixing corresponds to strong shear of combined diurnal tidal and/or mean currents and significantly modifies the water-mass and potential vorticity distribution. Bi-decadal variability synchronized with 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle were found in various parts of the ocean and climate indices: water-mass variability in the subarctic North Pacific, especially near the strong diurnal tide regions as Kuril Straits and Aleutian Islands, and in long-term climate indices as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in proxy-reconstructed records. In low-frequency part of the PDO and SOI records, negative (positive)-PDO and positive (negative)-SOI tend to occur in the 4-6-th (10-12-th) year after the maximum diurnal tide, which is consistent with the climate model experiments with locally enhanced vertical mixing around Kuril Straits showing that tidal mixing and its variability could generate bi-decadal variability in ocean and climate. Ocean and climate model experiments with parameterized tidal mixing explain some of the water-mass modifications and bi-decadal variability of water-masses and climate.

  10. 50 CFR 92.11 - Regional management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Archipelago; (3) Bristol Bay; (4) Yukon/Kuskokwim Delta; (5) Bering Strait/Norton Sound; (6) Northwest Arctic... agreements with at least 1 partner organization in each of the 12 regions. The partner...

  11. Management and control of pollution in Inner Johore Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H L; Lim, P E; Midun, Z

    1991-10-01

    Coastal waters in South Johore, Malaysia are polluted to various degrees. The major pollution sources are domestric wastes from human settlements, agro-based wastes from palm oil mills and rubber processing factories, industrial effluents from industrial estates and discharges from animal farms. These pollution problems have adversely affected resources such as fisheries, recreational potential as well as the general aesthetic quality of the coastal environment particularly the Inner Johore Strait. Hence proper management and control measures are urgently needed to protect and further enhance the water quality to ensure environmentally sustainable development. This study examines various management options to control the pollution in the Inner Johore Strait. The options involve partial opening as well as complete removal of the Causeway to improve the tidal flow for more effective dilution and dispersion of pollutants. Computer simulation models are used to assess the impacts of the proposed options.

  12. Laboratory Modeling of Internal Wave Generation in Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Peacock 2010). 3. The suitability of the double ridge configuration of the Luzon Strait to give rise to resonant forcing of the semi-diurnal...Figure 6. 6 Figure 6: PIV visualization of the magnitude of the in-plane velocity of the 3D conical internal wave field generated by a...Visualization of the conical 3D internal wave field generated by an oscillating sphere using stereo-PIV, Experiments in Fluids, 54, 1454. Mathur

  13. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export......Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...

  14. Formation of wind-driven ice bridges in narrow straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Zheng, Zhong; Winton, Michael; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-11-01

    An ice bridge is a static arch made of tightly packed ice that can be formed when sea ice flows through a narrow strait between landmasses. The formation of a stable ice arch prevents the further flow of sea ice into warmer oceans, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of the local climate and ecology and to an extent, the mass balance of Arctic ice. While ice bridges are a seasonal phenomenon in many parts of the Canadian Archipelago, the process of their formation and breakup is poorly understood. Using thin-layer theory along with dynamic sea ice models widely used in climate modeling, we develop a reduced-order description of wind-driven ice bridge formation in long, narrow straits. Our theory predicts a critical static condition for arrested flow that involves the ice properties (thickness and compactness), the geometry of the channel, and the magnitude of the wind stress. Further, we show that in a channel of varying shape and under a constant wind stress, a spatially uniform ice field evolves towards a steady state with discontinuities in its properties, consistent with observed mechanisms of ice bridge formation. The reduced-order model thus provides a predictive tool for the flow and stoppage of sea ice in straits.

  15. Xenarcturus spinulosus Sheppard, 1957 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera): Redescription of a specimen from the Strait of Magellan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Ja-Yang

    1995-01-01

    A redescription of a primitive arcturid species, Xenarcturus spinulosus, from the Strait of Magellan is presented with discussion of the systematic position of the monotypical subfamily Xenarcturinae.

  16. A subglacial landform assemblage on the outer-shelf of M'Clure Strait, Canadian Arctic, ploughed by deglacial iceberg keels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Christine; Dowdeswell, Julian; Dowdeswell, Evelyn; Todd, Brian

    2015-04-01

    M'Clure Strait in the Canadian Beaufort Sea is one of the largest cross-shelf troughs in the High Arctic, with a length of over 1000 km and a maximum cross-trough width of around 250 km. M'Clure Strait has been suggested to be the former location of a fast-flowing ice stream which drained the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the Late Wisconsinan glaciation, and probably also during a number of earlier Quaternary full-glacial periods. The Late Wisconsinan ice stream in M'Clure Strait is interpreted to have extended to the shelf break between 21 and 16 ka ago, before undergoing rapid retreat. The ice stream has been suggested to have undergone vigorous episodes of activity during the last deglaciation; ice export events from the M'Clure Strait ice stream may have been responsible for the formation of distinctive layers of ice-rafted debris in the Arctic Ocean during regional deglaciation. Here, we present multibeam bathymetric data of the seafloor of outermost M'Clure Strait. Low rates of post-glacial sedimentation have led to the preservation of an unusual assemblage of cross-cutting subglacial, glacifluvial and glacimarine landforms on the M'Clure Strait seafloor. The assemblage of glacigenic landforms records the advance and retreat of a fast-flowing ice stream. Highly-elongate mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) provide evidence for the advance of the last, Late Wisconsinan ice stream through M'Clure Strait to within at least 8 km of the shelf break. The preservation of the MSGLs and the lack of ice-flow transverse landforms indicate rapid ice retreat from this region of the outer-shelf. Trough-parallel sinuous esker-like ridges of sediment are also identified. These were probably formed by the sedimentary infilling of ice-walled subglacial meltwater conduits during deglaciation. This interpretation requires considerable volumes of meltwater and sediment to have been transported within subglacial channels beneath the M'Clure Strait ice

  17. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  18. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographic data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed. Applying conservation constraints on these boxes provides barotropic reference velocities. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss from the area between the sections averaged over the four years is about 10 TW. The net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer is derived from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait. In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to the south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  19. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographical data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed and conservation constraints applied on the boxes. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss averaged for the four boxes is about 10 TW and the net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer derives from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait.

    In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  20. A Strait Comparison: Lessons Learned from the 1915 Dardanelles Campaign in the Context of a Strait of Hormuz Closure Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the Dardanelles through the lens of such an event, distill a number of recommendations for the United States and its Coalition partners relevant to...knots going against the current of the Straits, were to steam past the minefields, turn, and sweep them coming back downstream. Seven trawlers set...principle, be increased to 11 MBD using drag -reducing agents [23]. 37 Saudi Arabia and the UAE, and Iran has a large, restive population that, in

  1. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-30

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a 'snapshot' of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region.

  2. Test of numerical prediction of sea water temperature in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiuqin; Huang Huowang; Dong Jian; Qian Chengchun

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic numerical prediction model of sea water temperature for limited sea area is used to predict the sea water temperature at the sea area near Fujian. Essential adjustments have been made in accordance with the characteristics of this region. Two tests have been made. One is in summer (3 d) and the other is in winter (10 d). In the summer test, a typhoon is just passing by and the calculated current field well responds to typhoon. In the winter test, variation tendency of the predicted sea water temperature field agrees with that of the observation basically, the absolute mean error in the whole sea area is 0.6 ℃. The variation of the sea water temperature is mostly affected by entrainment and pumping, which is related to the topography of the strait.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA haplotyping of Testudo graeca on both continental sides of the Straits of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Y; Mateo, J A; Andreu, A C; Díaz-Paniagua, C; Diez, A; Bautista, J M

    2000-01-01

    Testudo graeca is an endangered species of tortoise that inhabits Mediterranean areas of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Western populations are found on both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar. The effects of geographical isolation on genetic divergence were assessed by the sequence analysis of two mitochondrial DNA regions of the 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes. Four different haplotypes were identified. A single haplotype was shared by all Spanish and some east Moroccan specimens. Two haplotypes were unique to the west Moroccan T. graeca populations and allowed the clear discrimination between individual specimens found west of the Moulouya River. Phylogenetic analysis based on the estimation of nucleotide sequence distances of the haplotypes suggests an African origin for the Spanish populations and a subspecies status for the west Moroccan pool.

  4. Large-scale, realistic laboratory modeling of M2 internal tide generation at the Luzon Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu J; Helfrich, Karl; Sommeria, Joël; Viboud, Samuel; Didelle, Henri; Saidi, Sasan; Dauxois, Thierry; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The complex double-ridge system in the Luzon Strait in the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the strongest sources of internal tides in the oceans, associated with which are some of the largest amplitude internal solitary waves on record. An issue of debate, however, has been the specific nature of their generation mechanism. To provide insight, we present the results of a large-scale laboratory experiment performed at the Coriolis platform. The experiment was carefully designed so that the relevant dimensionless parameters, which include the excursion parameter, criticality, Rossby, and Froude numbers, closely matched the ocean scenario. The results advocate that a broad and coherent weakly nonlinear, three-dimensional, M2 internal tide that is shaped by the overall geometry of the double-ridge system is radiated into the South China Sea and subsequently steepens, as opposed to being generated by a particular feature or localized region within the ridge system.

  5. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea by the R.V. Samudera, April 16 to May 19, 1975 (NODC Accession 7700306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from the R.V. SAMUDERA in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea from 16...

  6. Long-term investigations of summertime chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and continuously observations of vertical particle flux in Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Salter, Ian; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is one of the key regions where the effect of climate change is most pronounced due to massive reduction of sea ice volume and extent. Most of the sea ice is transported out of the Arctic Ocean with the cold East Greenland Current (EGC) in the western Fram Strait, while warm Atlantic water enters the Arctic Ocean with the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) in the eastern Fram Strait. In this scenario we conducted several cruises to Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean (CAO) between 1991 and 2015 to monitor phytoplankton biomass, particulate organic carbon standing stocks during summer at discrete depth using water bottle samples, and the sedimentation of organic matter by means of moored sediment traps throughout the year. With our study we aim at tracing effects of environmental changes in the pelagic system and impacts on the fate of organic matter produced in the upper water column in a region that is anticipated to react rapidly to climate change. We will present data sets of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and particulate organic carbon (POC) from the upper 100 m of the water column as well as results from vertical particle flux measurements with yearly deployed sediment traps at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in eastern Fram Strait (79°/4°E) between 2000 and 2012 and from two locations in the CAO close to the Lomonosov Ridge (1995/96) and the Gakkel Ridge (2011/12). Analyses of the material collected by the sediment traps allowed us to track seasonal and inter-annual changes in the upper water column at HAUSGARTEN and in the CAO. Whereas chlorophyll a (integrated values 0 -100 m) showed only a slight increase in eastern Fram Strait, it stayed more or less constant in the CAO and western Fram Strait, with the exception of 2015 exhibiting less biomass during late summer in the CAO. Highest biomass was found in the eastern Fram Strait and lowest in the heavily ice-covered regions. POC distribution

  7. The Strategic Alternatives of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disruption of Maritime Traffic in the Arabian Gulf as a result of Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kaabi, Mohamed K.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a strategically significant region of the world with regard to the global energy supply chain as well as maritime trade and commerce. For the past three decades, the region and Strait of Hormuz, in particular, have witnessed major crisis, wars, and foreign intervention which lead to undermine the stability, peace, and security of the region. Since the collapse of Saddams regime, Iran found propitious opportunity to pursue a regional hegemony. In the name of its national se...

  8. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. 117.169 Section 117.169 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open...

  9. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  10. Taiwan’s Security Calculus of Cross-­Strait Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration across the Taiwan Strait is relatively insignificant by its scale but it is indeed indisputably politically sensitive. Given the long-term political separation and military rivalry across the Taiwan Strait in the past six decades while both sides of the Taiwan Strait nevertheless intensively engaged each other economically, commercially and culturally, a social trend of cross-Strait migration inevitably results. There are various interpretations on such a demographic development which has raised security concerns, which are in turn creating a biased judiciary arrangement on the migration activities. What are the factors behind the security calculus of cross-Strait migration? How can the security calculus justify its arguments and subsequently maintain unequal treatments with respect to cross-Strait immigrants? Are the rationales for maintaining a tight grip on cross-Strait migration in line with the political ideal proclaimed by the political factions in Taiwan still sensible? What is the potential for the trend of cross-Strait migration affecting the security calculus in the future? On the other hand, for the migration from Taiwan to Mainland China, how influential can it be on the security decision-making process of the Beijing leadership? Is there any impact possibly caused by cross-Strait migration – and is it essentially overstated? Or alternatively, is the overstated influence potentially caused by cross-Strait migration an intentionally staged political myth? What are the substantial impacts actually ever achieved by cross-Strait migration on the security dimension? What is the self-fulfilled conviction of cross-Strait migration? For all the inquiries noted above, the author of this paper would like to scrutinize the truth and separate it from numerous myths ever advocated by the different factions in Taiwan politics. A sound and neutral judgment to tell the exact influences likely enacted by cross-Strait migration would

  11. The potential impact of bedform migration on seagrass communities in Torres Strait, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James J.; Harris, Peter T.; Hughes, Michael G.; Hemer, Mark; Heap, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass communities in the northwest of Torres Strait are known to disappear episodically over broad areas. Sediment mobility surveys were undertaken within two study areas during the monsoon and trade wind seasons, in the vicinity of Turnagain Island, to find out if the migration of bedforms could explain this disappearance. The two study areas covered sand bank and sand dune environments to compare and contrast their migration characteristics. Repeat multibeam sonar surveys were used to measure dune-crest migration during each season. Our results show that seagrass beds occur in the troughs of sediment-starved dunes, but no seagrass occurs in association with full-bedded dunes that are superimposed on large sand bank features. The coincidence of seagrass beds with the sediment-starved dunes is in spite of the fact that they migrate faster (0.59 m day -1) than full-bedded dunes (0.13 m day -1), which indicates that some other factor (other than dune migration rate) limits seagrass growth within Torres Strait. We suggest that seagrasses are unable to colonise full-bedded dunes because of the semi-continuously transported sand that characterises this environment. In contrast, the troughs of sediment-starved dunes experience only limited bedload transport and are less hostile for seagrasses. A conceptual model is presented to explain the occurrence of seagrass beds in relation to their proximity to migrating sand dunes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the widespread dieback of seagrasses documented for the Turnagain Island region was not caused by dune migration.

  12. The Strait of Gibraltar as a major biogeographic barrier in Mediterranean conifers: a comparative phylogeographic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Correa, J P; Grivet, D; Terrab, A; Kurt, Y; De-Lucas, A I; Wahid, N; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2010-12-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar (SG) is reputed for being both a bridge and a geographic barrier to biological exchanges between Europe and Africa. Major genetic breaks associated with this strait have been identified in various taxa, but it is unknown whether these disjunctions have been produced simultaneously or by independent biogeographic processes. Here, the genetic structure of five conifers distributed on both sides of the SG was investigated using mitochondrial (nad1 b/c, nad5-1, nad5-4 and nad7-1) and chloroplast (Pt1254, Pt15169, Pt30204, Pt36480, Pt71936 and Pt87268) DNA markers. The distribution of genetic variation was partially congruent between types of markers within the same species. Across taxa, there was a significant overlapping between the SG and the genetic breaks detected, especially for the four Tertiary species surveyed (Abies pinsapo complex, Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster and Taxus baccata). For most of these taxa, the divergence of populations across the SG could date back to long before the Pleistocene glaciations. However, their strongly different cpDNA G(ST) and R(ST) values point out that they have had dissimilar population histories, which might include contrasting amounts of pollen-driven gene flow since their initial establishment in the region. The fifth species, Pinus halepensis, was genetically depauperated and homogenous on both sides of the SG. A further analysis of nuclear DNA sequences with coalescent-based isolation with migration models suggests a Pleistocene divergence of P. halepensis populations across the SG, which is in sharp contrast with the pre-Pleistocene divergence dates obtained for P. pinaster. Altogether, these results indicate that the genetic breaks observed across this putative biogeographical barrier have been produced by independent evolutionary processes related to the biological history of each individual species instead of a common vicariant phenomenon.

  13. Spatial localization and mesoscale modulation of mixing and transformation of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszalka, Inga; Haine, Thomas; Magaldi, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is a major export route for dense waters from the Nordic Seas forming the North Atlantic Deep Water, an important element of the climate system. Mixing processes in the Irminger Basin determine volume transport and properties of the DSO but are poorly resolved by sparse observations which hinders development of DSO mixing parameterizations in global circulation models (GCMs). We employ a high resolution circulation model (horizontal grid spacing of 2km and 210 levels in the vertical) to investigate transformation and mixing in the DSO in the Irminger Basin and quantify the effect of mesoscale (10-100km) flows unresolved by GCMs. Both the warming rate derived from model Lagrangian particles and the Eulerian eddy temperature flux divergence show elevated values in about a 200km long and 50km wide corridor downstream of the Denmark Strait sill and between the shelf break and the 2000m isobath. In this region, the DSO warms by about 1K, which constitutes most of the transformation along the entire 700km pathway in the Irminger Basin. The horizontal and vertical mixing is modulated by dense water boluses and overlying cyclonic eddies that propagate together through the Irminger Basin (`beddies'). The passage of beddies increase the squared vertical shear of horizontal velocity by a factor of 3, correspond to increase in the vertical velocity by ten times and double the eddy heat flux divergence leading to a warming of the bottom (densest) waters and a cooling of the interface layer of the overflow plume and the ambient water above. There is a clear correlation between the speed in the nose of the plume, the eddy kinetic energy and the vertical shear in the horizontal flow. The modulation of mixing by the mesoscale variability and the attendant mixing localization should be included in future overflow parameterizations in global circulation models. A targeted field campaign to empirically test these conjectures is another high priority.

  14. Observed Volume Fluxes and Mixing in the Dardanelles Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Laboratory (NRL) and the NATO Undersea Research Center ( NURC ; cur- rently known as the NATO Center for Maritime Research and Experimentation, CMRE...Dardanelles Strait as a part of the TSS08 ( NURC project) and EPOS (NRL project) programs. The deployment began at the end of August 2008 and ended at...previously known as the NATO NURC ) who sup- ported and helped to organi/e and fund cruises to the TSS on the R.’V Alli- ance. We arc also grateful for

  15. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    downstream deposition. The second, more widespread type of knickpoints have high slope gradients and angular profiles. These knickpoints have undergone upslope advective migration through slope failures on the canyon floor and localised quarrying and plucking by sedimentary flows. Knickpoint migration is driven by base level lowering due to regional margin uplift and deepening of lower Cook Strait Canyon, and is likely faster in larger canyons because of higher sedimentary flow throughput. The formation and migration of knickpoints, the non-adherence to Playfair's Law, the linear longitudinal profiles and the lack of canyon-wide, inverse power-law slope-area relationships indicate that the Cook Strait Canyon is a system that is in a transient state, undergoing continuous adjustments to perturbations associated with tectonic displacement and changes in base level and sediment fluxes. Based on the reported canyon morphological parameters and their response to tectonic activity, we propose a generalised model for canyon geomorphic evolution in tectonically-active continental margins.

  16. Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in marine plankton from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Heloise; Dangerfield, Neil; Macdonald, Robie W.; Galbraith, M.; Crewe, Norman; Shaw, Patrick; Mackas, David; Ross, Peter S.

    2013-08-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a large, deep, fjord-like estuary on the southern coast of British Columbia which is subject to local and atmospheric inputs of persistent environmental contaminants. We measured 204 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 61 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) seasonally in water (two depths; dissolved and particle-bound) and plankton (vertical tow) samples collected at two stations. Principal components analysis clearly distinguished the dissolved and particulate water fractions and plankton samples, with the latter two compartments associated more with heavier congeners. Bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for PCBs and PBDEs in plankton were best described by parabolic relationships against octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log Kow), peaking at a log Kow of 5-7, underscoring the important role of physico-chemical properties in driving the uptake of these persistent contaminants by plankton from water. The estimated total quantity of PCBs (annual average of 0.61 ± SEM 0.12 kg) and PBDEs (annual average of 0.64 ± 0.19 kg) in Strait of Georgia plankton biomass were remarkably similar, highlighting the emergence of currently-used PBDEs as a priority concern. The estimated total of 52.1 ± 8.41 kg of PCBs in water (dissolved + particle-bound) was higher than the estimated 26.8 ± 5.20 kg of PBDEs (dissolved + particle-bound), reflecting the dichotomous use histories for these two contaminant classes. Results provide insight into the biological availability of PCBs and PBDEs to the Strait of Georgia food web, and describe an important initial partitioning process by which the region's endangered killer whales have become highly contaminated.

  17. Freshwater components and transports in the Fram Strait – recent observations and changes since the late 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rabe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the late summer distribution and transports of freshwater components in the upper western part of the Fram Strait during 1998, 2004 and 2005. Hydrographic data and and water δ18O values are analyzed to distinguish Atlantic Water, ice-melt (IMW and freshwater removal from ice formation (IFW, and Meteoric Water (precipitation and riverine sources; MW. Concentrations of these water masses are combined with volume transport estimates from an inverse model. The average liquid freshwater transport relative to a reference salinity of 34.92, was 2500 km3/yr or 80 mSv southward, which is at the upper end of values reported in the literature. Our results indicate that not only the region of the continental slope but also parts of the East Greenland Shelf are important for freshwater transports.

    The average transports of MW and IFW were 160 mSv (5000 km3/yr and 90 mSv (2800 km3/yr southward, respectively. The southward transport of MW was higher in 2005 than in 1998, but was compensated by a higher IFW transport. These differences in transports were associated with stronger southward velocities and the absence of northward velocities over the continental slope and the eastern East Greenland Shelf in 2005. A simulation using the North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model (NAOSIM shows that the high transport of MW in the Fram Strait in 2005 is in agreement with the temporary storage of river water on the Siberian shelf in the mid-1990s, which reached the north of Greenland in 2003. Our results indicate that IFW follows the same pathways as MW before reaching the Fram Strait.

  18. On locating local earthquakes at the Messina Strait network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. NERI

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer program (HYPOSTRE has been elaborated to determine
    the hypocentral parameters of local earthquakes, even when they are recorded
    by a small number of stations. These are the most frequent conditions
    prevailing around the Strait of Messina.
    The program employs the first arrivals of P and S waves, a model of
    local crust consisting of four plane and parallel layers, and an algorithm
    based on that of Geiger.
    HYPOSTRE can determine simultaneously the four unknowns X, cp, h
    and H (HYPOSTRE 4 and can calculate the epicentral coordinate separately
    from focal depth (HYPOSTRE 2. In both cases the program follows
    an iterative process. In particular, HYPOSTRE 2 shows convergence towards
    a final solution, through a series of « damped » approximations.
    The application of HYPOSTRE to about twenty earthquakes, which
    have occured in the Strait of Messina and in the Gulf of Patti, demonstrates
    a good convergence and a general stability of results.
    Finally, comparison with analogous determinations — carried out by
    other programs, with different crustal models and using a greater number
    of recorded data — confirms the reliability of HYPOSTRE.

  19. Response of the Kuroshio Current to Eddies in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jie; LUO De-Hai

    2010-01-01

    The impact of eddies on the Kuroshio Current in the Luzon Strait(LS)area is investigated by using the sea surface height anomaly(SSHA)satellite observation data and the sea surface height(SSH)assimilation data.The influence of the eddies on the mean current depends upon the type of eddies and their relative position.The mean current is enhanced(weakened)as the cyclonic(anticyclonic)eddy becomes slightly far from it,whereas it is weakened(enhanced)as the cyclonic(anticyclonic)eddy moves near or within the position of the mean current;this is explained as the eddy-induced meridional velocity and geostrophic flow relationship.The anticyclonic(cyclonic)eddy can increase(decrease)the mean meridional flow due to superimposition of the eddy-induced meridional flow when the eddy is within the region of the mean current.However,when the eddy is slightly far from the mean current region,the anticyclonic(cyclonic)eddy tends to decrease(increase)the zonal gradient of the SSH,which thus results in weakening(strengthening)of the mean current in the LS region.

  20. Interannual variability of remotely sensed chlorophyll a during an autumn monsoon transitional period in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiyun; HONG Huasheng

    2014-01-01

    The time series of multiple sources of satellite data are used to examine the interannual variability of chlo-rophyll a concentration (Chl a) and its relation to the physical environment during the autumn monsoon transitional period in the Taiwan Strait (TWS). The satellite data included the Chl a concentration and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua as well as the multi-sensors merged wind products from 2002 to 2012. The results show that the aver-age Chl a concentration of the whole TWS is mainly contributed by the northern TWS. The average Chl a in the northern TWS is 3.6 times that in the southern TWS. The maximum variability of Chl a is located in the frontal regions between the cold Zhe-Min Coastal Water and the strait warm water. The temporal change of Chl a concentration is different in the northern and southern TWS. The changes in the relative strength of the cold and warm water masses is suggested to be the dominant processes in controlling the phytoplankton growth in the northern TWS, while there is wind-induced mixing in the southern TWS. Additionally, La Niña events exhibited complex effects on the interannual variability of Chl a concentration in autumn. The long-term time series of physical and biological observations are especially needed to better understand how the TWS complex ecosystem responds to climate variations.

  1. Tidal propagation and dissipation in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang; Wang, Hui; Ding, Yang; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lawen, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Previous research on tides and tidal dynamics in the Taiwan Strait (TS) is reviewed in this paper. Tidal dynamics, which is the basic and dominant hydrodynamics in this area, attracts much interest in the last 30 years and till now its physical mechanism is still in debate. In this study, the major research methods and findings of previous works on barotropic tides in the TS are summarized. Based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1) are well simulated with the mean root-mean-square (RMS) errors of 4.7, 2.0, 1.3 and 0.7 cm between the observed and simulated tidal constants, respectively. It has been proved that semi-diurnal tidal movement is mainly determined by the waves from the East China Sea (ECS), while waves from the ECS and the Luzon Strait (LS) play comparable roles in diurnal tidal movement in the TS by linear superposition and the interaction of these two waves is the main cause for the progressive diurnal tidal waves in the TS. Furthermore, energy analysis revealed that the M2 tidal wave system in the TS and its adjacent area south to the shoal is an standing wave system and the anti-node appears in the central TS while the wave node locates in the shoal area, which can be contributed to the interaction of the incident waves from the ECS and the topography step south to Taiwan island, while the shoal also has an impact on the whole semi-diurnal tidal wave system in the TS. This standing wave system is consistent with the little energy dissipation in the central TS and much energy dissipation in the southern TS, where the shallow water effect also contributes to the local dissipation to some extent.

  2. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically, with the entire width of the array (70 km freshening between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. We show that the OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase of southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated spin-up of the Greenland Sea Gyre.

  3. Annual plankton dynamics in a coupled physical-biological model of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M. Angelica; Masson, Diane; Callendar, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional coupled biophysical model was developed to study the dynamics of the plankton ecosystem in the Strait of Georgia (SoG) estuary. The ocean circulation component is an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the lower trophic level ecosystem is a nine-compartment Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model that includes two types of phytoplankton and of zooplankton. A three year hindcast (2007-2009) is used to examine the mean annual seasonal cycle of the local plankton dynamics. For realistic values of irradiance, wind forcing and fresh water fluxes, the model predicts a seasonal cycle of salinity, nutrients and plankton in reasonable agreement with observations. In particular, the model reproduces the main features of the estuarine circulation, the marked increase in phytoplankton biomass during spring followed by intermittent less intense blooms during summer and fall, as well as the seasonal pattern of zooplankton biomass. Model results show that primary production fluctuates between low values in January and high values in April, with an annual production of 270 ± 33 (gC m-2) in the SoG. Most primary production is fueled by nitrate (f-ratio of about 0.7). Upwelling is the main source of nitrate into the upper layer, while most of the nitrate entering the Strait is exported out by horizontal advection. Physical processes, such as freshwater inflow, wind events, tidal mixing, and horizontal transports are important in maintaining the high spatio-temporal variability of the local phytoplankton biomass and production. Horizontal variability is high during the growing season (March to September). In summer, phytoplankton concentrates near the surface, in the shallow mixed layer, resulting in sporadic nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth. In the northern portion of the strait, weaker summer winds and tidal currents lead to increased near-surface stratification which restricts nutrient fluxes and limit

  4. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea...... the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean...... and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice...

  5. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  6. Seasonal and interannual variability of the water exchange in the Turkish Straits System estimated by modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MADERICH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A chain of simple linked models is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of the Turkish Straits System. This chain includes two-layer hydraulic models of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits simulating the exchange in terms of level and density difference along each strait, and a one-dimensional area averaged layered model of the Marmara Sea. The chain of models is complemented also by the similar layered model of the Black Sea proper and by a one-layer Azov Sea model with the Kerch Strait. This linked chain of models is used to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the system in the period 1970-2009. The salinity of the Black Sea water flowing into the Aegean Sea increases by approximately 1.7 times through entrainment from the lower layer. The flow entering into the lower layer of the Dardanelles Strait from the Aegean Sea is reduced by nearly 80% when it reaches the Black Sea. In the seasonal scale, a maximal transport in the upper layer and minimal transport in the bottom layer are during winter/spring for the Bosphorus and in spring for the Dardanelles Strait, whereas minimal transport in upper layer and maximal undercurrent are during the summer for the Bosphorus Strait and autumn for the Dardanelles Strait. The increase of freshwater flux into the Black Sea in interannual time scales (41 m3s-1 per year is accompanied by a more than twofold growth of the Dardanelles outflow to the North Aegean (102 m3s-1 per year.

  7. Lithodynamic processes in the construction area of a bridge across the kerch strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vvedenskiy Aleksey Rostislavovich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The information about the evolution of the bottom topography in the construction area is necessary in the design and construction of hydraulic structures in sea, as well as information about possible deformations of the bottom caused by both natural reasons and the appearance of new hydraulic objects in the waters. In the given research the authors propose an analysis of lithodynamic processes in the area of the construction of the bridge across the Kerch Strait. Several physico-mathematical models were used for calculation and description of lithodynamic processes in the construction site of the Kerch Bridge. They may be divided into two groups: atmospheric and water. Many important properties of hydrometeorological conditions may be obtained only by modeling. The model WRF is used in the research, which is applied in many foreign and domestic centers for simulation and forecast of regional atmospheric circulation due to its high quality and ease. The main steps of the calculations are provided: beginning with the collection of basic information up to combining the results of numerical experiments on several mathematical models. Special attention is paid to sedimentation and erosion associated with construction of temporary piers and waterways to them.

  8. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn.

  9. Active faults and historical earthquakes in the Messina Straits area (Ionian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polonia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Calabrian Arc (CA subduction complex is located at the toe of the Eurasian Plate in the Ionian Sea, where sediments resting on the lower plate have been scraped off and piled up in the accretionary wedge due to the African/Eurasian plate convergence and back arc extension. The CA has been struck repeatedly by destructive historical earthquakes, but knowledge of active faults and source parameters is relatively poor, particularly for seismogenic structures extending offshore. We analysed the fine structure of major tectonic features likely to have been sources of past earthquakes: (i the NNW–SSE trending Malta STEP (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator fault system, representing a lateral tear of the subduction system; (ii the out-of-sequence thrusts (splay faults at the rear of the salt-bearing Messinian accretionary wedge; and (iii the Messina Straits fault system, part of the wide deformation zone separating the western and eastern lobes of the accretionary wedge.

    Our findings have implications for seismic hazard in southern Italy, as we compile an inventory of first order active faults that may have produced past seismic events such as the 1908, 1693 and 1169 earthquakes. These faults are likely to be source regions for future large magnitude events as they are long, deep and bound sectors of the margin characterized by different deformation and coupling rates on the plate interface.

  10. Particle size distributions and organic-inorganic compositions of suspended particulate matters around the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Bian, Changwei; Bi, Rong; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xueqing

    2017-02-01

    Laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST) significantly improves our ability to assess particle size distribution (PSD) in seawater, while wide-ranging measurements of the organic-inorganic compositions of suspended particulate matters (SPM) are still difficult by using traditional methods such as microscopy. In this study, PSD properties and SPM compositions around the Bohai Strait (China) were investigated based on the measurements by LISST in combination with hydro-biological parameters collected from a field survey in summer 2014. Four typical PSD shapes were found in the region, namely right-peak, left-peak, double-peak and negative-skew shapes. The double-peak and negative-skew shapes may interconvert into each other along with strong hydrodynamic variation. In the upper layer of the Bohai Sea, organic particles were in the majority, with inorganic particles rarely observed. In the bottom layer, SPM were the mixture of organic and inorganic matters. LISST provided valuable baseline information on size-resolved organic-inorganic compositions of SPM: the size of organic particles mainly ranged from 4 to 20 μm and 40 to 100 μm, while most SPM ranging from 20 to 40 μm were composed of inorganic sediment.

  11. Influence of hydrography on the spatiotemporal variability of phytoplankton assemblages and primary productivity in Funka Bay and the Tsugaru Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isada, Tomonori; Hirawake, Toru; Nakada, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tsukuru; Sasaki, Ken'ichi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Shuichi; Suzuki, Koji; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Phytoplankton community structures and primary productivity were assessed in relation to the oceanographic conditions in the coastal waters of Funka bay and the eastern end of the Tsugaru Strait, adjacent to southwestern Hokkaido, Japan, from April 2010 to January 2012. Phytoplankton community compositions, as estimated from chemotaxonomic analysis based on high-performance liquid chromatography of pigments, showed diatom blooms during spring in both 2010 and 2011. However, spatial heterogeneity of chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and primary productivity were found between regions investigated within and outside of Funka Bay during the spring diatom blooms in April 2010. The low Chl a concentrations within Funka Bay in April 2010 were related to the depletion of dissolved inorganic macronutrients, which implies that this difference was related to both the small inflow of the cold Coastal Oyashio Current (COW) into the bay and the development of clockwise circulation caused by discharge of fresh water into the bay. After the spring diatom blooms, the major phytoplankton groups in the study area were Chl b-containing phytoplanktons (chlorophytes and prasinophytes) because of changes in salinity associated with river discharge during the melting season. The results indicate that these phytoplanktons play an important role in the carbon cycle after the spring bloom in Funka Bay and the eastern end of the Tsugaru Strait. The thermohaline fronts created by the COW and the Tsugaru Warm Water in late February produced north-south differences in phytoplankton community structures in the eastern end of the Tsugaru Strait. Diatoms with high Chl a concentrations dominated in the northern section of the front. In the southern section, the proportions of chlorophytes and cryptophytes were high. Increases in cyanobacterial abundance and temperature were detected in both regions. Additionally, the contribution of pico- plus nano-sized phytoplankton productivity to the total

  12. Water, heat and salt transport through the Strait of Otranto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Sadegh; Gačić, Miroslav; Kovačević, Vedrana; Cardin, Vanessa

    2010-05-01

    The water, heat and salt transports through the Strait of Otranto are estimated applying direct method to historical current and hydrographical data (from December 94 through November 95). A variational inverse method based on a variational principle and a finite element solver is used to reconstruct the current, temperature and salinity fields across the Strait section from sparse measurements. The mean annual inflow and outflow water transport rates are estimated as 0.901±0.039 Sv and -0.939±0.315 Sv, respectively, and the net transport for the period of study is equal to -0.032±0.208 Sv. Thus, on a yearly time interval, the inflow and the outflow are practically compensated. The heat and salt transports due to advection process are estimated for five monthly periods, namely December 1994, February, May, August and November 1995. Considering these five periods representative of the seasonal cycle during the year, their average values show that there is a net heat advection into the Adriatic Sea on a yearly basis. The estimated value of advected heat and the corresponding error are 2.408±0.490 TW, which is equivalent to a heat gain of 17.37±3.53 W m-2 for the whole basin. This value is compared to the heat loss of -36±152 (std) W m-2 through the air-sea interface calculated by means of bulk formulas over the Adriatic Sea. The two values are expected to be balance each other in order to close the heat budget of the basin. The possible reasons for this difference to occur are discussed. On a yearly basis, the salt transport is estimated as an input of salt equal to 0.05×106 Kg s-1. The average annual fresh water budget is estimated as -0.002 Sv, equivalent to the mass of fresh water of 2.00×106Kg s-1 or to the level of 0.45 m yr-1 for the entire Adriatic Sea. The import of salt that is less than the gain of fresh water is in agreement with the fact that the Adriatic Sea is a dilution basin.

  13. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  14. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A.; Chau, S. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between 4/1/96 and 6/30/96. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including Se fractionation data from Martinez Regional Park. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the recent developments in low-level Se analytical methods. Chapter 6 presents preliminary sedimentation rate data from the Martinez field site. Exciting new developments in x-ray spectroscopy of clams are presented in Chapter 7. The reader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

  15. Richness, systematics, and distribution of molluscs associated with the macroalga Gigartina skottsbergii in the Strait of Magellan, Chile: A biogeographic affinity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Aldea, Cristian; Mansilla, Andrés; Marambio, Johanna; Ojeda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the marine malacofauna in the Magellan Region has been gained from many scientific expeditions that were carried out during the 19th century. However, despite the information that exists about molluscs in the Magellan Region, there is a lack of studies about assemblages of molluscs co-occurring with macroalgae, especially commercially exploitable algae such as Gigartina skottsbergii, a species that currently represents the largest portion of carrageenans within the Chilean industry. The objective of this study is to inform about the richness, systematics, and distribution of the species of molluscs associated with natural beds in the Strait of Magellan. A total of 120 samples from quadrates of 0.25 m(2) were obtained by SCUBA diving at two sites within the Strait of Magellan. Sampling occurred seasonally between autumn 2010 and summer 2011: 15 quadrates were collected at each site and season. A total of 852 individuals, corresponding to 42 species of molluscs belonging to Polyplacophora (9 species), Gastropoda (24), and Bivalvia (9), were identified. The species richness recorded represents a value above the average richness of those reported in studies carried out in the last 40 years in sublittoral bottoms of the Strait of Magellan. The biogeographic affinity indicates that the majority of those species (38%) present an endemic Magellanic distribution, while the rest have a wide distribution in the Magellanic-Pacific, Magellanic-Atlantic, and Magellanic-Southern Ocean. The molluscs from the Magellan Region serve as study models for biogeographic relationships that can explain long-reaching patterns and are meaningful in evaluating possible ecosystemic changes generated by natural causes or related to human activities.

  16. Tide at the eastern section of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús Garcia; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek; Candela, Julio; Bascheck, Burkard

    2000-06-01

    From October 1995 to April 1996, three mooring lines were deployed at the eastern entrance of the Strait of Gibraltar. The spatial coverage of the mooring array allows for a good description of the tides. They exhibit a dominant semidiurnal nature and a noticeable baroclinic structure that matches the one of the mean exchange. Tidal currents in the upper layer are irregular and usually too weak to reverse the mean upper layer flow that keeps on flowing east. Lower layer flow reverses with semidiurnal periodicity because of the smallness of the mean flow and the appreciable amplitude of the regular semidiurnal oscillation of tidal currents in this layer. Tidal transports can be satisfactorily compared with previous estimates of Bryden et al. [1994] if we allow for strong internal divergences associated with the internal tide. No significant eddy flux of water transport (tidal rectification) is observed at the eastern section, contrary to the almost 50% of the total layer transport found by Bryden et al. [1994] in Camarinal Sill section. Time-dependent hydraulic theory provides a good scenario for interpreting these two independent sets of observations despite the fact that the composite Froude number does not reach the critical values predicted in the hydraulic models most of the time.

  17. Eddies spatial variability at Makassar Strait – Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzula, F.; Syamsudin, M. L.; Yuliadi, L. P. S.; Purba, N. P.; Martono

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The study area extends from 115º–125º E to 2.5º–8º S. The datasets were consisted of monthly geostrophic currents, sea surface heights, sea surface temperatures, and chlorophyll-a from 2008 – 2012. The results showed that eddies which found at Makassar Strait (MS) has the highest diameter and speed of 255.3 km and 21.4 cm/s respectively, while at the southern MW has 266.4 km and 15.6 cm/s, and at FS has 182.04 km and 11.4 cm/s. From a total of 51 eddies found, the majority of eddies type was anticyclonic. At MS and FS, eddies formed along the year, whereas at southern MW were found missing in West Season. Moreover, the chlorophyll-a concentration was consistently higher at the eddies area. Even though, the correlation among eddies and the upwelling downwelling phenomena was not significantly as shown by sea surface temperatures value.

  18. Species composition and distribution of marine nematode community in the North Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Marine free-living nematodes were investigated at 13 sampling stations divided into three transects in the northern Taiwan Strait in February 1998. One hundred species of marine nematodes belonging to 91 Genera 28 Families 3 Orders were identified and were first recorded in the northern Taiwan Strait. The dominant species were Vasostoma sp., Sabatieria sp. 1, Linhystera sp. 1, Spilophorella sp., Daptonema sp., Halalaimus sp. and Dorylaimopsis variabilis. Their mean densities were all over 4 950 ind./m2. According to mean density at transects, marine nematode density decreased from coastal Weitou to off Minjiang Estuary, which was similar to polychaete distribution in the northern Taiwan Strait. The selective deposit feeder (1A) was the dominant food type of marine nematodes in the northern Taiwan Strait, but non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and epigrowth feeders (2A) occupied high proportion, indicating diverse feeding types of marine nematodes in the northern Taiwan Strait.Some environmental factors such as currents are discussed.

  19. Study on respiratory electron transport system (ETS) of phytoplankton in Taiwan Strait and Xiamen Harbour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bangqin; HONG Huasheng; XU Xiangzhong; LIU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton respiratory electron transport system (P-ETS) activities were studied in two cruises in Taiwan Strait (Aug. 1997 and Feb. -Mar. 1998) and two cruises in Xiamen Harbour (Oct., 1997 and Apr.,1998). Results showed that P-ETS activity in the surface water of southern Taiwan Strait in summer was homogeneous [mean value of 0.106 μlO2/(L.h)], inhomogeneous in northern Taiwan Strait in winter. Variation of P-ETS activity in middle part of the Strait was not obvious between summer and winter. Mean P-ETS activity of Xiamen Harbour in autumn was 0.255 μlO2/(L.h) with a little higher value in Jiulong River estuary areas. In spring, P-ETS activity was more homogeneously distributed and the mean value was 1.076 μlO2/(L.h). P-ETS activity in spring was obviously higher than in autumn in Xiamen Harbour. Vertical distribution of P-ETS in Taiwan Strait was homogeneous at some stations in winter and in summer. An obvious daily variation of P-ETS activity was recorded at Stn 9837, high at midnight and low in the early morning. Significant correlation between P-ETS activity and Chl-a was observed. Results also showed that the ratio of estimated respiratory rate to photosynthetic rate varied seasonally, high in winter (0.41) and low in summer (0.12).

  20. Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal inverse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, Burkard; Send, Uwe; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia; Candela, Julio

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the volume transport through the Strait of Gibraltar and to study the spatial structure of the time-variable flow, a varying number of current meter moorings were maintained at the eastern entrance of the strait between October 1994 and April 1998, and was complemented with intensive shipboard measurements during the European Union project Canary Island Azores Gibraltar Experiment (CANIGO). A tidal inverse model is used to merge these data sets in order to investigate the flow at the eastern entrance of the strait. The two-dimensional structure of the tidal flow was described by simple analytical functions. Harmonics with the seven most important tidal frequencies were used as temporal functions. With this model, the tidal currents can be predicted for any time and location at the eastern entrance of the strait, and more than 92% of the variance of the lower layer flow is explained. It was used to remove the tidal currents from the individual measurements and to calculate the mean flow through the strait from the residuals. Combined with a similar inverse model for determining the depth of the interface between Mediterranean and Atlantic water, the volume transport was estimated to be 0.81±0.07 Sv for the upper layer and -0.76±0.07 Sv for the lower layer. The correlation of the tidal currents and the fluctuations of the interface accounts for ˜7% of the transport at the eastern entrance.

  1. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  2. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  3. Study on the Tidal Wave System and Formation Mechanism of M2 Tide in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-sheng; SONG Zhi-yao; ZHANG Jin-shan; ZHANG Hong-gui; KONG Jun; WANG Yan-hong

    2008-01-01

    To study the Taiwan Strait (TS), an unusual sea area, the numerical model in marginal seas of China is used to simulate and analyze the tidal wave motion in the strait. The numerical modeling experiments reproduce the amphidromic system of the M2 tide in the south end of the Taiwan strait, and consequently confirm the existence of the degenerate amphidromic system. On this basis, further discussion is conducted on the M2 system and its formation mechanism. It can be concluded that the tidal waves of the TS is consisted of the progressing wave from the north entrance and the degenerate amphidromic system from the south entrance, in which the progressing wave from the north entrance dominates the tidal wave motion in the strait. Except for the convergent effect caused by the landform and boundary, the degenerate amphidromic system produced in the south of the strait is another important factor for the following phenomena: the large tidal range in the middle of the strait, the concentrative zone of co-amplitude and co-phase line in the south of the strait. The degenerate amphidromic system is mainly produced by the incident Pacific Ocean tidal wave from the Luzon strait and the action by the shoreline and landform. The position of the amphidromic point is compelled to move toward southwest until degenerating by the powerful progressing wave from the north entrance.

  4. Multi-model ensemble estimation of volume transport through the straits of the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sooyeon; Hirose, Naoki; Usui, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The volume transports measured at the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya/La Perouse Straits remain quantitatively inconsistent. However, data assimilation models at least provide a self-consistent budget despite subtle differences among the models. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate more accurately transport at these straits by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.43 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  5. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de...

  6. The Strait of Gibraltar as a melting pot for plant biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Ojeda, Fernando; Vargas, Pablo; Arroyo, Juan

    2008-11-01

    The S Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa constitute one of the main hotspots for plant biodiversity within the Mediterranean Basin. At the core of this hotspot, across the Strait of Gibraltar, lies a smaller region whose singular Cenozoic history and ecological features have created a distinct, nested sub-hotspot. In particular, an important relict flora, a high endemism, and the dominance of vegetation types other than the paradigmatic Mediterranean-type sclerophyllous forests and shrublands, are biogeographical features of paramount relevance. These singular environments may have provided suitable mesic habitats for stable human populations in this region throughout the Quaternary. Here we explore the possible causes of the unique biodiversity of this region. First, we show that endemism is associated with poor soils and mild Mediterranean climate, whereas relictness is primarily associated with riparian and humid habitats which might have remained relatively stable since the Late Tertiary. We then review and provide new results on lineage and molecular diversity of some taxa based on their evolutionary relationships inferred from phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses. These indicate that long-lived plants, such as trees, tend to show some discontinuity in effective gene flow, in comparison with short-lived and pioneer plants. Colonization abilities rather than dispersal vectors appear to be a crucial factor. We also analyze the role of microevolutionary processes that generate plant biodiversity in terms of reproductive features involved in lineage formation, such as breeding system, pollination biology and postdispersal regeneration. The few available studies show that this region is prone to changes in reproductive systems, associated with both abiotic and biotic conditions in the new habitats that plants face during colonization. Dispersal and regeneration ecology is especially important for relict species, as most of these species face some biotic (e

  7. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF DEMERSAL FISH STOCK IN THE MALACCA STRAIT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malacca Strait is one of the main fishing areas for demersal fishery in Indonesia. To support the management of that fishery, an assessment of the demersal fish stock was conducted. This study estimated that the maximum sustainable yield and the optimal catch per unit effortof demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait were about 106.8 thousand tons/year and 28.5 tons per unit of Danish seine, respectively, resulting from the operation of 3,752 Danish seines. Unfortunately, fishing effort was higher than its optimum level and the fish stock was over-exploited since 2003. To recover the demersal fish stock to its optimum level and to ensure the optimal fish production from demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait, it was necessary to reduce fishing effort at about 67% from its level in 2011.

  8. Preliminary crustal model from seismological observations at the Messina Straits network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. FEDERICO

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a general tectonic description of the Strait of Messina,
    what follows is an explanation of the criteria adopted in choosing
    sites for seismic stations of the Straits network.
    The main lithological and mechanical characteristics of the terrains
    where the stations are been located, together with the equipment used,
    are mentioned, are looked at in relation to the positions of the main
    centres of seismic activity both actual and in recent past, and to the
    microseismic energy threshold.
    A number of observations regarding the seismic crisis in the Gulf
    of Patti (1978 are analized, with the aim of suggesting a crustal model
    compatible with the area of the Messina Straits.

  9. The freshwater composition of the Fram Strait outflow derived from a decade of tracer measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Paul A.; Rabe, Benjamin; Hansen, Edmond

    2012-01-01

    are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009–2011 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface...... meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting......The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, δ18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2011. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2009–2011 sections...

  10. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  11. Flow, waves and water exchange in the Suur Strait, Gulf of Riga, in 2008:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Kõuts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind, flow and wave measurements were performed in November-December in 2008 in the relatively narrowand shallow Suur Strait connecting the waters of the Väinameri and the Gulf of Riga.During the measurement period wind conditions were extremely variable, including a severe storm on 23 November. The flow speedalong the strait varied between ±0.2 m s-1, except for the 0.4 m s-1 that occurred after the storm as a result of the sealevel gradient. The mean and maximum significant wave heights were 0.53 m and 1.6 m respectively. Because of their longer fetch, southerlywinds generated higher waves in the strait than winds from the north. All wave events caused by the stronger southerly windsinduced sediment resuspension, whereas the current-induced shear velocity slightly exceeded the critical value for resuspensiononly when the current speed was 0.4 m s-1. A triple-nested two-dimensional high resolution (100 m in the Suur Strait circulation model and the SWANwave model were used to simulate water exchange in 2008 and the wave-induced shear velocity field in the Suur Strait respectively. Circulation model simulations demonstrated that water exchange was highly variable, that cumulative transport followed an evident seasonal cycle, and that there was an grossannual outflow of 23 km3 from the Gulf of Riga. The horizontal distribution of wave-induced shear velocityduring the strong southerly wind event indicated large shear velocities and substantial horizontal variability. The shearvelocities were less than the critical value for resuspension in the deep area of the Suur Strait.

  12. Satellite estimate of freshwater exchange between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potemra, James T.; Hacker, Peter W.; Melnichenko, Oleg; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    The straits in Indonesia allow for low-latitude exchange of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Collectively known as the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), this exchange is thought to occur primarily via the Makassar Strait and downstream via Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Timor Passage. The Sunda Strait, between the islands of Sumatra and Java, is a very narrow (≈10 km) and shallow (≈20 m) gap, but it connects the Java Sea directly to the Indian Ocean. Flow through this strait is presumed to be small, given the size of the passage; however, recent observations from the Aquarius satellite indicate periods of significant freshwater transport, suggesting the Sunda Strait may play a more important role in Pacific to Indian Ocean exchange. The nature of this exchange is short-duration (several days) bursts of freshwater injected into the eastern Indian Ocean superimposed on a mean seasonal cycle. The mean volume transport is small averaging about 0.1 Sv toward the Indian Ocean, but the freshwater transport is nonnegligible (estimated at 5.8 mSv). Transport through the strait is hydraulically controlled and directly correlates to the along-strait pressure difference. The episodic low-salinity plumes observed by Aquarius do not, however, appear to be forced by this same mechanism but are instead controlled by convergence of flow at the exit of the Strait in the Indian Ocean. Numerical model results show the fate of this freshwater plume varies with season and is either advected to the northwest along the coast of Sumatra or southerly into the ITF pathway.

  13. The Decahedrella-event in ODP Hole 909C - Implications for Miocene stratigraphic and paleoclimatic interpretations across the Fram Strait gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Michael; Nam, Seung-il; Matthiessen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    ODP Hole 909C has been drilled during ODP Leg 151 in 1993 on a small abyssal terrace located immediately to the North of Hovgaard Ridge within the Fram Strait. This major arctic gateway constitutes the only deep-water connection between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. Moreover, it serves as a pathway for warmer North Atlantic surface waters entering the Central Arctic, and for colder, sea-ice covered waters that are exported to the south. Therefore the Fram Strait is of crucial importance for global ocean circulation and hence climate. Therefore, this deep-water location was designed by ODP to document the timing of the opening of Fram Strait, and to monitor the Cenozoic evolution of water mass exchange as well as the glacial history and climatic variability in a region critical for understanding Miocene climate evolution. The age model of ODP Hole 909C is primarily based on the interpretation of the magnetic polarity record obtained during the ODP Leg 151 cruise, and provides significant temporal constraints only for the uppermost 40 mbsf, whereas limited recovery and the uncertain occurrence of hiatuses resulted in decreasing reliability of the magnetostratigraphic interpretations downcore and widely divergent hypothesis below 200 mbsf. Two possible correlations of the magnetic signal to the global polarity timescale have been proposed, both neither unique nor definitive, and in the absence of any additional independent age control it is difficult to distinguish between the two models, which in turn seriously hampers reliable paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the Neogene of the gateway region. A detailed palynological study on a paleoenvironmental transect across Fram Strait comprising IODP Site M2 (Central Arctic Ocean), ODP Site 909 (Fram Strait), and ODP Site 907 (Iceland Sea) revealed the presence of a significant acme of the endemic high-latitude acritarch Decahedrella martinheadii at all three sites. Comparable high abundances of this cold

  14. Ocean circulation and freshwater pathways in the Arctic Mediterranean based on a combined Nd isotope, REE and oxygen isotope section across Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukert, Georgi; Frank, Martin; Bauch, Dorothea; Hathorne, Ed C.; Rabe, Benjamin; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Wegner, Carolyn; Zieringer, Moritz; Kassens, Heidemarie

    2017-04-01

    The water masses passing the Fram Strait are mainly responsible for the exchange of heat and freshwater between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean (the Arctic Mediterranean, AM). Disentangling their exact sources, distribution and mixing, however, is complex. This work provides new insights based on a detailed geochemical tracer inventory including dissolved Nd isotope (εNd), rare earth element (REE) and stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) data along a full water depth section across Fram Strait. We find that Nd isotope and REE distributions in the open AM primarily reflect lateral advection of water masses and their mixing. Seawater-particle interactions exert important control only above the shelf regions, as observed above the NE Greenland Shelf. Advection of northward flowing warm Atlantic Water (AW) is clearly reflected by an εNd signature of -11.7 and a Nd concentration ([Nd]) of 16 pmol/kg in the upper ∼500 m of the eastern and central Fram Strait. Freshening and cooling of the AW on its way trough the AM are accompanied by a continuous change towards more radiogenic εNd signatures (e.g. -10.4 of dense Arctic Atlantic Water). This mainly reflects mixing with intermediate waters but also admixture of dense Kara Sea waters and Pacific-derived waters. The more radiogenic εNd signatures of the intermediate and deep waters (reaching -9.5) are mainly acquired in the SW Nordic Seas through exchange with basaltic formations of Iceland and CE Greenland. Inputs of Nd from Svalbard are not observed and surface waters and Nd on the Svalbard shelf originate from the Barents Sea. Shallow southward flowing Arctic-derived waters (freshwater of up to ∼6%. In addition to these observations, this study shows that the pronounced gradients in εNd signatures and REE characteristics in the upper water column provide a reliable basis for assessments of shallow hydrological changes within the AM.

  15. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  16. Single-ping ADCP measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, Simone; García Lafuente, Jesús; Naranjo, Cristina; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos; Sánchez Leal, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    In most Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) user manuals, it is widely recommended to apply ensemble averaging of the single-pings measurements, in order to obtain reliable observations of the current speed. The random error related to the single-ping measurement is typically too high to be used directly, while the averaging operation reduces the ensemble error of a factor of approximately √N, with N the number of averaged pings. A 75 kHz ADCP moored in the western exit of the Strait of Gibraltar, included in the long-term monitoring of the Mediterranean outflow, has recently served as test setup for a different approach to current measurements. The ensemble averaging has been disabled, while maintaining the internal coordinate conversion made by the instrument, and a series of single-ping measurements has been collected every 36 seconds during a period of approximately 5 months. The huge amount of data has been fluently handled by the instrument, and no abnormal battery consumption has been recorded. On the other hand a long and unique series of very high frequency current measurements has been collected. Results of this novel approach have been exploited in a dual way: from a statistical point of view, the availability of single-ping measurements allows a real estimate of the (a posteriori) ensemble average error of both current and ancillary variables. While the theoretical random error for horizontal velocity is estimated a priori as ˜2 cm s-1 for a 50 pings ensemble, the value obtained by the a posteriori averaging is ˜15 cm s-1, with an asymptotical behavior starting from an averaging size of 10 pings per ensemble. This result suggests the presence of external sources of random error (e.g.: turbulence), of higher magnitude than the internal sources (ADCP intrinsic precision), which cannot be reduced by the ensemble averaging. On the other hand, although the instrumental configuration is clearly not suitable for a precise estimation of turbulent

  17. Gibraltar Experiment: A Plan for Dynamic and Kinematic Investigations of Strait Mixing, Exchange and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Mediterranean outflow entrains ambient Atlantic Water as it follows the Iberian continental slope and sinks toward an ultimate depth near 1000 m in the...A r03 30000. ALONG - STRAIT" F ..,, I I I I I II 59 0 56 OCEANOGRAFIA QUIMICA Jose M. Cabanas, Jose’ G. Braun, M. Deya Objet ivos. - Se plantea el

  18. The Competition of Tidal Mixing and Freshwater Forcing in Shaping the Outflow from Hudson Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Strait outflow. Journal of Marine Systems , special issue on Hudson Bay, in press. St. Laurent, P., F. Straneo, J.F. Dumais, D.G. Barber, 2011 What...is the fate of the river waters of Hudson Bay? Journal of Marine Systems , special issue on Hudson Bay, in press. Straneo, F., D. Sutherland, D

  19. Carbon flows in the benthic food web at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN (Fram Strait)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Bergmann, M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Bauerfeind, E.; Hasemann, C.; Klages, M.; Schewe, I.; Soltwedel, T.; Budaeva, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The HAUSGARTEN observatory is located in the eastern Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) and used as long-term monitoring site to follow changes in the Arctic benthic ecosystem. Linear inverse modelling was applied to decipher carbon flows among the compartments of the benthic food web at the central HAUSGAR

  20. Too Distant Shores: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Space of Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovic, Milija

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on "The Sheep and the Whale" ("Le mouton et la baleine," 2001) by Moroccan-Canadian playwright Ahmed Ghazali, this essay examines political and ethical issues concerning human migration from Africa to Europe. The play's representation of human rights abuses in the Strait of Gibraltar and the dilemmas facing illegal migrants, refugees and…

  1. Report on the Hydroida collected by the "BALGIM" expedition in and around the Strait of Gibraltar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Vervoort, W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 102 species and varieties of hydroids and three unidentifiable species are described or mentioned in the present report, which deals principally with hydroids collected in the IberoMoroccan Bay (and adjacent Atlantic), the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Alboran Sea; for revisionary purposes

  2. 76 FR 21330 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Juneau, Alaska, April 25, 2011. The purpose of this meeting is to orient the new appointees as to the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2008, provide operational guidelines, discuss and adopt specific bylaws for the RAC, and elect a RAC...

  3. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated Areas... located near Port Angeles, Washington: Point 1: 48°07′24″ N, 123°25′32″ W; Point 2: 48°07′26″ N,...

  4. Too Distant Shores: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Space of Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovic, Milija

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on "The Sheep and the Whale" ("Le mouton et la baleine," 2001) by Moroccan-Canadian playwright Ahmed Ghazali, this essay examines political and ethical issues concerning human migration from Africa to Europe. The play's representation of human rights abuses in the Strait of Gibraltar and the dilemmas facing illegal…

  5. Plumularian hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; Vervoort, W.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four species of plumularian hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Strait of Gibraltar area are described and figured, including material from the coasts of southern Spain (between El Portil near the Spanish-Portuguese border and Adra, Mediterranean coast of Granada, c. 3°W) and from Ceuta in

  6. A particle-tracking model for simulating pollutant dispersion in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R

    2004-10-01

    A particle-tracking model to simulate the dispersion of contaminants in the Strait of Gibraltar has been developed. The model solves the hydrodynamic equations off-line and tidal analysis is carried out to determine tidal constants for the two main constituents. Tidal constants and residuals are stored in files that are read by the dispersion model. A lagrangian approach is used to solve dispersion; diffusion and decay are simulated by a Monte Carlo method. A method for assessing the areas of the Strait with higher probability of being affected by contamination occurring after an accident in the shipping routes is given. Generally speaking, the fate of a pollutant discharge strongly depends on wind conditions. Winds from the east tend to retain contamination into the Strait. As a consequence, transverse mixing occurs and both Spain and Morocco coasts are affected by contamination. Under calm conditions and west winds, contaminants are flushed out of the Strait faster and transverse mixing does not occur. Thus, only part of Morocco coast has a higher probability of being affected by contamination.

  7. The family Haleciidae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medel, M.D.; García, F.G.; Vervoort, W.

    1998-01-01

    A faunistic study of the family Haleciidae from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas has been made; seven species are described, figured and discussed. Information about the zoogeographical distribution, and conditions of substrates are contributed. A key to distinguish the species of this famil

  8. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  9. Managing Stability in the Taiwan Strait: Non-Military Policy towards Taiwan under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ueh Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach with coercion (the “carrot” approach, a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, under Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.

  10. Hydraulic theory of sea straits applied to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Theory for the dynamics of flow in sea straits holds promise to provide, in addition to geological evidence, insight into the configuration of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This paper, for the first time, systematic

  11. The Very Late Eocene Opening of Fram Strait between the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas: Linkages with the Popigai Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Poirier, A.

    2013-12-01

    The transition from the Eocene Arctic Lake to the Arctic Ocean through the opening of Fram Strait, initially dated at ca. 18 Ma based on palynological inferences (Moran et al., 2004, Nature 441, 601-605), has been recently assigned to the very late Eocene (~ 36 Ma) based on Os-isotope stratigraphy and Re-Os isochron ages of sediments from the IODP-ACEX core (Lomonosov Ridge) (Poirier & Hillaire-Marcel, 2011, GRL 38, L14607). Here, we examine the potential linkages of this event with the Popigai meteoritic impact from northeastern Siberia, which has been dated independently at 35.7×0.2 Ma (Bottomley et al. 1997, Nature 338, 365-368). Noteworthy is the fact that in the earliest marine sediments of the ACEX core, the Os-isotope stratigraphy records an isotopic excursion which we tentatively assigned to the chondritic impactor of Popigai. Sr and Pb isotope signatures of detrital sediments (i.e., following the removal of exchangeable fractions) were thus used to further document the sources of terrigenous sediments deposited before, during, and after the transition episode. Above and below the lacustrine/marine boundary, we note relatively constant source provenances (or mixture of sources), implying that relative contributions from regional detrital sedimentary sources, thus relative erosion rates over surrounding continents, did not change much at a Ma-long time scale. On the other hand, a sharp change highlights the lacustrine/marine transition, with an abrupt shift to low values in 87Sr/88Sr, also marked by a (smaller) excursion in all three 204Pb-normalised lead isotopes values (corrected for in-situ decay of U). This isotopic excursion might also be due to the Popigai chondritic Impactor. The impact-related ejection over basaltic target materials would have produced the particulate matter of suitable composition (Wooden et al. 1993, GCA 57, 3677-3704) to account for the isotopic excursion observed. A first order estimate of the Popigai impact yields a value of

  12. Palynology of the northeastern Fram Strait since the Last Glacial Maximum : evidence for large amplitude changes in sea-surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falardeau, Jade; de Vernal, Anne; Spielhagen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Palynological analyses were performed in core PS2863 (80°33.47'N, 10°17.93'E) and MSM5/5-712-2 (78°54.94'N, 6°46.04'E) in order to document changes of sea-surface conditions of the northeastern Fram Strait since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The study area is ideally located to record the northernmost influence of the North Atlantic waters prior they enter into the Arctic Ocean, at the surface or through subduction. Core PS2863 contains a 183 cm long sequence characterized by sedimentation rates of 8.6 cm/kyrs and abundant dinocysts (up to 22 000/g) except during the LGM. Core MSM5/5-712-2 shows a much higher time resolution with a mean sedimentation rate of 27.7 cm/kyrs. It also contains generally abundant dinocysts (up to 48 000/g). The preliminary results from these cores permit some inference in terms of regional paleoceanography. The assemblages of the LGM (23-19 ka) are characterized by the lowest dinocyst concentrations (temperature (SST) in summer, possibly due to low salinity (temperatures (up to 11°C) in a context of high seasonality due to low surface salinity and to strong stratification. After 12.5 ka BP, important changes in species relative abundance reflect the development of modern-like dinocyst assemblages. A lowering of summer SST and increased salinity are recorded from 12.5 to 10.5 ka, after which the data indicates an early Holocene thermal optimum followed by a cooling trend accompanied by increase in sea ice cover. The palynological results from the Fram Strait area are generally consistent with biomarker data suggesting late glacial variations in sea ice cover and Holocene cooling trend (Müller et al, 2012, 2014). References: de Vernal et al., 2005. Reconstruction of sea-surface conditions at middle to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, p. 897-924 Müller, J., Werner, K., Stein, R., Fahl, K., Moros, M., Jansen, E

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of the North Korean Cold Water leading to the near-bottom cold water intrusion in Korea Strait [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae-Yul; Magaard, Lorenz; Kim, Kuh; Shin, Chang-Woong; Kim, Cheolsoo; Byun, Sang-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    In the deepest region of Korea Strait, the surface temperature is highest in August (lowest in March), while the near-bottom temperature is lowest in September (highest in May). Cross-spectral analysis of the monthly temperature data between the two layers shows high coherence at the annual frequency with phase of 154°. Why and how does such a nearly opposite phasing occur between the surface and the near-bottom temperatures there? This study aims at answering these questions using historical and recently observed data. Cold and relatively fresh subsurface water flowing southward along the east coast of Korea and, known as the North Korean Cold Water (NKCW), becomes noticeable in April near the Sokcho coast. The zonal temperature gradient there is largest around June. The width of the NKCW becomes larger from April to August. After October, the NKCW retreats back toward the coast. The southward movement of the NKCW is thus strong over a period of six to seven months and weak in winter, especially in February. The NKCW flows southward relatively quickly along the coast in April to October and arrives at the Ulleung Basin within one to two months. Because of the sill between the Ulleung Basin and Korea Strait, this water cannot continue to flow to south, but piles up for about two to three months before it moves over the sill. The convergence of the subsurface cold water in the Ulleung Basin displaces the isopycnals upward and this water then intrudes over the sill along the isopycnals. This explains why in April or May, when this water appears noticeably at the Sokcho coast, the near-bottom water in Korea Strait is warmest and in August or September when the NKCW, which is piled up enough at the southern end of the Ulleung Basin, intrudes to Korea Strait, the near-bottom temperatures there are at their lowest. The origin of the NKCW seems to be the water of salinity less han 34.1 psu and surface density of 27 σθ or higher, which sinks in the northwestern East Sea

  14. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily) tidal upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, F.; Decembrini, F.; Raffa, F.; Crisafi, E.

    2007-10-01

    In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements onboard dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during high tide and northward during low tide. During the low water slack tide, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were found, while at the high water slack tide, a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn due to a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they were inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones during winter, while in summer it was found in the middle of the Straits and in the southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, the maximum chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 μg-Chla l-1); in summer, when back and forth tidal movements between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas intensify, decreased values were observed throughout the study area. The data set obtained through continuous and repeatable samplings has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong and dynamic environment. The Straits system could be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, initially enriches itself and subsequently provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  15. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  16. Mediterranean waters along and across the Strait of Gibraltar, characterization and zonal modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; García-Lafuente, Jesús; Bellanco, María J.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Hydrological data collected in the Strait of Gibraltar have been used to examine the distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of the water masses in the area. The spatial variability has been addressed by means of a clustering method that determines the affinity of a collection of temperature-salinity samples to one of the water masses involved in the exchange. The method, which has been applied to a nearly-synoptic data set, highlights the clear evolution of the Mediterranean Waters as they flow westward through the Strait. While up to four different Mediterranean Waters are spatially distinguishable east of the main sill of Camarinal in the Strait, most of their differentiating characteristics are eroded after flowing over this restrictive topography due to mixing. West of the sill, therefore, speaking of a unique Mediterranean Water seems more appropriate. The same applies to the North Atlantic Central Water flowing in the opposite direction, which is noticeably modified along its path to the Mediterranean Sea, most of its transformation taking place in the Camarinal sill surroundings. A series of repeated transects carried out in the eastern and western sides of the Strait, provided a temporal analysis of the water masses evolution: the temporal variability manifests seasonality in the surface waters, while interannual signal is mainly detected in the deeper water masses. It is worth remarking the statistically significant positive trend of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (0.009 °C/year) and Winter Intermediate Water (0.03 °C/year), with the latter showing also intermittent occurrence in the Strait.

  17. Seasonal variability of phytoplankton fluorescence in relation to the Straits of Messina (Sicily tidal upwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azzaro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were measured in 1994 and 1995 by continuous underway surface real-time measurements on board dedicated research boats. Each survey was performed following the dynamic phases of flooding and ebbing tides. Tidal currents are essentially southward during the high tide and northward during the low tide.

    During the low water slack, large spatial gradients of physical-chemical and biological parameters were mainly found, while in the high water slack a diffused phytoplankton fluorescence was observed only in autumn, in coincidence of a seasonal thermocline. Salinity, nitrate and chlorophyll-a fluorescence data revealed a significant positive intercorrelation, whereas they are inversely correlated with temperature. Generally, during winter, the upwelling distribution was limited to narrow zones, while in summer it involved the middle of the Straits and southern zones. During spring in the southern zone of the Straits, maximum of chlorophyll-a fluorescence was detected (May 1995, 0.32 µg-Chla l-1; in summer, when back and forth tidal movements become intense between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian seas, values was everywhere lower.

    The data set from continuous and repeatable acquisition has allowed the study of different time-space scales in the Straits of Messina, a very strong dynamic environment.

    The Straits system can be compared to an "intermittent pump" which, during the different seasons, before enriched itself and then it provides nutrients to the surrounding basins.

  18. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using the transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 0.025 Pg C yr−1. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.2 Tg C yr−1. A carbon balance through the Strait was assessed and fluxes are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area. This work unequivocally confirms the relevant role of the Strait of Gibraltar as a controlling point for the biogeochemical exchanges occurring between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and emphasizes the influence of the Mediterranean basin in the carbon inventories of the North Atlantic.

  19. The phylogeographic importance of the Strait of Gibraltar as a gene flow barrier in terrestrial arthropods: a case study with the scorpion Buthus occitanus as model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2003-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationship between Buthus occitanus populations across the Strait of Gibraltar was investigated using nuclear 18S/ITS-1 DNA sequences and mitochondrial 16S and COI DNA sequences. All analyses showed that the European samples are highly separated from North African samples, and also suggest the existence of three main groups within this species complex, i.e., an European, an Atlas (=Moroccan samples) and a Tell-Atlas group (=Tunisian samples). The European clade was subdivided into three distinct subclades. The application of a previous calibration of the molecular clock of another buthid species suggested that most of the detected mitochondrial DNA lineages including the European lineages are about three times older than the re-opening of the Gibraltar Strait, and consequently, that other and older vicariant events are responsible for the observed phylogeographic structure of this species complex. Concerning the Moroccan samples, a discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial gene markers was observed. The 18S/ITS-1 gene tree could not resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the Moroccan B. occitanus subspecies and the closely related species B. atlantis, whereas mitochondrial genes suggested the co-existence of several old phylogenetic lineages in Morocco. We hypothesized that this difference may be explained by male-biased gene flow and gene conversion at the tandemly repeated 18S/ITS-1 gene regions.

  20. TAIWAN POLITICAL PATTERN AND GEOPOLITICAL WEAKNESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TAIWAN TO SEE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE CROSS-STRAIT-RELATIONS AND SINO-RUSSIAN RELATIONS UNDER THE THEME OF SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Feng-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan media reflects the diversity and chaos of Ideology after the political reform from the end of 1980’s when the leader of Taiwan Chiang Ching-kuo announced the lifting of martial law on July 15, 1987. The democracy promoted the exchanging situation between Taiwan and Mainland China. The importance of Taiwan’s geopolitical position is disappearing by time. To integrate into the broadened AsianPacific region in the era of China’s uprising and Taiwan’s closed economic cooperation with Mainland China under its military threat is a new trend for Taiwan’s foreign policy. With the returning back of Putin to the presidency of Russia and his Asian cooperation strategy, Taiwan could understand the role of Russia appropriately to think about how to participate in this regional cooperation and consolidate the national security in the cross-strait region. The attitude of Russia toward the SCO should be paid attention to from the side of Taiwan authority. The author found that in the bigger geopolitical pattern in Asian-Pacific region that Russia plays more and more stable and positive role in the regional security under the competition with USA. The competition between USA and Russia is the new world geopolitical pattern for both Taiwan and Mainland China. This paper is divided into two parts from the aspect of Taiwan political and geopolitical changes to examine the problems of the cross-strait relations and SinoRussian relations under the theme of SCO in East Asia. The author assumes that Russia’s Asian Strategy will strengthen Russia’s influence on the cross-strait relations deeply and Russia will play the more and more important role in regional security and economic cooperation in East Asia.

  1. Trophic cascades and future harmful algal blooms within ice-free Arctic Seas north of Bering Strait: A simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Chen, F. Robert; Lenes, Jason M.; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Cassano, John J.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Stockwell, Dean; Flint, Mikhail; Sukhanova, Irina N.; Christensen, John

    2011-11-01

    Within larger ice-free regions of the western Arctic Seas, subject to ongoing trophic cascades induced by past overfishing, as well as to possible future eutrophication of the drainage basins of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, prior very toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) - first associated with ∼100 human deaths near Sitka, Alaska in 1799 - may soon expand. Blooms of calcareous coccolithophores in the Bering Sea during 1997-1998 were non-toxic harbingers of the subsequent increments of other non-siliceous phytoplankton. But, now saxitoxic dinoflagellates, e.g. Alexandrium tamarense, were instead found by us within the adjacent downstream Chukchi Sea during SBI cruises of 2002 and 2003. A previous complex, coupled biophysical model had been validated earlier by ship-board observations from the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during the summer of 2002. With inclusion of phosphorus as another chemical state variable to modulate additional competition by recently observed nitrogen-fixers, we now explore here the possible consequences of altered composition of dominant phytoplankton functional groups [diatoms, microflagellates, prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis colonies, coccolithophores, diazotrophs, and dinoflagellates] in relation to increases of the toxic A. tamarense, responding to relaxation of grazing pressure by herbivores north of Bering Strait as part of a continuing trophic cascade. Model formulation was guided by validation observations obtained during 2002-2004 from: cruises of the SBI, CHINARE, and CASES programs; moored arrays in Bering Strait; other RUSALCA cruises around Wrangel Island; and SBI helicopter surveys of the shelf-break regions of the Arctic basin. Our year-long model scenarios during 2002-2003 indicate that post bloom silica-limitation of diatoms, after smaller simulated spring grazing losses, led to subsequent competitive advantages in summer for the coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diazotrophs. Immediate top-down control is exerted by imposed

  2. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 1982 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0087879)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in the Florida Strait...

  3. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NCEI Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  4. Optimal estimation of absolute geostrophic velocity field in vicinity of the Luzon Strait using variational data assimilation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰健; 王东晓

    2002-01-01

    A P - vector method is opt'inized using the variational data assimilation technique (VDAT). The absolute geostrophic velocity fields in the vicinity of the Luzon Strait (LS) are calculated, the spatial structures and seasonal variations o{ the absolute geostrophic velocity field are investigated. Our results show that the Kuroshio enters the South China Sea (SCS) in the south and middle of the Luzon Strait and flows out in the north, so the Kuroshio makes a slight clockwise curve in the Luzon Strait, and the curve is strong in winter and weak in summer. During the winter, a westward current appears in the surface, and locates at the west of the Luzon Strait. It is the north part of a cyclonic gyre which exits in the northeast of the SCS; an anti-cyclonic gyre occurs on the intermediate level, and it exits in the northeast of the SCS, and an eastward current exits in the southeast of the anti-cyclonic gyre.

  5. Derelict Gear - Impacts of derelict fishing gear on marine fauna in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits have experienced a long history of commercial fishing activity. Although much of this fishing activity no longer takes place,...

  6. Influence of bottom topography on dynamics of river plumes in semi-enclosed domains: Case study in Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter; Korotenko, Konstantin; Osadchiev, Alexander; Kao, Ruei-Chi; Ding, Chung-Feng

    2014-05-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a Russian-Taiwan research project focused on the role of continental discharges into the Taiwan Strait, an important channel in the western Pacific Ocean transporting water between the South China Sea and the East China Sea. Another critically important hydrographic feature in the area is the discharge of freshwater from multiple rivers of the western coast of Taiwan. With its long-term average discharge rate of 210 m3/s, the Zhuoshui River is the biggest of the rivers bringing a large amount of pollutants and nutrients into the Strait. The northern extremity of Zhuoshui River's plume often merges with that of the Wu River (also known as Dudu River) whose average discharge rate is about 120 m3/s. Oceanic waters in the area experience significant anthropogenic pressures, traceable to the distance of a few km offshore and tens of km along the shore. This is manifested, in particular, in strongly elevated concentrations of copper, iron, and other trace metals. The corresponding quantitative estimates are obtained. The newly obtained in situ data from a field campaign were also used to implement 2 numerical models aimed at simulating the pathways of the continental waters in the study region. One of them, based on the Princeton Ocean Model, was coupled with a regional barotropic tidal model for the Taiwan Strait. The other one, a fully Lagrangian model STRiPE is based on applying a complete set of momentum equations to individual "particles" of river water released into the ocean. Both models demonstrated reasonable good agreement with the in situ data and each other. The bathymetry, tides and winds significantly affect the dynamics of the Wu and Zhuoshui river plumes, acting together in a complex interactive manner. The Zhuoshui River plume stretches in a narrow alongshore belt both to the south and north from the river mouth while the larger, round-shaped Wu River's plume elongates mostly north of its mouth. The difference is

  7. How is the surface Atlantic water inflow through the Gibraltar Strait forecasted? A lagrangian validation of operational oceanographic services in the Alboran Sea and the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, M. G.; Amo-Baladrón, A.; Padorno, E.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Orfila, A.; Rodríguez-Rubio, P.; Conti, D.; Madrid, J. A. Jiménez; de los Santos, F. J.; Fanjul, E. Alvarez

    2016-11-01

    An exhaustive validation of some of the operational ocean forecast products available in the Gibraltar Strait and the Alboran Sea is here presented. The skill of two ocean model solutions (derived from the Eulerian ocean forecast systems, such as the regional CMEMS IBI and the high resolution PdE SAMPA) in reproducing the complex surface dynamics in the above areas is evaluated. To this aim, in-situ measurements from the MEDESS-GIB drifter buoy database (comprising the Lagrangian positions, derived velocities and SST values) are used as the observational reference and the temporal coverage for the validation is 3 months (September to December 2014). Two metrics, a Lagrangian separation distance and a skill score, have been applied to evaluate the performance of the modelling systems in reproducing the observed trajectories. Furthermore, the SST validation with in-situ data is carried out by means of validating the model solutions with L3 satellite SST products. The Copernicus regional IBI products are evaluated in an extended domain, beyond the Alboran Sea, and covering western Mediterranean waters. This analysis reveals some strengths of the presented regional solution (i.e. realistic values of the Atlantic Jet in the Strait of Gibraltar area, realistic simulation of the Algerian Current). However, some shortcomings are also identified, with the major one being related to the simulated geographical position and intensity of the Alboran Gyres, particularly the western one. This performance limitation affects the IBI-modelled surface circulation in the entire Alboran Sea. On the other hand, the SAMPA system shows a more accurate model performance and it realistically reproduces the observed surface circulation in the area. The results reflect the effectiveness of the dynamical downscaling performed through the SAMPA system with respect to the regional IBI solution (in which SAMPA is nested), providing an objective measure of the potential added values introduced by

  8. An overview of the theta - S correlations in Fram Strait based on the MIZEX 84 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Schlichtholz

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The water masses in Fram Strait have been analyzed on the basis of hydrographic casts taken in summer 1984 during the MIZEX 84 experiment. In particular, theta-S diagrams for 16 areas, each 5o in longitude and 1o in latitude, covering the strait from 77oN to 81oN are used to characterize the water masses and discuss their possible origin. Near the surface, the East Greenland Polar Front clearly separates the lighter, cold and fresh Polar Water (PW from the heavier, warm and saline Atlantic Water (AW. In the upper ocean, the data show a large spreading of the temperature maximum in the theta-S space associated with different modes of the AW recirculating southward below the PW. Two geographically distinct salinity minima are found in the intermediate layer below the AW. The denser one, in the Boreas Basin, is a feature typical of the Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW formed by winter convection to the south of the strait, while the lighter one is sandwiched in the Arctic Ocean outflow between the AW layer and the Upper Polar Deep Water (UPDW characterized by a downward salinity increase. In the deep layer, two salinity maxima are present. The shallower (and warmer one, associated with the Canadian Basin Deep Water (CBDW, appears all along the East Greenland Slope. A similar but weaker maximum is also found in the southeastern part of the strait. This maximum is perhaps a remnant of the maximum in the East Greenland Current after it has been recirculated back to the strait around the cyclonic gyres of the Nordic Seas. The deeper one appears typically as a near-bottom salinity jump characteristic of the Eurasian Basin Deep Water (EBDW. The jump is found in two distinct areas of the strait, to the north-west in the Lena Trough and to the south-east in the rift valley of the Knipovich Ridge. The maximum in the former area should have been advected from the Arctic Ocean below the CBDW, while the maximum in the latter area might have originated from

  9. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed using two methods, the ΔC* and the TrOCA approach. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using a value of −0.85 Sv for the average transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 25±0.6 Tg C yr−1. A net alkalinity output of 16±0.6 Tg C yr−1 was also observed to occur through the Strait. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.20±0.04 Tg C yr−1 by using the ΔC* method, which constituted the most adequate approach for this environment. A carbon balance in the Mediterranean was assessed and fluxes through the Strait are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area and the different approaches

  10. Optimization of the High-Frequency Radar Sites in the Bering Strait Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    oceanographic (SST, temperature , salinity velocity, and ice observations) and atmospheric (NCEP reanalysis) data into the semi-implicit ocean model...andArctic Oceans . The impact of BS fluxes on the thermohaline structure of the Arctic Ocean (AO) depends on the redistribution of the Pacific heat and...the overall accuracy of measuring the exchange between the Arctic and Pacific Oceans under the constraints imposed by the limited number of

  11. The Latest Development on the Issue of the Malacca Strait and the Inspiration on South China Sea Issue%马六甲海峡问题的最新发展及对南海问题的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁飞

    2004-01-01

    In April, 2004, the news report that US would deploy its military forces in the Malacca Strait raised great concern among the littoral countries and other countries such as Japan, France, Australia and India also cared about the safety in that area. After the discussion with Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, they have decided to cooperate in anti - piracy patrols in the strait since the middle of July. They all recognize the needs for an international cooperation to deal with the maritime terror threats in the region. From all the evolution of the event, we can see the spirit of ASEAN collectivism has made great impact on it and that they have made some substantial steps in the commonwealth of its security. Meanwhile we must make it clear that the gate has opened to Multi - lateral cooperation to deal with the issue of the Malacca Strait by means of cooperating with big countries such as the United States and India to exchange intelligence and technology. The Malacca Strait issue has also implied strategic significance on both China and its later development in South China Sea.

  12. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  13. An operative lagrangian model for simulating radioactivity dispersion in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R

    2005-01-01

    GISPART (GIbraltar Strait PARticle Tracking model) is a three-dimensional particle tracking code to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the Strait of Gibraltar. It consists of a hydrodynamic module that is run off-line to determine tidal constants and residuals in the domain. This information is stored in several files that are read by the dispersion module to reconstruct water movements. The dispersion module uses a lagrangian approach. Thus, a radionuclide release is simulated by a number of particles, whose paths are computed individually. Radionuclide concentrations are obtained from the density of particles per water volume unit. Some examples of results are shown. The model is also available on-line.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations of Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes in the Taiwan Strait, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bangqin; LIN Xueju; HONG Huasheng

    2009-01-01

    The size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass, and the spatial and temporal variations in abundance of Synechococcus (SYN) and picoeukaryotes (PEUK) were measured in the Taiwan Strait during three cruises (August 1997, February-March 1998, and August 1998). The results show that picophytoplankton and nanophytoplankton dominate the phytoplankton biomass, in average of 38% and 40%, respectively. SYN and PEUK varied over time in abundance and carbon biomass, greater in summer than in winter, in range of (7.70-209.2)×106 and (0.75-15.4)×106 cells/cm2 in the abundance, and 1.93-52.3 and 1.57-32.4 mgC/cm2 in the carbon biomass, for SYN and PEUK, respectively. The horizontal distributions of both groups were diurnal but heterogeneous in abundance, depending on the groups and layer of depths. Temperature is the key controlling factor for picophytoplankton distribution (especially in winter) in the Strait.

  15. Prospect for Petroleum Industry Exchange & Cooperation Between Bath Sides of Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xunyue; HUO Fu

    1996-01-01

    @@ With the First Conference of the Petroleum Science and Technology between both sides of the Taiwan Straits successfully held in Taiwan last year, the exchange and cooperation in the petroleum industry between both sides has made the first step forward. The Chinese nation is an outstanding nation. To gain a floor for China in the world,both sides of the Straits must, on the premise of mutual complement and mutual benefit, strengthen their mutual exchange and cooperation as well as the trade contacts so as to promote their common prosperity. This point was a common understanding in the discussion of Mr. Chang Tzu-yuan, Chairman of Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).This belief is further strengthened, when Mr. Chang Tzuyuan came to the mainland as a return visit in midNovember 1995.

  16. Zooplankton distribution across Fram Strait in autumn: Are small copepods and protozooplankton important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Camilla; Seuthe, Lena; Vasilyeva, Yulia; Pasternak, Anna; Hansen, Edmond

    2011-12-01

    We investigated zooplankton distribution in September 2006/2007 at eight stations across Fram Strait in contrasting water masses ranging from cold Polar water to warm Atlantic water. Our main objectives were: (1) to describe the plankton community in the upper 200 m during autumn, and (2) to investigate the importance of small-sized copepods and protozooplankton in an arctic ecosystem when the majority of the large Calanus species had entered diapause. We sampled both with a WP-2 net and Go-Flo bottle and show that small copepods food. Heterotrophic protozooplankton, on the other hand, were most likely bottom-up regulated by the availability of phytoplankton food and conclude that there was a strong link between the zooplankton community and the microbial food web in Fram Strait.

  17. Structure of Palaeogene sediments in east Ellesmere Island: Constraints on Eurekan tectonic evolution and implications for the Nares Strait problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalmann, K.; Tessensohn, F.; Piepjohn, K.; von Gosen, W.; Mayr, U.

    2005-08-01

    The "Nares Strait problem" represents a debate about the existence and magnitude of left-lateral movements along the proposed Wegener Fault within this seaway. Study of Palaeogene Eurekan tectonics at its shorelines could shed light on the kinematics of this fault. Palaeogene (Late Paleocene to Early Eocene) sediments are exposed at the northeastern coast of Ellesmere Island in the Judge Daly Promontory. They are preserved as elongate SW-NE striking fault-bounded basins cutting folded Early Paleozoic strata. The structures of the Palaeogene exposures are characterized by broad open synclines cut and displaced by steeply dipping strike-slip faults. Their fold axes strike NE-SW at an acute angle to the border faults indicating left-lateral transpression. Weak deformation in the interior of the outliers contrasts with intense shearing and fracturing adjacent to border faults. The degree of deformation of the Palaeogene strata varies markedly between the northwestern and southeastern border faults with the first being more intense. Structural geometry, orientation of subordinate folds and faults, the kinematics of faults, and fault-slip data suggest a multiple stage structural evolution during the Palaeogene Eurekan deformation: (1) The fault pattern on Judge Daly Promontory is result of left-lateral strike-slip faulting starting in Mid to Late Paleocene times. The Palaeogene Judge Daly basin formed in transtensional segments by pull-apart mechanism. Transpression during progressive strike-slip shearing gave rise to open folding of the Palaeogene deposits. (2) The faults were reactivated during SE-directed thrust tectonics in Mid Eocene times (chron 21). A strike-slip component during thrusting on the reactivated faults depends on the steepness of the fault segments and on their obliquity to the regional stress axes. Strike-slip displacement was partitioned to a number of sub-parallel faults on-shore and off-shore. Hence, large-scale lateral movements in the sum of 80

  18. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai Wang; Juin-Fu Chai; Yu-Wen Chang; Ti-Ying Huang; Yu-Shu Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first un...

  19. Observations on the Characteristics of the Exchange Flow in the Daranelles Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Under- sea Research Center ( NURC ) in collaboration with the Turkish Navy Office of Navigation, Hydrography...from the R/V Alliance (a NATO NURC research vessel) as a part of TSS08 ( NURC project) and “Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits” (EPOS, NRL project...research project “Exchange Processes in Ocean Straits (EPOS)” under Program Element 61153N. We would like to thank everyone from the NATO NURC and the

  20. Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Manongko, J. D. I.

    2016-04-01

    This study intended for the generation of hydroelectric power at suitable area of the strait in order to provide electric current to a close environment. The project uses a three-dimensional model of taking flow into account the variation of hydrostatic pressure in the liquid vertical layers. We brought back to a two-dimensional calculation using the shallow water equations. The objectives of the study are getting simultaneous obtaining the velocities of currents by the component of velocities and distributions of the kinetic energy from the numerical results. The Bunaken strait is 5280 m width for an average depth of 130 m. Numerical calculation is simulated using horizontal meshes of 60 side meters. The numerical solutions obtained by using a time step of one second. It found that there was no great difference between 2D and 3D numerical simulations because the effect of flow velocity in the vertical direction is very small. The numerical results have shown that the average current velocities when low and high tide currents are 1.46 m/s and 0.85 m/s respectively. The kinetic energy ranged from 0.01 to 2.54 kW/m2 when low and high tide in the Bunaken strait area at discharge of 1 Sv, whereas at discharge 2 Sv, 0.11-17.40 kW/m2 and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when low and high tide currents). These results can used in the design of turbines for power generation marine currents in the Bunaken strait at depths below 60 meters.

  1. 77 FR 55452 - Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...The Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee (LC-IS RAC) will meet in Juneau, AK. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 112- 141) (the Act) and operates in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations......

  2. The Application of Fucus vesiculosus as a Bioindicator of 60Co Concentrations in the Danish Straits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of 60Co in the Danish Straits is investigated by applying the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator. In order to describe different dispersion situations, three areas have been studied separately: the North Sea, where it is possible to measure 60Co from sources in France and...... of distance from Barsebäck. Problems of uncertainty related to differences in environmental parameters are discussed and new investigations to improve the use of Fucus as a bioindicator are suggested....

  3. Deep Mediterranean Water footprint measured in the Strait of Gibraltar during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Rosa, Cristina; García Lafuente, Jesús; Sammartino, Simone; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Deep Mediterranean Water is formed during winter in the Mediterranean Sea due to atmospheric cooling of salty Mediterranean waters. When it reaches the Strait of Gibraltar it finally flows westward into the Atlantic, from where it begins to descend the continental slope by gravity while it mixes with the overlying waters and becomes lighter. Far beyond the strait itself it maintains a recognizable signal and so affects the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, the Strait of Gibraltar is the perfect site to monitor the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean Sea just before Mediterranean Waters incorporate to the Atlantic circulation. From October 2004 until today the Temperature and Salinity of the Mediterranean outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar have been monitored, resulting in a long-term temporal series with more than 11 years of measurements. A Conductivity-Temperature sensor is placed around 12 meters above the seafloor in the Espartel Sill (35°56'N 5°45'W), the last constriction the Mediterranean deep water finds before leaving the Mediterranean, and is configured to take measurements every 30 minutes. The instrument has been collecting data almost continuously from 2004, except for a 2.5 month gap in 2009 and a 5 months gap during 2011. This record allows the study of the long-term trend and the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean during the last 11 years. First results show a mean temperature of the deep Mediterranean waters of 13.20±0.06 °C and a mean salinity of 38.39±0.02. It is noteworthy the cold signals registered in 2006 and 2013, which could be the result of the severe winters of 2005 and 2012 in Europe, and the positive trend in 2015 toward warmer values. No significant trends have been found for the whole period. On the other hand, the time series exhibits a noticeable interannual variability that merits a deeper analysis.

  4. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  5. "Dancing with the stars" - astronomy and music in the Torres Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2016-01-01

    Song and dance are a traditional means of strengthening culture and passing knowledge to successive generations in the Torres Strait of northeastern Australia. Dances incorporate a range of apparatuses to enhance the performance, such as dance machines (Zamiyakal) and headdresses (Dhari). The dances, songs, headdresses and dance machines work together to transfer important knowledge about subsistence survival, social structure, and cultural continuity. This paper explores how celestial phenomena inspire and inform music and dance.

  6. Options for managing the sustainable use of green turtles: Perceptions of Hammond Islanders in Torres Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Jillian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest populations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas in the world spends at least part of its life cycle in the remote Torres Strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea. This population is subjected to traditional harvests from geographically dispersed communities including along the northern and eastern coasts of Australia, Indonesia and south-western Pacific nations. In Torres Strait, green turtle hunting is classed as a traditional fishery and is guaranteed by Australian legislation (Native Title Act 1993 and the Torres Strait Treaty between Australia and Papua New Guinea that aims to protect the traditional lifestyle of the region′s indigenous peoples. To investigate the Islanders′ thoughts and aspirations regarding marine turtle management, we interviewed hunters and Islander Elders from the Hammond Island community in the Kaurareg nation of Kaiwalagal. Although not the Traditional Owners of the Kaiwalagal sea country in which they live and hunt, Hammond Islanders wish to be involved in the management of resources on which they depend, including marine turtles. They considered community-based processes to be important, especially the application of (1 cultural norms to the development of tools to achieve compliance and enforcement within the community, and (2 consensus-based decision-making amongst hunters and elders within the community, with regard to the use of more formal rules. However, the need for co-operation with other communities and stakeholders across scales was also recognised, particularly with regard to enforcement. Our results suggest that co-management is likely to be a more appropriate approach for managing green turtles in Torres Strait than either community-based management or government-driven management.

  7. Enforcing Ship-Based Marine Pollution for Cleaner Sea in the Strait of Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarji Kasmin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Strait of Malacca is most susceptible to ship-based marine pollution such as oil and grease due to the heavy volume of shipping in the Strait. By nature, oil is toxic to marine life, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, one of the main components in crude oil that is very difficult to clean up, and could remain for years in the sediment and marine environment. Marine species that are constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems and are more susceptible to diseases. The number of ships passing through the Strait in 2000 was 55,957 and increased to 62,621 ships 5 years later. In 2007, the traffic volume increased to 70,718 ships. During the five-year period from 2000 to 2005, there were 144 cases of oil spills into the sea. One hundred eight cases were due to illegal discharge of dirty oil. However, only 32 ships were charged and subsequently, 14 ships were found guilty. This paper analyses the challenges faced by the Malaysian maritime enforcement agencies in enforcing the Environmental Quality Act 1974 in the Strait of Malacca. Some of these challenges relate to the maritime enforcement agencies’ short-comings, nature of the Strait’s users and the legal processes to bring offenders to court. Based on the analyses, it was revealed that the responsible agencies are inadequately equipped and trained to deal with the illegal discharge of dirty oil into the sea. In order to overcome these weaknesses, several new initiatives are suggested.

  8. Port and Waterway Safety Assessment: Haro Strait/Boundary Pass USA - Canada Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-26

    Strait. Small vessel operator certifications are highly regulated by Transport Canada. USA tug operators are certified. Crew is STCW certificated...Deep-sea fleet is regulated by PSC. For Alaskan fishing vessels, 90% have STCW certificates on vessels of 200 gross tons and larger. All...Canadian tugboat deck officers are certified in accordance with STCW . In some cases, there are two pilots on 40,000 DWT tankers when transiting (Canada

  9. Bathymetry of the Bering Strait: Chukotka to Diomede Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The bathymetric map of the northern Bering Sea region, plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 759-B, 1976, was generated using published National Ocean Service maps and...

  10. Social Exclusion/Inclusion for Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Walter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion social inclusion are useful concepts for making sense of the deeply embedded socio-economic disadvantaged position of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people in Australian. The concepts not only describe exclusion from social and economic participation; but seek to understand the dynamic processes behind their creation and reproduction. Yet few Australian studies go beyond describing Aboriginal over-representation on social exclusion indicators. Neither do they address the translatability of the concepts from non-Indigenous to Indigenous contexts despite mainstream studies finding the pattern of social exclusion (and therefore what social inclusion might look like differs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to that of other disadvantaged groups. This paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous children to explore patterns of social exclusion across social, economic, well-being and community dimensions for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait families. The paper then develops a contextual understanding of the processes and patterns that create and sustain social exclusion and the opportunities and challenges of moving to greater social inclusion for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people/s.

  11. Optimal estimation of zonal velocity and transport through Luzon Strait using variational data assimilation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Jian; BAO Xianwen; GAO Guoping

    2004-01-01

    A P-vector method was optimized using variational data assimilation technique, with which the vertical structures and seasonal variations of zonal velocities and transports were investigated. The results showed that westward and eastward flowes occur in the Luzon Strait in the same period in a year. However the net volume transport is westward. In the upper level (0m - -500m),the westward flow exits in the middle and south of the Luzon Strait, and the eastward flow exits in the north. There are two centers of westward flow and one center of eastward flow. In the middle of the Luzon Strait, westward and eastward flowes appear alternately in vertical direction. The westward flow strengthens in winter and weakens in summer. The net volume transport is strong in winter (5.53 Sv) but weak in summer (0.29 Sv). Except in summer, the volume transport in the upper level accounts for more than half of the total volume transport (0m - bottom). In summer, the net volume transport in the upper level is eastward (1.01 Sv), but westward underneath.

  12. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-12-10

    The hydrodynamic model used in this study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) developed by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. The unstructured grid and finite volume framework, as well as the capability of wetting/drying simulation and baroclinic simulation, makes FVCOM a good fit to the modeling needs for nearshore restoration in Puget Sound. The model domain covers the entire Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Passages, and Georgia Strait at the United States-Canada Border. The model is driven by tide, freshwater discharge, and surface wind. Preliminary model validation was conducted for tides at various locations in the straits and Puget Sound using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide data. The hydrodynamic model was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model (GNOME) to predict particle trajectories at various locations in Puget Sound. Model results demonstrated that the Puget Sound GNOME model is a useful tool to obtain first-hand information for emergency response such as oil spill and fish migration pathways.

  13. Potential polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under two tidal regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-03-13

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell⁻¹. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  14. Domesticating Hybridity: Straits Chinese Cultural Heritage Projects in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Teoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literal and figurative domestication of Straits Chinese, or Peranakan, history in selected heritage projects in late twentieth-century Malaysia and Singapore. These projects simultaneously foreground Straits Chinese history as a symbol of interracial harmony and marginalize it as a cultural artifact. Over the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the ethnoculturally hybrid Straits Chinese positioned themselves as “the King’s Chinese,” champions of a Confucian-values renaissance, and citizens of independent Malaysia and Singapore. Their adaptability helped them survive the upheaval of imperialism, decolonization, and nation building, but it was also controversial for its suggestion of political flexibility. Today, Southeast Asian governments and the Peranakan themselves depict the community as a uniquely local model of ethnic integration. Museums and historic homes emphasize portrayals and consumption of supposedly feminine aspects of Peranakan culture (e.g., fashion and cuisine, while downplaying purportedly masculine elements (e.g., the possession of multiple nationalities. By conflating femininity, tradition, and racial hybridity, this approach reifies stereotypes about gender and cultural identity, and replaces transgressive potential with politically anodyne nostalgia and commercialization. As anxieties about race, national history, and belonging continue to undergird the modern polity, transnationalism and transculturalism are acceptable as long as they are confined to the past.

  15. Numerical study on the interactions between the Kuroshio current in the Luzon Strait and a mesoscale eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Zheng, Zhe-Wen

    2017-02-01

    The Luzon Strait (LS) connects the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) and is the western boundary gap for the Kuroshio current (KC). Satellite observations indicate that a cyclonic mesoscale eddy can trigger westward extension of the KC into the SCS and shed a smaller anticyclonic eddy to the west of the LS. We used a nonlinear reduced-gravity (primitive equation) model to study this phenomenon and analyzed the dynamic process. The location of the collision between the eddy and the KC could be critical for varying the circulation in the LS. The eddy's deformation rate, associated with its decaying speed, is also closely related to the location of the eddy during collision. When a cyclonic eddy moved from a region to the east of the Luzon Island toward the LS, the KC intruded into the SCS with growing negative vorticity during the collision of the eddy and KC. This tendency for negative vorticity is attributed to the beta effect and squeezing of the planetary vorticity caused by the flow divergence. As the eddy dissipated, the KC in the LS recovered its original pattern. When the collision of the eddy occurred at the center of the LS, the momentum balance of the KC loop was dominated by the inertial term, and the circulation in the LS remained in a leaping state.

  16. Nitrous oxide and methane in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar: Air-sea fluxes and inter-basin exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz, M.; Huertas, I. E.; Flecha, S.; Ríos, A. F.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-11-01

    The global ocean plays an important role in the overall budget of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), as both gases are produced within the ocean and released to the atmosphere. However, for large parts of the open and coastal oceans there is little or no spatial data coverage for N2O and CH4. Hence, a better assessment of marine emissions estimates is necessary. As a contribution to remedying the scarcity of data on marine regions, N2O and CH4 concentrations have been determined in the Strait of Gibraltar at the ocean Fixed Time series (GIFT). During six cruises performed between July 2011 and November 2014 samples were collected at the surface and various depths in the water column, and subsequently measured using gas chromatography. From this we were able to quantify the temporal variability of the gas air-sea exchange in the area and examine the vertical distribution of N2O and CH4 in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. Results show that surface Atlantic waters are nearly in equilibrium with the atmosphere whereas deeper Mediterranean waters are oversaturated in N2O, and a gradient that gradually increases with depth was detected in the water column. Temperature was found to be the main factor responsible for the seasonal variability of N2O in the surface layer. Furthermore, although CH4 levels did not reveal any feature clearly associated with the circulation of water masses, vertical distributions showed that higher concentrations are generally observed in the Atlantic layer, and that the deeper Mediterranean waters are considerably undersaturated (by up to 50%). Even though surface waters act as a source of atmospheric N2O during certain periods, on an annual basis the net N2O flux in the Strait of Gibraltar is only 0.35 ± 0.27 μmol m-2 d-1, meaning that these waters are almost in a neutral status with respect to the atmosphere. Seasonally, the region behaves as a slight sink for atmospheric CH4 in winter and as a source in spring and fall. Approximating

  17. Validation of Altimeter Data in the Spanish Coasts (Gulf of Cadiz and Strait of Gibraltar): Lessons Learned in the Prospect of Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Enri, P.; Vignudelli, S.; Coca, J.; Tejedor, B.; Aboitiz, A.; Munoz, J. J.; Alvarez, O.; Cipollini, P.; Passaro, M.; Villares, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula) and the Strait of Gibraltar (the choke point connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) are being used to validate altimeter information coming from past (Envisat RA-2) and present (Cryosat-2 SIRAL) European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among others. These regions represent a valuable opportunity to validate future (Sentinel-3 SRAL) altimeter missions too. We present some of the results obtained in the study areas in terms of validation of altimeter-derived sea level data coming from Envisat RA-2 and Cryosat-2 SIRAL against the in-situ measurements, and we discuss the extension of the developed techniques to AltiKa SARAL (ISRO-CNES) and Sentinel-3 SRAL (ESA).

  18. Arctic Outflow West Of Greenland: Nine Years Of Volume And Freshwater Transports From Observations In Davis Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, B.; Lee, C.; Petrie, B.; Moritz, R. E.; Kwok, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Arctic changes suggest alterations in the export of freshwater from the Arctic to the North Atlantic, with conceivable impacts on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation. Approximately 50% of the Arctic outflow exits west of Greenland, traveling through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) and into Baffin Bay before crossing Davis Strait. The CAA outflow contributes over 50% of the net southward freshwater outflow through Davis Strait. The remainder is deeper outflow from Baffin Bay, flow from the West Greenland Current and runoff from West Greenland and CAA glaciers. Since September 2004, an observational program in Davis Strait has quantified volume and freshwater transport variability. The year-round program includes velocity, temperature and salinity measurements from 15 moorings spanning the full width (330 km) of the strait accompanied by autonomous Seagliders surveys (average profile separation = 4 km) and autumn ship-based hydrographic sections. Over the shallow Baffin Island and West Greenland shelves, moored instrumentation provides temperature and salinity measurements near the ice-ocean interface. From 2004-2013, the average net volume and liquid freshwater transports are -1.6 ± 0.2 Sv, -94 ± 7 mSv, respectively (salinity referenced to 34.8 and negative indicates southward transport); sea ice contributes an additional -10 ± 1 mSv. Over this period, volume and liquid freshwater transports show significant interannual variability and no clear trends, but a comparison with reanalyzed 1987-90 data indicate a roughly 40% decrease in net southward liquid volume transport and a corresponding an almost 30% decrease in freshwater transport. Connections between the Arctic are also captured, e.g., a unique yearlong Davis Strait freshening event starting September 2009 that was likely driven by an earlier freshening (January 2009 - April/May 2010) in the Canadian Arctic. The Davis Strait autumn 2009 salinity minimum was fresher (by about 0

  19. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  20. MODIS observed phytoplankton dynamics in the Taiwan Strait: an absorption-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study uses MODIS observed phytoplankton absorption coefficient (aph as a preferable index of pigmentation to characterize phytoplankton variability in optically complex waters. We chose a quasi-analytical bio-optical inversion algorithm (QAA to derive aph from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs, both in situ and MODIS measured and then evaluated the Rrs derived aph by comparing them with match-up in situ measured aph collected in both oceanic and very nearshore waters in the Taiwan Strait (TWS. For the data with matching spatial and temporal window, it is found that the average percentage error (ε between MODIS Rrs derived aph at 443 nm (aph(443, abbreviated as Aph and field measured Aph is 33.8% (N = 30, Aph ranges from 0.012–0.537 m−1, with a root mean square error in log scale (RMSE of 0.226. By comparison, ε is 28.0% (N = 88, RMSE = 0.150 between ship-borne Rrs derived Aph and field measured Aph. Values of ε as large as 135.6% (N = 30, RMSE = 0.383 are found between MODIS Rrs derived chlorophyll-a (chl-a, OC3M algorithm and field measured chl-a. Based on these evaluation results, we applied QAA to MODIS Rrs data between 2003–2009 to derive climatological monthly mean Aph for the TWS. Three distinct features of phytoplankton dynamics are identified. First, Aph is low and the least variable in the Penghu Channel, where the South China Sea water enters the TWS. This region maintains slightly higher values in winter (~17% higher than that in the other seasons due to surface nutrient entrainment under winter wind-driven vertical mixing. Second, Aph is high and the most variable in the mainland nearshore water, with

  1. Bathymetric variations in vertical distribution patterns of meiofauna in the surface sediments of the deep Arctic ocean (HAUSGARTEN, Fram strait)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Barbara; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kotwicki, Lech; Hasemann, Christiane; Schewe, Ingo; Soltwedel, Thomas; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Deep-sea benthic communities and their structural and functional characteristics are regulated by surface water processes. Our study focused on the impact of changes in water depth and food supplies on small-sized metazoan bottom-fauna (meiobenthos) along a bathymetric transect (1200-5500 m) in the western Fram Strait. The samples were collected every summer season from 2005 to 2009 within the scope of the HAUSGARTEN monitoring program. In comparison to other polar regions, the large inflow of organic matter to the sea floor translates into relatively high meiofaunal densities in this region. Densities along the bathymetric gradient range from approximately 2400 ind. 10 cm-2 at 1200 m to approximately 300 ind. 10 cm-2 at 4000 m. Differences in meiofaunal distribution among sediment layers (i.e., vertical profile) were stronger than among stations (i.e., bathymetric gradient). At all the stations meiofaunal densities and number of taxa were the highest in the surface sediment layer (0-1 cm), and these decreased with increasing sediment depth (down to 4-5 cm). However, the shape of the decreasing pattern differed significantly among stations. Meiofaunal densities and taxonomic richness decreased gradually with increasing sediment depth at the shallower stations with higher food availability. At deeper stations, where the availability of organic matter is generally lower, meiofaunal densities decreased sharply to minor proportions at sediment depths already at 2-3 cm. Nematodes were the most abundant organisms (60-98%) in all the sediment layers. The environmental factors best correlated to the vertical patterns of the meiofaunal community were sediment-bound chloroplastic pigments that indicate phytodetrital matter.

  2. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  3. Study of the Relationship Between the Organizational Climate and the Campus Ethical Issues of Universities across the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chen-fong

    2004-01-01

    The study applied the approach of empirical studies to select 176 teachers in 9 universities in Taiwan and Inland in China to deliver questionnaires. The study intended to explore the influence of organizational climate on campus ethics and its diversity between the universities across the Taiwan strait. The study explored that the organizational climate in the universities across the Strait was not ethically high. Yet, the universities in Inland emphasized more on campus restraint in teachers' behavior, job performance and their sense of belonging to the school.The study result demonstrated that improving leadership of the universities could enhance teachers' identification with their schools and could promote the level of campus across the Strait.

  4. Currents in the Luzon Strait during the spring of 2002: observation and computation by modified inverse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yaochu; LOU Ruyun; LIU Yonggang; SU Jilan; WANG Kangshan; CHEN Hong

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the current measurements at 200,500 and 800 m from moored current meters with the time series data from March 17 to April 15 at the mooring station (20°49′57″N, 120°48' 12″E ) and the hydrographic data obtained in the Luzon Strait during the spring of 2002 cruise, the circulation in the investigated area is computed by using the modified inverse method. The major observed results are as follows: (1) the average velocity and the flow direction in the observing days are (47.4 cm/s, 346°) at the 200 m level. The aver age velocity in the observing days is (20.3 cm/s, 350°) at the 500 m level. These mean that the Kuroshio intrudes into the South Chin Sea to flow northwestward through the Luzon Strait at 200 and 500 m levels. (2) The average velocity in the observing days is (1.2cm/s, 35°) at the 800 m level, I. E., its direction is northeastward. This means that the flow condition at the 800 m level very differs from that at the 200 and 500 m levels. (3) There is the high density and cold water (HDCW) in the middle of western part of in the investigated region, and its center is located near the hydrological station 3 at Section A. (4) There is the lower density and warm water (LDWW) in the southeastern part of investigated region. (5) The currents in April 2002 are stronger than those in March 2002.The major computed results are as follows: (1) The northwestward and southeastward VTs through Section B are 32.48×106 m3/s (inclusive of VT ofanticyclonic eddy) and 3.34×106m3/s, respectively. The net northwestward VT through Section B in the investigated area is about 29.14×106 m3/s. (2) The eastern and western VTs through Section A are about 16.71× 106 and 8.57×106 m3/s, respectively. Thus,the net eastward VT through Section A is about 8.14×106 m3/s. (3) The net northward VT through Section M is about 24.68×106 m3/s.(4) After about 24.68×106 m3/s flows through Section M, most of it, about 16.54×106 m3/s, flows northward through the

  5. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  6. Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Morillo-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA. These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides, diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  7. Quantifying submarine landslide processes driven by active tectonic forcing: Cook Strait submarine canyon, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; Pettinga, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Cook Strait submarine canyon system is a multi-branched, deeply incised and highly sinuous feature of New Zealand's active margin, covering some 1500km2 of sea floor between the North and South Islands and spanning water depths of between 50 and 2700m. The canyon occurs at the transition from the westward dipping oblique subduction zone adjacent to the SE North Island and the zone of continental transpression in NE South Island. The recent acquisition of high resolution (5-10m) SIMRAD EM300 bathymetric data allows active tectonic and geomorphic processes to be assessed and quantified at a level of detail previously not possible. While multiple active submarine fault traces have been identified in the Cook Strait by previous studies, quantitative information on their activity has been limited. Cook Strait is structurally characterized by westward dipping thrust faults and E-W trending dextral strike slip faults. The multiple large magnitude high frequency earthquake sources define zones of very high ground shaking expected to contribute to triggering of extensive submarine slope failures. Landslide activity within the canyon system is widespread and represents the dominant mass movement process affecting canyon heads and walls, redistributing material into valley fills. Complexes of large (km3) multi-stepped, deep-seated (100m) translational bedding plane failures represented by gently sloping (<3°) evacuated slide-scar areas with associated blocky valley fill deposits are numerous. Steep catchment heads, channel walls and the leading edges of asymmetric thrust-fault driven anticlines are dominated by gulley and rill systems with associated eroded and/or incipient slump features. Large (107m3+) slide blocks are recognized in discrete failures with quantifiable displacement vectors. Tsunamigenic landslides in this environment are inevitable. This study will provide quantification of landslide models including triggering mechanisms, discrete geometries and

  8. Reconstruction of transports through the Strait of Gibraltar from limited observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordà, G.; Sánchez-Román, A.; Gomis, D.

    2016-04-01

    Observing the water transports through the Strait of Gibraltar is a difficult task. Here we present a methodology aimed to obtain the inflow, outflow and net transport of water from the limited set of available observations, currently consisting of an upward looking ADCP deployed at Espartel sill, two tide gauges located at each side of the Strait and radars monitoring the surface velocities. More precisely, we reconstruct the velocity field over a vertical section across the Strait using a reduced order optimal interpolation technique fed with the spatial covariance patterns deduced from high resolution numerical simulations. As a first step we carry out some sensitivity experiments with synthetic data that demonstrate the high potential of the approach. The reconstruction methodology can reproduce very satisfactorily the variability of the transports with estimated correlations for the inflow, outflow and net over 0.9 in all the cases and estimated RMS errors of 0.03, 0.08 and 0.05 Sv, respectively. However, we have also found that the reconstruction is sensible to bias problems, mostly due to the sensitivity of the method to the differences between the statistics of the actual and modeled velocity profiles. The sensitivity experiments have been used to tune the parameters of the method and a reconstruction of actual monthly transports has been performed for the period 2004-2010 along with an estimate of the associated uncertainty. This reconstruction provides for the first time a multiannual time series of the inflow and the net transports solely based on in situ observations. Therefore it can be used as an independent estimate for the validation of numerical models and surface freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean.

  9. Acoustic imaging of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biescas Gorriz, Berta; Carniel, Sandro; Sallarès, Valentí; Rodriguez Ranero, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic imaging of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the Strait of Gibraltar Berta Biescas (1), Sandro Carniel (2) , Valentí Sallarès (3) and Cesar R. Ranero(3) (1) Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Bologna, Italy (2) Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Venice, Italy (3) Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain Acoustic reflectivity acquired with multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) systems allow to detect and explore the thermohaline structure in the ocean with vertical and lateral resolutions in the order of 10 m, covering hundreds of kilometers in the lateral dimension and the full-depth water column. In this work we present a MCS 2D profile that crosses the Strait of Gibraltar, from the Alboran Sea to the internal Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic Ocean). The MCS data was acquired during the Topomed-Gassis Cruise (European Science Foundation TopoEurope), which was carried out on board of the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa in October 2011. The strong thermohaline contrast between the Mediterranean water and the Atlantic water, characterizes this area and allows to visualize, with unprecedented resolution, the acoustic reflectivity associated to the dense flow of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the prominent slope of the Strait of Gibraltar. During the first kilometers, the dense flow drops attached to the continental slope until it reaches the buoyancy depth at 700 m. Then, it detaches from the sea floor and continues flowing towards the Atlantic Ocean, occupying the layer at 700-1500 m deep and developing clear staircase layers. The reflectivity images display near seabed reflections that could well correspond to turbidity layers. The XBT data acquired coincident in time and space with the MCS data will help us in the interpretation and analysis of the acoustic data.

  10. Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in the Fram Strait and associated volume fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krumpen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fram Strait is the main gateway for sea ice export out of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore observations there give insight into composition and properties of Arctic sea ice in general and how it varies over time. An extensive data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements collected between 2001 and 2012 is presented here, including long transects well into the southern part of the Transpolar Drift obtained using fixed-wing aircrafts. The source area for the surveyed ice is primarily the Laptev Sea, and the estimated age is consistent with a decreased from 3 to 2 years between 1990 and 2012. The data consistently also show a general thinning for the last decade, with a decrease in modal thickness of second year and multiyear ice, and a decrease in mean thickness and fraction of ice thicker than 3 m. Local melting in the strait was investigated in two surveys performed in the downstream direction, showing a decrease of 0.19 m degree−1 latitude south of 81° N probably driven by bottom melting from warm water of Atlantic origin. Further north variability in ice thickness is more related to differences in age and deformation. The thickness observations were combined with ice area export estimates to calculate summer volume fluxes of sea ice. This shows that it is possible to determine volume fluxes through Fram Strait during summer when satellite based sea ice thickness information is missing. While the ice area export based on satellite remote sensing shows positive trends since 2001, the mean fluxes during summer (July and August are small (18 km3, and long-term trends are uncertain due to the limited surveys available.

  11. On the origin and propagation of Denmark Strait Overflow Water Anomalies in the Irminger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Köllner, Manuela; Dye, Stephen; Rudels, Bert; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2015-04-01

    Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. We present an analysis of observed hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays to quantify the variability and to track anomalies of DSOW: (1) at the Denmark Strait sill, (2) at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and (3) at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik). The aim of the combined arrays is to cover the overflow plume and its modifications due to its descent and mixing with ambient waters from the sill of Denmark Strait to approx. 2000 m depth in the northern Irminger Basin. Eddy variability dominates the high frequency variations in all DSOW records. Variability on time scales from interannual to weekly is present at all moorings, but no long term trends are detected in the time series. The seasonal cycle is of no importance for the properties measured at the sill, but its significance increases with downstream distance. A low pass filter (cut-off at 20 days) is applied to the time series in order to remove synoptic scale variations: single eddies are likely not traceable and probably merge with each other or fade along the descending pathway of the DSOW plume. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array show coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations are only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays reveal propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 16 days. Despite a difference of 1.5°C between the mean temperatures at both arrays, which are about 500 km away from each other, temperature anomalies can be traced along the DSOW pathway. In contrast, the correlations in salinity are low and only significant

  12. Simulation of electricity generation by marine current turbines at Istanbul Bosphorus Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Tunc, K. M. Murat; Ozbek, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    In this work, several simulations and analyses are carried out to investigate the feasibility of generating electricity from underwater sea currents at Istanbul Bosphorus Strait. Bosphorus is a natural canal which forms a border between Europe and Asia by connecting Black Sea and Marmara Sea....... The differences in elevation and salinity ratios between these two seas cause strong marine currents. Depending on the morphology of the canal the speed of the flow varies and at some specific locations the energy intensity reaches to sufficient levels where electricity generation by marine current turbines...

  13. Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    Full Text Available The water mass distribution in northern Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997 is described using CTD data from two cruises in the area. The West Spitsbergen Current was found to split, one part recirculated towards the west, while the other part, on entering the Arctic Ocean separated into two branches. The main inflow of Atlantic Water followed the Svalbard continental slope eastward, while a second, narrower, branch stayed west and north of the Yermak Plateau. The water column above the southeastern flank of the Yermak Plateau was distinctly colder and less saline than the two inflow branches. Immediately west of the outer inflow branch comparatively high temperatures in the Atlantic Layer suggested that a part of the extraordinarily warm Atlantic Water, observed in the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin in the early 1990s, was now returning, within the Eurasian Basin, toward Fram Strait. The upper layer west of the Yermak Plateau was cold, deep and comparably saline, similar to what has recently been observed in the interior Eurasian Basin. Closer to the Greenland continental slope the salinity of the upper layer became much lower, and the temperature maximum of the Atlantic Layer was occasionally below 
    0.5 °C, indicating water masses mainly derived from the Canadian Basin. This implies that the warm pulse of Atlantic Water had not yet made a complete circuit around the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current recirculating within the strait did not extend as far towards Greenland as in the 1980s, leaving a broader passage for waters from the Atlantic and intermediate layers, exiting the Arctic Ocean. A possible interpretation is that the circulation pattern alternates between a strong recirculation of the West Spitsbergen Current in the strait, and a larger exchange of Atlantic Water between the Nordic Seas and the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean.

    Key words: Oceanography: general

  14. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms.

  15. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Thomas, Mahiban; Thomson, Valerie; Griffin, Carolyn; Mayo, Luke; Whitty, Megan; d'Abbs, Peter; Nagel, Tricia

    2012-08-03

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue.

  16. On the variability of Florida Straits and wind driven transports at 26° N in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kanzow

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2004 the RAPID array has made continuous measurements of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC at 26° N. Two key components of this system are Ekman transport zonally integrated across 26° N and western boundary current transport in the Florida Straits. Whilst measurements of the AMOC as a whole are somewhat in their infancy, this study investigates what useful information can be extracted on the variability of the Ekman and Florida Straits transports using the decadal timeseries already available. Analysis is also presented for Sverdrup transports zonally integrated across 26° N. The seasonal cycles of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports are quantified at 26° N using harmonic analysis of annual and semi-annual constituents. Whilst Sverdrup transport shows clear semi-annual periodicity, calculations of seasonal Florida Straits and Ekman transports show substantial interannual variability due to variability at non-seasonal frequencies; the mean seasonal cycle for these transports only emerges from decadal length observations. The Florida Straits and Ekman mean seasonal cycles project on the AMOC with a combined peak-to-peak seasonal range of 3.5 Sv. The combined seasonal range for heat transport is 0.40 PW. The Florida Straits seasonal cycle possesses a smooth annual periodicity in contrast with previous studies suggesting a more asymmetric structure. No clear evidence is found to support significant changes in the Florida Straits seasonal cycle at sub-decadal periods. Whilst evidence of wind driven Florida Straits transport variability is seen at sub-seasonal and annual periods, model runs from the 1/4° eddy-permitting ocean model NEMO are used to identify an important contribution from internal oceanic variability at sub-annual and interannual periods. The Ekman transport seasonal cycle possesses less symmetric structure, due in part to different seasonal transport regimes east and west of 50 to 60

  17. The importance of sub-mesoscale processes for the exchange of properties through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M.; Chioua, J.; Romero, J.; Vázquez, A.; Macías, D.; Dastis, C.; Ramírez-Romero, E.; Echevarria, F.; Reyes, J.; García, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a detailed analysis of the sub-mesoscale transport processes in the Strait of Gibraltar. The interest is focussed on the Camarinal Sill region, and special attention is paid to the across-strait transport processes, the divergences and convergences in the central zone, and the small-scale circulation patterns along the northern coastal margin. The analysis is based on high-resolution (7 m) SST images acquired by an air-borne hyper-spectral scanner, and has been complemented with a rhodamine-release experiment, continuous thermo-salinograph records, acoustic Doppler current (ADCP) profiles from both moorings and vessel-mounted experiments, and numerical modelling. It is deduced from the analysis that the coupling between the upwelling processes, induced by the internal tide and the generation of large-amplitude internal waves, and the cyclonic eddies formed on the coastal margin, seems to be the mechanism that explains the chlorophyll maxima frequently found on the coastal margin of the studied area. Further, as a consequence of the small-scale patterns of circulation induced by the internal waves, the suspended substances are displaced from the coastal margins toward the central zones and later are carried by the westward current toward the convergence zones created by the internal waves, where they may be retained and accumulate. Then, in the eastward phase of the tidal current over the Camarinal Sill, these nuclei of concentrated substances (nutrients, chlorophyll, and plankton) are transported toward the Alboran Sea, where they must contribute, in part, to the primary productivity there. High-resolution (7 m) SST images acquired by an Airborne Hyper-spectral Scanner (AHS) provided by the Spanish Institute of Aerospace Techniques (INTA). Measurements made along vessel transects crossing the studied zone, of current velocity and echo-intensity profiles acquired by ADCP, and sea surface temperature, salinity and released rhodamine (see Fig. 1

  18. The role of Internal Solitary Waves on deep-water sedimentary processes: the case of up-slope migrating sediment waves off the Messina Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droghei, Riccardo; Falcini, Federico; Martorelli, Eleonora; Casalbore, Daniele; Mosetti, Renzo; Salusti, Ettore; Sannino, Gianmaria; Santoleri, Rosalia; Chiocci, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    ., & Reuning, L. (2015). Three-dimensional seismic analysis of sediment waves and related geomorphological features on a carbonate shelf exposed to large amplitude internal waves, Browse Basin region, Australia. Sedimentology, 62(1), 87-109. Alpers, W., & Salusti, E. (1983). Scylla and Charybdis observed from space. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978-2012), 88(C3), 1800-1808. Sapia, A., & Salusti, E. (1987). Observation of nonlinear internal solitary wave trains at the northern and southern mouths of the Strait of Messina. Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, 34(7), 1081-1092. Artale, V., Levi, D., Marullo, S., & Santoleri, R. (1990). Analysis of nonlinear internal waves observed by Landsat thematic mapper. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978-2012), 95(C9), 16065-16073. Brandt, P., Rubino, A., Quadfasel, D., Alpers, W., Sellschopp, J., & Fiekas, H. V. (1999). Evidence for the influence of Atlantic-Ionian stream fluctuations on the tidally induced internal dynamics in the Strait of Messina. Journal of physical oceanography, 29(5), 1071-1080. Puig, P., Palanques, A., Guillén, J., & El Khatab, M. (2004). Role of internal waves in the generation of nepheloid layers on the northwestern Alboran slope: implications for continental margin shaping. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978-2012), 109(C9). Haren, H., Ribó, M., & Puig, P. (2013). (Sub-) inertial wave boundary turbulence in the Gulf of Valencia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118(4), 2067-2073.

  19. A numerical study of the South China Sea deep circulation and its relation to the Luzon Strait transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东亮

    2002-01-01

    A fine-resolution MOM code is used to study the South China Sea basin-scale circulation and its relation to the mass transport through the Luzon Strait. The modal domain includes the South China Sea, part of the East China Sea, and part of the Philippine Sea so that the currents in the vicinity of the Luzon Strait are free to evolve. In addition, all channels between the South China ,Sea and the Indonesian seas are closed so that the focus is on the Luzon Strait transport. The model is driven by specified Philippine Sea currents and by surface heat and salt flux conditions. For simplicity, no windstress is applied at the surface.The simulated Luzon Strait transport and the South China Sea circulation feature a sandwich vertical structure from the surface to the bottom. The Philippine Sea water is simulated to enter the South China Sea at the surface and in the deep ocean and is carried to the southern basin by western boundary currents. At the intermediate depth, the net Luzon Strait transport is out of the South China Sea and is fed by a western boundary current flowing to the north at the base of the thermocline. Corresponding to the western boundary currents, the basin circulation of the South China Sea is cyclonic gyres at the surface and in the abyss but an anti-cyclonic gyre at the intermediate depth. The vorticity balance of the gyre circulation is between the vortex stretching and the meridional change of the planetary vorticity.Based on these facts, it is hypothesized that the Luzon Strait transports are determined by the diapycnal mixing inside the entire South China Sea. The South China Sea plays the role of a "mixing mill" that mixes the surface and deep waters to return them to the Luzon Strait at the intermediate depth. The gyre structures are consistent with the Stommel and Arons theory (1960), which suggests that the mixlng-induced circulation inside the South China Sea should be cyclonic gyres at the surface and at the bottom but an anti

  20. Surface current measurements in Juan de Fuca Strait using the SeaSonde HF [high frequency] radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1994-09-01

    The shore-based SeaSonde high-frequency (HF) radar was deployed for three weeks in summer 1993 to measure surface currents in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Experimental objectives included documenting the complex flow regime generated by large tides and the brackish plume of the Fraser River, and determining the radar performance under low-wind, low-salinity conditions. The radar data showed that surface flows are dominated by the plume jet formed by the Fraser River outflow, giving rise to recurring, energetic eddies with scales of 8-12 km, strong flow meanders, and convergent fronts. These features were continuously modulated by the along-channel tidal flows. Comparisons with a detailed numerical model hindcast gave good correlation between observed and predicted flow fields, especially at tidal and low frequencies. Radar return was found to be correlated with local winds and radar performance was independent of salinity variations in the plume. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a map of the radar scattering characteristics of the ocean surface on a capillary wave scale. ERS-1 satellite and airborne SAR images for July 28, 1993 were obtained and surface features were examined in the context of the HF radar current fields. Results show that SAR images alone cannot reliably provide the dynamical data required in this region by oil spill models. Under certain conditions, however, the radar imagery offers valuable physical information on phenomena affecting oil slick development. Interpretation of SAR imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing information would offer more quantitative prediction data. 28 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Influence of river discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties: a case study in the East China Sea and Tsushima Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of fresh water on phytoplankton absorption properties, the phytoplankton absorption coefficient and pigments identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were measured at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM in the East China Sea (ECS, which is highly influenced by river discharge from the Changjiang during summer. For comparison, data were also collected in the Tsushima Strait (TS at the surface and SCM. The majority of ECS surface samples taken from the low-salinity Changjiang diluted water (CDW, and even most of SCM samples taken from waters beneath the CDW, displayed significant freshwater influences. The specific absorption coefficient normalized by total chlorophyll a concentration (Tchl a, a*ph(λ, of these samples was substantially higher than values derived from global regressions between a*ph(λ and the Tchl a. Using the pigment data derived from HPLC, the increase of a*ph(λ was found to be mainly caused by the phytoplankton size structure, which indicated that both surface and SCM samples in the ECS still incorporated considerable portions of picophytoplankton (cyanobacteria, even though the Tchl a was high. When water from the surface and the SCM were merged, variations in the phytoplankton size-fractions and a*ph(λ vs. Tchl a that were consistent with values for the global ocean were found in the TS but not in the ECS. Data for the ECS indicated that there was no correlation between Tchl a and the size-fraction or total pigment absorption. As a consequence, a*ph(λ was poorly correlated with Tchl a and displayed large variability within a small Tchl a range. These findings suggest the need for care when considering the changing patterns of size-fractions vs. Tchl a and the relationship between a*ph(λ and Tchl ain coastal regions that are significantly influenced by fresh water.

  2. Physical and ecological processes at a moving ice edge in the Fram Strait as observed with an AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Thorben; Bauerfeind, Eduard; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-09-01

    Small-scale investigations of physical and biogeochemical parameters have been carried out with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) at a moving ice edge in the Fram Strait. The AUV was equipped with various sensors to study the complex interactions between physical and ecological processes along the ice edge and the associated meltwater front. The AUV covered two cross-front sections of 9 km and recorded high resolution vertical profiles of the physical and biogeochemical properties between 0 and 50 m water depth at a horizontal station spacing of 800-1000 m. In both physical and biogeochemical terms, the measurements revealed a complex structure of the water column. The distribution of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and nutrients was highly inhomogeneous. Chlorophyll a concentrations of 5 μg l-1 were detected at the frontal interface in a small corridor just 2-4 km wide and only 5 m deep. Nutrients at the surface were depleted, yet, compared to previous studies of this region, were still present in the euphotic zone. Below the euphotic zone, nitrate concentrations of 8 μmol l-1 and oxygen saturation values of 100% resulted in a "dome-like" pattern - suggestive of vertical transport processes. Based on these measurements, three different zones featuring individual biogeochemical characteristics were identified in the cross-front sections. Atmospheric forcing and the presence of the melt water front are assumed to be mainly responsible for the complexity of the water column. Localized vertical transport events seem to have occurred before our investigations. Furthermore, wind driven frontogenesis likely contributed to vertical water movements. All processes had an effect on the biological processes along the observed meltwater front.

  3. [The possible causes of the tragedy of "Port Famine" in the Strait of Magellan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza G, Juan Pablo; Espinoza G, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    The attempts to colonize the Strait of Magellan soon followed the discovery of this route. PeDro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish sailor, established human settlements to fortify those lands and control the transit of vessels, especially those of English corsairs, which devastated Chilean and Peruvian coasts. During the summer of 1584, approximately 500 soldiers, artisans, priests, women and children established two villages called "Nombre de Jesús" and "Rey Don Felipe". From the beginning, these settlers had leadership and communication problems and difficulties to obtain food. After three winters only 17 to 18 people survived according to the testimony of one of the survivors, that was rescued by an English sailor named Cavendish, which renamed the village "Rey Don Felipe" as "Port Famine". When he observed the scenes of abandonment and death, he supposed that the settlers died due to lack of food. Other factors that facilitated the desolation were hypothermia, execution, anthropophagy and lesions caused by natives. There is also a possibility that intoxication by red tide (harmful algal bloom) could explain in part the finding of unburied corpses in the strait beaches.

  4. PM10 retrieval over the water surface of Penang Straits from Landsat TM5 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.; Hashim, S. A.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we used the Landsat TM data captured on 9 March 2006 for the retrieval of PM10 over the water surface of Penang Straits, Malaysia. PM10 measurements were collected using a handheld DustTrak TM meter simultaneously with the remotely sensed data acquisition. The PCI Geomatica version 9.1 digital image processing software was used in all image-processing analysis. An algorithm was developed based on the atmospheric optical characteristic. The digital numbers were extracted corresponding to the ground-truth locations for each band and then converted into radiance and reflectance values. The reflectance measured from the satellite [reflectance at the top of atmospheric, ρ(TOA)] was subtracted by the amount given by the surface reflectance to obtain the atmospheric reflectance. Then the atmospheric reflectance was related to the PM10 using regression analysis. These atmospheric reflectance values were used for calibration of the PM10 algorithm. The developed algorithm was used to correlate the digital signal and the PM10 concentration. The proposed algorithm produced a high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean-square error (RMS). The PM10 concentration was generated using this algorithm over the water surface of Penang straits.

  5. Linkages between atmospheric blocking, sea ice export through Fram Strait and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, M.; Scholz, P.; Lohmann, G.; Dima, M.; Prange, M.

    2016-09-01

    As a key persistent component of the atmospheric dynamics, the North Atlantic blocking activity has been linked to extreme climatic phenomena in the European sector. It has also been linked to Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability, but its potential links to rapid oceanic changes have not been investigated. Using a global ocean-sea ice model forced with atmospheric reanalysis data, here it is shown that the 1962–1966 period of enhanced blocking activity over Greenland resulted in anomalous sea ice accumulation in the Arctic and ended with a sea ice flush from the Arctic into the North Atlantic Ocean through Fram Strait. This event induced a significant decrease of Labrador Sea water surface salinity and an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) during the 1970s. These results have implications for the prediction of rapid AMOC changes and indicate that an important part of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics at mid- and high latitudes requires a proper representation of the Fram Strait sea ice transport and of the synoptic scale variability such as atmospheric blocking, which is a challenge for current coupled climate models.

  6. Trace metals in surface sediments of the Taiwan Strait: geochemical characteristics and environmental indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Lui, Hon-Kit; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhuang, Wen

    2016-06-01

    The concentration and geochemical fractionation of six trace metals related with environmental quality assessment, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, in 30 surface sediments from both inshore and offshore areas of the Taiwan Strait were measured to investigate their distribution characteristics, evaluate their potential mobility, and assess their pollution status. The geoaccumulation index results indicated that, on average, the studied metals presented an order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu > Cr and were practically in uncontaminated status except Cd. The results of the sequential extraction analysis indicated that, on average, the studied metals were mostly accumulated in residual fraction except Cd whose concentration was the highest in the acid soluble fraction presenting a high risk to the environment, and their mobility decreased in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr. Based on the mean probable effect level quotients, the combination of the studied metals had an 8 % probability of being toxic at two sampling sites and had a 21 % probability of being toxic at the rest of sites. The spatial distribution of the studied metals in total concentrations and different geochemical fractions corroborated the previous findings about the possible sediment transportation routes in and around the Taiwan Strait.

  7. Filament generation off the Strait of Gibraltar in response to Gap winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliz, Álvaro; Teles-Machado, Ana; Marchesiello, Patrick; Dubert, Jesus; Lafuente, Jesus Garcia

    2009-01-01

    We present a case study of the generation of a cold filament rooted off the southwestern edge of the Strait of Gibraltar (Atlantic side) during the summer of 2000. The event is successfully simulated using high-resolution atmospheric and oceanic numerical models. It is shown that a sharp filament may develop oceanwards with little modification of the Atlantic inflow into the Mediterranean, contrary to usual expectations. The filament is essentially driven by the surface layer response to Gap winds occurring during Levanter conditions. The easterly wind funnelling in the Strait generates a strong wind jet and intense wind curl which impacts the oceanic surface layer through Ekman pumping and mixing processes. The generation and fate of the filament is very similar to the Gulf of Tehuantepec case, where strong Gap wind events produce asymmetric deformation and erosion of the thermocline that tends to favour anticyclonic mesoscale circulations. Our observations and model results from both realistic and idealized experiments suggest that similar phenomena are present in the Gulf of Cadiz, but they are altered by the persisting Atlantic inflow, so that the response to Gap winds is not as dramatic.

  8. Sound speed as a proxy variable to temperature in Fram Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushaw, Brian D; Sagen, Hanne; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    The application of ocean acoustic tomography in Fram Strait requires a careful assessment of the accuracy to which estimates of sound speed from tomography can be converted to estimates of temperature. The Fram Strait environment is turbulent, with warm, salty, northward-flowing North Atlantic water interacting with cold, fresh, southward-flowing Arctic water. The nature of this environment suggests that salinity could play an important role with respect to sound speed. The properties of sound speed with respect to temperature and salinity in this environment were examined using climatological and in situ glider data. In cold water, a factor of about 4.5 m s(-1) °C(-1) can be used to scale between sound speed and temperature. In situ data obtained by gliders were used to determine the ambiguities between temperature, salinity, and sound speed. Tomography provides a depth-averaging measurement. While errors in the sound speed-temperature conversion at particular depths may be 0.2 °C or larger, particularly within 50 m of the surface, such errors are suppressed when the depth is averaged. Using a simple scale factor to compute temperature from sound speed introduced an error of about 20 m °C for depth-averaged temperature, a value less than formal uncertainties estimated from acoustic tomography.

  9. Recent observations of seasonal variability of the Mediterranean outflow in the Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    GarcíA Lafuente, J.; SáNchez RomáN, A.; DíAz Del RíO, G.; Sannino, G.; SáNchez Garrido, J. C.

    2007-10-01

    Recent observations of the outflowing Mediterranean water collected near the bottom in key points of the Strait of Gibraltar show the existence of a seasonal cycle with warmer and lighter waters leaving the Mediterranean Sea in winter and cooler and denser waters in spring early summer. The amplitude of the signal is around 5 10-2 °C for potential temperature and 1.5 10-2 for potential density, salinity hardly showing seasonal fluctuations. The outflow also shows a seasonal cycle with maximum volume transport in April, in coincidence with the minimum of the signal of potential temperature. A simple analysis of the composition of the outflow in terms of the main water masses of the western Mediterranean basin and its comparison with climate indicators suggests that the seasonal cycle follows the annual process of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water formation that replenish the deep portion of the basin by the end of winter and rises the level of the deep water reservoir, facilitating the suction of cooler and denser water from the Mediterranean over the sills of the Strait. From this time onwards, the data show a smooth warming that would be explained by the progressive fall of the level of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water as it is drained out the Mediterranean, which would leave warmer water available for suction. The process is asymmetric in the sense that the transition from high to low temperature is completed in a short period while the progressive warming spans a longer period.

  10. Small-scale variability of the current in the Strait of Bonifacio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérigny, Olivia; Coudray, Sylvain; Lapucci, Chiara; Tomasino, Corinne; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François

    2015-08-01

    Current dynamics in the Strait of Bonifacio (south Corsica) were investigated at a small scale during the STELLAMARE1 multidisciplinary cruise in summer 2012, using in situ measurements and modeling data. The Strait of Bonifacio is a particularly sensitive marine area in which specific conservation measures have been taken to preserve the natural environment and wild species. Good knowledge of the hydrodynamics in this area is essential to optimize the Marine Protected Area's management rules. Therefore, we used a high-resolution model (400 m) based on the MARS3D code to investigate the main flux exchanges and to formulate certain hypotheses about the formation of possible eddy structures. The aim of the present paper is first to synthetize the results obtained by combining Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data, hydrological parameters, Lagrangian drifter data, and satellite observations such as MODIS OC5 chlorophyll a data or Metop-A AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data. These elements are then used to validate the presence of the mesoscale eddies simulated by the model and their recurrence outside the cruise period. To complete the analysis, the response of the 3D hydrodynamical model was evaluated under two opposing wind systems and certain biases were detected. Strong velocities up to 1 m s-1 were recorded in the east part due to the Venturi effect; a complementary system of vortices governed by Coriolis effect and west wind was observed in the west part, and horizontal stratification in the central part has been identified under typical wind condition.

  11. Physical oceanographic mooring data (temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking) collected from Bering Strait Moorings A2,A4, A3 in Bering Strait from 2013-07-05 to 2014-07-02 (NCEI Accession 0156230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2013 to summer 2014. Mooring deployments were funded by the ONR award N00014-13-1-0468...

  12. Phytoplankton Biomass Dynamics in the Strait of Malacca within the Period of the SeaWiFS Full Mission: Seasonal Cycles, Interannual Variations and Decadal-Scale Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Siswanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cycles, interannual variations and decadal trends of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS-retrieved chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a in the Strait of Malacca (SM were investigated with reconstructed, cloud-free SeaWiFS Chl-a during the period of the SeaWiFS full mission (September 1997 to December 2010. Pixel-based non-parametric correlations of SeaWiFS Chl-a on environmental variables were used to identify the probable causes of the observed spatio-temporal variations of SeaWiFS Chl-a in northern, middle and southern regions of the SM. Chl-a was high (low during the northeast (southwest monsoon. The principal causes of the seasonality were wind-driven vertical mixing in the northern region and wind-driven coastal upwelling and possibly river discharges in the middle region. Among the three regions, the southern region showed the largest interannual variations of Chl-a. These variations were associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and river runoff. Interannual variations of Chl-a in the middle and northern regions were more responsive to the Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, respectively, with atmospheric deposition being the most important driver. The most significant decadal-scale trend of increasing Chl-a was in the southern region; the trend was moderate in the middle region. This increasing trend was probably caused by environmental changes unrelated to the variables investigated in this study.

  13. New Approaches to Cross-Strait Integration and Its Impacts on Taiwan’s Domestic Economy: An Emerging “Chaiwan”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. K. Cheung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Legislative Yuan and Presidential elections in January and March 2008 respectively re-orientated cross-Strait relations from hostility to co-operation. On 4 November 2008, Chen Yunlin, head of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS, and Chiang Pin-kun (Jiang Bingkun, chairman of Taiwan’s Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF, meeting in the Second Chiang-Chen Talks in Taiwan, took a historical step in the further development of cross-Strait relations. Agreements were signed on direct air and sea transport, postal services and food-safety security. On 22 December 2009, the Fourth Chiang- Chen Talks took place in Taizhong and more substantial and technical agreements were signed on agriculture, inspection/ accreditation and fisheries. It seems that continuous integration between China and Taiwan is inevitable. To address the implications of this process for Taiwan’s domestic economy, four dimensions of the current cross-Strait relationship are scrutinized: guanxi, plutocracy, legalism and the idea of a Chinese Common Market. It is argued that in order to intensify economic co-operation across the Taiwan Strait, more institutionalization of the cross-Strait relationship must be brought about.

  14. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  15. Liquid freshwater transport estimates from the East Greenland Current based on continuous measurements north of Denmark Strait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Macrander, A.; Våge, K.; Harden, B.; Jónsson, S.; Østerhus, S.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC are determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11 month mean freshwater transport (FWT), relative to a salinity of 34.8, was 65

  16. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310 Section 165.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  17. Hearing the Voice of Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Training Stakeholders Using Research Methodologies and Theoretical Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, John; Osborne, Sam; Arnott, Allan; McRae-Williams, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander contexts within Australia are frequently faced with the challenges of working in an intercultural space where channels of communication are garbled with interference created by the complexities of misunderstood worldviews, languages, values and expectations. A concern of many researchers…

  18. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  19. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  20. Splitting of Atlantic water transport towards the Arctic Ocean into the Fram Strait and Barents Sea Branches - mechanisms and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Skagseth, Øystein; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Walczowski, Waldemar; Lien, Vidar

    2016-04-01

    The heat content in the Arctic Ocean is to a large extent determined by oceanic advection from the south. During the last two decades the extraordinary warm Atlantic water (AW) inflow has been reported to progress through the Nordic Seas into the Arctic Ocean. Warm anomalies can result from higher air temperatures (smaller heat loss) in the Nordic Seas, and/or from an increased oceanic advection. But the ultimate fate of warm anomalies of Atlantic origin depends strongly on their two possible pathways towards the Arctic Ocean. The AW temperature changes from 7-10°C at the entrance to the Nordic Seas, to 6-6.5°C in the Barents Sea opening and 3-3.5°C as the AW leaving Fram Strait enters the Arctic Ocean. When AW passes through the shallow Barents Sea, nearly all its heat is lost due to atmospheric cooling and AW looses its signature. In the deep Fram Strait the upper part of Atlantic water becomes transformed into a less saline and colder surface layer and thus AW preserves its warm core. A significant warming and high variability of AW volume transport was observed in two recent decades in the West Spitsbergen Current, representing the Fram Strait Branch of Atlantic inflow. The AW inflow through Fram Strait carries between 26 and 50 TW of heat into the Arctic Ocean. While the oceanic heat influx to the Barents Sea is of a similar order, the heat leaving it through the northern exit into the Arctic Ocean is negligible. The relative strength of two Atlantic water branches through Fram Strait and the Barents Sea governs the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean. According to recently proposed mechanism, the Atlantic water flow in the Barents Sea Branch is controlled by the strength of atmospheric low over the northern Barents Sea, acting through a wind-induced Ekman divergence, which intensifies eastward AW flow. The Atlantic water transport in the Fram Strait Branch is mainly forced by the large-scale low-pressure system over the eastern Norwegian and

  1. Assessment of circulation and inter-basin transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  3. Assessment of Circulation and Inter-Basin Transport in the Salish Sea including Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Long, Wen; Xu, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    The Salish Sea consisting of Puget Sound and Georgia Basin in U.S and Canadian waters has been the subject of several independent data collection and modeling studies. However, these interconnected basins and their hydrodynamic interactions have not received attention as a contiguous unit. The Strait of Juan de Fuca is the primary pathway through which Pacific Ocean water enters the Salish Sea but the role played by Johnstone Strait and the complex channels northeast of Vancouver Island, connecting the Salish Sea and the Pacific Ocean, on overall Salish Sea circulation has not been characterized. In this paper we present a modeling-based assessment of the two-layer circulation and transport through the multiple interconnected sub-basins within the Salish Sea including the effect of exchange via Johnstone Strait and Discovery Islands. The Salish Sea Model previously developed using the finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was expanded over the continental shelf for this assessment encircling Vancouver Island, including Discovery Islands, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Archipelago and the associated waterways. A computational technique was developed to allow summation of volume fluxes across arbitrary transects through unstructured finite volume cells. Tidally averaged volume fluxes were computed at multiple transects. The results were used to validate the classic model of Circulation in Embracing Sills for Puget Sound and to provide quantitative estimates of the lateral distribution of tidally averaged transport through the system. Sensitivity tests with and without exchanges through Johnstone Strait demonstrate that it is a pathway for Georgia Basin runoff and Fraser River water to exit the Salish Sea and for Pacific Ocean inflow. However the relative impact of this exchange on circulation and flushing in Puget Sound Basin is small.

  4. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  5. Isotopic and geochemical signatures of Late Quaternary sediments in the Fram Strait area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccali, J.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Carignan, J.; Reisberg, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic freshwater/sea-ice export through Fram Strait contributes to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and acts as a trigger or feedback mechanism in the climate/ocean system. Here, geochemical and isotopic analyses of cores raised along a transect through the Strait are used to document changes in sediment sources and sea-ice transport since the LGM. Radiogenic isotope and elemental data in leachable fractions vs residues are used as proxies for water mass vs sediment source signatures, respectively. Unequivocal linkage between leachates and water-mass properties are illustrated by the anthropogenic-lead overprint in leachates from core-top sediments. Below this polluted layer, leachates and residues from late Holocene sediments carry distinct geochemical signatures E and W of the Strait. Eastward, below the North Atlantic Water (NAW) mass flowing northward, Th/Zr and Th/Pb concentration ratios ranging 0.040-0.041 and 0.85-0.90, respectively, label GIN seas and western Spitzbergen sediment-sources. Westward, below outflowing Arctic waters and sea-ice routes, these ratios range 0.032-0.035 and 0.72-0.75, respectively, and label NE Greenland and Arctic sediment sources. Pb-isotopes exhibit a similar pattern with sediment carrying a mixed Variscan-Pan-African signature below the NAW route, and a mixture of less radiogenic sources in sediments deposited below the outflowing Arctic waters and sea-ice route. Back in time, divergent trends in some radiogenic isotope values are recorded westward, below the outflowing Arctic waters and sea-ice route. Whereas isotopic properties of residues suggest sedimentary supplies originating from the Canadian Arctic and/or the NW Greenland margin, lead data from leachates bear an "Arctic Ocean" signature illustrating variable relative contributions from the Russian vs Canadian ice-margins and/or rivers. During deglacial times, a significant change in sedimentary supplies is recorded at ~ 14 ka along with some

  6. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid impression material and to examine its physical characteristic. Methods: The methods of research including extraction natrium alginate from Sargassum sp, synthesis of dental impression material and the test of porosity, density, viscosity, and water content of impression material which fulfilled the standard of material used in clinical application in dentistry. Results: Extraction result of Sargassum sp was natrium alginate powder with cream colour, odorless, and water soluble. The water content of natrium alginate was 21.64% and the viscosity was 0.7 cPs. The best porosity result in the sample with the addition of trinatrium phosphate 4% was 3.61%. Density value of impression material was 3 gr/cm3. Conclusion: The research suggested that brown algae Sargassum sp from Madura strait is potential as hydrocolloid impression material, due to its physical properties which close to dental impression material, but still need further research to optimize the physical characteristic.Latar belakang: Alga coklat adalah sumber bahan baku material natrium alginat. Salah satu jenis alga coklat adalah Sargassum sp yang merupakan anggota divisi Phaeophyta. Sargassum sp dapat ditemukan di Selat Madura Indonesia. Natrium alginat dapat diekstraksi dari Sargassum sp. Kebutuhan akan bahan ini di Indonesia sebagian besar dipenuhi dari impor, padahal ketersediaan Sargassum sp di Indonesia sangat melimpah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi potensi alga coklat

  7. A Law Approach to Construct the Disputes Resolution Centre of the Straits Economic Zone%海峡西岸经济区纠纷解决中心建设的法律分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慰星

    2011-01-01

    海峡西岸经济区是一个富集区位资源的地理区划概念。区位能理论解释区位资源自我增强并促进区位发展的原理,并说明了海西经济区纠纷解决中心应当具备区位能优势,实现自我增强。通过实证分析可知,厦门在海西经济区中具备机制、人才和法律的优势区位能,可以依此被打造为海西纠纷解决中心,并同时能藉此实现中心区域的自我增强和发展。%Straits economic zone is a geographical concept of regionalization with abundance resources. Theory of location capability can be applied to explain how the location resources to be self - strengthen and illuminate that its disputes resolution centre should have the location capability to make itself stronger. With the advantages of system, people and legislation, we know that Xiamen city has its potential to be constructed a disputes resolution centre of straits economic zone through the cases study.

  8. On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Carstensen, J.; Ellermann, T.

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen...... are calculated by the periodic maximum method and the results are successfully compared to a map of chlorophyll return periods based on in-situ observations. The one-year return of extreme atmospheric wet deposition is around 60 mg N m(-2) day(-1) and 30 mg N m(-2) day(-1) for deep-water entrainment. Atmospheric......-water entrainment forced by high winds greatly exceeds the atmospheric pool of nitrogen washed out by precipitation. At the frontal zone of the Kattegat Strait and Skagerrak, the nitrogen deep-water entrainment is very high and this explains the high 10-year return chlorophyll level at 8 mg m(-3) in the Kattegat...

  9. Manganese, nickel, selenium and cadmium in molluscs from the Magellan Strait, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga España, M S; Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Díaz Romero, C

    2004-08-01

    The concentrations of manganese, selenium, nickel and cadmium were determined in 112 samples of molluscs belonging to mussels (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47) and limpets (Nacella deaurata, n = 65), which were collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait, Chile. Four (6.2%) samples of limpets exceeded the maximum limits for cadmium established in Europe. Limpets showed higher mean manganese, nickel and cadmium concentrations than mussels, whilst the mean selenium concentration in mussels was higher. The consumption of one serving (100 g) of molluscs represents a considerable contribution to the dietary daily intake of selenium, and limpets make a significant contribution to the manganese and cadmium intakes. The sampling zone influenced the trace element concentrations, and different uptakes were observed between the mollusc species.

  10. Statistical analysis of strait time index and a simple model for trend and trend reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze the daily closing prices of the Strait Time Index (STI) as well as the individual stocks traded in Singapore's stock market from 1988 to 2001. We find that the Hurst exponent is approximately 0.6 for both the STI and individual stocks, while the normal correlation functions show the random walk exponent of 0.5. We also investigate the conditional average of the price change in an interval of length T given the price change in the previous interval. We find strong correlations for price changes larger than a threshold value proportional to T; this indicates that there is no uniform crossover to Gaussian behavior. A simple model based on short-time trend and trend reversal is constructed. We show that the model exhibits statistical properties and market swings similar to those of the real market.

  11. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater from the Western Taiwan Strait, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Seawater samples (including surface water and bottom water) were collected from the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) during June 24-25, 2009; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dissolved phase and particulate phase were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the dissolved phase and particulate phase were ranged from 12.3 to 58.0 ng L(-1), and 10.3-45.5 ng L(-1), which showed a low-middle contamination level in the China Seas. The spatial variability of PAHs may be related to the complicated currents of WTS, especially the Min-Zhe coastal current. PAHs diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs mainly originated from the inputs of pyrolytic (combustion) sources, which might be contributed to land-based atmospheric deposition. The particle-water partition coefficients of individual PAH showed that partitions were not correlated with suspended particulate matter content, dissolved organic carbon or salinity, similar to the Yangtze coastal area.

  12. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity...... building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities...

  13. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  14. Meteorologically-driven circulation and flushing times of the Bay of Algeciras, Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Garrido, José C; Lafuente, Jesús García; Sammartino, Simone; Naranjo, Cristina; de los Santos, Francisco J; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2014-03-15

    A primitive-equation model has been used to investigate the meteorologically-driven circulation of the Bay of Algeciras. It is shown that the mean circulation of Atlantic Water (AW) is characterized by an anticyclonic cell, while Mediterranean Water (MW) follows a preferred cyclonic pathway. Meteorological forcing distorts substantially the AW mean circulation pattern, and only modulates that of the MW. Winds drive a vertical circulation cell in the Atlantic layer consistent with Ekman dynamics, whereas the horizontal circulation pattern is markedly dependent on the swift Atlantic jet entering the Mediterranean and changes from clearly anticyclonic to cyclonic as the jet separates or approaches the strait's northern shoreline. This occurs through atmospheric pressure-driven acceleration/deceleration of the jet, in agreement with internal hydraulics theory predictions. It is also found that the renewal of AW is largely modulated by tides, with meteorological forcing playing a secondary role. The opposite applies to the renewal of MW.

  15. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...... radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river...... runoff into the Arctic Ocean. Role of attenuation of light by CDOM in determining underwater light regime will become more important, with a potential for future increase in marine productivity in the area of EGC due to elevated PAR and lowered UV light exposures....

  16. A shark in the stars: astronomy and culture in the Torres Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2014-01-01

    Technology has, without doubt, expanded our understanding of space. The Voyager 1 space probe is on the brink of leaving our solar system. Massive telescopes have discovered blasts of fast radio bursts from 10 billion light years away. And after a decade on Mars, a Rover recently found evidence for an early ocean on the Red Planet. But with every new advance, it's also important to remember the science of astronomy has existed for thousands of years and forms a vital part of Indigenous Australian culture, even today. As an example, let's explore the astronomy of the Torres Strait Islanders, an Indigenous Australian people living between the tip of Cape York and Papua New Guinea.

  17. Broadband waveform inversion of moderate earthquakes in the Messina Straits, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    We report the first application of the Cut and Paste (CAP) method to compute earthquake focal mechanisms in the Messina Straits area by waveform inversion of Pnl and surface wave segments. This application of CAP has furnished new knowledge about low-magnitude earthquake mechanics that will be useful for improved understanding of the local geodynamics. This is possible because the CAP inversion technique can be applied to small earthquakes, for which traditional moment tensor inversion methods are not appropriate and P-onset focal mechanisms in the study area fail because of a lack of sufficient observations. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 23 earthquakes with local magnitudes in the range of 3-4 occurring in the 2004-2008 time period, and recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in the northern part of the study area while co-existence of normal faulting and strike-slip has been detected in the southern part. In the whole area of investigation the T-axes of focal mechanisms display a preferential northwest-southeast direction of extension. Combined with the findings of previous investigations, this improved database of focal mechanisms allows us to better detail the transitional area between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (western-central Sicily). The observed spatial change of seismic deformation regime offers new data to current seismotectonic and seismic hazard investigations in the area of Messina Straits where a magnitude 7.2 earthquake caused more than 60,000 casualties on 28 December 1908.

  18. Ten years of marine current measurements in Espartel Sill, Strait of Gibraltar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, S.; García Lafuente, J.; Naranjo, C.; Sánchez Garrido, J. C.; Sánchez Leal, R.; Sánchez Román, A.

    2015-09-01

    More than 10 year of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observations collected at the westernmost sill (Espartel sill) of the Strait of Gibraltar by a monitoring station have been carefully processed to provide the most updated estimation of the Mediterranean outflow. A comprehensive quality control of the factors affecting the uncertainty of the measurements has been carried out and great care has been paid to infer the current at the bottom layer, where direct observations are lacking. The mean outflow in the southern channel of the sill section has been estimated as -0.82 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1), with an average contribution of the eddy fluxes of -0.04 Sv. This figure is an overestimation, as the mooring measurements, assumed valid for the whole section, ignore the lateral friction. On the other hand, it only gives the flow through the southern channel and disregards the fraction flowing through shallower northern part. Both drawbacks have been addressed by investigating the cross-strait structure of the outflow from hindcasts produced by the MITgcm numerical model, run in a high-resolution domain covering the Gulf of Cádiz and Alboran Sea basins. An overall rectifying factor of 1.039 was found satisfactory to correct the first estimate, so that the final mean outflow computed from this data set is -0.85 Sv, complemented with an uncertainty of ±0.03 Sv based on the interannual variability of the series. The temporal analysis of the series shows an outflow seasonality of around the 8% of the mean value, with maximum outflow in early spring.

  19. FCJ-140 Radio Feeds, Satellite Feeds, Network Feeds: Subjectivity Across the Straits of Gibraltar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Knouf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with the practices surrounding the two fadaiat encounters that took place simultaneously in Spain and Morocco in the summers of 2004 and 2005 (see http://fadaiat.net/ .  The fadaiat project focused on the question of immigration to Europe, specifically from northern Africa, and the ‘Fortress Europe’ responses by European Union governments.  Participants in fadaiat included academic scholars, free software developers, artists, and activists, forming a meta-network that created bridges across disparate communities and practices.  In particular, the participation of the Spanish collective hackitectura was key; they describe themselves as a ‘posse of architects, hackers and social activists experimenting in the merging territories of recombining spatial cyborgs composed by physical spaces, ICT networks and bodies’.  hackitectura led the development of both a temporary civil, non-commercial wireless link across the straits of Gibraltar between Tarifa, Spain and Tangier, Morocco, as well as an entirely free software audio/video streaming system, that enabled participants on both sides to come together independently of the restrictions normally placed on such movement by immigration laws.The importance of free software for fadaiat extends beyond its purely instrumental use as an agent for disrupting state control.  Indeed, the imagery of computation and free software – networks, links, patches, nodes, penguins – pervades the documentation of the project.  Rave parties simulcast across the straits are as important as the discussions and software produced.  I suggest that this can be understood as developing new forms of subjectivity, in the sense given by Felix Guattari, and therefore link the fadaiat project to earlier pirate radio practices, especially Radio Alice in Bologna, Italy, in which Guattari was involved.

  20. Physical, biological and optical oceanographic data collected from moored buoys in the Bering Strait from 08/16/2004 to 09/03/2007 (NODC Accession 0045300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, current meter, biological, and optical oceanographic data were collected in the Bering Strait from August 16, 2004 to September 3, 2007. These data were...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bald eagle, great blue heron, and seabird nesting sites in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for forage fish in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector polygons in this data set...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains points that represent the following sensitive human-use socioeconomic sites in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: access...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea otters, sea lions, and harbor seals in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector...

  8. Current speed and direction, temperature and salinity collected from Moored Buoy in Davis Strait from 1987-09-05 to 1990-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0129882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volume, freshwater and heat transport through Davis Strait, the northern boundary of the Labrador Basin, were computed using a mooring array deployed for three...

  9. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  10. Validation of risk assessment scales and predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a cross-sectional survey protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoking is a very significant behavioural risk factor for the health of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, and is embedded as a social norm. With a focus on women of childbearing age, and men of similar age, this project aims to determine how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers assess smoking risks and how these assessments contribute to their intentions to quit. The findings from this pragmatic study should contribute to developing culturally ta...

  11. International law of the sea and national legislation on piracy and terrorism in the straits of Malacca: a study in law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ja'afar, Sabirin Bin

    2007-01-01

    The issue of piracy and maritime terrorism becomes complicated when it is discussed in relation to the rights of the coastal states regarding the right of passage in straits used for international navigation. One of the issues in this respect is the conflicting interests of littoral states that insist on sovereignty over the sea areas adjacent to their coast and the needs of user states to retain and indeed to have more freedom in navigation while passing through and overflying these straits....

  12. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  13. A Numerical Model of Seawater Volume and Velocity Dynamic for Marine Currents Power Plant in the Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Taunaumang, H.; Sangari, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    One of equipment as prime movers in the marine current power plant is turbine. Marine current turbines require a data of marine currents velocity in its design. The objective of this study was to get the velocities distribution of marine currents in the Bangka strait. The method used survey, observation, and measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of seawater density conducted measurement in the Bangka strait. The data of width and depth of the strait collected from the map of Bangka strait and its depth of the sea. Problem solving of the study used a numerical model. The velocities distribution of marine current obtained from a numerical model in the form of numerical program. The results showed that the velocities distribution at seawater column when low and high tide currents which the maximum happened at 0.1 Sv were 0-0.9 and 0-1.0 m/s respectively, while at 0.3 Sv were 0-2.7 and 0-3.0 m/s respectively. The results will be a product in analyzing the potential kinetic energy that used to design profile of the turbines as prime mover for marine currents power plant in the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

  14. Study on the seasonal migration of surface suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Jian; Ye, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of suspended sediment directly affects the optical properties such as transparency and water color, and aquatic environment as well. This paper selects the Taiwan Strait as study area, establishes inversion mode of suspended sediment by coupling field data with remote sensing reflectance from MODIS data. Monthly-averaged concentrations and seasonal changes of suspended sediment from 2003 to 2012 were calculated and analyzed by the mode. The main results are as follows:(1) remote sensing reflectance at 555nm from MODIS data has high relativity with the field observed turbidity by regression equation of Y =0.8931e123.93x in which Y is TSM concentration, X is Rrs555 and R2 is 0.6836. (2)Suspended sediment in the Taiwan Strait has obviously spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, that higher concentration of suspended sediment is in coastal water and decreases from shore to sea, and highest concentration happens in winter.

  15. An Experiment to Evaluate Skylab Earth Resources Sensors for Detection of the Gulf Stream. [Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Gordon, H. R.; Baig, S. R.; Mccaslin, M.; Devivo, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An experiment to evaluate the Skylab earth resources package for observing ocean currents was performed in the Straits of Florida in January 1974. Data from the S190 photographic facility, S191 spectroradiometer and S192 multispectral scanner, were compared with surface observations. The anticyclonic edge of the Gulf Stream could be identified in the Skylab S190A and B photographs, but the cyclonic edge was obscured by clouds. The aircraft photographs were judged not useful for spectral analysis because vignetting caused the blue/green ratios to be dependent on the position in the photograph. The spectral measurement technique could not identify the anticyclonic front, but mass of Florida Bay water which was in the process of flowing into the Straits could be identified and classified. Monte Carlo simulations of the visible spectrum showed that the aerosol concentration could be estimated and a correction technique was devised.

  16. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-04-24

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80-11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open.

  17. Distribution of Synechococcus sp. and Synechococcus bacillaris in the waters of the Straits of Magellan (April 1995-early austral autumn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G; Zaccone, R

    1998-10-01

    During the last oceanographic cruise carried out in the Straits of Magellan (April 1995), a serological approach was used in order to determine the distribution and composition of the picophytoplankton community with respect to two cyanobacteria species, Synechococcus sp. and bacillaris, characterized respectively by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as the main accessory photosynthetic pigment. In the period examined, the Straits were characterized by generally low concentrations of total picophytoplankton (10(5)-10(6) cells/l). The qualitative composition of the community showed the prevalence of the species Synechococcus sp. in the Pacific basin, whereas S. bacillaris appears to be predominant in the central area. The immunofluorescence method proved to be effective in the study of the diversity of these microorganisms in aquatic environments.

  18. Research on cross-strait mutual legal assistance of anti-money laundering%海峡两岸反洗钱司法互助研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2014-01-01

    We should improve cross-strait mutual legal assistance of anti-money laundering from three aspects. The nainland and Taiwan should actively participate in international and regional anti-money laundering organizations for solving the problem of mutual legal assistance based on the characteristics of money laundering. Both sides should ascertain criminal jurisdiction of money laundering and establish mechanism on recognition and enforcement of criminal judgments to serve the anti-money laundering cooperation for solving the problem of the legal mechanism against money laundering. Both sides should also give play to the role of“Cross-strait Joint Fight against Crime and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement” and perfect personnel repatriated, the criminal return (transfer) and money laundering investigation gradually for solving the problem of bilateral agreement on mutual legal assistance of anti-money laundering.%海峡两岸反洗钱司法互助问题应从三个方面予以完善:对于基于洗钱犯罪特征的司法互助问题,两岸应从积极参与国际及区域性反洗钱组织并加强合作的途径予以解决;对于基于两岸反洗钱法律机制的司法互助问题,两岸应明确洗钱犯罪的刑事管辖权并建立刑事裁判互认及执行机制以服务反洗钱合作;对于基于两岸双边协议的反洗钱司法互助问题,两岸应着重发挥《海峡两岸共同打击犯罪及司法互助协议》的作用并在人员遣返、罪犯移管及洗钱罪的调查取证等方面逐步完善。

  19. Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS protocol: a cohort study investigating the significance of minor echocardiographic abnormalities in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémond Marc Gerard Wootton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, rheumatic heart disease (RHD is almost exclusively restricted to Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander people with children being at highest risk. International criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of RHD have been developed but the significance of minor heart valve abnormalities which do not reach these criteria remains unclear. The Rheumatic Fever Follow-Up Study (RhFFUS aims to clarify this question in children and adolescents at high risk of RHD. Methods/design RhFFUS is a cohort study of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and adolescents aged 8–17 years residing in 32 remote Australian communities. Cases are people with non-specific heart valve abnormalities detected on prior screening echocardiography. Controls (two per case are age, gender, community and ethnicity-matched to cases and had a prior normal screening echocardiogram. Participants will have echocardiography about 3 years after initial screening echocardiogram and enhanced surveillance for any history suggestive of acute rheumatic fever (ARF. It will then be determined if cases are at higher risk of (1 ARF or (2 developing progressive echocardiography-detected valve changes consistent with RHD. The occurrence and timing of episodes of ARF will be assessed retrospectively for 5 years from the time of the RhFFUS echocardiogram. Episodes of ARF will be identified through regional surveillance and notification databases, carer/subject interviews, primary healthcare history reviews, and hospital separation diagnoses. Progression of valvular abnormalities will be assessed prospectively using transthoracic echocardiography and standardized operating and reporting procedures. Progression of valve lesions will be determined by specialist cardiologist readers who will assess the initial screening and subsequent RhFFUS screening echocardiogram for each participant. The readers will be blinded to the initial assessment and

  20. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait) during ongoing sea ice melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Kattner, G.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Stimac, I.

    2011-05-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  1. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait during ongoing sea ice melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  2. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Kathryn J.; Bond, Kathy S.; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, AJ

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian...

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of soft-bottom peracarid (Crustacea: Peracarida infauna in the Canakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASLAN-CIHANGIR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity and distribution of soft-bottom peracarid crustaceans were analyzed in the south part of Canakkale Strait, a very important biological corridor between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Samples were collected seasonally from 11 coastal stations at depths ranging from 10 to 22 m. Moreover, qualitative samples were collected in summer from 7 stations (40 - 83 m depth located in the middle part of the Strait. A total of 110 species were identified. Amphipods were the dominant group both in terms of species richness and abundance. Apocorophium acutum, Phtisica marina and Microdeutopus versiculatus were the most abundant species. A large number of rare species was recorded, leading to very low similarity values among stations. Six different feeding types were detected, with surface deposit feeders being the dominant one in the area. Significant differences in abundances and assemblage structure were detected along the eastern and western coasts of the Strait that could be attributed to food supply and sediment composition, depending on bottom current velocities. Possible relations of peracarids with the hydrological regime of the area are also discussed.

  4. The ideas of Frantz Fanon and culturally safe practices for aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Luke; Grootjans, John

    2014-03-01

    Mainstream mental health services in Australia have failed to provide culturally appropriate care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people despite several national reports and policies that have attempted to promote positive service development in response to the calls for change from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. In light of this situation, this article considers the ideas of Frantz Fanon and their potential for promoting cultural safety (Ramsden, 2002) in mainstream mental health services. This article argues that Fanon's ideas provide a conceptual strategy for nurses that prompts reflection and establishes a critical theoretical perspective linking power imbalance and inequitable social relationships in health care, thus complementing the aims of cultural safety. The purpose of this critical reflection is to guide nurses' understanding of the relationship between colonization and health status in order to change their attitudes from those that continue to support current hegemonic practices and systems of health care to those that support the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  5. STRait Razor: a length-based forensic STR allele-calling tool for use with second generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, David H; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar; Jain, Ravi; Davis, Carey; Larue, Bobby; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of second generation sequencing (SGS) to provide coverage of short tandem repeats (STRs) found within the human genome. However, there are relatively few bioinformatic software packages capable of detecting these markers in the raw sequence data. The extant STR-calling tools are sophisticated, but are not always applicable to the analysis of the STR loci commonly used in forensic analyses. STRait Razor is a newly developed Perl-based software tool that runs on the Linux/Unix operating system and is designed to detect forensically-relevant STR alleles in FASTQ sequence data, based on allelic length. It is capable of analyzing STR loci with repeat motifs ranging from simple to complex without the need for extensive allelic sequence data. STRait Razor is designed to interpret both single-end and paired-end data and relies on intelligent parallel processing to reduce analysis time. Users are presented with a number of customization options, including variable mismatch detection parameters, as well as the ability to easily allow for the detection of alleles at new loci. In its current state, the software detects alleles for 44 autosomal and Y-chromosome STR loci. The study described herein demonstrates that STRait Razor is capable of detecting STR alleles in data generated by multiple library preparation methods and two Illumina(®) sequencing instruments, with 100% concordance. The data also reveal noteworthy concepts related to the effect of different preparation chemistries and sequencing parameters on the bioinformatic detection of STR alleles.

  6. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Condren, O M; Downes, A B; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    1999-09-30

    New data on the vertical distributions of plutonium and americium in the waters of the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar are examined in terms of the processes governing their delivery to, transport in and removal from the water column within the basin. Residence times for plutonium and americium in surface waters of approximately 15 and approximately 3 years, respectively, are deduced, and it is shown that by the mid 1990s only approximately 35% of the 239,240Pu and approximately 5% of the 241Am deposited as weapons fallout still resided in the water column. Present 239,240Pu inventories in the water column and the underlying sediments are estimated to be approximately 25 TBq and approximately 40 TBq, respectively, which reconcile well with the time-integrated fallout deposition in this zone, taken to be approximately 69 TBq. The data show that there are significant net outward fluxes of plutonium and americium from the basin through the Strait of Gibraltar at the present time. These appear to be compensated by net inward fluxes of similar magnitude through the Strait of Sicily. Thus, the time-integrated fallout deposition in the western basin can be accounted for satisfactorily in terms of present water column and sediment inventories. Enhanced scavenging on the continental shelves, as evidenced by the appreciably higher transuranic concentrations in shelf sediments, supports this contention.

  7. Lateral supply and downward export of particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Catherine; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hardge, Kristin; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed at 4 depths in the eastern Fram Strait from July 2007 to June 2008 to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of the sinking particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor. Sediment traps were deployed at 196 m in the Atlantic Water layer, at 1296 and 2364 m in the intermediate and deep waters, and at 2430 m on a benthic lander in the near-bottom layer. Fluxes of total particulate matter, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic matter, lithogenic matter, biogenic particulate silica, calcium carbonate, dominant phytoplankton cells, and zooplankton fecal pellets increased with depth, indicating the importance of lateral advection on fluxes in the deep Fram Strait. The lateral supply of particulate matter was further supported by the constant fluxes of biomarkers such as brassicasterol, alkenones, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and IP25 at all depths sampled. However, enhanced fluxes of diatoms and appendicularian fecal pellets from the upper waters to the seafloor in the presence of ice during spring indicated the rapid export (15-35 days) of locally-produced large particles that likely contributed most of the food supply to the benthic communities. These results show that lateral supply and downward fluxes are both important processes influencing the transport of particulate matter to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait, and that particulate matter size dictates the prevailing sinking process.

  8. The fundamental characteristics of current in the Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea from July to September 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; DU Ling; ZHAO Jinping; ZUO Juncheng; LI Peiliang

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of current in the Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea are analyzed based on the two current data on the mooring stations during the Second National Arctic Research Expedition of China in 2003. The tidal currents of the principal diurnal and semidiurnal ellipses rotate clockwise in the upper layer, except for N2, S2, and Q1 at Sta. ST. In the Bering Strait (Sta. ST), the major semi-axis of tidal current constituent M2 is 2.9 cm/s in the upper layer, which is much smaller than that of semi-monthly oscillation (11.8 cm/s);and the mean current flows northwestward at the amplitude of about 20 cm/s and varies a little with depth. During the cruise, the current has significant semi-monthly oscillation at the two mooring stations. The spectra analyses of the air pressure gradient and the wind stress show that there are the semi-monthly oscillations in these two data series. The near-inertial current, approximately 4 cm/s, presents almost the same magnitude of the principal tidal currents in the Bering Strait.

  9. Effect of increased pCO(2) on bacterial assemblage shifts in response to glucose addition in Fram Strait seawater mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jessica L; Töpper, Birte; An, Shu; Silyakova, Anna; Spindelböck, Joachim; Thyrhaug, Runar; DuBow, Michael S; Thingstad, T Frede; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification may stimulate primary production through increased availability of inorganic carbon in the photic zone, which may in turn change the biogenic flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the growth potential of heterotrophic bacteria. To investigate the effects of ocean acidification on marine bacterial assemblages, a two-by-three factorial mescosom experiment was conducted using surface sea water from the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V2 region of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes was used to investigate differences in the endpoint (Day 9) composition of bacterial assemblages in mineral nutrient-replete mesocosms amended with glucose (0 μM, 5.3 μM and 15.9 μM) under ambient (250 μatm) or acidified (400 μatm) partial pressures of CO(2) (pCO(2)). All mesocosms showed low richness and diversity by Chao1 estimator and Shannon index, respectively, with general dominance by Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis and two-way analysis of variance of the Jaccard dissimilarity matrix (97% similarity cut-off) demonstrated that the significant community shift between 0 μM and 15.9 μM glucose addition at 250 μatm pCO(2) was eliminated at 400 μatm pCO(2). These results suggest that the response potential of marine bacteria to DOC input may be altered under acidified conditions.

  10. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  11. Friction and mixing effects on potential vorticity for bottom current crossing a marine strait: an application to the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Falcini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity (PV for a bottom current crossing a marine channel in shallow-water approximation, focusing on the effect of friction and mixing. We argue that bottom current vorticity is prone to significant sign changes and oscillations due to topographic effects when, in particular, the current flows over the sill of a channel. These vorticity variations are, however, modulated by frictional effects due to seafloor roughness and morphology. Such behavior is also reflected in the PV spatial evolution, which shows an abrupt peak around the sill region. Our theoretical findings are discussed by means of in situ hydrographic data related to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water, i.e., a dense, bottom water vein that flows northwestward, along the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea. Indeed, the narrow sill of this channel implies that friction and entrainment need to be considered. Small tidal effects in the Sicily Channel allow for a steady theoretical approach. Our diagnoses on vorticity and PV allow us to obtain general insights about the effect of mixing and friction on the pathway and internal structure of bottom-trapped currents flowing through channels and straits, and to discuss spatial variability of the frictional coefficient. Our approach significantly differs from other PV-constant approaches previously used in studying the dynamics of bottom currents flowing through rotating channels.

  12. Indigenous Communities and Cross­Strait Rapprochement: A Case Study of Chun­-ri and Shih-­wen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Kao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Absent from most public debates on Taiwan’s embrace of neoliberal capitalism are the potential consequences of economic liberalization for Taiwan’s indigenous peoples. Deregulating markets and unfettering capital and resources are tied inextricably with cross-Strait politics. With a deep-seated apprehension of China still felt in many corners of the Taiwanese society, these issues are often framed with particular emphasis on the “China Factor”, overshadowing other relevant economic and societal considerations and thereby narrowing the scope of debate over government policies. Nevertheless, the potential influx of foreign capital investment, long- and short-term migrant labor and international visitors may have profound effects on Taiwan’s most vulnerable citizens, including the indigenous peoples. This paper will report the results of field research conducted among the Paiwan ethnic group, assessing actual and potential future changes affecting their individual families and communities. Preliminary assessment indicates that official policies liberalizing visitation and trade between China and Taiwan have already affected the Paiwan communities. Whether these changes become handicaps or opportunities depends on realistic evaluation, strategic planning, education, implementation, and periodic re-evaluation. This paper will contribute to the larger discussion of possible responses to the effects of inter-regional migration and transformations on minority societies by providing an assessment of current and potential conditions among the Paiwan of Taiwan.

  13. The Strait of Gibraltar poses an effective barrier to host-specialised but not to host-generalised lineages of avian Haemosporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Vanessa A; da Silva, Luís P; Lopes, Ricardo J; Drovetski, Sergei V

    2015-09-01

    One of the major concerns with ongoing environmental global change is the ability of parasites to shift their distribution (both geographically and across hosts) and to increase in virulence. To understand the structure, diversity and connectivity of parasite communities across the Mediterranean Sea, we used avian haemosporidian communities associated with forest birds of northwestern Africa and northwestern Iberia as a model system. We characterised host specificity of lineages and tested whether host generalists are more likely to cross the biogeographic barrier imposed by the Strait of Gibraltar than host specialists. We sampled 321 birds of 43 species in northwestern Africa and 735 birds of 49 species in northwestern Iberia. Using a PCR-based approach to amplify Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon parasites, we retrieved 969 sequences representing 200 unique cytochrome-b lineages. Haemosporidians infected a significantly higher proportion of birds in northwestern Africa (78.5%) than in northwestern Iberia (50.5%). Relative diversity of different haemosporidian genera did not differ between our study areas, but Plasmodium was overrepresented among individual infections in northwestern Iberia. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon lineages were predominantly host-specialised and Plasmodium lineages were host-generalised. The number of regions occupied by lineages was significantly associated with their host specificity and abundance. These data are consistent with the positive abundance-occupancy relationship and patterns of host specificity among different haemosporidian genera observed in other studies.

  14. Dolphin Watching in the Southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape, Philippines: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemnuel V. Aragones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin watching is a growing economic activity in the southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape (TSPS, the Philippines, an area that is also heavily exploited by fisheries. In order to examine the issues and challenges in this growing industry, we monitored relevant information regarding cetacean watching, conducted focus group discussions (FGDs and educational seminar-workshops for various local stakeholders from 2004 to 2006, and followed these up from 2008-2012. From 9 May to 16 August 2004, we conducted structured interviews to determine the perceptions of cetacean-watching tourists (CWTs and assess the level of local knowledge of f ishers and non-fishers (NFs regarding marine mammals and environmental management in this area. Ninety f ive (95 CWTs, 100 local fishers, and 64 NFs were interviewed. Sixty seven percent (n=64 of the CWTs believed that the overall quality of tours was impressive primarily because they were able to watch, at reasonable costs, large groups of dolphins in close proximity and in an almost pristine environment. The majority of CWTs (~91% felt that there is a need to develop a ‘Special Management Plan’ (SMP for the southern TSPS focusing on cetaceans and their habitats. The increasing number of dolphin watching boats, heavy exploitation of f ishing ground, misperception of local f ishers that cetaceans are competitors with f isheries, and lack of a SMP or a Management Plan per se for TSPS warranted the facilitation of a participatory management process to protect the cetaceans and their habitats.This study has shown that even with only preliminary results, survey interviews of key stakeholders in combination with FGDs and seminar-workshop could be critical in facilitating a participatory management process. In the case of the TSPS, this par ticipatory approach led to the formation of the Tañon Strait Association of Dolphin and Whale Watching Operators, Inc. (TaSADoWWI, and eventual development of cetacean

  15. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  16. Baseline concentrations of trace metals in macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga-España, Maria Soledad; Calisto-Ulloa, Nancy Cristina; Guerrero, Sandra

    2008-02-01

    Samples of four different species of seaweed were collected monthly between October 2000 and March 2001 from the coast of the Strait of Magellan, Chile to establish baseline levels of trace metals (silver, total mercury, nickel, lead, antimony, vanadium and zinc) and to compare the accumulation capacity among species. The algae included in the study were Adenocystis utricularis (n=15); Enteromorpha sp. (n=11), Mazzaella laminarioides (n=12) and Porphyra columbina (n=6). The concentration range of each metal in microg g(-1) dry weight varied as follows: Ag=ND-0.3, Hg=ND-0.02, Ni=ND-12.6, Pb = ND-11.2, Sb=ND-1.97, V=ND-11.34 and Zn=14.10-79. Results showed that levels of Ag, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn for all species were similar to those found in other studies for non-contaminated areas with very little influence from anthropogenic activity. Also among the four species studied macroalgae Enteromorpha sp. had the highest capacity for metal accumulation and could therefore be considered as a biomonitor for future studies in the area.

  17. Water quality mapping using remote sensing technique in Penang Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Mohd. Saleh, N.

    2008-10-01

    The application of remote sensing to assess water quality for coastal and open ocean has escalated recently due to its capability of scanning wide water bodies within a short time period. In this paper, we examined the spatial variability of chlorophyll within Penang straits, Malaysia. Coastal and estuarine ecosystems typically exhibit high temporal and spatial variability in phytoplankton biomass that is often too difficult to characterize with a limited set of in situ shipboard measurements. In this study, we used ALOS satellite imagery acquired on 24 April 2007. An algorithm for retrieval of chlorophyll level was developed for ALOS data. Chlorophyll samples were collected using a small boat simultaneously with the acquisition of the satellite image. The water locations were determined using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). And then the digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the chlorophyll algorithm. For the regression model, the correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-square deviation (RMS) were noted. The proposed algorithm is considered superior based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square The water quality image was generated using the multispectral data set and the proposed calibrated TSS algorithm. This study demonstrates that remote sensing can play an important role in water quality assessment by using high resolution satellite image of ALOS data.

  18. ­­­­Submarine Mass Wasting on Hovgaard Ridge, Fram Strait, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, M.; Laberg, J. S.; Husum, K.; Gales, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hovgaard Ridge is an 1800 m high bathymetric high in the Fram Strait, the only deep-water gateway between the Arctic Ocean and the other World's oceans. The slopes of the ridge provide evidence of various types of sediment reworking, including 1) up to 12 km wide single and merged slide scars with maximum ~30 m high headwalls and some secondary escarpments; 2) maximum 3 km wide and 130 m deep slide scars with irregular internal morphology, partly narrowing towards the foot of the slope; 3) up to 130 m deep, 1.5 km wide and maximum 8 km long channels/gullies originating from areas of increasing slope angle at the margins of a plateau on top of the ridge. Most slide scars result presumably from retrogressive failure related to weak layers in contourites or ash. The most likely trigger mechanism is seismicity related to tectonic activity within the nearby mid-ocean fracture zone. Gully/channel formation is suggested to result from cascading water masses and/or from sediment gravity flows originating from failure at the slope break after winnowing on the plateau of the ridge.

  19. A double-index method to classify Kuroshio intrusion paths in the Luzon Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhida; Liu, Hailong; Hu, Jianyu; Lin, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    A double index (DI), which is made up of two sub-indices, is proposed to describe the spatial patterns of the Kuroshio intrusion and mesoscale eddies west to the Luzon Strait, based on satellite altimeter data. The area-integrated negative and positive geostrophic vorticities are defined as the Kuroshio warm eddy index (KWI) and the Kuroshio cold eddy index (KCI), respectively. Three typical spatial patterns are identified by the DI: the Kuroshio warm eddy path (KWEP), the Kuroshio cold eddy path (KCEP), and the leaking path. The primary features of the DI and three patterns are further investigated and compared with previous indices. The effects of the integrated area and the algorithm of the integration are investigated in detail. In general, the DI can overcome the problem of previously used indices in which the positive and negative geostrophic vorticities cancel each other out. Thus, the proportions of missing and misjudged events are greatly reduced using the DI. The DI, as compared with previously used indices, can better distinguish the paths of the Kuroshio intrusion and can be used for further research.

  20. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  1. Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Delgado, Javier; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Vargas, Manuel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek

    Time series of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar at the eastern section have been estimated from current-meter observations taken between October 1995 and May 1998 within the Canary Islands Azores Gibraltar Observations (CANIGO) project. The inflow exhibits a clear annual signal that peaks in late summer simultaneously with a deepening of the interface. The cycle seems to be driven by the seasonal signal of the density contrast between the surface Atlantic water that forms the inflow and the deep Mediterranean water of the outflow. The outflow and the depth of the interface have predominant semiannual signals and a smaller annual one whose phase agrees with that of the density contrast as well. Local wind stress and atmospheric pressure difference between the Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean to less extent have clear semiannual signal, so that the possibility that the semiannual cycle of the outflow and of the depth of the interface are forced by them was analyzed. The composite Froude number in this section is well below the critical value, suggesting submaximal exchange. Therefore, the conditions in the Alboran basin influence the exchange and some evidence that the size and location of the Western Alboran Gyre contribute to the observed signals, both annual and semiannual, is provided.

  2. Diurnal evolution of the barrier layer and its local feedback in the central Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal evolution of the barrier layer (BL) and its local feedback features in the central Taiwan Strait (119.2oE,24.3oN) during summertime monsoon are investigated using in situ moored observations conducted by the "Yan-Ping 2" research vessel in late June 2005.During the initiation phase,for the non-solar radiation tends to be trapped in the upper mixed layer,whereas the solar radiation can penetrate deeply through the mixed layer approaching the thermocline,most heat is accumulated inside the BL inducing an inverse-thermal layer.Along with heat convergence inside the BL,thermal exchange increases between the BL and the overlaying mixed layer and finally,a prominently warming mixed layer is formed.Moreover,the BL is associated with a buoyancy frequency minimum with mild stability.Further analysis reveals that the BL’s local feedbacks can be divided into two aspects,on one hand,the BL can generate dramatic changes in the local sensible and latent heat fluxes;on the other hand,the sub-halocline and the thermocline serve as two interfaces during the downward transmission of the wind stirring turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and as a result,most TKE is retarded by the shallow halocline and being trapped above the upper mixed layer,while the residual pierced through the base of the mixed layer is likewise blocked by the thermocline.

  3. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers’ attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species. PMID:27526102

  4. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  5. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bingtian; CAO Anzhou; LV Xianqing

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional isopycnic-coordinate internal tidal model is employed to investigate the generation, propagation, vertical structure and energy conversion of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait (LS) with mooring observations. Simulated results, especially the tidal current amplitudes, agree well with observations, demonstrating the reasonability and accuracy of the model. Results indicate that M2 internal tides mainly propagate into three directions horizontally, i.e., eastward towards the western Pacific Ocean, westward towards the Dongsha Island and southwestward towards the South China Sea Basin. In the horizontal direction, tidal current amplitudes decrease as distance increases away from the LS; in the vertical direction, they show an obvious decreasing tendency with depth. Between the double ridges of the LS, a clockwise gyre of M2 baroclinic energy flux appears, which is caused by reflections of M2 internal tides at supercritical topographies, and resonance of M2 internal tides happens along 19.5° and 21.5°N due to the heights and separation distance of the double ridges. The total energy conversion in the LS is about 14.20 GW.

  6. Comparison of Chlorophyll-a Measurement Using Multi Spatial Imagery and Numerical Model in Bali Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanintyo, Rizki; susilo, Eko

    2016-11-01

    One of abundance of nutrient in coastal area is chlorophyll-a, where chlorophyll-a is a driving factor to derive fishing ground location. There's several method has been used to derive chlorophyll-a concentration from insitu data, remote sensing satellite data, and ocean dynamics models, but we are not decide those data for certain area in coastal area and open ocean. In this paper, we will use Aqua-Terra MODIS, Landsat -8 and INDESO Satellite observation dataset to detect chlorophyll-a and also using dynamic modelling produced by INDESO and MyOcean/Marine Copernicus. Using a lot variation of data to understand the differences of spatial resolution and accuracy with observed insitu data. After calculating data comparison with insitu data in bali strait on 2014, we can conclude that Landsat-8 data has the highest r value r=0.41. For model data, comparison between insitu data and MyOcean data has r=0.3. in the other hand, insitu data and INDESO data model has r=0.26. In coastal areas (case 2 water), Landsat-8 data performed to give detail information of chlorophyll-a. Furthermore for open ocean areas (case 1 water), we can use numerical model from MyOcean/Marine Copernicus because it has lower resolution and able to forecast. For those data, it can help non artisanal fisheries to predict chlorophyll-a area in their fishing ground areas

  7. Ocean acoustic remote sensing using ambient noise: results from the Florida Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. G.; Godin, O. A.; Zang, X.; Ball, J. S.; Zabotin, N. A.; Zabotina, L. Y.; Williams, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    Noise interferometry is the process by which approximations to acoustic Green's functions, which describe sound propagation between two locations, are estimated by cross-correlating time series of ambient noise measured at those locations. Noise-interferometry-based approximations to Green's functions can be used as the basis for a variety of inversion algorithms, thereby providing a purely passive alternative to active-source ocean acoustic remote sensing. In this paper we give an overview of results from noise interferometry experiments conducted in the Florida Straits at 100 m depth in December 2012, and at 600 m depth in September/October 2013. Under good conditions for noise interferometry, estimates of cross-correlation functions are shown to allow one to perform advanced phase-coherent signal processing techniques to perform waveform inversions, estimate currents by exploiting non-reciprocity, perform time-reversal/back-propagation calculations and investigate modal dispersion using time-warping techniques. Conditions which are favourable for noise interferometry are identified and discussed.

  8. Tracing the tiger: population genetics provides valuable insights into the Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus invasion of the Australasian Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The range of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is expanding globally, raising the threat of emerging and re-emerging arbovirus transmission risks including dengue and chikungunya. Its detection in Papua New Guinea's (PNG southern Fly River coastal region in 1988 and 1992 placed it 150 km from mainland Australia. However, it was not until 12 years later that it appeared on the Torres Strait Islands. We hypothesized that the extant PNG population expanded into the Torres Straits as an indirect effect of drought-proofing the southern Fly River coastal villages in response to El Nino-driven climate variability in the region (via the rollout of rainwater tanks and water storage containers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examination of the mosquito's mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI sequences and 13 novel nuclear microsatellites revealed evidence of substantial intermixing between PNG's southern Fly region and Torres Strait Island populations essentially compromising any island eradication attempts due to potential of reintroduction. However, two genetically distinct populations were identified in this region comprising the historically extant PNG populations and the exotic introduced population. Both COI sequence data and microsatellites showed the introduced population to have genetic affinities to populations from Timor Leste and Jakarta in the Indonesian region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Ae. albopictus invasion into the Australian region was not a range expansion out of PNG as suspected, but founded by other, genetically distinct population(s, with strong genetic affinities to populations sampled from the Indonesian region. We now suspect that the introduction of Ae. albopictus into the Australian region was driven by widespread illegal fishing activity originating from the Indonesian region during this period. Human sea traffic is apparently shuttling this mosquito between islands in the Torres Strait and the

  9. Variability of the currents in the Luzon Strait during spring of 2002 obtained from observations and satellite geostrophic currents and spectral analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YaoChu; LIAO GuangHong; WANG HuiQun; LOU RuYun; CHEN Hong

    2009-01-01

    The structure and variability of the currents in the Luzon Strait during spring of 2002 are studied, based on the current measurements at the average position of the mooring station (20°49'57"N, 120°48'12"E) from 03 17 to 04 15, 2002, satellite geostrophic currents in the Luzon Strait, and the spectral analyses, using the maximum entropy method. The subtidal currents at the mooring station show de-creased amplitudes downward with an anti-cyclonic rotation, suggesting that the currents enter and exit the South China Sea in the upper and intermediate layers, respectively. The vertical structure of the currents in the Luzon Strait suggests strongly the sandwiched structure of the LST, even though the bottom part of the profile is not resolved by the observational grid. The spectral analyses show the following periods of significant spectral peaks: (1) the tidal currents variability in the vertical direction; (2) the period about 4-6 d for the two cases of frequency f>0 and f0 and f<0 at the 200, 500 and 800 m levels, namely the Luzon Strait currents exhibit significant synoptical variability throughout the water column up to 800 m deep. Both direct current measurements and in situ hydrographic and satellite survey suggest no Kuroshio loop current in the Luzon Strait during the spring of 2002.

  10. Analysis of walrus reproductive organs and stomachs from the 1980 spring harvest in the Bering Strait region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a report on analyses of some of the materials collected from the walruses taken during the 1980 spring harvest. Those materials included 104 samples...

  11. Carbon isotope (δ13C) excursions suggest times of major methane release during the last 14 ka in Fram Strait, the deep-water gateway to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, C.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Panieri, G.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.; Sztybor, K.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from a sediment core collected from a pockmark field on the Vestnesa Ridge (∼80° N) in the eastern Fram Strait. This is the only deep-water gateway to the Arctic, and one of the northernmost marine gas hydrate provinces in the world. Eight 14C AMS dating reveals a detailed chronology for the last 14 ka BP. The δ13C record measured on the benthic foraminiferal species Cassidulina neoteretis shows two distinct intervals with negative values, as low as -4.37‰ in the Bølling-Allerød interstadials and as low as -3.41‰ in the early Holocene. After cleaning procedure designed to remove all authigenic carbonate coatings on benthic foraminiferal tests, the 13C values are still negative (as low as -2.75‰). We have interpreted these negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) to record past methane release events, resulting from the incorporation of 13C-depleted carbon from methane emissions into the benthic foraminiferal shells. The CIEs during the Bølling-Allerød interstadials and the early Holocene relate to periods of ocean warming, sea level rise and increased concentrations of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. CIEs with similar timing have been reported from other areas in the North Atlantic suggesting a regional event. The trigger mechanisms for such regional events remain to be determined. We speculate that sea-level rise and seabed loading due to high sediment supply in combination with increased seismic activity as a result of rapid deglaciation may have triggered the escape of significant amounts of methane to the seafloor and the water column above.

  12. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in Fram Strait: assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin; Dodd, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    and CDOM is indicative of the riverine/terrigenous origin of CDOM in the EGC. Based on CDOM absorption in Polar Water and comparison with an Arctic river discharge weighted mean, we estimate that a 49–59% integrated loss of CDOM absorption across 250–600 nm has occurred. A preferential removal...... of absorption at longer wavelengths reflects the loss of high molecular weight material. In contrast, CDOM fluxes through the Fram Strait using September velocity fields from a high-resolution ocean–sea ice model indicate that the net southward transport of terrigenous CDOM through the Fram Strait equals up......Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, δ18O, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteristic...

  13. The role of the exchanges through the Strait of Gibraltar on the budget of elements in the Western Mediterranean Sea: consequences of human-induced modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando

    2003-06-01

    The role of the Strait of Gibraltar on the exchanges of substances between Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean is reviewed. The previous estimations have been recalculated by using a similar water flux and compared with the river and atmospheric inputs to the Western Mediterranean Sea. The man-induced changes in the dimensions of the Strait of Gibraltar increasing (planning the sill) or reducing of the cross-section by a total or partial dam are discussed. A total dam will control the sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea, but an annual increase of major nutrient concentrations of 1-2% could be expected, lower than the rate of increase of the river and atmospheric inputs in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The increase of the cross-section of the Strait by increasing the depth (planning) at the sill could compensate the increase of the external nutrient inputs.

  14. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  15. Fram Strait sea ice export variability and September Arctic sea ice extent over the last 80 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedsrud, Lars H.; Halvorsen, Mari H.; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Zhang, Rong; Kloster, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    A new long-term data record of Fram Strait sea ice area export from 1935 to 2014 is developed using a combination of satellite radar images and station observations of surface pressure across Fram Strait. This data record shows that the long-term annual mean export is about 880 000 km2, representing 10 % of the sea-ice-covered area inside the basin. The time series has large interannual and multi-decadal variability but no long-term trend. However, during the last decades, the amount of ice exported has increased, with several years having annual ice exports that exceeded 1 million km2. This increase is a result of faster southward ice drift speeds due to stronger southward geostrophic winds, largely explained by increasing surface pressure over Greenland. Evaluating the trend onwards from 1979 reveals an increase in annual ice export of about +6 % per decade, with spring and summer showing larger changes in ice export (+11 % per decade) compared to autumn and winter (+2.6 % per decade). Increased ice export during winter will generally result in new ice growth and contributes to thinning inside the Arctic Basin. Increased ice export during summer or spring will, in contrast, contribute directly to open water further north and a reduced summer sea ice extent through the ice-albedo feedback. Relatively low spring and summer export from 1950 to 1970 is thus consistent with a higher mid-September sea ice extent for these years. Our results are not sensitive to long-term change in Fram Strait sea ice concentration. We find a general moderate influence between export anomalies and the following September sea ice extent, explaining 18 % of the variance between 1935 and 2014, but with higher values since 2004.

  16. Locally driven interannual variability of near-surface pH and ΩA in the Strait of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Maley, Ben L.; Allen, Susan E.; Ianson, Debby

    2016-03-01

    Declines in mean ocean pH and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions have raised concerns regarding the trends of pH and ΩA in estuaries. Low pH and ΩA can be harmful to a variety of marine organisms, especially those with calcium carbonate shells, and so may threaten the productive ecosystems and commercial fisheries found in many estuarine environments. The Strait of Georgia is a large, temperate, productive estuarine system with numerous wild and aquaculture shellfish and finfish populations. We determine the seasonality and variability of near-surface pH and ΩA in the Strait using a one-dimensional, biophysical, mixing layer model. We further evaluate the sensitivity of these quantities to local wind, freshwater, and cloud forcing by running the model over a wide range of scenarios using 12 years of observations. Near-surface pH and ΩA demonstrate strong seasonal cycles characterized by low pH, aragonite-undersaturated waters in winter and high pH, aragonite-supersaturated waters in summer. The aragonite saturation horizon generally lies at ˜20 m depth except in winter and during strong Fraser River freshets when it shoals to the surface. Periods of strong interannual variability in pH and aragonite saturation horizon depth arise in spring and summer. We determine that at different times of year, each of wind speed, freshwater flux, and cloud fraction are the dominant drivers of this variability. These results establish the mechanisms behind the emerging observations of highly variable near-surface carbonate chemistry in the Strait.

  17. Nutritional analysis of freshwater and marine amphipods from the Strait of Gibraltar and potential aquaculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Rojano, Elena; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael; Guerra-García, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Four gammarid and four caprellid amphipod species from the Strait of Gibraltar were analyzed to study their nutritional contents: Caprella dilatata, Caprella equilibra, Caprella grandimana, Caprella penantis, Elasmopus rapax, Hyale perieri and Jassa sp. from marine water habitats and Echinogammarus sp. from freshwater habitats. Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ash and water contents were measured. Proteins and ash were the most abundant components in all the species, ranging between 37.9 and 44.6% and 29.3 and 39.7% dry weight, respectively. The lipid and carbohydrate contents showed lower levels (5.1-9.6% and 3.1-9.1% dry weight, respectively). No significant differences in general biochemical composition were found between gammarid and caprellid species. The most abundant fatty acids were the polyunsaturated ones (38.3%) with high levels of EPA (20:5(n-3)) with 8.5 to 17.7%, DHA (22:6(n-3)) with 0.9 to 13.6% and ARA (20:4(n-6)) with 1.7 to 5.8%. Caprellid species were characterized by a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while the freshwater gammarid species showed the lowest levels. According to lipid classes, caprellids had higher phospholipids levels and lower triacylglycerol levels, as well as a higher content of polar lipids than the gammarids, being more suitable for their use in aquaculture. Differences in the general biochemical composition between species can be related to habitat characteristics, diets and environmental conditions. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of these organisms in aquaculture are discussed.

  18. Nearshore bedform instability in the eastern entrance to the Qiongzhou Strait,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heqin CHENG; Jiufa LI; Daowei YIN; Maotian LI; Baocan WANG

    2008-01-01

    Six bathymetric transect profiles were drawn from the nautical charts of 1942,1962 and 1992 to show that the nearshore seabed remained unstable during the recent 50 Vears in the middie channel of the eastern entrance to the Oiongzhou Strait,South China Sea.Our results dem onstrate that the multi-year averaged seabed aggradational rate was 25 cm/a and erosion rate was 12.5 cm/a.Lateral migration rate of the sea bedform identified from the his torical contours was about 100 m/a in the SE direction. Bedform measurements were made using GPY Shallow Seismic Profiler in 1994 in the study area.The records revealed four types of distinctive bedforins that were com.Posed of fine and medium sands.The average spacing of large and small-scale sand dunes is 416 m and 144 m and the average height remains 8.8 m and 4.9 m.The spatial and temporal equilibrium-range spectra of numerical bedform records were applied to estimate short term celerity of bed form movement.Results indicate that large and small dunes migrated at an average celerity of 0.02 cm/hr eastward and 0.09 cm/hr westward in the calm sea weather,while their celerity can reach 53 cm/hr eastward during typhoon season and iS only 0.008 cm/hr westward when NNE winds prevail.The results also show that the larger the temporal and spa tial scale is.the smaller the bedform movement celerity appears.On the other hand,the smaller-scale bedform celerity of the present study is much greater than that of flume,empirical and theoretical data,but close to the wind tunnel and field-measured data of similar grain size.

  19. Nearshore bedform instability in the eastern entrance to the Qiongzhou Strait,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barendra PURKAIT; Amitava MUKHERJEE

    2008-01-01

    Six bathymetric transect profiles were drawn from the nautical charts of 1942,1962 and 1992 to show that the nearshore seabed remained unstable during the recent 50 Vears in the middie channel of the eastern entrance to the Oiongzhou Strait,South China Sea.Our results dem onstrate that the multi-year averaged seabed aggradational rate was 25 cm/a and erosion rate was 12.5 cm/a.Lateral migration rate of the sea bedform identified from the his torical contours was about 100 m/a in the SE direction. Bedform measurements were made using GPY Shallow Seismic Profiler in 1994 in the study area.The records revealed four types of distinctive bedforins that were com. Posed of fine and medium sands.The average spacing of large and small-scale sand dunes is 416 m and 144 m and the average height remains 8.8 m and 4.9 m.The spatial and temporal equilibrium-range spectra of numerical bedform records were applied to estimate short term celerity of bed form movement.Results indicate that large and small dunes migrated at an average celerity of 0.02 cm/hr eastward and 0.09 cm/hr westward in the calm sea weather,while their celerity can reach 53 cm/hr eastward during typhoon season and iS only 0.008 cm/hr westward when NNE winds prevail. The results also show that the larger the temporal and spa tial scale is.the smaller the bedform movement celerity appears.On the other hand,the smaller-scale bedform celer ity of the present study is much greater than that of flume, empirical and theoretical data,but close to the wind tunnel and field-measured data of similar grain size.

  20. Comparative Advantages of Cross-strait Aquatic Products Trade and Zhoushan Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the initial stage,the status quo of aquatic products industry in Taiwan and Zhoushan is analyzed.The aquatic products industry in Tai-wan is characterized by high input,high output,advanced fishery import and export trade,refined and specialized fishery organizations and thedominant role played by the government.However,in Zhoushan,there are many problems in the development of aquatic products industry,featu-ring weak brand consciousness,inadequate famous brand and pillar industries,frequently restricted by green trade barrier and disordered competi-tion of aquatic products market.The comparative advantages of aquatic products at both sides of Taiwan Strait are measured by using revealedcomparative advantage index(RCA) and trade specialized index(TSC),the results show that the aquatic products in both the mainland and Tai-wan have certain market share and competitiveness.The revealed comparative advantage index(RCA) of Taiwan’ aquatic products is higher thatthat in the mainland,while the RCA indices in the mainland and Taiwan all show descending trend;the trade specialized index(TSC) cross straitsis positive,which indicates specialized export,but this specialization also shows descending trend.Taiwan has advanced aquaculture technologyand the mainland owns cheap labor cost and low price,but due to the limited resources in the Taiwan Island and the backward processing technolo-gy of aquatic products in the mainland,the comparativeness of aquatic products in the mainland and Taiwan has slid slightly.Therefore,I probe intothe cooperation modality between Zhoushan and Taiwan in terms of mutual investment in aquatic industry,exchange and training for personnel crossstraits and establishing experimental point of aquatic industry of the Zhoushan Island and Taiwan Island.Besides,countermeasures for enhancingthe international comparativeness of aquatic industry in Zhoushan Island are put forward.

  1. Climate effects on historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzedo, Unai; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Caballero-Alfonso, Ángela M.; Faria, Sérgio H.; Li, Jianke; Castro-Hernández, José J.

    2016-06-01

    Historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter) from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean show pronounced short- and long-term fluctuations. Some of these fluctuations are believed to be associated with biological and ecological process, as well as distinct climate factors. For the period of study (1700-1936) of this work, we found a long-term increasing trend in the BFT captures and in the climate variables. After applying a statistical time series analysis of relevant climate variables and long-term tuna capture records, it is highlighted the role played by sea-surface temperature (SST) on bluefin population variations. The most relevant result of this study is the strong correlation found between the total solar irradiance (TSI) - an external component of the climate system - and bluefin captures. The solar irradiance could have affected storminess during the period under study, mainly during the time interval 1700-1810. We suggest physico-biological mechanisms that explain the BFT catch fluctuations in two consecutive time intervals. In the first period, from 1700 to 1810, this mechanism could be high storm and wind activity, which would have made the BFT fisheries activities more difficult by reducing their efficacy. In contrast, during the interval from 1810 to 1907, the effects of wind and storms could be on spawning behaviour and larval ecology, and hence on year class strength, rather than on fish or fisherman's behaviour. These findings open up a range of new lines of enquiry that are relevant for both, fisheries and climate change research.

  2. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  3. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  4. Different population structure in genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Casal-Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Here, through a phylogeographic study based on mitochondrial molecular markers, we found different structures on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, as well as faunistic connections probably established on both sides during Miocene. Our results show that populations may have followed different and complex histories and species have suffered diverse events of vicariance and dispersion. While north Moroccan population show a well-defined structure, showing not only unique haplotypes, but different species, the case of the southern populations of the Iberian endemism, Luciobarbus sclateri Günther, 1868, differs substantially.

  5. Stability of the Black Sea Littoral Region: Focus on the Montreux Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    agreements and a proposed Eurasian- Balkan region,9 as it continues to experience economic development and rapid gravitation to NATO.10 BSLR countries...major oil spills and Kruppa 12 tanker collisions in the Black Sea have strengthened Turkey’s concerns over ecological dangers to its shoreline and...reach record in 2012. 20 Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits signed at Montreux, July 20th, 1936, American Journal of International Law

  6. The Battle for Leyte Gulf. October 1944. Strategical and Tactical Analysis. Volume V. Battle of Surigao Strait October 24th-25th

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-01-01

    320 PT 328 reports sighting gunfire south in Surigao Strait 320 (b) Operations of MB’s Mindanao Sea uneventful 320 f CHAPTER XII - JAPANESE OPERATIONS...embracing Luzon Strait and extending westward to Hainan] island- Plate XII ) that (a) China-based planes reported shipping along the boundary between the...war proceeding to close TG 38.2 at twenty- six knots and would launch a deck-load strike against the "Jap fleet vicinity Tablas Island."* At 1324 he

  7. On the seasonal cycles and variability of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports at 26° N in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Atkinson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2004 the RAPID array has made continuous measurements of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC at 26° N. Two key components of this system are Ekman transport zonally integrated across 26° N and western boundary current transport in the Florida Straits. Whilst measurements of the AMOC as a whole are somewhat in their infancy, this study investigates what useful information can be extracted on the variability of the Ekman and Florida Straits transports using the decadal timeseries already available. Analysis is also presented for Sverdrup transports zonally integrated across 26° N.

    The seasonal cycles of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports are quantified at 26° N using harmonic analysis of annual and semi-annual constituents. Whilst Sverdrup transport shows clear semi-annual periodicity, calculations of seasonal Florida Straits and Ekman transports show substantial interannual variability due to contamination by variability at non-seasonal frequencies; the mean seasonal cycle for these transports only emerges from decadal length observations. The Florida Straits and Ekman mean seasonal cycles project on the AMOC with a combined peak-to-peak seasonal range of 3.5 Sv. The combined seasonal range for heat transport is 0.40 PW.

    The Florida Straits seasonal cycle possesses a smooth annual periodicity in contrast with previous studies suggesting a more asymmetric structure. No clear evidence is found to support significant changes in the Florida Straits seasonal cycle at sub-decadal periods. Whilst evidence of wind driven Florida Straits transport variability is seen at sub-seasonal and annual periods, a model run from the 1/4° eddy-permitting ocean model NEMO is used to identify an important contribution from internal oceanic variability at sub-annual and interannual periods. The Ekman transport seasonal cycle possesses less symmetric structure, due in part to different seasonal transport

  8. 中国、美国与1958年台湾海峡危机%China, America and Taiwan Straits Crisis in 1958

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学功

    2004-01-01

    @@ Three so-called crises occurred during the 1950s and the 1960s between China and America, which brought the two countries to the brink of war. There are considerable amount of valuable writings about the first Taiwan Straits crisis but relatively few about the second Taiwan Strait crisis. This paper tries to illustrate the decision-making processes of both sides and the impact of this event on Sino-US relations in the wake of the declassification of US diplomatic documents and emergence of relevant Chinese document in recent years.

  9. Estimation of ocean surface currents from maximum cross correlation applied to GOCI geostationary satellite remote sensing data over the Tsushima (Korea) Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.; Shutler, J. D.; Miller, P. I.; Yoshikawa, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Attempts to automatically estimate surface current velocities from satellite-derived thermal or visible imagery face the limitations of data occlusion due to cloud cover, the complex evolution of features and the degradation of their surface signature. The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provides a chance to reappraise such techniques due to its multiyear record of hourly high-resolution visible spectrum data. Here we present the results of applying a Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique to GOCI data. Using a combination of simulated and real data we derive suitable processing parameters and examine the robustness of different satellite products, those being water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll concentration. These estimates of surface currents are evaluated using High Frequency (HF) radar systems located in the Tsushima (Korea) Strait. We show the performance of the MCC approach varies depending on the amount of missing data and the presence of strong optical contrasts. Using simulated data it was found that patchy cloud cover occupying 25% of the image pair reduces the number of vectors by 20% compared to using perfect images. Root mean square errors between the MCC and HF radar velocities are of the order of 20 cm s-1. Performance varies depending on the wavelength of the data with the blue-green products out-performing the red and near infra-red products. Application of MCC to GOCI chlorophyll data results in similar performance to radiances in the blue-green bands. The technique has been demonstrated using specific examples of an eddy feature and tidal induced features in the region.

  10. Unsupervised fuzzy classification and object-based image analysis of multibeam data to map deep water substrates, Cook Strait, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Vanessa; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2011-08-01

    A comprehensive 32 kHz multibeam bathymetry and backscatter survey of Cook Strait, New Zealand (˜8500 km 2), is used to generate a regional substrate classification map over a wide range of water depths, seafloor substrates and geological landforms using an automated mapping method based on the textural image analysis of backscatter data. Full processing of the backscatter is required in order to obtain an image with a strongly attenuated specular reflection. Image segmentation of the merged backscatter and bathymetry layers is constrained using shape, compactness, and texture measures. The number of classes and their spatial distribution are statistically identified by employing an unsupervised fuzzy- c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm to sediment samples, independent of the backscatter data. Classification is achieved from the overlay of the FCM result onto a segmented image and attributing segments with the FCM class. Four classes are identified and uncertainty in class attribution is quantified by a confusion index layer. Validation of the classification map is done by comparing the results with the sediment and structural maps. Backscatter (BS) strength angular profiles are used to show acoustic class separation. The method takes us one step further in combining multibeam data with physical seabed data in a complementary analysis to seek correlations between datasets using object-based image analysis and unsupervised classification. Texture within these identified classes is then examined for correlation with typical backscatter angular responses for mud, sand and gravel. The results show a first order correlation between each of the classes and both the sedimentary properties and the geomorphological map.

  11. The impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait:numerical results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenzhou; ZHUANG Xuefen; CHEN Chentung Arthur; HUANG Tinghsuan

    2015-01-01

    Model output from a Pacific basin-wide three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model during the period of 1991 to 2008 was used to investigate the impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Based on the characteristic salinities of both Kuroshio water and the South China Sea water, a Kuroshio impact index (KII) was designed to measure the degree of impact. The KII correlates significantly with the northeast-southwest component of wind stress, but the former lags the latter by approximately two months. The correlation coefficient between them increases from 0.267 4 to 0.852 9, with a lag time increasing from 0 to 63 days. The impact of Kuroshio Water is greater in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. At the interannual time scale, El Niño and La Niña events play an important role in impacting the KII. During El Niño events, more Kuroshio water contributes to the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Conversely, during La Niña events, less Kuroshio water contributes to the source water.

  12. A Multi-Criterion Analysis of Cross-Strait Co-Opetitive Strategy in the Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research adopts multi-criterion analysis to face cross-strait cooperative and competitive (co-opetitive strategies problem in the crystalline silicon solar cell industry between Taiwan and China. The analysis framework is based on the national competitiveness. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP approach and TOPSIS analysis are applied to analyze firm-level data, gathered from the solar cell companies across the Taiwan Strait. For the Taiwanese firms, their relative national competitiveness lies in technology development, domestic market, international competition in related industries, and subsidy policy. For the Chinese firms, domestic market, procurement conditions, customization, intellectual resources, risk capital, and human quality are found to be their competitive advantages. Both China and Taiwan have entered into the emerging solar cell industry, with an aim to climb beyond the ladder of catch up. The results have shown that Taiwan and China can explore the possibility of forging strategic alliances by exploiting national competitiveness on the demand side. Above all, the paper has managed to spotlight demand conditions as the crucial factors for China and Taiwan to enhance their international competitiveness in the emerging solar cell industry.

  13. Evidence of MIS 5 sea-level highstands in Gebel Mousa coast (Strait of Gibraltar, North of Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Aboumaria, K.; Zaghloul, M. N.; Cáceres, L. M.; Ruiz, F.; Martínez-Aguirre, A.; Izquierdo, T.; Chamorro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Last Interglacial is considered the most suitable episode from which to infer patterns of rapid sea-level change since its climatic conditions were similar to those of the present interglacial. However, specifying the true position of its sea level with high accuracy is very troublesome in the absence of sedimentological, erosional or even palaeontological markers. This study investigates the morphosedimentary evidence (beach deposits, cliff, notch and shore platform) of two highstands registered and dated during MIS 5 stage by U-series dating in the North of Morocco (Strait of Gibraltar). Bioerosive notches and mixed siliciclastic and carbonate deposits, high energy beaches with algal bioherms, were formed in coastal environments during MIS 5a. A sea-level height of + 10 m asl can be inferred for this substage. The record of MIS 5e substage is less defined in the geomorphological record, consisting of backshore/foreshore deposits located at + 13 to + 15 m asl. A tectonic uplift rate of ~ 0.1 mm/yr has been estimated for the last 130 kyr. These data are consistent with models of coastal uplifting calculated for the Strait of Gibraltar.

  14. Recent wind driven high sea ice export in the Fram Strait contributes to Arctic sea ice decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice area decrease has been visible for two decades, and continues at a steady rate. Apart from melting, the southward drift through Fram Strait is the main loss. We present high resolution sea ice drift across 79° N from 2004 to 2010. The ice drift is based on radar satellite data and correspond well with variability in local geostrophic wind. The underlying current contributes with a constant southward speed close to 5 cm s−1, and drives about 33 % of the ice export. We use geostrophic winds derived from reanalysis data to calculate the Fram Strait ice area export back to 1957, finding that the sea ice area export recently is about 25 % larger than during the 1960's. The increase in ice export occurred mostly during winter and is directly connected to higher southward ice drift velocities, due to stronger geostrophic winds. The increase in ice drift is large enough to counteract a decrease in ice concentration of the exported sea ice. Using storm tracking we link changes in geostrophic winds to more intense Nordic Sea low pressure systems. Annual sea ice export likely has a significant influence on the summer sea ice variability and we find low values in the 60's, the late 80's and 90's, and particularly high values during 2005–2008. The study highlight the possible role of variability in ice export as an explanatory factor for understanding the dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice the last decades.

  15. The "other" side of labor reform: accounts of incarceration and resistance in the Straits Settlements penal system, 1825-1873.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieris, Anoma

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.

  16. SPATIAL VARIATION OF Zn GEOCHEMICAL FRACTIONS IN THE SURFACE SEDIMENTS OF THE STRAITS OF MALACCA: NATURAL OR ANTHROPOGENIC?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Ahmad Ismail; Soon Guan Tan

    2005-01-01

    Total concentrations of Zn in the sediments of the offshore and intertidal areas of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were recently reported in the literaturs. However, total concentrations of metals in the sediment samples do not reflect the portion or carrier phase which is attributable to anthropogenic activities and those of natural origins.In this work, geochemical fraction of Zn in the sediments of the same areas was studied and the potential use of CV as an indicator of Zn pollution was determined. The geochemical study by using sequential extraction technique revealed tions, respectively, in the sediments while most of the total zinc concentrations (offshore: 70%; intertidal: 52%)found in the sediments could be mostly due to natural origins (nonresistant fraction). Thus, the Zn levels in the Straits of Malacca should not pose a risk to the liying organisms. Based on Spearman's correlation coefficients, the source of Zn contamination in the Straits of Malacca was mainly contributed by the intertidal coastal area rather than offshore area. The present study also indicated the coefficient of variation can be used as a potential indicator of total summation of geochemical Zn concentrations in the coastal sediment but of different geochemical of Zn needs further validation.

  17. Stirring by deep cyclones and the evolution of Denmark strait overflow water observed at line W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, M.; Toole, J. M.; Torres, D. J.; Smethie, W. M.; Joyce, T. M.; Curry, R. G.

    2016-03-01

    Shipboard velocity and water property data from 18 transects across the North Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) near 40 °N are examined to study the evolution of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) component of the DWBC and mixing between DSOW and the interior. The examined transects along Line W - which stretches from the continental shelf south of New England to Bermuda - were made between 1994 and 2014. The shipboard data comprise measurements at regular stations of velocity from lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers, CTD profiles and trace gas chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations from bottle samples at discrete depths. Comparison of the Line W velocity sections with concurrent sea surface height maps from satellite altimetry indicates that large cyclones in the deep ocean accompany intermittent quasi-stationary meander troughs in the Gulf Stream path at Line W. A composite of 5 velocity sections along Line W suggests that a typical cyclone reaches swirl speeds of greater than 30 cm s-1 at 3400-m depth and has a radius (distance between the center and the maximum velocity) of 75 km. Tracer data suggest that these cyclones affect not only the deep velocity structure along Line W, but also provide a mechanism for water exchange between the DWBC's DSOW and the interior. Vigorous exchange is corroborated by a mismatch in the CFC-11:CFC-12 and CFC-113:CFC-12 ratio ages calculated for DSOW at Line W. During the most recent 5-year period (2010-2014), a decrease in DSOW density has been driven by warming (increasing by almost 0.1 °C) as salinity has increased only slightly (by 0.003, which is close to the 0.002 uncertainty of the measurements). The abyssal ocean offshore of the DWBC and Gulf Stream and deeper than 3000-m depth has freshened at a rate of 6×10-4 yr-1 since at least 2003. Density here remains nearly unchanged over this period, due to temperature compensation, though a linear cooling trend in the abyssal ocean (to compensate the

  18. Photosynthetic use of inorganic carbon in deep-water kelps from the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, María Jesús; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Fernández, José Antonio; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms of inorganic carbon assimilation were investigated in the four deep-water kelps inhabiting sea bottoms at the Strait of Gibraltar; these species are distributed at different depths (Saccorhiza polysiches at shallower waters, followed by Laminaria ochroleuca, then Phyllariopsis brevipes and, at the deepest bottoms, Phyllariopsis purpurascens). To elucidate the capacity to use HCO3(-) as a source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis in the kelps, different experimental approaches were used. Specifically, we measured the irradiance-saturated gross photosynthetic rate versus pH at a constant dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration of 2 mM, the irradiance-saturated apparent photosynthesis (APS) rate versus DIC, the total and the extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CAext), the observed and the theoretical photosynthetic rates supported by the spontaneous dehydration of HCO3(-) to CO2, and the δ(13)C signature in tissues of the algae. While S. polyschides and L. ochroleuca showed photosynthetic activity at pH 9.5 (around 1.0 µmol O2 m(-2) s(-1)), the activity was close to zero in both species of Phyllariopsis. The APS versus DIC was almost saturated for the DIC values of natural seawater (2 mM) in S. polyschides and L. ochroleuca, but the relationship was linear in P. brevipes and P. purpurascens. The four species showed total and CAext activities but the inhibition of the CAext originated the observed photosynthetic rates at pH 8.0 to be similar to the theoretical rates that could be supported by the spontaneous dehydration of HCO3(-). The isotopic (13)C signatures ranged from -17.40 ± 1.81 to -21.11 ± 1.73 ‰ in the four species. Additionally, the δ(13)C signature was also measured in the deep-water Laminaria rodriguezii growing at 60-80 m, showing even a more negative value of -26.49 ± 1.25 ‰. All these results suggest that the four kelps can use HCO3(-) as external carbon source for photosynthesis mainly by the action of external CAext, but

  19. Physical, biological and optical oceanographic data collected from moorings deployed in the Bering Strait from 08/27/2007 to 09/02/2009 (NODC Accession 0062860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 2007 to 2009, a total of eight moorings were deployed, including A1W, A1, and A1E in the Russian channel of the Strait, A2W, A2, A4W (A4W for 2007 to 2008 and...

  20. State analysis using the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and the three-layer circulation structure of the Luzon Strait and the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Hua; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2014-06-01

    A new circulation model of the western North Pacific Ocean based on the parallelized version of the Princeton Ocean Model and incorporating the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) data assimilation scheme has been developed. The new model assimilates satellite data and is tested for the period January 1 to April 3, 2012 initialized from a 24-year simulation to estimate the ocean state focusing in the South China Sea (SCS). Model results are compared against estimates based on the optimum interpolation (OI) assimilation scheme and are validated against independent Argo float and transport data to assess model skills. LETKF provides improved estimates of the western North Pacific Ocean state including transports through various straits in the SCS. In the Luzon Strait, the model confirms, for the first time, the three-layer transport structure previously deduced in the literature from sparse observations: westward in the upper and lower layers and eastward in the middle layer. This structure is shown to be robust, and the related dynamics are analyzed using the results of a long-term (18 years) unassimilated North Pacific Ocean model. Potential vorticity and mass conservations suggest a basin-wide cyclonic circulation in the upper layer of the SCS ( z > -570 m), an anticyclonic circulation in the middle layer (-570 m ≥ z > -2,000 m), and, in the abyssal basin (reduced-gravity model as being caused by overflow over the deep sill of the Luzon Strait, coupled with intense, localized upwelling west of the strait.

  1. On a small collection of Valvifera (Crustacea Isopoda) from the Magellan Strait, with description of Platidotea magellanica n.gen. n.sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Ja-Yang; Wägele, J. Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Redescriptions of 5 arcturid species from the Strait of Magellan are presented, the validity of the genus Rectarcturus is discussed. Platidotea magellanica n.gen. n.sp. is described. It is a new type of idoteid isopod, with flattened body and antennae, probably adaptated to life in sandy bottoms.

  2. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in the Fram Strait: Assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, C.A.; Dodd, P.A.; Amon, R.M.W.; Pavlov, A.K.; de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, delta O-18, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteris

  3. The arctic species Heterostigma separ Ärnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1924 (Ascidiacea: Pyuridae) in the strait og Gibraltar (southern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naranjo, S.A.; Garcia-Gomez, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The arctic species Heterostigma separ Arnbäck-Christie-Linde, 1924, a component of the interstitial fauna in coastal soft bottoms from Nova Zembla, was found in gravels of Algeciras Bay (Gibraltar Strait, Southern Spain). This new record constitutes the southernmost limit of the geographical range o

  4. CEPA对海峡两岸经贸关系的影响%The Effects of CEPA on the Relations Across the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖文凤; 陈乔之

    2004-01-01

    The signing of CEPA aggravates the competitive pressure on Taiwanese businessmen who live and do business in the Mainland. So there is an urgent need for them to push ahead the realization of the normalization and institutionalization of trade and economic ties across the straits.

  5. Variations in the structural and functional diversity of zooplankton over vertical and horizontal environmental gradients en route to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Goszczko, Ilona; Kubiszyn, Anna Maria; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Walczowski, Waldemar; Kwasniewski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30'N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system. The results indicate that the most important environmental variables shaping the zooplankton structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability are those associated with depth, whereas variables acting in the horizontal dimension are of lesser importance. Multivariate analysis of the zooplankton assemblages, together with different univariate descriptors of zooplankton diversity, clearly illustrated the segregation of zooplankton taxa in the vertical plane. The epipelagic zone (upper 200 m) hosted plentiful, Oithona similis-dominated assemblages with a high proportion of filter-feeding zooplankton. Although total zooplankton abundance declined in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m), zooplankton assemblages in that zone were more diverse and more evenly distributed, with high contributions from both herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. The vertical distribution of integrated biomass (mg DW m-2) indicated that the total zooplankton biomass in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones was comparable. Environmental gradients acting in the horizontal plane, such as the ones associated with different ice cover and timing of the spring bloom, were reflected in the latitudinal variability in protist community structure and probably caused differences in succession in the zooplankton community. High abundances of Calanus finmarchicus in the WSC core branch suggest the existence of mechanisms advantageous for higher productivity or/and responsible for physical

  6. Variability of the currents in the Luzon Strait during spring of 2002 obtained from observations and satellite geostrophic currents and spectral analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The structure and variability of the currents in the Luzon Strait during spring of 2002 are studied, based on the current measurements at the average position of the mooring station (20°49′57"N, 120°48′12"E) from March 17 to April 15, 2002, satellite geostrophic currents in the Luzon Strait, and the spectral analyses, using the maximum entropy method. The subtidal currents at the mooring station show de-creased amplitudes downward with an anti-cyclonic rotation, suggesting that the currents enter and exit the South China Sea in the upper and intermediate layers, respectively. The vertical structure of the currents in the Luzon Strait suggests strongly the sandwiched structure of the LST, even though the bottom part of the profile is not resolved by the observational grid. The spectral analyses show the following periods of significant spectral peaks: (1) the tidal currents variability in the vertical direction; (2) the period about 4-6 d for the two cases of frequency f >0 and f<0 at the 200 and 500 m levels, but at the 800 m level only for the case of f >0; (3) The fluctuation in the period range is about 2-3 days for the two cases of f >0 and f<0 at the 200, 500 and 800 m levels, namely the Luzon Strait currents exhibit significant synoptical variability throughout the water column up to 800 m deep. Both direct current measurements and in situ hydrographic and satellite survey suggest no Kuroshio loop current in the Luzon Strait during the spring of 2002.

  7. Late Quaternary sea-ice history of northern Fram Strait/Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Anne; Stein, Rüdiger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthießen, Jens; Forwick, Matthias; O'Regan, Matt

    2016-04-01

    the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, the repetitive advance and retreat of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet might have influenced the terrigenous input and the environmental setting north of Svalbard, as reflected in the sediment composition of Core PS92/039-2. References Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of paleo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38, 16-27. Müller, J., Massé, G., Stein, R., Belt, S.T., 2009. Variability of sea-ice conditions in the Fram Strait over the past 30,000 years. Nature Geoscience 2 (11), 772-776. Müller, J., Wagner, A., Fahl, K., Stein, R., Prange, M., Lohmann, G., 2011. Towards quantitative sea ice reconstructions in the northern North Atlantic: a combined biomarker and numerical modelling approach. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 306 (3,4), 137-148. Peeken, I. (Ed.), 2015. Cruise report of Arctic Expedition PS92: TRANSSIZ Cruise from Bremerhaven to Longyearbyen (19.05.2015 - 28.06.2015), in preparation.

  8. Emission-factor uncertainties in maritime transport in the Strait of Gibraltar, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moreno-Gutiérrez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date maritime emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping. The objective of this study is to estimate the atmospheric emissions of SO2, NOx, CO2 and PM10 by international merchant shipping in 2007 in the Strait of Gibraltar, Spain, including the Algeciras Bay by two methods.

    Two methods (both bottom-up have been used in this study:

    1. Establishing engine power-based emission factors (g kWh−1, EPA or the mass of pollutant per work performed by the engine for each of the relevant components of the exhaust gas from diesel engines and power for each ship.

    2. Establishing fuel-based emission factors (kg emitted/t of fuel or mass of pollutant per mass of combusted fuel for each of the relevant components of the exhaust gas and a fuel-consumption inventory (IMO.

    In both methods, the means to estimate engine power and fuel-consumption inventories are the same. The exhaust from boilers and incinerators is regarded as a small contributor and excluded. In total, an estimated average of 1 389 111.05 t of CO2, 23 083.09 t of SO2, 32 005.63 t of NOx and 2972 t of PM10 were emitted from January 2007 until December 2007 by international and domestic shipping. The estimated total fuel consumption amounts to 437 405.84 t. The major differences between the estimates generated by the two methods are for NOx (16% in certain cases and CO (up to 23%.

    A total difference for all compounds of 3038 t (approximately 2% has been found between the two methods but it is not areasonable estimate of uncertainty.

    Therefore, the results for both methods may be considered acceptable because the actual uncontrolled deviations appear in the changes in emission factors that occur for a given engine with age. These deviations are often difficult to

  9. First data on the distribution and ecology of Vibrio spp. of the Straits of Magellan (South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, L S; Crisafi, E

    1995-07-01

    During the austral summer of 1991 a study was carried out on the presence and distribution of the genus Vibrio in the Straits of Magellan. Vibrios strains were isolated using membrane filters and Marine Agar 2216 in anaerobiosis. Variations of the populations of total heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios were observed both on the surface and along the column of water. All vibrios are psychrotrophic and were grouped in 4 cluster among which cluster 1, identified as presumed V. anguillarum, seems the most important including 73% of strains. A certain habitat segregation of clusters was noted. Cluster 4 was found only in a deep and permanently colder water mass. The relations between 20 environmental parameters and the bacterial population were also studied. Significant positive correlations were observed between the vibrios population and various fractions of suspended particulate matter.

  10. Application of the bentix index in assessing ecological quality of hard substrata: a case study from the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KALKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a biotic index (Bentix has been used for the assessment of ecological quality status of shallow water hard substrate benthic ecosystems affected by coastal sewage discharges in the Bosphorus Strait. A significant difference was observed between the control and the discharge stations with regard to Bentix values (Mann-Whitney U Test, p=0.002 and ecological quality status of the discharge stations was worse than that of controls. The index values revealed that sewage discharges caused serious disturbance in macrozoobenthic communities in the area investigated. Although so far it has been used for soft bottom communities, Bentix (with some species scoring modifications also appeared to work successfully in hard substrates, at least for the present study.

  11. Seasonal variability of coastal water quality in bay of Bengal and Palk Strait, Tamilnadu, Southeast Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical parameters of water quality collected from 12 sampling stations from Topputhurai to Muthupet in Vedaranyam located on the southeast coast of India from January to December 2008. Results showed that the DO and nutrients were the maximum in the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon period. High concentration of the nutrients in summer season was obtained near the Muthupet mangroves compared to the Palk Strait, which showed that this acted as a source of nutrients to the adjacent coastal waters. Low concentrations of the nutrients observed in the monsoon could be attributed to the terrestrial runoff from Muthupet lagoon. The physicochemical characteristics of coastal waters between the Point Calimere and Muthupet could be used as a baseline data for the monitoring, conservation and management of Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird sanctuary, Great Vedaranyam swamp and Muthupet mangrove ecosystem.

  12. Analysis of sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait and its adjacent area using an advanced edge detection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A morphology-based edge detection method has been used to study sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait and its adjacent area. The method is based on mathematical morphology with multi-dimensional and multi-structural elements. Using six years’ SST data from September 2002 to August 2008, we distinguished the large SST front like Kuroshio Front as well as the smaller ones: namely Taiwan Bank Front, Zhe-Min Coastal Front and Zhang-Yun Ridge Front. The seasonal and monthly variations of these fronts were also studied. Generally, the SST fronts are stronger in winter but weaker in summer. And the fronts are at their active stage during the period from January to May but at their declining stage during the period from July to October.

  13. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, January 1996--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A. [and others

    1996-04-01

    This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 1996. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including some x-ray spectroscopy data related to the characterization of the sediment Eh-pH regime. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the rationale, design, and preliminary results of a plant-Se study. Chapter 6 presents the design of a recently initiated sediment dynamics study. The leader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

  14. Enhanced turbulence driven by mesoscale motions and flow-topography interaction in the Denmark Strait Overflow plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Kanzow, Torsten; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Lackschewitz, Klas; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Zhurbas, Victor M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-10-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) contributes roughly half to the total volume transport of the Nordic overflows. The overflow increases its volume by entraining ambient water as it descends into the subpolar North Atlantic, feeding into the deep branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. In June 2012, a multiplatform experiment was carried out in the DSO plume on the continental slope off Greenland (180 km downstream of the sill in Denmark Strait), to observe the variability associated with the entrainment of ambient waters into the DSO plume. In this study, we report on two high-dissipation events captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) by horizontal profiling in the interfacial layer between the DSO plume and the ambient water. Strong dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy of O(10-6) W kg-1 was associated with enhanced small-scale temperature variance at wavelengths between 0.05 and 500 m as deduced from a fast-response thermistor. Isotherm displacement slope spectra reveal a wave number-dependence characteristic of turbulence in the inertial-convective subrange (k1/3) at wavelengths between 0.14 and 100 m. The first event captured by the AUV was transient, and occurred near the edge of a bottom-intensified energetic eddy. Our observations imply that both horizontal advection of warm water and vertical mixing of it into the plume are eddy-driven and go hand in hand in entraining ambient water into the DSO plume. The second event was found to be a stationary feature on the upstream side of a topographic elevation located in the plume pathway. Flow-topography interaction is suggested to drive the intense mixing at this site.

  15. mpact of ice conditions to the navigation in the Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen region in XVI–XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Derzhavin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 16th–17th centuries, West European navigators made numerous but mostly unsuccessful efforts to open a new way, i.e. the North-East Passage, to China and India. Among three possible routes of that time the basic one ran through straits of the Vaigach Island but it was almost impassable due to heavy ice situation. At the same time Russian merchants regularly went on their ships from Pomorie to Siberian river mouths, and in the opposite direction, though they did also meet complicated ice situations. Russian navigator and geographer F.P. Litke (1797–1882 noticed that the ice situation in one or another region of the Barents Sea seriously changed from year to year. Russian navigation started in the Russian Pomorie (littoral region of the Russian Arctic not earlier than at end of June – beginning of July but Europeans knew nothing about this. Because of this, their ships came to the Vaigach region either earlier or later of the time when it was possible to go through the straits. Most often, they came here in the first half- and mid-August. Thus, western sailors could not get this quite narrow navigation «window» of pomors (Russian navigators. And if sometimes (rather rarely they could catch the right time and go through the strait Yugorski Shar they met extremely heavy ice situation in the Kara Sea. Perhaps for this reason, almost all European expeditions of that time failed.

  16. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected by Bering Strait Moorings A1W, A1, A1E from 2010-08-03 to 2012-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0138174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from US moorings deployed in the Russian Channel of the Bering Strait from summer 2010 to summer 2012. The deployments were designed to be...

  17. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected from moored buoys in Bering Strait from 2011-07-14 to 2013-07-05 (NCEI Accession 0138173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in the US waters of the Bering Strait from summer 2011 to summer 2013 (with mooring servicing in summer 2012). For...

  18. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the BERING STRAIT from Ocean Weather Station V (OWS-V) in the North Pacific Ocean 17 November 1968 to 05 December 1968 (NODC Accession 6900563)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the BERING STRAIT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station V (3400N 16400E) and in transit. Data were collected...

  19. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the BERING STRAIT from Ocean Weather Station V (OWS-V) in the North Pacific Ocean 05 July 1969 to 25 July 1969 (NODC Accession 6900858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the BERING STRAIT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station V (3400N 16400E) and in transit. Data were...

  20. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected by Bering Strait Moorings A2W, A2, A4W, A4, A3 from 2010-08-03 to 2011-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0138583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from US moorings deployed in the Bering Strait from summer 2010 to summer 2011. Moorings were also deployed for this period in Russian...

  1. Current meter components and other data from fixed platforms from the Straits of Florida in support of the Southeast Florida and Caribbean Recruitment Program (SEFCAR) from 08 April 1989 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 9600059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from fixed platforms in the Straits of Florida from 08 April 1989 to 21 November 1994. Data were collected by the...

  2. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the BERING STRAIT from Ocean Weather Station V (OWS-V) in the North Pacific Ocean from 19 October 1961 to 12 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6100264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the BERING STRAIT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station V (3400N 16400E) and in transit. Data were collected by...

  3. Temperature profile data from Mechanical Bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the BERING STRAIT, STRANGER, and other platforms in the North Pacific, Coastal Equatorial Pacific, and other locations from 1945 to 1968 (NODC Accession 0000507)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from Mechanical Bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the BERING STRAIT, STRANGER, and other platforms. Data were collected from 02...

  4. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence profiles collected by CTD from the Norseman II in Bering Strait from 2013-07-04 to 2013-07-10 (NCEI Accession 0136939)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive is of data from 150 CTD casts taken during the 2013 Norseman II cruise to the Bering Strait. For positions, see file headers or the cruise report...

  5. Oceanographic station data from bottle and CTD casts from the BERING STRAIT and other platforms from multiple Ocean Weather Station (OWS) in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean 21 January 1969 to 10 April 1969 (NODC Accession 6900639)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the BERING STRAIT, DUANE, CHASE, and GRESHAM within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station B (5630N 05100W), C...

  6. 白令海峡水团来源的镭同位素示踪%Water masses in the Bering Strait revealed by radium isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 李艳平; 邱雨生; 杨俊鸿

    2011-01-01

    Radium isotopes in the water column along 64.3°N in the Bering Strait were determined to reveal the northward flow of the Pacific water.The specific activities of 226 Ra and 228Ra, and the 228 Ra/226 Ra)A.R.show a longitudinal variation in the Bering Strait, depicting the pathways of Pacific inflow.Based on the distributions of temperature, salinity and radium isotopes in the Bering Strait, three water masses were identified: the Anadyr Water in the western channel, the Alaskan Coastal Water in the eastern channel, and the Bering Shelf Water in the central strait.A subseasonal variation of radium isotopes in the Bering Strait was observed.The specific activities of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, and 228 Ra/226 Ra) A.R in September are higher than those observed in July, indicating water in the western Bering Strait is influenced by the southward flow of the Siberia Coastal Current in September.%对白令海峡64.3°N纬向断面镭同位素的研究表明,水体中226Ra比活度、228Ra比活度和228Ra/226Ra)A.R.存在明显的纬向变化,反映出太平洋与北冰洋水体交换的多种路径.根据温度、盐度和镭同位素的水平与垂直分布,太平洋水进入北冰洋的路径可能主要有3支,分别为白令海峡西侧的阿拉德水、白令海峡东侧的阿拉斯加沿岸水和中部的白令海陆架水.2003年7月和9月对该断面西侧站位进行的复测显示,水体中的226Ra比活度、228Ra比活度和228Ra/226Ra)A.R.发生了明显变化,9月份测值均高于7月份测值,说明白令海峡西部水体在9月份可能受到西伯利亚沿岸流南向混合的影响.

  7. Summer Kuroshio Intrusion through the Luzon Strait confirmed from observations and a diagnostic model in summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yaochu; Liao, Guanghong; Yang, Chenghao; Liu, Zenghong; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhang-Gui

    2014-02-01

    Based on current measurements recorded at Mooring Station N2 (20°40.441‧N, 120°38.324‧E), hydrographic data and Argo observations in the period starting from July 2009, a diagnostic model with a modified inverse method is used to study the circulation in the Luzon Strait (LS). A number of new circulation features in the LS are found as follows. (1) Both observed and modeled currents show that the intruded Kuroshio flow northwestward through the LS into the South China Sea (SCS) in the upper 400 m during July 2009. (2) The diagnostic model confirms that the Kuroshio is located in the area east of 121°20‧E and west of 122°20‧E at 20°00‧N. There is a meso-scale cyclonic eddy at both the surface and 1000 m depth in the area west of the Kuroshio near 20°00‧N. The meso-scale cyclonic eddy forced the Argo float 1 to make the cyclonic trajectory. Then, the Argo float 1 went into the area of the western Kuroshio. The Argo float 1 was tracked as the flow moved northwestward into the SCS across the LS in July and August, 2009, reflecting the northwestward flow at both the surface and 1000 m depth, which coincided with modeled currents. These results confirm the northwestward Kuroshio intrusion into the SCS across the LS in summer 2009 for the first time. (3) From the dimensional analysis for the equation of stream function, it is seen that the joint effect of the baroclinity and relief (JEBAR) and the β-effect are two important mechanisms on the Kuroshio intrusion into the SCS in this period. This summer Kuroshio intrusion results from the weaker upstream Kuroshio transport in summer 2009 (El Niño initiating period) due to inertia effects and is associated with a weak volume transport across the LS (2.15 × 106 m3 s-1 westward). (4) After comparison of the dynamics of the Kuroshio intrusion during October 2008 and summer 2009, it is clear that these were influenced by the seasonal variability due to the monsoon winds and the interannual variation resulting

  8. The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea: chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taviani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha, vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum, and gastropods (Taranis moerchii. A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp. was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display δ13C values as low as −40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin. Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp., and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani. One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been

  9. The impact of tidal mixing at the Kuril Straits on the North Pacific: Part 2, Thermohaline adjustment of the intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, T.; Nakamura, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Awaji, T.

    2003-04-01

    Recent studies show the importance of strong mixing at the Kuril Straits in freshning the intermediate layer to supply the low salinity water required for the production of the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) which is distributed over the entire subtropical gyre [Talley, 1991]. Nakamura et al.(2000; 2003) indicate that the strong vertical mixing is driven by a swift tidal flow and suggest that it has the ability to change the fluxes of potential vorticity (PV) and other water properties from the Okhotsk Sea to the North Pacific. Such an effect of tidal mixing at the western boundary is expected to affect the subarctic circulation based on the ventilated thermocline theory [Pedlosky, 1996], as well as the subsurface circulation in the subtropical region. In order to assess the impacts of tidal mixing at the Kurils on the circulation of the North Pacifc, a set of experiments are performed using a global ocean general circulation model. The Okhotsk Sea water flowing into the intermediate layer of the North Pacific becomes colder and fresher at the Kurils by strong vertical mixing. This enhances the supply of low PV water to the North Pacific intermediate layer, particulalrly in spring. Our analysis shows that the dynamical adjustment to the western boundary mixing is conducted by both Kelvin and Rossby waves of 2nd and higher modes. The Kelvin waves propagate along the coast against the Kuroshio current, and split into two components: one propagating along the equator and the other passing through the Indonesian Archipelago. On the other hands, since the higher-mode Rossby waves are affected by the mean flow field, the waves move eastward. This feature differs from the classical thermohaline adjustment proccess of the deep layer (e.g., Kawase 1987), which takes into account the role of Kelvin waves alone in the eastward spreading. The propagation of both types of waves significantly modifies the circulation of the North Pacific intermediate layer

  10. A Research on Mainland-Taiwan Cross-straits Principles of Transfer upon Escaped Criminals%海峡两岸逃犯移交原则研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑平

    2011-01-01

    Transfer of escaped criminals is the earliest and the most important matter of mutual legal assistance Conducted between Mainland China and Taiwan Region. An Agreement on Cross-straits Joint Crime-attacking and Mutual Legal Assistance entitles " transfer of escaped criminals" as" repatriation of criminal suspects or offenders", and specifically stipulates the principle of"Humanity, Safety,Promptness and Convenience" as well. However, the agreement avoids the fundamental and core principle of"repatriation of criminal suspects or offenders". Transfer of escaped criminals in interregional mutual legal assis- tance and extradition in international mutual legal assistance differ in their properties but are alike in mat- ters. In mutual assistance in cross-straits"repatriation of criminal suspects or offenders", when referring to international conventions, it's advised to take into consideration the enormous differences in political economy and judicial system between both sides; moreover, implement the policy of"One Country, Two Systems", and retain the balance between assuring individual human rights and preventing the outlawry of criminals.%逃犯移交是海峡两岸之间开展最早、也是目前最主要的司法互助事项。《海峡两岸共同打击犯罪及司法互助协议》将“逃犯移交”称为“遣返刑事嫌疑犯或刑事犯”,并专条规定了“人道、安全、迅速、便利”的原则等内容,但是对其基础和核心的原则却采取了回避的态度。中国区际刑事司法互助中的逃犯移交与国际刑事司法协助中的引渡,性质不同,但问题相似。在参照国际惯例时,既要考虑两岸在政治经济和司法制度上的巨大差异,更要贯彻“一国两制”原则,同时还要在保障人权和防止罪犯逍遥法外之阃掌握平衡。

  11. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Asaduzzaman, Kh; Nawi, S M; Usman, A R; Amin, Y M; Daar, E; Bradley, D A; Ahmed, H; Okhunov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta) collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K) and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb) together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  12. Assessment of Radiation and Heavy Metals Risk due to the Dietary Intake of Marine Fishes (Rastrelliger kanagurta from the Straits of Malacca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Khandaker

    Full Text Available The environment of the Straits of Malacca receives pollution as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic sources, making systematic studies crucial in determining the prevailing water quality. Present study concerns concentrations of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in marine fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta collected from the Straits of Malacca, since aquatic stock form an important source of the daily diet of the surrounding populace. Assessment was made of the concentrations of key indicator radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, 40K and heavy metals (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Co, Sr, Al, Hg and Pb together with various radiation indices linked to the consumption of seafish. The annual effective dose for all detected radionuclides for all study locations has been found to be within UNSCEAR acceptable limits as has the associated life-time cancer risk. The overall contamination of the sampled fish from heavy metals was also found to be within limits of tolerance.

  13. Surface current measurements in the Juan de Fuca strait using the SeaSonde hf radar. Report series No. EE-149

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1994-12-31

    SeaSonde is an integrated data acquisition and processing system for remotely mapping ocean surface currents, based on coastal ocean dynamics application radar (CODAR) principles. This demonstration project was begun in June 1992 to collect surface current information in the more sheltered, but tidally active waters of the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Georgia. Two radar units spanning the strait between Victoria and Port Angeles were deployed, and a series of tests with real-time data transmission to Seaconsult`s office in Vancouver were carried out. This report discusses the data collected in July 1992. In addition to the radar data collection program, four days of Orion buoy drifts were carried out, as well as deployment of a woodchip slick to simulate oil-on-water motion during one of the drifter experiments. These drifts were targeted for the coverage area of the radars.

  14. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Draft annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M.; Mountford, H.S. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Research aimed at gaining a better understanding of selenium cycling in marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait is being performed by scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and collaborators from the University of California at Davis. This work was initiated in the Fall of 1994 and is scheduled to continue through the Fall of 1996. This report summarizes the results of the effort to date.

  15. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Annual report, October 1, 1995--December 31,1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawislanski, P.T.; McGrath, A.E.; Benson, S.M. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Selenium geochemistry in tidal wetlands is a topic of continuing study at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The program of studies described in this report was initiated in the fall of 1994 in response to concerns about elevated Se concentrations in waters, sediments, and biota in the Carquinez Strait. Processes by which selenium is introduced and potentially released from the sediment system have been the focus of research in 1996.

  16. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya Ramamoorthi; Rama Jayaraj; Leonard Notaras; Mahiban Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as “Indigenous”) is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have...

  17. Seasonal characteristics of size-fractionated phytoplankton community and fate of photosynthesized carbon in a sub-Antarctic area (Straits of Magellan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrini, Franco; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Mangoni, Olga

    2014-08-01

    Phytoplankton community size drives the rates of biogenic carbon and the overall structure and dynamics of the marine pelagic food web. The Straits of Magellan, an inland passage between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, can be separated into three main sub-basins: the western-Pacific, the V-shaped central zone, and the eastern-Atlantic. To provide insights into the food structure of the phytoplankton community, size-fractionated chlorophyll a concentration and primary production rates were measured across the three sectors of the Magellan Straits in four periods between 1989 and 1995 in the Straits. Phytoplanktonic biomass and production ratios provided ecological insights into the food web structure, including the relevance of grazing in its largest fraction. The micro-phytoplanktonic fraction (> 10 μm) in the Pacific sub-basin is significantly less abundant than in the Central and Atlantic ones. Conversely, the lowest abundance of the pico-fraction (partially spilling out into the Atlantic sector. The most active grazing activities occur in the Central sub-basin during the spring bloom and appear even stronger in summer. Our results pinpoint also that the basic levels of the planktonic food web rely on the nanophytoplankton (10-2 μm) fraction, which is the main contributor to the continuum multivorous food web. When external energy (e.g. nutrient pulses from land freshwater and water mixing) enters the system, the structure of the plankton in the Straits shifts towards the herbivorous food web and is characterized by the presence of large-size diatoms. This dynamics keeps the system in a persistent mesotrophic state, featuring a lower trophic status than the Antarctic ones but much higher than that of oligotrophic temperate areas.

  18. 蔡英文两岸论述解析%The Analysis of the Discourse of Cai Ying-wen on Cross-strait Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪永杰

    2011-01-01

    民进党蔡英文的政策主张引起各方关注,其两岸论述既是选举策略,也反映了民进党当前的两岸思维与政策逻辑,对下阶段两岸关系的发展产生复杂影响。围绕2011年2月至6月间蔡英文公开发表的两岸言论进行分析,蔡的两岸论述在坚守"台独"内核的同时,持续进行策略调整,提出不少富有想象力的口号,但仍无法摆脱论述困境,陷于旧框架,缺乏新思维,两岸论述仍是民进党的重大"罩门"。%The policy advocated by Cai Ying-wen of Democratic Progressive Party attracted people's attention.Her discourse on cross-strait relations is not only her campaign strategy but also reflects the current logic thinking and policy of Democratic Progressive Party.It will have intricate influence on the development of cross-strait relations of the next stage.This article stresses and analyzes her two published speeches on cross-strait relations during Feb.to June of 2011.Although her discourse adheres to the kernel of "Taiwan independence" while continuing to undertake the adjustment strategy and bringing forward some imaginative slogans,she cannot get rid of the dilemma of her own discourse and it is immersed in the old framework of lacking fresh thought.Her cross-strait discourse is still the major "hood door" for Democratic Progressive Party.

  19. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  20. A seismological examination of the structure and tectonics of southernmost South America and the Antarctic Peninsula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Stacey Diane Robertson

    Three different seismological investigations of southernmost South America and the Antarctic Peninsula region are presented in this thesis. Using new data obtained from the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica, I invert regional waveforms, locate earthquake hypocenters, calculate focal mechanisms, and investigate Rayleigh wave phase velocities. These techniques all provide insight into the structure and tectonics of these unique regions. The crustal and upper mantle structure of southern South America is determined using a regional waveform inversion method that incorporates a niching genetic algorithm. This technique performs a broad search of the model space and enables examination of alternative local error minima. The vertical and transverse waveforms are used, and anisotropy is identified by solving for separate SV and SH structures in the upper mantle. Results indicate crustal thickness varies from 26 to 36 km, with thicker values towards the northeast, suggesting little crustal thickening beneath the Austral Andes. The average upper mantle velocities are similar to PREM, except in the southernmost region where velocities are 5% slower than PREM. The upper mantle has up to 5% polarization anisotropy. The anisotropic signature is limited to lithospheric depths and may imply the absence of a strong mantle flow pattern in the asthenosphere. In the Antarctic Peninsula region 150 local earthquake hypocenters are determined (mb 2--5), with locations and depths indicative of ongoing subduction. A local focal mechanism indicates shallow angle thrusting. The South Shetland trench thus represents an extreme end member of hot subduction resulting from slow convergence of young lithosphere, and the absence of intermediate depth earthquakes is consistent with thermal assimilation of the slab at shallow depths. Earthquake locations in the backarc are consistent with the propagation of spreading from northeast to southwest. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion

  1. AFSC/ABL: Genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In 2007, the U.S....

  2. On the Occurrence and Established Populations of the Alien Polychaete Polydora cornuta Bosc, 1802 (Polychaeta: Spionidae in the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.U. KARHAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the first occurrence of Polydora cornuta in the Bosphorus Strait and its finding in a new locality in the Sea of Marmara, providing a link with its Aegean and Black Sea populations. The probable vector for the introduction of P. cornuta into the Sea of Marmara is shipping through the Dardanelles Strait. Both soft and hard-bottom populations were examined and the importance and prevalence of this species within the native macrozoobenthic communities were elucidated. Its abundance ranged between 40 and 3390 ind.m-2 (mean:1320 ±1199.45 SD and its percent contribution to the total faunal populations ranged between 3.31 and 75.56 (mean:27.79 ±25.00 SD in the Sea of Marmara softbottom community. During the sampling period, P. cornuta contributed little to the total faunal abundance of the hard-bottom communities in the Bosphorus Strait. Its mean abundance in the hard substrate ranged between 8.33 and 1000 ind.m-2 (mean:117.36 ±279.73 SD and its percent contribution to the total faunal populations ranged between 0.02 and 21.86 (mean:2.07 ±6.25 SD.The role of this invasive species in the soft-bottom macrobenthic community at an organically enriched site examined in the Sea of Marmara is highlighted, and a comparison with Aegean Sea populations of the species is also included.

  3. Does differential particulate food supply explain the presence of mussels in Wellington Harbour (New Zealand) and their absence on neighbouring Cook Strait shores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Jeremy G.; Pledger, Shirley; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2007-03-01

    Rocky intertidal reef communities in Wellington Harbour, New Zealand, are dominated by mussels (the ribbed mussel Aulacomya maoriana, the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus). Only a few kilometres away, outside the Harbour on exposed Cook Strait shores, these mussels are absent. We tested the hypothesis of bottom-up food limitation as the explanation for this distributional difference. The water column at three Harbour sites and five Cook Strait coastal sites was sampled over an 18-month period for temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate organic matter (POM), percent organic matter (PCOM), chlorophyll a (Chl a), particle counts (number of particles mL -1 in the range 2.5-63 μm), percent carbon, percent nitrogen, and C:N ratio. Mean values of PCOM and Chl a were significantly higher ( p M. galloprovincialis > A. maoriana). We interpret these field-based and laboratory-based findings as providing support for the hypothesis that multi-species mussel distributions and hence intertidal community structure at Cook Strait sites are regulated at least in part by particulate food supply.

  4. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  5. On the data integration of seismological observation and deep seismic exploration. The crustal modeling for the Messina Straits Area as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. FEDERICO

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Given an earth crust model having homogeneous layers and spherical
    symmetry, the travel-times equations of the direct and refracted longitudinal
    waves are first deduced. These linear equations are determined
    from the seismic ray parameter p, and from the known term a,. The
    parameter p, is connected with the velocity of the elastic waves that are
    refracted on the i-th layer; «, depends on the velocity of the layers crossed
    by the seismic ray and on their thickness.
    Subsequently, the equations of the first arrivals, observed in quite a
    number of stations surrounding the Straits of Messina during the seismic
    crisis of the Gulf of Patti (1978, are utilized for working out a crustal model
    for the Messina Straits area. Given the inadequatly of the passive seismology
    data both in number and in characteristics the most superficial layers
    of the model are defined using the results of deep seismic exploration
    carried out in areas contiguous to the Straits. The thickness and velocity
    of the longitudinal waves in the underlying layers are, instead, determined

  6. A simple diabetes vascular severity staging instrument and its application to a Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal adult cohort of north Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Odette R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an instrument that predicts diabetes-related vascular disease severity using routinely collected data on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of diabetes duration. Methods A complex diabetes severity classification system was simplified and adapted for use with an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult population with type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Detailed vascular health risks and morbidities were mapped to routinely collected measures. Individual–level health screening, hospital separation and mortality data were linked and used to plot mean monthly in-patient hospital cost and percent mortality by disease severity as defined by the newly developed instrument, to test construct validity. Results The revised instrument consists of four combined diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular stages that range from least severe (stage 1 to severe irreversible vascular impairment (stage 4. When applied to data of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population the instrument showed good construct validity, predicting higher hospital cost and mortality as vascular disease severity increased. Conclusions This instrument discriminates between levels of diabetes-related vascular disease severity, displays good construct validity by predicting increased hospital cost and mortality with worsening severity and can be populated with routinely collected data. It may assist with future health service research and its use could be extended to practice settings for health care planning for diabetes management programs and monitoring vascular disease progression.

  7. Commentary on “A Modest Proposal for a Basic Agreement on Peaceful Cross-Strait Development” by Chang Ya-chung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hughes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This critique assesses Prof. Chang Ya-chung’s draft basic agreement for cross-Strait relations by arguing that it overstates changes in Beijing’s Taiwan policy, which is based on a strategy that has not seen substantial change since it was devised in the early 1990s to prevent the island’s democratization leading to the exercise of self-determination. By over-estimating Taiwan’s political, diplomatic, military, and economic vulnerability the proposal unnecessarily narrows down Taibei’s options to the point where it has to accept Beijing’s one-China principle. This merely closes off other options that Taiwan can just as readily pursue, such as continuing to develop cross-Strait relations through ad hoc solutions to practical problems or seeking more imaginative ways to create a durable modus vivendi with international support. Even more problematic is that a political framework for stability based on the principles of Chinese nationalism is unlikely to be acceptable for Taiwan’s liberaldemocratic politics and could thus amount to an unnecessary risk that would lead to a less durable cross-Strait status quo than that which has been maintained over the last two decades.

  8. An estimation of nutrient fluxes to the East China Sea continental shelf from the Taiwan Strait and Kuroshio subsurface waters in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongmei; SHI Xiaoyong; WANG Hao; HAN Xiurong

    2014-01-01

    According to historical mean ocean current data through the field observations of the Taiwan Ocean Re-search Institute during 1991-2005 and survey data of nutrients on the continental shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) in the summer of 2006, nutrient fluxes from the Taiwan Strait and Kuroshio subsurface waters are estimated using a grid interpolation method, which both are the sources of the Taiwan Warm Current. The nutrient fluxes of the two water masses are also compared. The results show that phosphate (PO4-P), silicate (SiO3-Si) and nitrate (NO3-N) fluxes to the ECS continental shelf from the Kuroshio upwelling water are slightly higher than those from the Taiwan Strait water in the summer of 2006. In contrast, owing to its lower velocity, the nutrient flux density (i.e., nutrient fluxes divided by the area of the specific section) of the Ku-roshio subsurface water is lower than that of the Taiwan Strait water. In addition, the Taiwan Warm Current deep water, which is mainly constituted by the Kuroshio subsurface water, might directly reach the areas of high-frequency harmful alga blooms in the ECS.

  9. Cross-strait Financial Cooperation Brings New Chances for Banking Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony Phoo

    2010-01-01

    @@ China mainland and Taiwan signed a Memorandum of Understanding on banking industry supervision and cooperation recently It has great values to Taiwan banking industry which is annoyed by thin profits for long Taiwan-capitalized banks will have rights to carry out more financial services in Greater China Region Meanwhile, it is helpful to boost Taiwan towards the middle-term target of growing into regional trade and financial center

  10. Holocene sea subsurface and surface water masses in the Fram Strait - Comparisons of temperature and sea-ice reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kirstin; Müller, Juliane; Husum, Katrine; Spielhagen, Robert F.; Kandiano, Evgenia S.; Polyak, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    Two high-resolution sediment cores from eastern Fram Strait have been investigated for sea subsurface and surface temperature variability during the Holocene (the past ca 12,000 years). The transfer function developed by Husum and Hald (2012) has been applied to sediment cores in order to reconstruct fluctuations of sea subsurface temperatures throughout the period. Additional biomarker and foraminiferal proxy data are used to elucidate variability between surface and subsurface water mass conditions, and to conclude on the Holocene climate and oceanographic variability on the West Spitsbergen continental margin. Results consistently reveal warm sea surface to subsurface temperatures of up to 6 °C until ca 5 cal ka BP, with maximum seawater temperatures around 10 cal ka BP, likely related to maximum July insolation occurring at that time. Maximum Atlantic Water (AW) advection occurred at surface and subsurface between 10.6 and 8.5 cal ka BP based on both foraminiferal and dinocyst temperature reconstructions. Probably, a less-stratified, ice-free, nutrient-rich surface ocean with strong AW advection prevailed in the eastern Fram Strait between 10 and 9 cal ka BP. Weakened AW contribution is found after ca 5 cal ka BP when subsurface temperatures strongly decrease with minimum values between ca 4 and 3 cal ka BP. Cold late Holocene conditions are furthermore supported by high planktic foraminifer shell fragmentation and high δ18O values of the subpolar planktic foraminifer species Turborotalita quinqueloba. While IP25-associated indices as well as dinocyst data suggest a sustained cooling due to a decrease in early summer insolation and consequently sea-ice increase since about 7 cal ka BP in surface waters, planktic foraminiferal data including stable isotopes indicate a slight return of stronger subsurface AW influx since ca 3 cal ka BP. The observed decoupling of surface and subsurface waters during the later Holocene is most likely attributed to a strong

  11. First oceanographic observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in Northeast Greenland: Tracing the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergei A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Pedersen, Leif T.; Rysgaard, Soeren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.

    2016-04-01

    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in North Eastern Greenland were collected from the land-fast ice in April-May 2015 as a part of the Arctic Science Partnership collaboration during the first research campaign at the Villum Research Station. They were complemented by (i) the ice-tethered profiler (ITP) and Acoustic Dopler Current Profiler (ADCP) mooring observations in ~300 m of the tidewater glacier outlet from the Flade Isblink Ice Cap and (ii) CTDs taken in June-July 2015 along the Wandel Sea continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-15 sea ice drift. The CTD profiles deeper than 100 m are used to reveal the origin of water masses and determine the extent to which these water masses have interacted with ambient water from the continental slope. The subsurface water layer from ~20-70 m depth is comprised of freshened water (30-32 psu) that is likely associated with the Pacific Water outflow from the Arctic Ocean through the western Fram Strait. The underlying halocline layer centered at ~80 m (~33 psu) separates the Pacific Water layer from a deeper (<140 m) layer of modified Polar Water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic Water outflow through Fram Strait. The Atlantic Water layer with temperature above 0°C is recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline layer shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient Polar Water mass across the continental slope. Mooring data shows an enhanced shelf-slope interaction responding the storm event in 23-24 April 2015 with northerly winds exceeding 10 m/s. The on-shelf transport of a cold and turbid water from the upper continental slope results in enhanced interleaving within the depth range of the halocline layer (~70-100 m). Our observations of Pacific Water in the Wandel Sea subsurface layer are set in the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea for 2002-2011 and downstream

  12. 海峡两岸刑事司法互助中的证据问题%Evidence in Cross-strait Criminal Judicial Assistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂华

    2016-01-01

    The validity of evidence in litigation remains a difficult problem in the cross-strait criminal judicial assistance. The different evidence system and rules reflect the distinct understanding of the legitimacy of the proce-dure applied to the right of punishment in both sides of Taiwan Strait, which has an increasing effect on the cross-strait mutual judicial assistance. And the"demonstration" function of the legal procedure can enhance the credibil-ity and the effectiveness of the evidence in this judicial mutual assistance. Therefore, Taiwan and the mainland should reach mutual trust and cooperation, and after drawing on the successful experience of judicial assistance in other jurisdictions, they can refine the terms in the agreement of fighting crimes and reaching the mutual legal assis-tance in both sides of Taiwan Strait, which would guarantee a reasonable process for obtaining and converting evi-dence so as to enhance the cross-strait judicial mutual assistance.%证据在诉讼中的有效性是海峡两岸刑事司法互助中难解的困局。两岸不同的证据制度和证据规则反映了对刑罚权程序正当性的不同认识,这种差异日益影响到两岸司法互助的效果。法律程序的“演示性”功能能够提升司法互助证据的公信力与证明力。海峡两岸应互信合作,借鉴与其他法域司法协助的成功经验,尽早细化《海峡两岸共同打击犯罪及司法互助协议》的证据条款,使证据的取得与转换具有可视性和操作性,提升司法互助的成效。

  13. Preliminary study of zooplankton community in the Luzon strait%吕宋海峡浮游动物群落结构的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连喜平; 谭烨辉; 刘永宏; 黄良民; 陈清潮; 周林滨

    2013-01-01

    Different water masses have distinct natural physical and chemical properties, which may influence the zooplankton community structure. In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between zooplankton and water mass, zooplankton was sampled at 14 stations between 15th August, and 19th September, 2008 in the Luzon Strait. A total of 257 species and 12 groups of planktonic larvae were identified. Copepod was the most dominant species, followed by medusa. Species richness and diversity indices in the west of Luzon Strait were higher than that in the east of Luzon Strait. The average abundance of zooplankton in Luzon strait was 16.76 11.36 ind./m3. Zooplankton abundance in the west of Luzon Strait was higher than that in the east of Luzon Strait. Cluster analysis showed that there was difference in zooplankton community between the both sides of Luzon strait. The differences of zooplankton communities indicated that different water masses can influences zooplankton species composition and spatial distribution.%不同理化性质的水团影响浮游动物种类组成和群落结构.为了探讨吕宋海峡的环境对浮游动物群落结构的影响,于2008年8月15日至9月15日对吕宋海峡浮游动物的种类组成和丰度分布进行了调查和分析.共鉴定出浮游动物257种和浮游幼虫12个类群,吕宋海峡西部海域浮游动物种类数和多样性比中东部海域的高.浮游动物平均丰度为(16.76±11.36) ind./m3 .其中,吕宋海峡西部海域浮游动物平均丰度高于吕宋海峡中东部海域.聚类分析结果表明,吕宋海峡浮游动物可分为两个类群,一类为分布于吕宋海峡的中东部,受黑潮水影响的类群;另一类为分布于吕宋海峡西部,受南海水影响的类群.吕宋海峡浮游动物群落结构反映了该海域浮游动物的种类组成和分布受不同性质水团的调控.

  14. Source mechanism studies of earthquakes in the Ibero-Maghrebian region and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Udías, A.; Pro, C.

    2016-10-01

    Seismicity of the Ibero-Maghrebian region includes the occurrence of shallow, intermediate depth, and very deep earthquakes. This is a very rare occurrence for a region not associated to an active subduction zone. Detailed studies of the source mechanism of these three types of earthquakes have been made possible through the collaboration with Prof. Madariaga. They give important information about the complex tectonic of the region. Shallow earthquakes at the west and east ends of the region have predominant reverse faulting with NW-SE trending horizontal pressure axes. The center part is the most tectonically complex. At the Strait of Gibraltar, there is a change on focal mechanisms from reverse faulting to strike-slip motion in northern Morocco, conserving the horizontal compression on NW-SE direction. In the Alboran Sea, mechanisms are of normal faulting with E-W trending horizontal tension axes, and in south Spain, mechanisms are of mixed solutions. The intermediate depth earthquakes (40-130 km) are located at both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, at the western part distributed in E-W direction. The most important concentration, however, is located at the east of Gibraltar in a N-S trending thin vertical body and has different mechanisms. The very deep earthquakes (650 km) are concentrated at a small volume, and their mechanism corresponds to N-S vertical planes or horizontal ones. A tectonic model for the region is presented to explain the shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes.

  15. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  16. Reproductive features of the deep-water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidae, in the Strait of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. BIANCHINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The deep‑water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846, is one of the most valuable and heavily exploited demersal species of the Mediterranean bottom trawl fisheries. The basic life traits of this shrimp, in particular its reproductive aspects, are regularly monitored during experimental trawl surveys carried out in the Mediterranean Sea. Gonadic condition and maturity status for estimating the size at onset of sexual maturity are commonly assessed in females, using macroscopic color scales, histologically validated only in a few geographical areas. In this study, histological analyses were performed on rose shrimps collected from a trawl survey carried out in the Strait of Sicily, in order to support the empirical 4‑stage macroscopic scale locally employed. Ovaries from females of different sizes, ranging between 16 mm and 40 mm carapace length, were collected and used for microscopic examination of their structure, for oocytes counts and for oocyte diameter frequency distributions; oocytes diameter was measured by imaging analysis. The collected data were also used to estimate other basic vital parameters of the rose shrimp population. The histological observations show a broad correspondence between ovarian development and macroscopic features; therefore, the classifications derived by the empirical scale remain suitable for estimating the maturity parameters.

  17. Alu insertion polymorphisms in NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula: evidence for a strong genetic boundary through the Gibraltar Straits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, D; Calafell, F; Benchemsi, N; Helal, A; Lefranc, G; Stoneking, M; Batzer, M A; Bertranpetit, J; Sajantila, A

    2000-10-01

    An analysis of 11 I Alu insertion polymorphisms (ACE, TPA25, PV92, APO, FXIIIB, D1, A25, B65, HS2.43, HS3.23, and HS4.65) has been performed in several NW African (Northern, Western, and Southeastern Moroccans, Saharawi; Algerians; Tunisians) and Iberian (Basques, Catalans, and Andalusians) populations. Genetic distances and principal component analyses show a clear differentiation of NW African and Iberian groups of samples, suggesting a strong genetic barrier matching the geographical Mediterranean Sea barrier. The restriction to gene flow may be attributed to the navigational hazards across the Straits, but cultural factors must also have played a role. Some degree of gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa can be detected in the southern part of North Africa and in Saharawi and Southeastern Moroccans, as a result of a continuous gene flow across the Sahara desert that has created a south-north cline of sub-Saharan Africa influence in North Africa. Iberian samples show a substantial degree of homogeneity and fall within the cluster of European-based genetic diversity.

  18. Determination and quantification of PCBs, POCs and PAHs in Thunnus thynnus from the Straits of Messina (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saija, Emanuele; Mangano, Valentina; Casale, Katia Ermina; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Dugo, Giacomo; Salvo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This data set is composed to assess the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dioxin like (DL) and not dioxin like (NDL), organochlorine pesticides (POCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Thunnus thynnus and to elucidate the suitability of this species as a bioindicator for monitoring contaminations of these compounds in the marine ecosystems of the Straits of Messina. This investigation was conducted on liver samples of 14 T. thynnus collected during April 2015. Quantitative determination of PCBs (DL and NDL), POCs and PAHs in the examined samples has been carried out by HRGC-MS/MS. Among the PCBs, high prevalence of DL was found while, generally, the values detected for PCBs–NDL were lower than the legal limits. Tuna samples analyzed for PAHs residues revealed that all the samples were contaminated with acenaphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. Moreover, generally the residual levels of DDT and DDT metabolites were low. The total content of PCB–DL, in almost all the samples, showed higher concentration than the legal limit. PMID:26933670

  19. Pliocene-Pleistocene changes in Arctic sea-ice cover: New biomarker records from Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau (ODP Sites 911 and 912)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Recently, a novel and promising biomarker proxy for reconstruction of Arctic sea-ice conditions was developed and is based on the determination of a highly branched isoprenoid with 25 carbons (IP25; Belt et al., 2007). Following this pioneer IP25 study by Belt and colleagues, several IP25 studies of marine surface sediments and sediment cores as well as sediment trap samples from northpolar areas were carried out successfully and allowed detailed reconstruction of modern and late Quaternary sea ice variability in these regions (e.g., Massé et al., 2008; Müller et al., 2009, 2011; Vare et al., 2009; Belt et al., 2010; Fahl and Stein, 2012; for review see Stein et al., 2012). Here, we present new (low-resolution) biomarker records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 911 and 912, representing the Pliocene-Pleistocene time interval (including the interval of major intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation near 2.7 Ma). These data indicate that sea ice of variable extent was present in the Fram Strait/southern Yermak Plateau area during most of the time period under investigation. In general, an increase in sea-ice cover seems to correlate with phases of extended late Pliocene-Pleistocene continental ice-sheets. At ODP Site 912, a significant increase in sea-ice extension occurred near 1.2 Ma (Stein and Fahl, 2012). Furthermore, our data support the idea that a combination of IP25 and open water, phytoplankton biomarker data ("PIP25 index"; Müller et al., 2011) may give more reliable and quantitative estimates of past sea-ice cover (at least for the study area). This study reveals that the novel IP25/PIP25 biomarker approach has potential for semi-quantitative paleo-sea ice studies covering the entire Quaternary and motivate to carry out further detailed high-resolution research on ODP/IODP material using this proxy. References Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25

  20. 2003-2012年间白令海峡断面淡水构成的时空变化%Spatial and temporal variations of freshwater components at a transect near the Bering Strait during 2003-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 陈敏; 童金炉; 邱雨生; 郑敏芳

    2015-01-01

    Seawaterδ18 O at a transect along 64.3°N near Bering strait from 2003 to 2012 was determined,and the fractions of sea-ice melted water (SIM)and river water (RW)were calculated using mass balance of salinity andδ18 O.The spatial distribution and interannual variability of freshwater components in the Bering Strait were dis-cussed.Our results showed that the signals of depleted δ18 O,low salinity,warmer temperatures and higher river runoff fractions were found in the region affected by the Alaska Coastal Water (ACW)on the eastern part of the section,while high δ18 O,high salinity,and lower sea-ice melted water fractions were observed in the western part with the influence of Anadyr water.The moderate properties were revealed in the middle part of the section with the influence of the Bering Shelf Water.The fractions of river runoff in the region affected by the Alaska Coastal Water were approximately twice as much as in regions affected by the Bering Shelf Water and the Anadyr Water. The interannual variation of river runoff fractions in regions affected by the Alaska Coastal Water showed a charac-teristic of 2010>2012 >2003 >2008,which was regulated by the interannual variation of the Yukon River dis-charge.The fractions of sea-ice melted water were similar in the regions affected by the Bering Shelf Water and the Alaska Coastal Water,and higher (~45%)than those in the region affected by the Anadyr Water.The interannu-al variation of sea-ice melted water fractions showed a characteristic of 2003>2008≈2012>2010,controlled by the interannual variation of sea ice cover in the Bering Sea.The freshwater pass through the Bering Strait was consti-tute of 46% river water and 54% sea-ice melted water in average.The fraction ratios of river water to sea-ice mel-ted water in the regions affected by the Alaskan Coastal Water,the Bering Shelf Water,and the Anadyr Water in-creased during 2003 to 2012,indicating that the freshwater components in the Pacific inflow also play

  1. Moroccan mitochondrial genetic background suggests prehistoric human migrations across the Gibraltar Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouda, Taha; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Elmtili, Noureddine; Idaomar, Mouhamed; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Montoya, Julio; López-Pérez, Manuel José; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2009-11-01

    Migrations into Africa from the Levant have greatly determined the mitochondrial genetic landscape of North Africa. After analyzing samples from North Morocco to Spain, we show that three fourths of the Moroccan individuals belong to Western Eurasian haplogroups and the frequencies of these are much more similar to those of the Iberian Peninsula than to those of the Middle East. This is particularly true for the mitochondrial haplogroups H1, H3 and V, which experienced a late-glacial expansion from this region, that repopulated much of Central and Northern Europe. Iberian Peninsula was also a source for prehistoric migrations to North Africa.

  2. 海峡两岸货币清算机制监管合作设想%On the Regulatory Mechanisms of Currency Liquidation across the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丽洪; 涂晓今; 钱远玲

    2015-01-01

    自海峡两岸货币清算机制实质运作以来,货币清算机制的监管合作显得十分必要与迫切。通过回顾和总结两岸经贸、银行业的合作历程,比较两岸银行监管的差异,从两岸银行规定的协调、货币清算机构间的协调、信息交换与共享以及风险预警与危机处理的协调,积极探索两岸对货币清算机制监管合作的拓展空间,确保两岸货币清算机制的健康运作,从而促进两岸经贸合作的进一步发展。%After the operation of the Currency Liquidation Mechanism across the Taiwan Straits in 2013, there is an urgent need for the establishment of regulatory mechanisms of currency liquidation.On review of the development of economic and trade coop-eration as well as ties-up between banks, together with the difference in banking supervision, the paper puts forward suggestions on coordination of banking laws, coordination between organizations of currency liquidation as well as coordination of information exchange, risk warning system and risk management system.It actively explores the collaboration of banking supervision across the Straits in hope of smooth functioning of currency liquidation mechanism and further development of economic and trade ex-change across the Straits.

  3. Liquid freshwater transport estimates from the East Greenland Current based on continuous measurements north of Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R. S.; Macrander, A.; Vâge, K.; Harden, B.; Jónsson, S.; Østerhus, S.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC are determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11 month mean freshwater transport (FWT), relative to a salinity of 34.8, was 65 ± 11 mSv to the south. Approximately 70% of this was associated with the shelfbreak EGC and the remaining 30% with the separated EGC. Very large southward FWT ranging from 160 mSv to 120 mSv was observed from September to mid-October 2011 and was foremost due to anomalously low upper-layer salinities. The FWT may, however, be underestimated by approximately 5 mSv due to sampling biases in the upper ocean. The FWT on the Greenland shelf was estimated using additional inshore moorings deployed from 2012 to 2014. While the annual mean ranged from nearly zero during the first year to 18 mSv to the south during the second year, synoptically the FWT on the shelf can be significant. Furthermore, an anomalous event in autumn 2011 caused the shelfbreak EGC to reverse, leading to a large reduction in FWT. This reversed circulation was due to the passage of a large, 100 km wide anticyclone originating upstream from the shelfbreak. The late summer FWT of -131 mSv is 150% larger than earlier estimates based on sections in the late-1990s and early-2000s. This increase is likely the result of enhanced freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas during the early 2010s.

  4. Development of a Humane Slaughter Device for Green Turtles for Use by Traditional Owners in the Torres Strait Islands, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C.; Loban, Frank; Simpson, Tristan; Lui, Stan; Fujii, Ronald; Whap, Don; Flint, Jaylene B.; Owen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Marine turtles are caught and slaughtered for consumption as part of traditional indigenous community harvest in Australia as well as in many countries in which marine turtles can be found. However, changes to the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 in 2012 resulted in Australian indigenous hunters becoming potentially liable to prosecution for using traditional practices to slaughter marine turtles. To provide indigenous hunters with an alternative scientifically tested method to hunt, we developed and tested a humane method as an option to use in indigenous communities. Between 2012 and 2015, a device was developed, tested on 11 carcasses to determine effectiveness and repeatability, used on 5 anaesthetised animals independently diagnosed as candidates for euthanasia, and ultimately used on 2 healthy, conscious animals as part of normal indigenous community subsistence harvesting under observation before being left with the communities for use. Feedback was sought from the communities on the suitability and potential adoption of the device. The device effectively ablated the hind brain and severed the spinal cord when deployed in 81% (9/11) of the tested carcasses, with death in 100% (5/5) of turtles, on average, within 78 seconds of deployment on anaesthetised turtles and death in 100% (2/2) of turtles, on average, within 144 seconds when deployed on healthy turtles within community. Failure to ablate the hindbrain and sever the spinal cord in the cadaver cases was due to incorrect deployment of the device. This device showed promise as an alternative euthanasia method available to indigenous communities of the Torres Straits. Further work is required to encourage acceptance by hunters. PMID:28076432

  5. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Jacob Inbaneson; Sundaram Ravikumar; Palavesam Suganthi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthusamarus (P. amarus). Methods: The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodiumfalciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results:Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81μg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14μg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J.glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC 50 values between 50 and 100 μg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions: The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  6. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Laura M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1 quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors; (2 qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems.

  7. A network approach to policy framing: A case study of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jennifer; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Gleeson, Deborah; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal health policy in Australia represents a unique policy subsystem comprising a diverse network of Aboriginal-specific and "mainstream" organisations, often with competing interests. This paper describes the network structure of organisations attempting to influence national Aboriginal health policy and examines how the different subgroups within the network approached the policy discourse. Public submissions made as part of a policy development process for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan were analysed using a novel combination of network analysis and qualitative framing analysis. Other organisational actors in the network in each submission were identified, and relationships between them determined; these were used to generate a network map depicting the ties between actors. A qualitative framing analysis was undertaken, using inductive coding of the policy discourses in the submissions. The frames were overlaid with the network map to identify the relationship between the structure of the network and the way in which organisations framed Aboriginal health problems. Aboriginal organisations were central to the network and strongly connected with each other. The network consisted of several densely connected subgroups, whose central nodes were closely connected to one another. Each subgroup deployed a particular policy frame, with a frame of "system dysfunction" also adopted by all but one subgroup. Analysis of submissions revealed that many of the stakeholders in Aboriginal health policy actors are connected to one another. These connections help to drive the policy discourse. The combination of network and framing analysis illuminates competing interests within a network, and can assist advocacy organisations to identify which network members are most influential.

  8. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  9. Structure, transport, and vertical coherence of the Gulf Stream from the Straits of Florida to the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Christopher S.; Luther, Douglas S.

    2016-06-01

    Data from three independent and extensive field programs in the Straits of Florida, the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and near the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge are reanalyzed and compared with results from other historical studies to highlight the downstream evolution of several characteristics of the Gulf Stream's mean flow and variability. The three locations represent distinct dynamical regimes: a tightly confined jet in a channel; a freely meandering jet; and a topographically controlled jet on a boundary. Despite these differing dynamical regimes, the Gulf Stream in these areas exhibits many similarities. There are also anticipated and important differences, such as the loss of the warm core of the current by 42°N and the decrease in the cross-frontal gradient of potential vorticity as the current flows northward. As the Gulf Stream evolves it undergoes major changes in transport, both in magnitude and structure. The rate of inflow up to 60°W and outflow thereafter are generally uniform, but do exhibit some remarkable short-scale variations. As the Gulf Stream flows northward the vertical coherence of the flow changes, with the Florida Current and North Atlantic Current segments of the Gulf Stream exhibiting distinct upper and deep flows that are incoherent, while in the Mid-Atlantic Bight the Gulf Stream exhibits flows in three layers each of which tends to be incoherent with the other layers at most periods. These coherence characteristics are exhibited in both Eulerian and stream coordinates. The observed lack of vertical coherence indicates that great caution must be exercised in interpreting proxies for Gulf Stream structure and flow from vertically-limited or remote observations.

  10. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  11. Dynamic paleogeography of the Jurassic Andean Basin: pattern of transgression and localisation of main straits through the magmatic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-C. Vicente

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paleogeographic evolution of the Jurassic Andean retroarc basin is examined at a global scale for the Central Andes. In this paper, it is called for the striking continuity and lasting of the active volcanic arc. Both direct and indirect sedimentologic evidences allow to locate the western border (insular of the basin and opposite it with the eastern border (cratonic. Emphasis is placed on the volcaniclastic deposits and synsedimentary structures associated with this insular border. It is concluded that the arc magmatic activity has contributed considerably in sediment supply to the basin. Extent and continuity of the arc implies to locate the straits connecting with the Paleopacific. Systematic check of the time of transgressions coupled with sequential facies analysis provides a dynamic outlook of the transgressive process. Sectors with early transgression allow to distinguish two main gulfs of passage through the arc from which waters have progressed lengthwise at the same time northward and southward in a narrow retroarc furrow : the first at latitude of Taltal (25°S, the second at latitude of Curepto (35°S. Both initiated in the upper Triassic and extended during the Hettangian. The evolution as separate basins (Tarapacá and Aconcagua-Neuquén ended by fusion in middle Pliensbachian giving rise to a continuous elongated basin from Chubut to northern Peru. The remarkable continuity and narrowness of the Andean Basin leaves no doubt about its tectonic control. This stems to its geotectonic setting as a typical retroarc basin adjacent to a very active magmatic arc and explains the extreme mobility of its insular margin characterized by a huge volcanoclastic apron with associated debris flows and turbidites.

  12. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Methods Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS. Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3 and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11 and family carers (N = 3. Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Results Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Conclusions Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that

  13. THE MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS ACROSS THE TAIWAN STRAIT AND NEIGHBORING AREAS DURING IOP608 OF HUAMEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives the distributions of the daily mean temperature of black body of satellite infrared images from June 7 to 10, 1998 during HUAMEX and examines 14 meso-α-scale convective systems and a number of meso-b-scale convective systems using the satellite infrared images at 1-h intervals. The mesoscale convective systems on June 7 and 9, which resulted in severe rainstorm over the middle of Taiwan and the estuary region of the Pearl River (Zhujiang R.), are emphatically analyzed. The serial development of mesoscale convective systems is revealed by the distributions of the black body temperature of satellite infrared images. The environmental conditions in which many mesoscale convective systems continuously occurred are diagnosed. The visualizing tool, LiveView, displays the link between the upper and lower horizontal wind fields and the vertical circulations and 3-dimensional trajectories of moist air motions, based on the data of objective analyses.

  14. Political Socialization and the Dynamic Mechanism Construction of the Cross-strait Youth Exchanges%政治社会化与两岸青年交流的动力机制建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐桦

    2012-01-01

    随着两岸关系发展的新进程,两岸青年交流也呈现出常态化、多样化和制度化的趋势,同时也存在着注重形式、交流动力不足等问题。对台湾青年群体政治意向调查显示,“去中国化”教育以及媒体乱象造成的青年认知混乱是当前两岸青年持续合作最主要的障碍。两岸青年交流在一个不断变化的环境中得以持续合作最终取决于两岸青年交流的制度化和理性化,构建文化认同机制、共同参与机制和社会融合机制是未来两岸青年持续合作的动力机制。%With the new process for the development of cross-strait relations, cross-strait youth exchanges show the trend of normalization, diversification and institutionalization. But there also exists the problems of emphasis on form, shortage of exchange motivation. Our youth groups and political intentions comparative survey in 2011 shows that youth's cognitive confusion made by "De-China" education and media chaos is the main obstacle of the sustained current cross-strait youth cooperation. Cross-strait youth exchanges in a constantly changing environment, ultimately depends on the institutionalization and rationalization of cross-strait youth exchanges. Building cultural identity mechanism, participatory mechanism and social integration mechanism are the dynamic mechanism of cross-strait youth's continuous cooperation in the future.

  15. Heavy metals content by ICP-OES in Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus from the Strait of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Furci, Patrizia; Cicero, Nicola; Pollicino, Gianmichele; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    In this study copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and vanadium content was measured in the muscles and gills of 24 fishes (Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus) caught in the Strait of Messina, by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with microwave digestion techniques. In general, it was found that arsenic was higher than other analytes in all fish species, particularly its content was much higher in S. aurita than in the other two exemplary species. Lead and cadmium were always detected with values below the legal limits (CE no. 1881/2006 and subsequent modification CE no. 629/2008).

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal water, surface sediment and mullet Liza klunzingeri from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Afkhami, Majid; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Kazaali, Aida; Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Haghparast, Sarah; Soltani, Farzaneh; Zanjani, Seyed Asal; Ghorghani, Nasrin Farzaneh; Pourzare, Roya

    2013-11-15

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in mullet (Liza klunzingeri), water and sediment from northern part of Hormuz strait (Persian Gulf). The concentration levels of total PAHs in L. klunzingeri, water and sediment were 133.99-268.57 ng g(-1)dry weight, 3.12-5.88 ng l(-1) and 42.29-228.9 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Based on isomer ratios, analysis of the PAHs source in the sediment demonstrated that the PAHs come from pyrogenic and petrogenic origin. Risk assessment showed PAHs threshold concentrations to occasionally be exceeded in the study area.

  17. 两岸香蕉标准对比分析%Comparison and Analysis of Standards for Bananas across the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静

    2011-01-01

    Standards for bananas across the taiwan straits were compared and analyzed in the paper.from three aspects: the quantity of standards, quality grade standard and pesticide residue standards for bananas. Itis in order to provide technical reference for establishing common standards for banana across the Taiwanstraits.%文章对两岸香蕉的标准数量、质量等级标准、农药残留限量标准进行了比较分析,旨在为订立两岸香蕉的共通标准提供技术参考.

  18. 清代福建人向海峡殖民地的移民%Hokkiens' Migration to the Straits Settlements during 1644-1911

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王付兵

    2009-01-01

    福建人移民海峡殖民地的历史颇早.海峡殖民地是清代尤其晚清福建人移民马来亚的集中地.在海峡殖民地各华人方言群中,除了1911年马六甲海南人比福建人略多之外,福建人所占的比重都是最大的.按人数看,19世纪80年代以来,新加坡的福建人在马来亚各邦和各殖民地的福建人中占绝对多数.19世纪末20世纪初,福建人的儿童移民数远超过其他方言群及国籍的儿童移民,从厦门港出发移民槟榔屿和新加坡的福建人绝大多数是男性移民.1893年清朝廷正式废除海禁政策对福建人经厦门港移民海峡殖民地产生了重要的影响.%The Hokkiens migrated to the Straits Settlements rather early in the history, and the Straits Settlements were the main places where the Hokkien migrants in Malaya concentrated during the Qing Dynasty, especially the Late Qing Period. The Hokkiens constituted the largest dialect group among the various dialect groups in the Straits Settlements except that the number of the Hainanese was a bit more than that of the Hokkiens in 1911. The Hokkieus in Singapore had absolutely been the most numerous among all dialect groups since 1880s. In the late 19th and early 20th, centuries, the number of the Hokkien children migrants far exceeded that of other dialect groups or nationalities, and most of the Hokkien migrants from Amoy port were male. It was the abolition of the seafaring prohibition policy of the Qing Government in 1893 that had important effects on Hokkieus' migration from Amoy port to the Straits Settlements, which meant the continuous increase in the number of Hokkien migrants in Singapore and Penang.

  19. Research on the optimal plan for distribution and deployment of aids to navigation in the Qiongzhou Strait%琼州海峡航标配布优化方案的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德珍

    2009-01-01

    文中介绍了琼州海峡的自然条件,详细分析了船舶交通状况和航标配布现状,提出了改善琼州海峡船舶交通状况的航标配布优化方案.%This article describes the natural conditions of the Qiongzhou Strait,provides a detailed analysis of the vessel traffic situation and status of aids to navigation distribution,and puts forward an optimal plan for distribution and deployment of aids to navigation for improving the situation of vessel traffic in the Qiongzhou Strait.

  20. The magnitude of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand in the Strait of Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Thomas; Rovere, Alessio; Schöne, Tilo; Klicpera, André; Stocchi, Paolo; Lukman, Muhammad; Westphal, Hildegard

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge on the timing and magnitude of past sea-level changes is essential to understand modern and future sea-level variability. Holocene sea-level data from literature on the west coast of Sulawesi, central Indonesia, suggest that this region experienced two relative sea-level highstands over the last 6000 years, with magnitudes exceeding two meters. However, recent datasets from the Indo-Pacific region do not support high-magnitude sea-level oscillations during the Holocene in tectonically stable far-field locations. Here we present a new, high-precision, mid-Holocene sea-level dataset from the Spermonde Shelf off southwest Sulawesi. We surveyed 21 fossil microatolls on the reef flats of two coral islands (Pulau Panambungan and Pulau Barrang Lompo) and referred their elevations to local mean sea level and to the height of living coral. Radiometrically calibrated ages from emergent fossil microatolls on Pulau Panambungan indicate a relative sea-level highstand not exceeding 0.5 m above present at ca. 5600 cal. yr BP. The highstand is followed by a relatively rapid sea-level fall towards present sea level that was reached at around 4000 cal. yr BP. Fossil microatolls from nearby Pulau Barrang Lompo show the same trend, however with a coherent negative vertical offset of about 0.8 m compared to their equivalents on Pulau Panambungan. The largely consistent gradients of both trends (~- 0.14 mm yr- 1), the consistent elevation of living microatolls in the Spermonde, and a number of instructive geomorphic features indicate a localized, post-formational and probably recent drop of the fossil microatolls on the densely populated island Pulau Barrang Lompo. The relative sea-level trend inferred from Pulau Panambungan is well within the range of geophysical predictions based on ANICE-SELEN ice sheet model, which predict a highstand that is significantly lower than those predicted by other GIA models for this area. Although a complete interpretation of the Holocene sea

  1. Maastrichtian sedimentation and palaeoenvironments of the Saratov Volga region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovishina, Elena; Blinova, Irina; Kopaevich, Ludmila; Vishnevskaya, Valentina; Bordunov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The Saratov Volga region was a shallow-marine epicontinental basin North-Eastern shelf zone of the Tethys Ocean in the Maastrichtian. The basis for the modeling conditions of sedimentation was the detection mineral composition of rocks, as well as the contents of various chemical elements in rocks in three reference sections: Lower Bannovka, quarries "Bolshevik" and "Kommunar". Rocks of quarries "Bolshevik" and "Kommunar" characterized by quartz-calcite mineral association. The main rock-forming mineral is calcite, small amounts in rocks contain quartz. Other mineral composition characterized section Lower Bannovka. At the base of the section in the rock marked the presence of the opal. The source of silica are radiolarians. Favorable conditions for the existence of which is cold deep water enriched with SiO2. Above the section marked authigenic glauconite, which are confined to zones of skip in sedimentation.Further up begins to dominate the accumulation of calcite with rich bentic foraminifera. Clay minerals in rocks of the section Lower Bannovka presented montmorillonite and illite. The relationship of chemical elements and their alkali modules allow to detail the conditions of sedimentation. The ratio of Fe/Mn in them varies from 44 to 5729. Higher values are characteristic of glauconite sandstones. Up the section marked decrease in the Ti/Zr, indicating that the increase in the distance from the source area to the place of deposition. The similarity values of the ratio Ti/Zr samples indicates a community source area. Sedimentation Model revealed the impact of the PreUral strait connecting Tethys and Paleoarktic. Through the Strait of deep cold water saturated with SiO2, penetrated into the of the Saratov Volga region, were accumulated clay. The closing of the PreUral Strait changed the conditions of sedimentation, the associated fall in sea levels due to global cooling reflected in the crisis of radiolarians, increase in the number of glauconite. Subsequent

  2. Origins and Driving Mechanisms for Shallow Methane Accumulations on the Svyatogor Ridge, Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, K. A.; Bunz, S.; Plaza-Faverola, A. A.; Westvig, I. M.; Johnson, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Svyatogor Ridge, located west of the Knipovich Spreading Ridge (KR) and south of the Molloy Transform Fault (MTF), is hypothesized to have once been the south tip of Vestnesa Ridge; a large sediment drift that was offset during the last 2 Ma along the MTF. The sedimentary cover across Svyatogor Ridge is limited, compared to Vestnesa Ridge, and basement outcrops are identified ~850 mbsf on the apex of the ridge. Despite the limited sedimentation, and its unique location at the intersection between the KR and MTF, Svyatogor Ridge has evidence of shallow gas accumulations; a strong BSR indicating a gas hydrate and underlying free gas system, and fluid flow pathways to the seafloor culminating in pockmarks. Using a high-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic survey, 2D seismic, and multibeam bathymetry data, we investigate how tectonic and sedimentary regimes have influenced the formation of a well-developed gas hydrate system. Sedimentation related with the Vestnesa drift on Svyatogor Ridge is interpreted to have begun ~2-3 Ma. The young age of the underlying oceanic crust, and subsequent synrift sediments below drift strata, suggests gas production from early Miocene aged hydrocarbon source identified in ODP Site 909 to the west, is unlikely in this region. Additionally, given the ultra-slow, magma limited spreading regime of the KR, we do not expect significant thermogenic methane generation from shallow magmatic sources. Therefore, in addition to some microbial gas production, Johnson et al. (2015) hypothesize a contribution from an abiotic source may explain the well-developed gas hydrate system. Large-scale basement faults identified in the seismic data are interpreted as detachment faults, which have exhumed relatively young ultramafic rocks. These detachment faults act as conduits for fluid flow, allowing circulation of seawater to drive serpentinization and subsequently act as pathways for fluids and abiotic methane to reach the shallow subsurface. This work aims

  3. Construction of stiffening girder for Akashi straits bridge. Installation with use of latest bridging technology; Akashi kaikyo ohashi hoko keta kasetsu koji. Saishin kakyo gijutsu wo kushishite kasetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oe, S. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-25

    The Akashi straits bridge is the Kobe-Naruto route of the bridge connecting Honshu and Shikoku; the bridge links Kobe in Hyogo prefecture with Awaji Island and, when completed, it will be a 3-span 2-hinge suspension bridge with the longest center effective span in the world. This report centers on the outline of the construction of stiffening girders for the Akashi straits bridge and especially on the characteristics of the engineering method newly employed. As the method of installing the stiffening girders, an overhang installation of face bars was employed which was a time-tested method. As the installing direction of the side spans, it was decided to install them from the anchorage to the tower. At the beginning, six large block installations were performed. A special balance was developed for the installation of short hanger parts for the purpose of enhancing safety and reduction in the process. A rubber-tired transporting truck was adopted for transporting members of framework on the bridge. GPS survey was used as a method for surveying the configuration. The subject engineering method was based on the construction of suspension bridge stiffening trusses in the past Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridge and reinforced with the improvements as above. Since the bridge is in the middle of construction, a subsequent report will hopefully be made on the actual results of the installation and the spanning after the closure. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals in tissues of the mullet Liza aurata in lake Ganzirri and Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Patrizia; Bella, Giuseppa Di; Dugo, Giacomo; Naccari, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fish living in lake Ganzirri and the Straits of Messina, using the mullet Liza aurata as a "biological indicator". Different tissues of Liza aurata, which include the muscle, gill and vertebral column, were taken for analyses. Quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of "essential" and "toxic" heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. For the mullets of lake Ganzirri, the study showed DDE in three samples of gills and one of muscle, at concentrations below the MRL; no appreciable residues of PCBs (Aroclor 1232 series) were found. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were much higher than those of the "toxic" metals. No traces of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were found in the individuals from the Straits of Messina. Therefore, these results indicate that these two environments are not at toxicological risk.

  5. Responses of subtidal benthos of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada to ambient sediment conditions and natural and anthropogenic depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, B J; Macdonald, R W; Johannessen, S C; van Roodselaar, A

    2008-12-01

    Patterns in infaunal biota in the Strait of Georgia are explored relative to water depth, substrate type, organic content of sediments and sedimentation characteristics. The analyses are based on geographically-diverse grab and core data collected over a 19-year period. Infaunal abundance and biomass were not predictable by sediment particle size, organic content or water depth. While organic flux was a reasonable predictor of biotic factors, quality of organic material, relative proportions of organic and inorganic input and source of inputs were also important in this regard. Areas with high accumulation of sediment and high organic flux rates from terrestrial (riverine) sources supported the highest macro-infaunal abundance and biomass found to date in the Strait of Georgia, and were dominated by bivalves. Polychaetes dominated in low organic deposition conditions, and where anthropogenic organic deposition was high. However, biota were severely impoverished in sediments with high organic content from marine deposition, due to low fluxes and poor quality of organic material. Taxa number was related to percent total nitrogen and to the ratio of organic/inorganic flux, both in background conditions and where there was labile organic enrichment. Faunal communities from the Fraser River delta, which experiences considerable bottom-transported riverine material, were very different in composition from those that proliferate in habitats with high deposition and organic flux from the water column.

  6. Interannual variability, growth, reproduction and feeding of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Straits of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea): Linkages with temperature and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, S.; Pansera, M.; Granata, A.; Guglielmo, L.

    2013-02-01

    To identify some of the possible environmental factors stimulating the increasingly frequent outbreaks of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca in the Straits of Messina, we investigated its abundance, growth, reproduction and feeding over a 4-year period, from 2007 to 2011, at two coastal sites. Using either field investigations and manipulative experiments we show that, among the various factors considered, shifts in water temperature (influencing medusae metabolism, growth and reproduction rates) and the size structure of the zooplankton community (their natural preys) can promote the proliferation of P. noctiluca. In particular, we show that increased temperature let jellyfishes to grow more rapidly and reach exceptional sizes. We also report a peculiar opportunistic behavior of P. noctiluca, which makes this species a potentially strong competitor in the pelagic trophic web of the Straits ecosystem. We therefore propose that more frequent P. noctiluca outbreaks stimulated by increasing sea surface temperature and shifts in their prey availability and composition would become, in the near future, a major cause of ecosystem shift.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA signatures at different spatial scales: from the effects of the Straits of Gibraltar to population structure in the meridional serotine bat (Eptesicus isabellinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, J; Bilgin, R; Muñoz, J; Ibáñez, C

    2009-08-01

    The meridional serotine bat Eptesicus isabellinus is found in North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic structure of E. isabellinus at two different geographic scales to reveal the historical and ecological patterns that have shaped its populations. The role of the Straits of Gibraltar as an isolating barrier between African and Iberian populations is evaluated and the degree of genetic structure and female-mediated gene flow was assessed at a local scale between neighboring colonies. Populations of E. isabellinus from Iberia and northern Morocco show little genetic divergence and share mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that the Straits of Gibraltar are neither an impediment to dispersal nor a cause of genetic differentiation. Our results also suggest that E. isabellinus may have dispersed from western Andalusia into northern Morocco after the last glacial period. At a smaller geographic scale, the colonies studied showed high variation in genetic variability and structure, indicating that no female-mediated gene flow is present. This pattern is consistent with a described pattern of independent endemic viral circulation of the bat rabies virus EBLV-1, which was found when studying rabies dynamics in the same serotine bat colonies.

  8. Strait of Gibraltar: an effective gene-flow barrier for wind-pollinated Carex helodes (Cyperaceae) as revealed by DNA sequences, AFLP, and cytogenetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Marcial; Vargas, Pablo; Valcárcel, Virginia; Luceño, Modesto

    2008-06-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the most important barrier disconnecting the landmasses of Europe and Africa on the western Mediterranean extreme. Carex helodes is a wind-pollinated species endemic to the western Mediterranean. Because molecular and cytogenetic data allow the inference of its evolutionary history, we analyzed variations in chromosome number, including meiotic chromosome behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints, and nucleotide substitutions in plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Cytogeographic results showed that the African populations have stabilized at a single chromosome number of 2n = 74, whereas the most frequent cytotype in Iberia is 2n = 72. Phylogenetic reconstructions of 17 sequences from nine closely related species revealed that C. helodes is monophyletic and that the Moroccan populations are embedded in the Iberian lineages. The haplotype network is also consistent with a European origin of the northern African haplotype. AFLP analysis also revealed hierarchical levels of genetic variation compatible with a founder effect process responsible for the African populations. All sources of evidence support the hypothesis that the Strait of Gibraltar has been an effective gene-flow barrier, generating two isolated evolutionary lineages after their dispersal. Recent connections between the two lineages appear unlikely, whereas active gene flow occurs among populations within the two lineages.

  9. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Single-Doppler Radar Analysis of a Mesocyclone in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Kun; JOU Ben Jongdao; PAN Yujie; GE Wenzhong

    2009-01-01

    structure with the maximum wind region at the left portion of the meso cyclone and shifted counterclockwise with height. The axisymmetric tangential wind strengthened and reached its maximum intensity with a value about 20 m s-1 at z=1 km. After that the axisymmetric tangential wind decreased rapidly, meanwhile the wave-1 asymmetric structure redeveloped with the maximum wind at the left-front of motion. In summary, the evolution and structure of the mesocyclone is similar to that observed within a non-supercell mesocyclone. It is worth to mention that the axisymmetric circulation characteristics of the mesocyclone at its mature stage are very similar to those observed in a mature typhoon. However, there are significant differences, i.e., the size is much smaller, the lifetime is much shorter, and the downdraft in the center is produced by precipitation instead of compensating subsidence.

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia. Evidence Acquisition We searched the databases: Pubmed, Web of Science and Informit, and the New South Wales and Northern Territory Public Health Bulletins. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people testing positive for anti-HCV and the number tested for anti-HCV. A meta-analysis by population-group was conducted if three or more studies reported a prevalence estimate. Variables included: author, year of publication, study design, study period, gender (female, male, age, population group (Aboriginal people in prison, Aboriginal people who inject drugs, number testing anti-HCV positive, number tested for anti-HCV and prevalence (%. Due to a long time period, we separated the studies estimating the prevalence anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in prison into two time periods, 1994 - 2004 and 2005 - 2012. Results Overall, 15 studies met our inclusion criteria. Among Aboriginal people in prison, the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 18.1% (95%CI: 6.6 - 29.7. The pooled prevalence among Aboriginal people in prison was 25.7% (95%CI: 4.1-47.3 in studies published between 1994 - 2004 and 14.5% (95%CI: 1.7 - 27.3 in studies published from 2005 - 2012. The pooled prevalence of anti-HCV was 58.7% (95%CI: 53.9 - 63.5 among Aboriginal people who inject drugs and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.30 - 6.1 among Aboriginal people who did not inject drugs, however

  12. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kildea Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary

  13. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN199-02 in the Davis Strait from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-29 (NODC Accession 0104295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104295 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN199-02 in the Davis Strait from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-29. These...

  14. Diversified seabed substrate, sediment remobilisation and fluid migration features offshore NW Greenland - new insights from marine seismic data acquisition in the Northern Nares Strait during the RV Oden cruise 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Katrine Juul; Heirman, Katrien; Kamla, Elina; Nielsen, Tove; Rønø Clausen, Ole; Jakobsson, Martin; Mix, Alan C.; Andersen, Søren T.; Nørmark, Egon; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Knutz, Paul; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Hogan, Kelly

    2016-04-01

    occasionally continue to the seafloor but more often terminate within the sediments. Scattered amplitude anomalies in conjunction with sag-like depressions are further potential indications of fluid migration within the mini-basins (palaeo-pockmarks?). Slumps and mounded features within the mini-basins and at the larger structural highs indicate syn-depositional sediment remobilisation. A BSR-like reflection, potentially representing the base of gas hydrates, is occasionally observed in the larger sedimentary basins (ca. 15-20 ms TWT b.s.fl.) and at the culmination of the larger structural highs (ca. 40-50 ms TWT b.s.fl.). Cone-shaped to elongated ridges 15-20 m high and 500 m across appear to be linked with deeper structures and might indicate remobilisation of the shallow subsurface sediments potentially linked to fluid escape. Alternatively, they might be of glacial origin. Our preliminary results indicate that the basins are filled with subglacial and glaciofluvial sediments and that small-scale fluid migration and sediment remobilisation represent important processes in generating the depositional architecture in the Northern Nares Strait region. Further analyses are expected to constrain the interpretation of the observed features in detail, especially regarding the origin of the fluids.

  15. Seafloor morphology of the Eurasia-Nubia (Africa) plate boundary between the Tore-Madeira Rise and the Straits of Gibraltar: a case of coexistent Mesozoic through Present day features of tectonic, oceanographic and sedimentary origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Duarte, João.; Valadares, Vasco; Batista, Luis; Zitellini, Nevio; Grácia, Eulalia; Lourenço, Nuno; Rosas, Filipe; Roque, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The joint use of more than 10.000 km multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 180.000km2 of multibeam swath bathymetry and backscatter allowed for a new vision of the seafloor tectonic and geomorphic processes of the area that encompasses the present day plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia, between the Gibraltar Straits and the Tore-Madeira Rise, in the southern sector of the North Atlantic Ocean. The interpretation of this data allowed for the detailed description of the seafloor morphology (i.e. a morphologic map) and the classification of the morphologic features in what respects the genetic process and age. It can be seen that in the same region coexist morphologic features that result from tectonic processes associated with the Triassic-Cretaceous break-up of Pangea, the Paleogene-Miocene compressive phase, the Miocene through Present subduction under the Gibraltar Arc (Gutscher et al., 2002), the Pliocene-Quaternary wrench tectonics and possible coeval plate boundary (Zitellini et al., 2009), the Present day mud volcanism and propagation of the compressive deformation along the West Continental Margin of Portugal (Terrinha et al., 2009). Interpretation of the seismic profiles together with the bathymetry allows the understanding of endogenous and exogenous processes that creates reliefs associated with active structures (related to the Miocene through Present compressive stress field). Other reliefs generated in Mesozoic times by analogous processes can be as well preserved as these active ones. In what concerns exogenous processes, the analysis of the two datasets (reflection seismics and bathymetry) allowed for the description of morphologic features associated with oceanic currents that interact with the seafloor forming these important features. As is the case of the well known active contourites but also less known features, like giant scours at 4 km water depth that have recently been described, suggesting the interaction of deep currents and

  16. Characterization of sea-ice kinematic in the Arctic outflow region using buoy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from four ice-tethered buoys deployed in 2010 were used to investigate sea-ice motion and deformation from the Central Arctic to Fram Strait. Seasonal and long-term changes in ice kinematics of the Arctic outflow region were further quantified using 42 ice-tethered buoys deployed between 1979 and 2011. Our results confirmed that the dynamic setting of the transpolar drift stream (TDS and Fram Strait shaped the motion of the sea ice. Ice drift was closely aligned with surface winds, except during quiescent conditions, or during short-term reversal of the wind direction opposing the TDS. Meridional ice velocity south of 85°N showed a distinct seasonal cycle, peaking between late autumn and early spring in agreement with the seasonality of surface winds. Inertia-induced ice motion was strengthened as ice concentration decreased in summer. As ice drifted southward into the Fram Strait, the meridional ice speed increased dramatically, while associated zonal ice convergence dominated the ice-field deformation. The Arctic atmospheric Dipole Anomaly (DA influenced ice drift by accelerating the meridional ice velocity. Ice trajectories exhibited less meandering during the positive phase of DA and vice versa. From 2005 onwards, the buoy data exhibit high Arctic sea-ice outflow rates, closely related to persistent positive DA anomaly. However, the long-term data from 1979 to 2011 do not show any statistically significant trend for sea-ice outflow, but exhibit high year-to-year variability, associated with the change in the polarity of DA.

  17. Taxation of Cross-Border Labor Income and Tax Revenue Sharing in the Öresund Region

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, Mattias; Önder, Ali Sina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the Nordic Tax Treaty, commuters pay their income taxes where they earn income. This creates problems in local government finances in Scania County of Sweden, because the number of commuters received on both sides of the Öresund Strait is not symmetric, but the flow from Scania County of Sweden into Copenhagen County of Denmark is about 25 times as large as the other way around. This paper aims to document as ymmetries in commuter flows in the Öresund Region and the loss in income tax ...

  18. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; WEI,J.

    1999-09-02

    The Workshop on LHC Interaction Region Correction Systems was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, on 6 and 7 May 1999. It was attended by 25 participants from 5 institutions. The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at collision energy is limited by the field quality of the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. In three sessions the workshop addressed the field quality of the these magnets, reviewed the principles and efficiency of global and local correction schemes and finalized a corrector layout. The session on Field Quality Issues, chaired by J. Strait (FNAL), discussed the progress made by KEK and FNAL in achieving the best possible field quality in the interaction region quadrupoles. Results of simulation studies were presented that assess the effects of magnetic field errors with simulation studies. Attention was given to the uncertainties in predicting and measuring field errors. The session on Global Correction, chaired by J.-P. Koutchouk (CERN), considered methods of reducing the nonlinear detuning or resonance driving terms in the accelerator one-turn map by either sorting or correcting. The session also discussed the crossing angle dependence of the dynamic aperture and operational experience from LEP. The session on Local Correction, chaired by T. Taylor (CERN), discussed the location, strength and effectiveness of multipole correctors in the interaction regions for both proton and heavy ion operation. Discussions were based on technical feasibility considerations and dynamic aperture requirements. The work on linear corrections in the interaction regions was reviewed.

  19. [Species identification of grouper and snapper in Taiwan Strait using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and lab-on-a-chip system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangya; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Weiling; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu

    2011-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and lab-on-a-chip system were used to identify grouper and snapper species in Taiwan Strait. A fragment of 464 bp length of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was amplified by PCR and the products were digested with restriction enzymes Dde I , Hae III and NLa III, individually. The fragments generated after digestion were further resolved on the DNA Chip. Eight grouper species and five snapper species were successfully identified. The results demonstrated that PCR-RFLP analysis and lab-on-a-chip system provide a fast, easy, automated, and reliable analysis approach. This approach is potential for the purpose of fish adulteration control.

  20. Importance of wind and river discharge in influencing nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton production in summer in the central Strait of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, K.D.; Goldblatt, R.H.; Harrison, P.J.;

    1997-01-01

    profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were taken daily along a transect. A wind event occurred on August 7 and a rapid increase in the Fraser River discharge took place from August 8 to 14. The wind event mixed the water column and nutrients increased...... at the same time. Phytoplankton responded to the increase in nutrients and a bloom occurred soon after the wind event. The rapid increase in river discharge caused the entrainment of nitrate in the estuarine plume and, as a result, a subsurface maximum of chi a was developed. Our results clearly demonstrated...... that summer phytoplankton productivity in the central Strait of Georgia is fueled by a supply of nutrients from the nitracline through vertical mixing induced by the interaction of winds, river discharge and tidal cycles. Of these 3 factors, winds are the most variable and therefore a summer with frequent...

  1. Fish Distribution and Habitat Complexity on Banks of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea) from Remotely-Operated Vehicle (ROV) Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Valentina; Battaglia, Pietro; Altobelli, Chiara; Perzia, Patrizia; Romeo, Teresa; Canese, Simonepietro; Andaloro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The Strait of Sicily was recognized internationally as an “Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area” by the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2014. However, basic aspects of its fish diversity are still unknown and most of the information comes from traditional trawl surveys. This paper provides the first detailed description, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV), of the composition and depth distribution of the demersal fish assemblages found on banks of the Strait of Sicily and the related habitat complexity from 35 to 240 m depth. A total of 24 families and 52 fish species were recorded and depth was consistently associated with a significant proportion of the variation of the fish assemblage. The highest species richness was observed at the shallowest depth layer (0–50 m) and significantly decreased, remaining almost constant, in deeper layers. Similarly the highest abundance was recorded at 0–50 m, where C. julis represented the most abundant species, and decreased progressively throughout the whole depth gradient. Although the factor habitat complexity explained only a small proportion of the fish assemblage variation, significant differences among different degrees of habitat complexity were observed, together with a general positive trend for species richness and abundance with increasing habitat complexity. The ROV also allowed us to observe some rare or poorly known fish species such as Scorpaenodes arenai, Hyporthodus haifensis, Myliobatis aquila, Gadella maraldi, Epinephelus caninus and Lappanella fasciata. These findings show that banks serve as reservoirs for fish abundance and biodiversity and that immediate environmental conservation and management actions represent a priority not only for Italy but also for other countries which share the same area. PMID:27936221

  2. Detrital carbonate peaks on the Labrador shelf, a 13-7 ka template for freshwater forcing from the Hudson Strait outlet of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John; Pearce, Christof; Wilson, Lindsay; Ólfasdótttir, Sædís

    2015-01-01

    The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was a large, dynamic ice sheet in the early Holocene. The glacial events through Hudson Strait leading to its eventual demise are recorded in the well-dated Labrador shelf core, MD99-2236 from the Cartwright Saddle. We develop a detailed history of the timing of ice-sheet discharge events from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS during the Holocene using high-resolution detrital carbonate, ice rafted detritus (IRD), δ18O, and sediment color data. Eight detrital carbonate peaks (DCPs) associated with IRD peaks and light oxygen isotope events punctuate the MD99-2236 record between 11.5 and 8.0 ka. We use the stratigraphy of the DCPs developed from MD99-2236 to select the appropriate ΔR to calibrate the ages of recorded glacial events in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait such that they match the DCPs in MD99-2236. We associate the eight DCPs with H0, Gold Cove advance, Noble Inlet advance, initial retreat of the Hudson Strait ice stream (HSIS) from Hudson Strait, opening of the Tyrrell Sea, and drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. The opening of Foxe Channel and retreat of glacial ice from Foxe Basin are represented by a shoulder in the carbonate data. ΔR of 350 years applied to the radiocarbon ages constraining glacial events H0 through the opening of the Tyrell Sea provided the best match with the MD99-2236 DCPs; ΔR values and ages from the literature are used for the younger events. A very close age match was achieved between the 8.2 ka cold event in the Greenland ice cores, DCP7 (8.15 ka BP), and the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Our stratigraphic comparison between the DCPs in MD99-2236 and the calibrated ages of Hudson Strait/Bay deglacial events shows that the retreat of the HSIS, the opening of the Tyrell Sea, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.2 ka are separate events that have been combined in previous estimates of the timing of the 8.2 ka event from marine records

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait and others from 1997-08-03 to 1997-08-18 (NODC Accession 0114432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114432 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Hudson...

  4. Oceanographic station data from bottle casts from the BERING STRAIT and COOK INLET from Ocean Weather Station D (OWS-D) and V (OWS-V) in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean 15 July 1968 to 25 August 1968 (NODC Accession 6800290)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station data were collected from the BERING STRAIT and COOK INLET within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station D (4400N 04100W), V (3400N 16400E),...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat and others from 2007-04-27 to 2008-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0144288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144288 includes Surface underway data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt, North Atlantic...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2006-06-27 to 2006-12-09 (NCEI Accession 0144357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144357 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea,...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-11-15 to 1994-12-19 (NODC Accession 0113581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113581 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  8. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected by Bering Strait Moorings A1W, A1, A1E, A2W, A2, A4W, A4, A3 from 2009-08-26 to 2010-08-03 (NCEI Accession 0138582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2009 to summer 2010. Mooring deployments were funded by the NOAA RUSALCA (Russian-US...

  9. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and Strait of Gibraltar from 2008-10-06 to 2008-10-12 (NODC Accession 0112927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112927 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and time series profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and Strait of...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2006-06-27 to 2011-08-05 (NODC Accession 0081048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0081048 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-05-09 to 1997-06-11 (NODC Accession 0113557)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113557 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1994-05-24 to 1994-06-12 (NODC Accession 0113554)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113554 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait and Labrador Sea from 1993-06-17 to 1993-06-29 (NODC Accession 0113552)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113552 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait and Labrador Sea from 1993-06-17 to...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-05-06 to 2011-05-28 (NODC Accession 0108124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108124 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence and others from 2001-05-30 to 2001-06-15 (NODC Accession 0108217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108217 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Sea...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-08-20 to 2008-09-25 (NODC Accession 0108367)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108367 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-08-20...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-05-26 to 2005-06-17 (NODC Accession 0108221)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108221 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MARTHA L. BLACK in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-06-01 to 2012-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0144337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144337 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MARTHA L. BLACK in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-05-20 to 2008-06-04 (NODC Accession 0108224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108224 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-05-17 to 2009-06-01 (NODC Accession 0108073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108073 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...